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Data Trends
CHM 111 Laboratory experiment Introduction

There was a brutal murder and the suspect in the case was convicted. On appeal the conviction was thrown out and a new trial ordered because the lab work was tainted. (It was shown that the state lab had shown a persistent bias toward the prosecution ever since its new director had been hired.) Some of the key evidence concerned a cup of hot tea and a can of soda found sitting on a countertop near the body. The argument now rests on 1) the temperature of the water and the time it takes to cool and ) the amount of sugar in the soda (i.e. was any sugar added to the soda by the murderer!). "our company has contracted to determine this# and you have been given the assignment. $s part of the in%uiry into the nature of cooling water# it is necessary to know if the cooling of water is a linear function of time. That is# does each decrease in temperature take a constant amount of time or does the amount of time vary as the cooling proceeds! "ou are re%uired to investigate only the science of cooling water and not a particular set of circumstances (i.e. the cup# the room temperature# the initial temperature of the water# etc.). Since accuracy is so important here# you&ll need to calibrate your thermometer (refer to '(asic )ab Techni%ues* if you don&t remember how). The amount of sugar in the soda can be determined by density. +hen sugar is added to water# the density of the water increases as the concentration increases. (y making a series of solutions of known concentration (called 'standard solutions*) and determining their densities# a graph called a calibration curve can be created. Then the concentration of an unknown can be determined by comparing it to the calibration curve. In this court case# because of the previous tainted work# you will be given , unknowns to test against your calibration curve- a sample of pure soda# the evidence soda# and a specially prepared sample of known concentration as a check on your work. This will be labeled 'test.*


1. .etermine if cooling water is a linear function of time . .etermine the mass percent of sugar in a sample of soda# evidence soda# and the test solution

Procedure hints
Experimental design:

.ata trends lab e2periment Hot water. .esign an e2periment to calibrate your thermometer and collect temperature and time data for the cooling of a sample of hot water. .ecide on a suitable amount of water and an initial temperature# as well as appropriate time intervals. 3onsiderations- appro2imately how much water is in a cup! +hat time intervals will you use! Since you need to boil the water in order to calibrate your thermometer# what would make a good initial temperature! .etermine a suitable criterion for when you will stop collecting your data. 3onsider that you will need enough data points to get a good graph and really be able to see any patterns that are there. Ten points aren&t enough. Sugar concentration. .esign an e2periment to determine the concentration and density of a series of sugar solutions. +hat data do you need for density! /or concentration! 4ow will you get accurate measurements! "ou need to write a plan for both parts 5 but remember that plans can change as the e2periment proceeds and data emerges. $ny changes should always be written into your procedure as you do the e2periment. Set up an organi6ed format in your notebook including a title# purpose# and a summary of the procedure you have decided on (this is where you describe your e2perimental design). "ou will need a format for your data collection (e.g. data tables would work well for this e2periment.) Your design should be accepted and initialed by the instructor before you begin your experiment. collection! hot water: 7o matter what time intervals you decided on initially# make sure your data reflects the actual time interval each time. $ccuracy is important. collection! sugar solutions: $gain# accuracy is important8 "our standard solutions need to be very carefully and accurately measured. 9se 11 ml volumetric flasks and make sure the bottom of the meniscus is right on the line. If you accidentally add too much water and overfill# discard it and redo. $bout : standards should work well# starting with pure water and ranging up to about 1.; g sugar per 11 ml. /or the first measurement# when determining the mass of your volumetric flask# you need to be sure it is clean and dry. "ou only have to determine its mass one time. /or each measurement after the first# the inside doesn&t have to be dry (why not!)# but the outside does. (e sure to rinse your volumetric flask thoroughly with clean water (at least , times) in between each measurement (why!). /or each measurement# add sugar to the volumetric flask and some water# cap it# and shake it well. $ll the sugar should be dissolved before filling to the line. In order to get accurate results# your solutions must be clear and homogeneous with no undissolved sugar.

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.ata trends lab e2periment ata

.on&t forget that you will also need to collect data for the soda# the evidence soda# and the test solution. manipulation: $fter your data collection is complete# you will enter it into <2cel and create spreadsheets and graphs. $ll graphs will be <2cel =>" scatter graphs. They will have trend lines# ? values# and the e%uation for the line included on the graph. /or water coolingo @repare the graph you need to calibrate your thermometer. The e%uation for the line will give you a formula to calculate the corrected 3elsius temperatures. o 3reate a spreadsheet with your data and formulas to convert your temperatures to corrected 3elsius temperatures and then calculate /ahrenheit temperatures. (.on&t forget you don&t have to re>enter formulas for every entry 5 you can drag it with your mouse). o @repare two more graphs- corrected 3elsius temperature (">a2is) vs. the time (=>a2is) and /ahrenheit temperature vs. time. o "ou will need , graphs (thermometer calibration# 3elsius temperature# and /ahrenheit temperature) and two spreadsheets (one with your data and one with the formulas). o To print a formula spreadsheet# hit ctrl A B o The temperature spreadsheet should have at least : columns 5 time# observed 3elsius temperature# corrected 3elsius temperature# and /ahrenheit temperature. .on&t forget to put column headings and a title on your spreadsheet. /or sugar solutionso This spreadsheet needs at least ; columns- the mass of the sugar (your data)# the mass of the solution A the flask (your data)# the mass of the solution (calculated)# the mass C of the solution (calculated)# and the density of the solution (calculated). o @repare an <2cel =>" scatter graph of the density (">a2is) vs. mass C (=> a2is). o ?emember# the data for the unknowns is not included in the data that goes into the graph.


appearance: Dake it look nice. "our grade is based partly on the appearance of your printouts. $ttach all graphs and spreadsheets neatly into your notebook. .on&t fold them. Si6e the graphs to fill the entire page. Eeep in mind that the page will be attached neatly into the notebook and it shouldn&t e2ceed the si6e of the notebook page. Include a2is labels and a title 9se a suitable scale for your dataFin most cases you will have to change the one the computer automatically generates. The data should fill the entire graph area.

.ata trends lab e2periment

"alculation hints
Dass C (also known as weight percent# CwGw) is determined by dividing the mass of the solute (sugar) by the mass of the solution (sugar A water) and then multiplying by 111. mass C H mass solute mass solution 2 111C

EXAMPLE 1 DETERMINING THE MASS PERCENT A student weighs a volumetric flask and determines that its mass is 15.412 g. He then adds 4.101 g of solute and water until the bottom of the meniscus is on the line. After drying the outside of the container, he finds the new mass is 4 .2!" g. #he mass of the solution is 4 .2!" $ 15.412 % 2&."5!g. #he mass' is 4.101 g ( 100' % 14.&' 2&."5! g

In this laboratory# you will be collecting data# creating spreadsheets# graphing your data using a computer# and then analy6ing that data. "ou need to.esign simple e2periments for the cooling of hot water and determining the mass C sugar in soda. Include the details. Iet it initialed by the instructor. 3alibrate your thermometer. Dake a temperature calibration graph and include it in your notebook. .o the e2periment with the hot water and collect your data. .o the e2periment with the sugar solutions# collecting data on the standard solutions# soda# evidence soda# and test solution. <nter your data into the <2cel program. <ach person must create hisGher own spreadsheet and graphs. .o not work together on this and print out multiple copies of the same graph. 9se a formula in <2cel to calculate the actual corrected 3elsius and /ahrenheit temperatures and then print two spreadsheets# one of your data and the other showing the formulas. 9se the corrected temperatures to create two graphs# one of 3elsius temperature vs. time and the other of /ahrenheit vs. time. 9se <2cel to calculate the mass of the sugar solution# the mass C# and the density of the known solutions. 3reate two spreadsheets# one of your data and the other showing the formulas. 3reate a density calibration graph. .etermine the mass C concentration of sugar in the soda in two ways- 1) visual (draw lines on the graph) and ) mathematical (use the e%uation of the line#

.ata trends lab e2periment

remembering that your e2perimental value is the independent variable# y#you&re your are solving for 2). 3alculate the mass C concentration of the evidence soda and the test solution mathematically. Include the calculation in your notebook. .etermine whether the cooling of water is a linear function of time. That is# when you graph your data# decide whether a straight line or a curved line gives a better fit through the points. )ook at your data 5 what does it tell you! +hat is the ? value! .o the points make a straight line! .on&t make assumptions based on what you think I want (or what the court wants8). "our graphs should tell you the answer. "our results are- the mass C of the , unknowns and 'refer to water cooling graph* /or all graphs and spreadsheets# appearance is important8 They need to have titles as well as a2is labels or column headings as appropriate. $ll graphs should have a trend line# ? value# and the e%uation for the line printed by <2cel somewhere on the graph. Include in your conclusion +hether or not the cooling of water is a linear function of time 4ow you concluded whether it is or is not 5 be specific8 The mass C of sugar in the , solutions. +as the evidence soda tampered with! The accuracy of your measurements (address the accuracy of your instrumentationFclock and thermometerFas well as any human errors you think may have crept in. (e specific8)