Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN HANDBOOK

2012
Water Environment Federation 601 Wythe Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1994 USA

Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Handbook Copyright 2012 by the Water Environment Federation. All Rights Reserved. Permission to copy must be obtained from WEF. Water Environment Research, WEF, and WEFTEC are registered trademarks of the Water Environment Federation. ISBN 978-1-57278-271-6

IMPORTANT NOTICE The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with generally recognized engineering principles and practices and is for general information only. This information should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. The contents of this publication are not intended to be a standard of the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and are not intended for use as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by WEF. WEF makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, product, or process discussed in this publication and assumes no liability. Anyone using this information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents.

About WEF
Formed in 1928, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work towards WEFs vision to preserve and enhance the global water environment. For information on membership, publications, and conferences, contact Water Environment Federation 601 Wythe Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1994 USA (703) 684-2400 http://www.wef.org

Prepared by the Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Handbook Task Force of the Water Environment Federation Hannah T. Wilner, P.E., Chair James S. Bays Lucas Botero, P.E., BCEE Peter Burrowes, P.Eng. Mary Kay Camarillo, Ph.D., P.E. Peter V. Cavagnaro, P.E., BCEE Rhodes R. Copithorn, P.E., BCEE Timur Deniz, Ph.D., P.E. Leon S. Downing, Ph.D., P.E. Sarah Hubbell Thomas E. Jenkins, P.E. Samuel S. Jeyanayagam, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE Kenneth Knickerbocker, P.E., R.L.S. Terry L. Krause, P.E., BCEE Ting Lu, Ph.D. Eric Lynne Maritza A. Macias-Corral, Ph.D. William C. McConnell, P.E. Heather M. Phillips, P.E. Christopher Pizarro Joseph C. Reichenberger, P.E., BCEE Nalin Sahni, E.I., LEED Green Assoc. Julian Sandino, P.E., Ph.D. Paul J. Schuler, P.E. Stephanie L. Spalding, P.E. K.C. Kumar Upendrakumar, P.E., BCEE Thor Young, P.E., BCEE

Under the Direction of the Municipal Design Subcommittee of the Technical Practice Committee 2012 Water Environment Federation 601 Wythe Street Alexandria, VA 223141994 USA http://www.wef.org

Manuals of Practice of the Water Environment Federation


The WEF Technical Practice Committee (formerly the Committee on Sewage and Industrial Wastes Practice of the Federation of Sewage and Industrial Wastes Associations) was created by the Federation Board of Control on October 11, 1941. The primary function of the Committee is to originate and produce, through appropriate subcommittees, special publications dealing with technical aspects of the broad interests of the Federation. These publications are intended to provide background information through a review of technical practices and detailed procedures that research and experience have shown to be functional and practical. Water Environment Federation Technical Practice Committee Control Group Jeanette Brown, P.E., BCEE, D. WRE, Chair Eric Rothstein, Vice-Chair, Publications Stacy J. Passaro, P.E., BCEE, Vice-Chair, Distance Learning R. Fernandez, Past Chair J. Bannen P. A. Bizier, P.E., BCEE K. D. Conway, P.E. R. Copithorn S. V. Dailey, P.E. E. M. Harold, P.E. M. Hines R. L. Horres D. Morgan C. A. Pomeroy, Ph.D., P.E. R. Pope A. T. Sandy K. Schnaars A. R. Shaw, P.E. J. Swift A. K. Umble, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE

Contents
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix

Chapter 1
1.0 2.0

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Chapter 2
1.0 2.0

Raw Wastewater Characterization and Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 RAW WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1 2.2 Flow Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3.0 4.0

PLANT HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 3
1.0 2.0

Preliminary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 SCREENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.1 2.2 Screen Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Types of Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

GRIT REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SEPTAGE ACCEPTANCE AND PRETREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 EQUALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Chapter 4
1.0 2.0

Primary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SEDIMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 vii

viii

Contents 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 HIGH-RATE CLARIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 FINE SCREENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 PRIMARY SLUDGE AND SCUM COLLECTION AND REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Chapter 5
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Biofilm Reactor Technology and Design . . . . . . . 31

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 EXPANDED AND FLUIDIZED BED BIOFILM REACTORS . . . . . . . . . 37 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 TRICKLING FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 EMERGING BIOFILM REACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Chapter 6
1.0 2.0 3.0

Suspended Growth Biological Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 PROCESS CONFIGURATIONS AND TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 PROCESS DESIGN FOR CARBON OXIDATION AND NITRIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.1 3.2 Carbon Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes . . . . . . . . . 52 Nitrogen Removal Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 External Carbon Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.0

PROCESS DESIGN FOR NUTRIENT CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 OXYGEN-TRANSFER SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 SECONDARY CLARIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 SUGGESTED READINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Contents

ix

Chapter 7
1.0 2.0

Integrated Biological Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Trickling Filter Solids Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Roughing Filter Activated Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Activated Biofilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Biofilter Activated Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Trickling Filter Activated Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

3.0 4.0

DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 DESIGN OF INTEGRATED FIXED-FILM ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Parameters Influencing Organics Removal in the Biofilm of Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge Systems . . . . . . . . . . 80 Parameters Influencing Removals in the Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Empirical Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Process Kinetics Design Method (Biofilm Rate Model) . . . . . . . . 81 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 Define Range of Flux Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Quantify Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Select Flux Rates Based on Location along Aerobic Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Additional Analysis To Finalize a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

5.0

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Chapter 8
1.0 2.0

Physical and Chemical Processes for Advanced Wastewater Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 SECONDARY EFFLUENT FILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2.1 2.2 2.3 Depth Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Compressible Medium Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Disc Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Contents 3.0 4.0 ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 CHEMICAL TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Phosphorus Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 pH Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Rapid Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Chemical Feed Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

MEMBRANE PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 AIR STRIPPING FOR AMMONIA REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 AMMONIA REMOVAL BY BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 EFFLUENT REOXYGENATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Chapter 9
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

Sidestream Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 SIDESTREAM NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 SUGGESTED READINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Chapter 10
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Natural Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 SOIL ABSORPTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 POND SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 FLOATING AQUATIC PLANT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Chapter 11
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 CHLORINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 DECHLORINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 OZONE DISINFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Contents 6.0 7.0 OTHER DISINFECTION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

xi

Chapter 12
1.0 2.0

Solids Management, Storage, and Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 SOLIDS MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Solids Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Solids Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Pretreatment Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Liquid Residuals and Biosolids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Dewatered Cake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Dried Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Liquid Residuals and Biosolids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Dewatered Cake and Dried Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

3.0

SOLIDS STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 3.1 3.2 3.3

4.0

SOLIDS TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4.1 4.2

5.0

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Chapter 13
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

Chemical Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 INORGANIC CHEMICALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 ORGANIC POLYMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Chapter 14
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Solids Thickening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 GRAVITY THICKENER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION THICKENER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CENTRIFUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 GRAVITY BELT THICKENER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 ROTARY DRUM THICKENER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 COMPARISON OF THICKENING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

xii

Contents

Chapter 15
1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Objectives of Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Key Process Performance Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

CENTRIFUGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 BELT PRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 RECESSED-PLATE FILTER PRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 DRYING BEDS AND LAGOONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 ROTARY PRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 SCREW PRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Chapter 16
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 AEROBIC DIGESTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 COMPOSTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 ALKALINE STABILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 17
1.0 2.0 3.0

Thermal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

Chapter 18
1.0 2.0 3.0

Odor Control and Air Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

List of Figures
2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 4.1 6.1 Typical hydraulic profile for influent pumping and primary treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Typical hydraulic profile for an activated sludge plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Typical hydraulic profile for a trickling filter plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Types of grit removal chambers(a) horizontal flow, (b) aerated, and (c) vortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Two equalization schemes(a) in-line equalization and (b) side-line equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Types of clarifiers(a) rectangular with chain and flight-type collector, (b) circular, (c) stacked, and (d) plate and tube . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Nomenclature for activated sludge flow sheet (volatile and nonvolatile represent organic and inorganic solids, respectively) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Typical concentration patterns observed in a generic EBPR system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Schematic illustrations of several types of anaerobic reactor configurations(a) upflow sludge blanket, (b) biofilm fluidized bed, (c) expanded granular sludge bed, (d) anaerobic baffled reactor, (e) internal circulation, and (f) anaerobic hybrid reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Combined process operations(a) activated biofilter, (b) trickling filtersolids contact and roughing filteractivated sludge, (c) biofilteractivated sludge, and (d) trickling filteractivated sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Typical phosphorus reduction with alum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Membrane size comparison with wastewater constituents . . . . . . . . . . 93 Conceptual mass balance and sidestream sources for a typical wastewater treatment plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Percentage of hypochlorous acid with respect to pH and temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Belt filter press schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 xiii

6.2 6.3

7.1

8.1 8.2 9.1 11.1 15.1

List of Tables
2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 Daily quantity of waste discharged by individuals on a dry-weight basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Typical composition of untreated domestic wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Pump classification and applications in the wastewater industry . . . . . 11 Types of screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Headloss equations for screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Types of grit chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Typical domestic septage characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Primary sludge characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Types of sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Design considerations for sedimentation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 High-rate clarification methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Sludge and scum collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Sludge characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Design criteria for denitrifying fluidized bed biofilm reactors . . . . . . . . 40 Design criteria for rotating biological contactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Typical operating criteria for various trickling filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Operational characteristics of activated sludge processes . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Design equations for carbon oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Design equations for nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Design parameters for activated sludge processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Advantages and limitations of EBPR processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Typical design parameters for commonly used biological phosphorus removal processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Suspended growth processes for nitrogen removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Combined phosphorus and nitrogen removal processes . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Recommended hydraulic detention times for UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 xv

xvi

List of Tables 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 7.1 7.2 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2 9.3 10.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 12.1 Summary of the main hydraulic criteria for the design of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Other design criteria for UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Advantages and disadvantages of MBR systems compared to conventional activated sludge systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Typical design and operational data for MBR systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Typical municipal MBR effluent quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Characteristics of aeration equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Air supply and aeration system design criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Factors that affect clarifier performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Design considerations for secondary clarifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 General design criteria for IBT processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Biofilm specific surface area for various types of media . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Typical filtration rates for various depth filtration technologies . . . . . . 85 Design velocities and flow volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Typical carbon dosages for various column wastewater influents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Types of chemical feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Comparison of membrane processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Summary of pretreatment alternatives for reverse osmosis membrane process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Checklist for mainstream treatment of sidestreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Sludge processing sidestream characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Sidestream treatment processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Soil absorption systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Types of pond systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Types of land treatment systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Comparison of important properties for common disinfectants . . . . . 114 Equations used to express the rate of kill of microorganisms under different conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Chlorine dosages for proper disinfection of wastewater effluents . . . . . 117 Typical operational characteristics for UV lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Ozone dosages for proper disinfection of wastewater effluents based on a 15-minute contact time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Pathogen treatment processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

List of Tables 12.2 13.1 13.2. 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17.1 17.2 18.1 Sludge pump applications by principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Typical dosages of ferric chloride and lime for dewatering wastewater solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Typical polymer dosages for thickening and dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Typical gravity thickener underflow characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Typical solids loadings for DAF thickeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Reported operational results for horizontal solid-bowl centrifuges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Typical gravity belt thickener performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Typical rotary drum thickener performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Advantages and disadvantages of thickening methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Typical dewatering performance data for solid-bowl centrifuges for various types of sludge and biosolids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Typical performance data for a belt filter press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Typical filter press dewatering performance for fixed volume press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Design criteria for sand drying beds using anaerobically digested sludge without chemical conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Rotary press dewatering performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Installation operational performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Screw press operational results summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Comparison of stabilization processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Typical design and operating parameters for anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids in high-rate digesters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Components of the anaerobic digester system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Typical design and operating parameters for aerobic digestion of wastewater solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Class B biosolids criteria that a conventional mesophilic aerobic digestion system typically is designed to meet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Key advantages and disadvantages of composting systems . . . . . . . . 173 Materials balance for 1 dry ton of biosolids in aerated static-pile composting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Typical advanced alkaline stabilization design criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Thermal processing technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Design considerations for thermal processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Odor and air emissions control technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

xvii

Preface
This handbook is intended to complement several recognized wastewater treatment design references. It facilitates access to those design guides by providing concise information from them and enabling the reader to quickly locate additional information by following direct references. This handbook is organized similarly to the Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Water Environment Federation Manual of Practice No. 8; 5th Edition; 2009) publication so that cross references may be more easily found. This reference is written for students and design professionals familiar with wastewater treatment concepts, the design process, plant operations, and the regulatory basis of water pollution control. It is not intended to be a primer for either the inexperienced or the generalist but still a tool for them as well, allowing them to quickly identify where they can find more information for unfamiliar subjects. As such, the authors of this handbook are industry professionals who have used their experience as both students and design professionals to identify the most critical information to present in tables and figures. It is highly recommended that the reader does not rely solely on information, such as design criteria, identified by this handbook as it is not inclusive. A thorough understanding of the principles behind these summary chapters is necessary for the correct application and use of all information contained in this handbook. This publication was produced under the direction of Hannah T. Wilner, P.E., Chair. The principal authors of this publication are as follows: Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Sarah Hubbell Stephanie L. Spalding, P.E. Sarah Hubbell Eric Lynne Stephanie L. Spalding, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. xix

xx

Preface Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Eric Lynne Sarah Hubbell Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Eric Lynne Eric Lynne Stephanie L. Spalding, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E. Hannah T. Wilner, P.E.

Authors and reviewers efforts were supported by the following organizations: Black & Veatch Corporation, Kansas City, Missouri CDM Smith, Cambridge, Massachusetts CH2M HILL, Chicago, Illinois; Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio; Englewood, Colorado; Overland Park, Kansas; Tampa, Florida; and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Donohue and Associates, Sheboygan, Wisconsin Entex Technologies Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina GE Power & Water, Portland, Oregon GHD, Bowie, Maryland Hatch Mott MacDonald, Millburn, New Jersey JenTech Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, California Malcolm Pirnie, the Water Division of ARCADIS, Newport News, Virginia Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio Molzen Corbin, Albuquerque, New Mexico University of the Pacific, Stockton, California Veolia Water North America, Indianapolis, Indiana Wood, Patel & Assoc., Phoenix, Arizona