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Bethel Chapter 1 From Independence to the Liberal Republic, 1821 1867 9/16/2013 6:55:00 PM

Iturbide 1821 Proclaimed independence of Mexico from Spain The Plan of Iguala Independence Union of Mexicans and Spaniards Respect fot eh Roman Catholic Church Three Guarantees Constitutional monarchy Ruler chosen from a European dynasty for stability Security to Spanish-born Mexicans Promised to preserve ecclesiastical privileges

Spanish Attitude Towards Mexican Independence Hostile 1822 - Spain rejected the Crdoba treaty Mexico resented this, and no longer felt loyalty towards Spain as the mother country Pillars of the New Nation Army a coalition of royalists and republicans Assumed political power once held by the royal bureaucracy Catholic Church Lower tithing income, due to general economic decline Huge debt by 1822 (45 million pesos) Emperor Augstn I o Iturbide used Mexicos resentment of Spain to place himself on the throne, rather than a European ruler Obstacles o Mexican nobility wanted European prince Disdained the merchant-born Irtubide

o Hacendados and traders (many Spanish born) Wanted European prince to deliver them from forced loans and other fiscal burdens o Republicans ran at large Santa Anna The Republic Begins Refused to relinquish command of Veracruz Accused Iturbide of tyranny Iturbide also could not control the Treasury Manifesto o Called for a constitution based on: Independence Important to Mexicans Union Important to Spaniards Religion Important to both o Called for a republic in all but name The removal of the emperor Santa Anna brought down Iturbides empire and established a republic. o Political system conceived by intellectuals o BUT brought into being by the Army, now its master The Republic Constitutional Congress November 1823 Federal constitution which closely resembled the USA constitution o Mexico divided into 19 states Elect own governors and legislatures o 4 territories under the jurisdiction of the national congress o Usual division of 3 powers o Catholicism as National Religion Political party allegiances formed along Masonic Lodge rivalries

Liberal Control

1828 - Presidential candidate Guerrero (figurehead of Lorenzo Zavala) refused to recognize defeat and organized a successful revolution o Changes Expulsion of Spaniards still living in the Republic Prepared to resist Spanish invasion force July 1829 Spanish Invasion at Tampico o Quickly crushed by General Santa Anna Catholics campaigned against Zavala and Protestant American Minister, Poinsett o Deprived Guerrero of his support

Vice-president Bustamante led successful revolt with General Bravo

Conservative Control Guerrero began to centralize government o Church privileges and property rights were reaffirmed Not strong enough to implement this government, though Francisco Garca (governor of Zacatecas) o Rebelled with Faras (former Iturbide supporter) Sponsored

9/16/2013 6:55:00 PM

9/16/2013 6:55:00 PM