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Measurement of insulation resistance (IR) Part 2


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Fluke ins ulatio n re s is tanc e te s te r up to 10kV - Allo ws te s ting o f hig h vo ltag e s ys te ms s uc h as c o ntro l g e ars , e ng ine s , g e ne rato rs and c ab le s . It c an b e ad jus te d to all te s ting vo ltag e s that are s p e c ifie d in IEEE 43-2000. Id e al fo r Ele c tric ity Bo ard and ind us trial c o mp anie s fo r p re d ic tive and p re ve ntive mainte nanc e .

Continued from first part: Measurement of insulation resistance (IR) Part 1 Index

1. IR Values For Elect rical Apparat us & Syst ems


(PEARL Standard / NETA MTS-1997 Table 10.1) Max.Voltage Rating Of Equipment 250 Volts 600 Volts 5 KV 8 KV 15 KV 25 KV 35 KV 46 KV 69 KV Megger Size 500 Volts 1,000 Volts 2,500 Volts 2,500 Volts 2,500 Volts 5,000 Volts 15,000 Volts 15,000 Volts 15,000 Volts Min.IR Value 25 M 100 M 1,000 M 2,000 M 5,000 M 20,000 M 100,000 M 100,000 M 100,000 M

One Meg ohm Rule f or IR Value f or Equipment


Based upon equipment rating: < 1K V = 1 M minimum >1KV = 1 M /1KV As per IE Rules-1956 At a pressure of 1000 V applied between each live conductor and earth f or a period of one minute the insulation resistance of HV installations shall be at least 1 Mega ohm or as specif ied by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Medium and Low Voltage Installations- At a pressure of 500 V applied between each live conductor and earth f or a period of one minute, the insulation resistance of medium and low voltage installations shall be at least 1 Mega ohm or as specif ied by the Bureau of Indian Standards] f rom time to time. As per CBIP specifications the acceptable values are 2 Mega ohms per KV Index

2. IR Value f or Transf ormer


Insulation resistance tests are made to determine insulation resistance f rom individual windings to ground or between individual windings. Insulation resistance tests are commonly measured directly in megohms or may be calculated f rom measurements of applied voltage and leakage current. T he recommended practice in measuring insulation resistance is to always ground the tank (and the core). Short circuit each winding of the transf ormer at the bushing terminals. Resistance measurements are then made between each winding and all other windings grounded. Transf ormer

Transf ormer windings are never lef t f loating f or insulation resistance measurements. Solidly grounded winding must have the ground removed in order to measure the insulation resistance of the winding grounded. If the ground cannot Ins ulatio n re s is tanc e te s ting : HV - Earth and HV - LV be removed, as in the case of some windings with solidly grounded neutrals, the insulation resistance of the winding cannot be measured. Treat it as part of the grounded section of the circuit. We need to test winding to winding and winding to ground ( E ).For three phase transf ormers, We need to test winding ( L1,L2,L3 ) with substitute Earthing f or Delta transf ormer or winding ( L1,L2,L3 ) with earthing ( E ) and neutral ( N ) f or wye transf ormers. IR Value for Transformer (Ref : A Guide to Transf ormer Maintenance by. JJ. Kelly. S.D Myer) Transf ormer 1 Phase Transf ormer 3 Phase Transf ormer (Star) 3 Phase Transf ormer (Delta) Formula IR Value (M) = C X E / (KVA) IR Value (M) = C X E (P-n) / (KVA) IR Value (M) = C X E (P-P) / (KVA)

Where C= 1.5 f or Oil f illed T /C with Oil Tank, 30 f or Oil f illed T /C without Oil Tank or Dry Type T /C.

Temperat ure correct ion Fact or (Base 20C):


Temperature correction Factor
OC OF

Correction Factor 0.25 0.36 0.50 0.720 1.00 1.98

0 5 10 15 20 30

32 41 50 59 68 86

40 50

104 122

3.95 7.85

Example: For 1600KVA, 20KV/400V,T hree Phase Transf ormer IR Value at HV Side= (1.5 x 20000) / 1600 =16000 / 40 = 750 M at 200C IR Value at LV Side = (1.5 x 400 ) / 1600= 320 / 40 = 15 M at 200C IR Value at 300C =15X1.98= 29.7 M

Insulat ion Resist ance of Transf ormer Coil


Transf ormer Coil Voltage 0 600 V 600 V To 5KV 5KV To 15KV 15KV To 69KV Megger Size 1KV 2.5KV 5KV 5KV Min.IR Value Liquid Filled T /C 100 M 1,000 M 5,000 M 10,000 M Min.IR Value Dry Type T /C 500 M 5,000 M 25,000 M 50,000 M

IR Value of Transf ormers


Voltage 415V Up to 6.6KV 6.6KV to 11KV 11KV to 33KV 33KV to 66KV 66KV to 132KV 132KV to 220KV Test Voltage (DC) LV side 500V 500V 500V 1000V 1000V 1000V 1000V Test Voltage (DC) HV side 2.5KV 2.5KV 2.5KV 5KV 5KV 5KV 5KV Min IR Value 100M 200M 400M 500M 600M 600M 650M

St eps f or measuring t he IR of Transf ormer:


Shut down the transf ormer and disconnect the jumpers and lightning arrestors. Discharge the winding capacitance. T horoughly clean all bushings Short circuit the windings. Guard the terminals to eliminate surf ace leakage over terminal bushings. Record the temperature. Connect the test leads (avoid joints).

Apply the test voltage and note the reading. T he IR. Value at 60 seconds af ter application of the test voltage is ref erred to as the Insulation Resistance of the transf ormer at the test temperature. T he transf ormer Neutral bushing is to be disconnected f rom earth during the test. All LV surge diverter earth connections are to be disconnected during the test. Due to the inductive characteristics of transf ormers, the insulation resistance reading shall not be taken until the test current stabilizes. Avoid meggering when the transf ormer is under vacuum.

Test Connect ions of Transf ormer f or IR Test (Not Less t han 200 M)
Two winding transformer 1. (HV + LV) GND 2. HV (LV + GND) 3. LV (HV + GND) T hree winding transformer 1. HV (LV + T V + GND) 2. LV (HV + T V + GND) 3. (HV + LV + T V) GND 4. T V (HV + LV + GND) Auto transformer (two windings) 1. (HV + LV) GND Auto Transformer (three winding) 1. (HV + LV) (T V + GND) 2. (HV + LV + T V) GND 3. T V (HV + LV + GND) For any installation, the insulation resistance measured shall not be less than: HV Earth 200 M LV Earth 100 M HV LV 200 M

Fact ors af f ect ing on IR value of Transf ormer


T he IR value of transf ormers are inf luenced by Surf ace condition of the terminal bushing Quality of oil Quality of winding insulation Temperature of oil Duration of application and value of test voltage Index

3. IR Value f or Tap Changer


IR between HV and LV as well as windings to earth.

Minimum IR value f or Tap changer is 1000 ohm per volt service voltage Index

4. IR Value f or Elect ric mot or


For electric motor, we used a insulation tester to measure the resistance of motor winding with earthing (E). For rated voltage below 1KV, measured with a 500VDC Megger. For rated voltage above 1KV, measured with a 1000VDC Megger. In accordance with IEEE 43, clause 9.3, the f ollowing f ormula should be applied. Min IR Value (For Rotating Machine) =(Rated voltage (v) /1000) + 1

As per IEEE 43 Standard 1974, 2000 IR Value in M IR (Min) = kV+1 IR (Min) = 100 M IR (Min) =5 M For most windings made bef ore about 1970, all f ield windings, and others not described below
Ins ulatio n re s is tanc e (IR) value fo r e le c tric mo to r

For most dc armature and ac windings built af ter about 1970 (f orm wound coils) For most machines with random -wound stator coils and f ormwound coils rated below 1kV

Example-1: For 11KV, T hree Phase Motor. IR Value =11+1=12 M but as per IEEE43 It should be 100 M Example-2: For 415V,T hree Phase Motor IR Value =0.415+1=1.41 M but as per IEEE43 It should be 5 M. As per IS 732 Min IR Value of Motor=(20XVoltage(p-p/(1000+2XKW)

IR Value of Mot or as per NETA ATS 2007. Sect ion 7.15.1


Motor Name Plate (V) 250V 600V 1000V 2500V Test Voltage 500V DC 1000V DC 1000V DC 1000V DC Min IR Value 25 M 100M 100M 500M

5000V 8000V 15000V 25000V 34500V

2500V DC 2500V DC 2500V DC 5000V DC 15000V DC

1000M 2000M 5000M 20000M 100000M

IR Value of Submersible Mot or:


IR Value of Submersible Motor Motor Out off Well (Without Cable) New Motor A used motor which can be reinstalled Motor Installed in Well (With Cable) New Motor A used motor which can be reinstalled 2 M 0.5 M IR Value 20 M 10 M

Index

5. IR Value f or Elect rical cable and wiring


For insulation testing, we need to disconnect f rom panel or equipment and keep them isolated f rom power supply. T he wiring and cables need to test f or each other ( phase to phase ) with a ground ( E ) cable. T he Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association (IPCEA) provides the f ormula to determine minimum insulation resistance values. R = K x Log 10 (D/d) R = IR Value in Ms per 1000 f eet (305 meters) of cable. K = Insulation material constant.( Varnished Cambric=2460, T hermoplastic Polyethlene=50000,Composite Polyethylene=30000) D = Outside diameter of conductor insulation f or single conductor wire and cable ( D = d + 2c + 2b diameter of single conductor cable ) d Diameter of conductor c T hickness of conductor insulation b T hickness of jacket insulation

HV t est on new XLPE cable (As per ETSA St andard)


Application New cables Sheath Test Voltage 1KV DC Min IR Value 100 M

New cables Insulation Af ter repairs Sheath Af ter repairs Insulation

10KV DC 1KV DC 5KV DC

1000 M 10 M 1000M

11kV and 33kV Cables bet ween Cores and Eart h (As per ETSA St andard)
Application 11KV New cables Sheath 11KV Af ter repairs Sheath 33KV no T Fs connected 33KV with T Fs connected. Test Voltage 5KV DC 5KV DC 5KV DC 5KV DC Min IR Value 1000 M 100 M 1000 M 15M

IR

11kV and 33kV Cab le s b e twe e n Co re s and Earth

Value Measurement (Conduct ors t o conduct or (Cross Insulat ion))


T he f irst conductor f or which cross insulation is being measured shall be connected to Line terminal of the megger. T he remaining conductors looped together (with the help of crocodile clips) i. e. Conductor 2 and onwards, are connected to Earth terminal of megger. Conductors at the other end are lef t f ree. Now rotate the handle of megger or press push button of megger. T he reading of meter will show the cross Insulation between conductor 1 and rest of the conductors. Insulation reading shall be recorded. Now connect next conductor to Line terminal of the megger & connect the remaining conductors to earth terminal of the megger and take measurements.

IR Value Measurement (Conduct or t o Eart h Insulat ion)


Connect conductor under test to the Line terminal of the megger. Connect earth terminal of the megger to the earth. Rotate the handle of megger or press push button of megger. T he reading of meter will show the insulation resistance of the conductors. Insulation reading shall be recorded af ter applying the test voltage f or about a minute till a steady reading is obtained.

IR Value Measurement s:
If during periodical testing, insulation resistance of cable is f ound between 5 and 1 M /km at buried temperature, the subject cable should be programmed f or replacement. If insulation resistance of the cable is f ound between 1000 and 100 K /km, at buried temperature, the subject cable should be replaced urgently within a year. If the insulation resistance of the cable is f ound less than 100 kilo ohm/km., the subject cable must be replaced immediately on emergency basis. Index

6. IR Value f or Transmission / Dist ribut ion Line


Equipment S/S .Equipments EHVLines. H.T. Lines. LT / Service Lines. Megger Size 5 KV 5 KV 1 KV 0.5 KV Min IR Value 5000M 10M 5M 5M

Index

7. IR Value f or Panel Bus


IR Value for Panel = 2 x KV rating of the panel. Example , f or a 5 KV panel, the minimum insulation is 2 x 5 = 10 M. Index

8. IR Value f or Subst at ion Equipment


Generally meggering Values of Substation Equipments are. Typical IR Value of S/S Equipments Equipment Circuit Breaker (Phase-Earth) (Phase-Phase) Control Circuit CT /PT (Pri-Earth) (Sec-Phase) Control Circuit Isolator (Phase-Earth) (Phase-Phase) Control Circuit Megger Size 5KV,10 KV 5KV,10 KV 0.5KV 5KV,10 KV 5KV,10 KV 0.5KV 5KV,10 KV 5KV,10 KV 0.5KV IR Value(Min) 1000 M 1000 M 50 M 1000 M 50 M 50 M 1000 M 1000 M 50 M

L.A Electrical Motor LT Switchgear LT Transf ormer

(Phase-Earth) (Phase-Earth) (Phase-Earth) (Phase-Earth)

5KV,10 KV 0.5KV 0.5KV 0.5KV

1000 M 50 M 100 M 100 M

IR Value of S/S Equipments As per DEP Standard Equipment Switchgear Meggering HV Bus LV Bus LV wiring Cable(min 100 Meter) Motor & Generator Transf ormer Oil immersed Transf ormer Dry Type HV & LV Phase-Earth HV & LV HV LV Fixed Equipments/Tools Movable Equipments Distribution Equipments Circuit Breaker Phase-Earth Phase-Earth Phase-Earth Main Circuit Control Circuit Relay D.C CircuitEarth LT CircuitEarth LT-D.C Circuit LT-LT Index IR Value at Commissioning T ime (M) 200 M 20 M 5 M (10XKV) / KM 10(KV+1) 75 M 100 M 10 M 5K / Volt 5 M 5 M 2 M / KV 5M 40M 50M 40M 70M IR Value at Maintenance T ime 100 M 10 M 0.5 M (KV) / KM 2(KV+1) 30 M 25 M 2 M 1K / Volt 1M 1M -

9. IR Value f or Domest ic /Indust rial Wiring


A low resistance between phase and neutral conductors, or f rom live conductors to earth, will result in a leakage current. T his cause deterioration of the insulation, as well as involving a waste of energy which would increase the running costs of the installation.

T he resistance between Phase-Phase-Neutral-Earth must never be less than 0.5 M Ohms f or the usual supply voltages. In addition to the leakage current due to insulation resistance, there is a f urther current leakage in the reactance of the insulation, because it acts as the dielectric of a capacitor. T his current dissipates no energy and is not harmf ul, but we wish to measure the resistance of the insulation, so DC Voltage is used to prevent reactance from being included in the measurement .

1 Phase Wiring
>T he IR test between Phase-Natural to earth must be carried out on the complete installation with the main switch of f , with phase and neutral connected together, with lamps and other equipment disconnected, but with f uses in, circuit breakers closed and all circuit switches closed. Where two-way switching is wired, only one of the two stripper wires will be tested. To test the other, both two-way switches should be operated and the system retested. If desired, the installation can be tested as a whole, when a value of at least 0.5 M Ohms should be achieved.

3 Phase Wiring
In the case of a very large installation where there are many earth paths in parallel, the reading would be expected to be lower. If this happens, the installation should be subdivided and retested, when each part must meet the minimum requirement. T he IR tests must be carried out between Phase-Phase-Neutral-Earth with a minimum acceptable value f or each test of 0.5 M Ohms. IR Testing for Low voltage Circuit voltage Extra Low Voltage Up to 500 V except f or above 500 V To 1KV Test voltage 250V DC 500 V DC 1000 V DC IR Value(Min) 0.25M 0.5M 1.0M
3 Phas e Wiring 1 Phas e Wiring

Min IR Value = 50 M / No of Electrical outlet. (All Electrical Points with f itting & Plugs) Min IR Value = 100 M / No of Electrical outlet. (All Electrical Points without f itting & Plugs). Index

Required Precautions
Electronic equipment like electronic f luorescent starter switches, touch switches, dimmer switches, power

controllers, delay timers could be damaged by the application of the high test voltage should be disconnected. Capacitors and indicator or pilot lamps must be disconnected or an inaccurate test reading will result. Where any equipment is disconnected f or testing purposes, it must be subjected to its own insulation test, using a voltage which is not likely to result in damage. T he result must conf orm with that specif ied in the British Standard concerned, or be at least 0.5 M Ohms if there is no Standard.