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# revised /all 011

Data Trends
CHM 111 Laboratory experiment Introduction

There was a brutal murder and the suspect in the case was convicted. On appeal the conviction was thrown out and a new trial ordered because the lab work was tainted. (It was shown that the state lab had shown a persistent bias toward the prosecution ever since its new director had been hired.) Some of the key evidence concerned a cup of hot tea and a can of soda found sitting on a countertop near the body. The argument now rests on 1) the temperature of the water and the time it takes to cool and ) the amount of sugar in the soda (i.e. was any sugar added to the soda by the murderer!). "our company has contracted to determine this# and you have been given the assignment. \$s part of the in%uiry into the nature of cooling water# it is necessary to know if the cooling of water is a linear function of time. That is# does each decrease in temperature take a constant amount of time or does the amount of time vary as the cooling proceeds! "ou are re%uired to investigate only the science of cooling water and not a particular set of circumstances (i.e. the cup# the room temperature# the initial temperature of the water# etc.). Since accuracy is so important here# you&ll need to calibrate your thermometer (refer to '(asic )ab Techni%ues* if you don&t remember how). The amount of sugar in the soda can be determined by density. +hen sugar is added to water# the density of the water increases as the concentration increases. (y making a series of solutions of known concentration (called 'standard solutions*) and determining their densities# a graph called a calibration curve can be created. Then the concentration of an unknown can be determined by comparing it to the calibration curve. In this court case# because of the previous tainted work# you will be given , unknowns to test against your calibration curve- a sample of pure soda# the evidence soda# and a specially prepared sample of known concentration as a check on your work. This will be labeled 'test.*

Goals

1. .etermine if cooling water is a linear function of time . .etermine the mass percent of sugar in a sample of soda# evidence soda# and the test solution

Procedure hints
Experimental design:

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appearance: Dake it look nice. "our grade is based partly on the appearance of your printouts. \$ttach all graphs and spreadsheets neatly into your notebook. .on&t fold them. Si6e the graphs to fill the entire page. Eeep in mind that the page will be attached neatly into the notebook and it shouldn&t e2ceed the si6e of the notebook page. Include a2is labels and a title 9se a suitable scale for your dataFin most cases you will have to change the one the computer automatically generates. The data should fill the entire graph area.

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"alculation hints
Dass C (also known as weight percent# CwGw) is determined by dividing the mass of the solute (sugar) by the mass of the solution (sugar A water) and then multiplying by 111. mass C H mass solute mass solution 2 111C

EXAMPLE 1 DETERMINING THE MASS PERCENT A student weighs a volumetric flask and determines that its mass is 15.412 g. He then adds 4.101 g of solute and water until the bottom of the meniscus is on the line. After drying the outside of the container, he finds the new mass is 4 .2!" g. #he mass of the solution is 4 .2!" \$ 15.412 % 2&."5!g. #he mass' is 4.101 g ( 100' % 14.&' 2&."5! g

#e\$uirements