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Sarasvat Pratim and Sarasvat temple in Dhar: literary and archaeological context

--British Museum should return two Sarasvat Pratim (sacred sculptures) for puja in Sarasvat temple in Dhar, India
This monograph is in two parts: Part 1 deals with the specific demand for restitution of two Sarasvat Pratim (statues) to where they belong -- the Sarasvat Mandiram (temple) in Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India. Part 2 focuses on the location of and architectural aspects of Sarasvat Mandiram (temple) in Dhar. This monograph refutes the following two implied grounds of the British Museum which may have been used as the arguments for not so far returning the Pratim to Dhar: 1. There never was and there is no Saravati Pratim (sculpture) in British Museum. 2. That the particular sculpture referenced in the British Museum is to be identified as that of Jaina divinity Ambik of Jaina Pratim tradition. The publications and other data apparently relied upon by the British Museum can be viewed via the British Museum online collection database: here is the relevant link: http://tinyurl.com/34de2dc It will be demonstrated, in this monograph, using the very same publications and online collection database of British Museum, that both premises assumed by British Museum are (1) in error not borne out by evidence and (2) unfair, untenable not in conformity with the tenets of jurisprudence. We expect that British Museum as a repository of cultural heritage will respect the sentiments and faith of millions of devotees and if need be, retain replicas as museum exhibits, after returning the sculptures to the temple in Dhar. We earnestly hope that British Museum will consider fairly and diligently, the arguments presented herein. We earnestly urge and hope that British Museum will return the two, specific, over-1000 yearold, ancient sculptures for worship in the temple in Dhar, Madhya Pradesh. By such a voluntary act, taken suo moto, British Museum authorities will earn the gratitude of millions of worshippers who will be happy to invite them to witness the auspicious moment of prapratih (i.e. consecration or dedication in a temple), the two sacred Pratim of Amb and Vgdevi as divine forms in the temple according to gama (puja vidhnam, procedures of worship) traditions.. 1

Using the same inscription referred to by the British Museum in their online database, this monograph establishes that the specific sculpture http://tinyurl.com/34de2dc is the sculpture of Sarasvat as Amb form of Durg divinity. Given the archaeological context in which Williak Kincaid has acquired this particular sculpture from Dhar, it is clear that the sculpture relates to the temple and school set up by Raja Bhoja. There are textual and epigraphical evidences to point to the establishment of Sarasvati temple in Dhar and it is logical to infer directly that the sculpture is a form Sarasvat as Amb. Jaina traditions venerated Sarasvat. There is an unambiguous difference between Ambik and Amb in Indian tradition. British Museums reference to Ambik as yak is a flight of imagination ignoring the views of many scholars and the sanatana dharma temple traditions, which will be demonstrated in this monograph that the particular sculpture in the British Museum is a Saravat Pratim. Ambik is one of the mothers in Skandas ( ) retinue. Amb (Durg when shown in association with the attribute of lion) is Saravat. Yaki "dedicated attendant deity" or sana Dev "protector divinity" of the 22nd Tirthankara, Neminath. She is also known as Ambai, Amba and Amra Kushmandini. The popular worship of female principle as the "Mother", representing fertility and protection against the demonic powers, was adopted in Jaina tradition of Yaki, Bahputrik "Having many children", who towards the end of 6th century CE was transformed into Ambik. See image at Ellor cave: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ellora_cave34_001.jpg Ambika idol from Orissa carved during 1150-1200 CE http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/India%2C_orissa%2C_dea_ambika %2C_1150-1200.JPG/220px-India%2C_orissa%2C_dea_ambika%2C_1150-1200.JPG The sculpture in British Museum is not a representation of Ambik, because the inscription on the base of the sculpture does NOT refer to the divinity as Ambik. It will be an error to assume that because of association with Jaina traditions, this particular sculpture represents Ambik.

The inscription on the base of the sculpture, refers to her as Amb (trans. Mother Supreme, Mother Divine). Many eminent scholars have affirmed that the divinity identified in this particular sculpture is Sarasvat as Amb. The reference in the inscription to the sculpture as that of Amb is a millenial sanatana dharma tradition, which identifies this form of Sarasvat as Amb. Right from the days of Rigveda, which the Indian tradition holds to be very ancient, apaurueya forms of cosmic inquiry, Sarasvat is venerated as Amb. In Rigveda, Rishi Grtsamada prays to her specifically referring to her as Amb. There are many instances of Jaina pantha worship of Amb in many parts of the world. This monograph also establishes that this Amb form of Sarasvat is what is referred in the British Museum link http://tinyurl.com/34de2dc for one sculpture. This is the sculpture of Amb mentioned in the said inscription. This monograph further establishes that there is a second Pratim (sculpture) of Sarasvat also held in British Museum. This is the second Pratim mentioned in the inscription itself attributed to Vararuci who says that he had two pratima made: one of Vgdevi and another of Amb. The second sculpture is of Vgdevi (Vk + Devi). Vk is also a form of Sarasvat , again venerated from the days of Rigveda which adores her as Vk. British Museum link for the second sculpture: http://tinyurl.com/8xm2zz6 Both the Pratim (sculptures) of Sarasvat in the British Museum belong to the Sarasvat temple in Dhar. Both Pratim (sculptures) of Sarasvat are sacred mrti which were being worshipped in the temple and deserving of continued worship in the temple, for, in the Sanatana dharma tradition, a temple is a temple, is a temple forever. This has been well-settled principle of jurisprudence in the Lodon Nataraja case. http://webstersmalley.co.uk/ArchyWiki/London_Nataraja (Mirror in Annex B). Even assuming, without conceding, that one of the two sculptures is that of Ambik of Jaina worship traditions, the form is also a sacred, worshipped form from the temple at Dhar and should, therefore, be returned to the temple. Our argument is that both Pratim (sculptures) are divine forms of Mother Supreme, of Sarasvat: one as Vk and the other as Amb, in the two sculptures, now in the British Museum, precisely as evidenced by Vararuci in his inscription. They do not belong in a Museum, but are sacred and belong in a temple to be worshipped by worshippers. Vk (Vgdevi) sculpture of the Museum was said to have been acquired from Malwa (Dhar was the ancient capital) and Amb sculpture was said to have been recovered by William Kincaid from the palace in Dhar. We now examine the nature of and evidences related to the temple to which these two sculptures belong. The temple was of extraordinary magnificence dedicated to Sarasvat as Vgdevi and Amb (respectively, Divinity of Speech/Learning/ Knowledge; and Mother Divinity). King Bhojas temple has been renowned, celebrated in literature and arts, for nearly one-thousand 3

years, since c. 1034 CE, as Sarasvat Mandiram (Sarasvat Temple). There were three kings named Bhoja: Mihira Bhoja I (836885 CE), the most prominent emperor of the GurjaraPratihara Dynasty; Bhoja II (910913 CE), a king of Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty; and Bhoja, Philosopher king (10001050 CE) and polymath of the Paramara Dynasty.

Part 1. Evidences are presented that the two pratim held in the British Museum belong to Sarasvat mandiram (temple) in Dhr and this is a demand that the British Museum should return the pratim to the temple in Dhr, Central India.

Left: Amb. Right: Vgdevi Major Gen. William Kincaid had recovered the Amb sculpture from the site of the old city palace at Dhr in1875 and entered the collection of the British Museum in the 1880s. British Museum has not provided acquisition details of Vgdevi sculpture which is said to be unprovenanced but as belonging to Malwa region of Central India (Dhr was the capital of Malwa region of the period when the sculpture was made according to the British Museum website database information). Major Gen. William Kincaid in 1866 was Assistant political agent, Bundelkhand; small cause court judge and cantonment magistrate, Nowgong, in 1876 (August) Political Agent, Bhopal1879 (October) was Political Agent, Bhopawar, and commandant, Malwa Bhil Corps and in 1881 (June) was Political Agent, Bhopal. This information is recorded in British Museum website: 4

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?bioId =164557 How to recognize divinities in pratim? In the Indian tradition, ilpastra details specific attributes (Pratihlakaam) to be exhibited to identify a particular pratim for a particular devat (male or female divinity). One example is provided by two ancient texts titled: Pratihlakaasrasamuccaya http://www.docstoc.com/docs/97739151/Prati%E1%B9%A3%E1%B9%ADh%C4%81lak%E1% B9%A3a%E1%B9%87as%C4%81rasamuccaya A version of Pratihlakaasrasamuccaya was edited by Buddhisgar (Parjuli) arm/Dmodara arm/Bbuka 2 vols. Khamaapa: Vrapustaklaya 1966-1968. Two manuscripts of this ancient text were found in Nepal and juxtaposed, together with a critical review of the texts and drawings, by Gudrun Bhnemann (2003, The Hindu pantheon in Nepalese Line drawings Two manuscripts of the Pratihlakaasrasamuccaya, Varanasi, Indica Books). Some manuscripts have been preserved in the Kaiser Library Kathmandu (= Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, reel no. A 517/116)...(cf. Compilation by Gudrun Buhnemann, 2003, The Hindu pantheon on Nepalese line drawings: two manuscripts of the Pratihlakaasrasamuccaya, Varanasi, Indica Books.) The text, Pratihlakaasrasamuccaya, details the construction and installation of lingas (pratim = f. an image , likeness , symbol RV.; f. a picture , statue , figure , idol Mn.Hariv.Ragh.) ccording to gamas and is tentatively dated to later part of the eleventh century. Chapter 9 of the text is Vhanyudhavartana describing the shapes of the following attributes held by the divinities: trila, vajra, akti, daa, khaga, paia, pa, dhvaja, gad, padma, sudaranacakra and gha; the animals bearing the divinities. Postures and hand gestures also communicate very specific messages, for example mudrs denoting: explanation (vykhyna-), knowledge (jna-), meditation (dhyna-), protection (abhaya-), palms facing upwards (purottna-), salutation (ajali-), threatening (tarjan-), wish-granting [vara(da)-]and yoga-. Varied are the associated attributes: banner, betel, bilva fruit, broom, chisel, chopper, citron, cock, conch, corpse, cotton wool, dart, drum, firebrand, fish, flowers, fly-whisk, hair, hide, jackfruit, javelin, knife, lance, lotus, mango, manuscript, mirror, missile, mountain, noose, peacock feather, plough, scissors, serpent hood, shield, skull, snake, spear, staff, stylus, svastika, trident, tusk, umbrella, vessel, v, wheel, winnowing fan. Depiction of multiple heads or multiple hands are depictions of multiple associated attributes of divinities pratih ( ) P. A1. , to stand , stay , abide , dwell RV. the performance of any ceremony or of any solemn act , consecration or dedication (of a monument or of an idol or of a temple &c ; cf. * - ) , settling or endowment of a daughter , completion of a vow , any ceremony for obtaining supernatural and magical powers Var. Katha1s. Ra1jat. Pur. (Monier-Williams, p. 671) Durg 47 Seated, right foot on lion, R. sword, arrow, trident; L. shield, bow, tail (of buffalo); Ambik 51 Lotus, R. Rosary, L. Spear; Sarasvat 67 Seated, Lotus, R. rosary; L. manuscript 5

These attributes are generally seen in many sculptures in many temples in all traditions of Sanatana dharma. A review has been made of over 100 pratim of Sarasvat which have been found in many temples all over the world. (cf. Sarasvati in Art and Literature, a compilation: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/116953358/Sarasvat in-Art-and-Literature-(March-2012).) It is seen from these examples, that it is easy for a devotee to recognize and identify a particular form of Sarasvat. For example, on Page 90, Sarasvat is shown in Khajuraho as carrying a sutra (thread) on her right hand, which is comparable to the part of sutra visible on the British Museum sculpture. Association of Brahma (bearded person) with his akti, Sarasvat is also shown on another frieze of Khajuraho (Page 100). A sculptural composition in Haebu shows Sarasvat carrying a sutra (thread) cf. Natya Sarasvat, Haebu Museum, 12th cent. (Page 116). Sarasvat sculpture in Jinanthapura, ravaabeagoa, 12th Century (Page 119) is shown carrying a sutra on the left hand and a stylus on the right hand, comparable to the stylus carried on the sculpture in British Museum.

As shown above, the particular sculpture of British Museum has attributes which identify the divinity form as Sarasvat (Amb, Mother Supreme). That the British Museum sculpture is NOT Ambik is clear from the absence of a rosar y or a spear as attributes. Instead, we find that the sculpture shows a Durg form associated with a lion. This is a clear confirmation that the pratim of Sarasvat is in the form of Amb which is another name of Durg. (Figure 60, from Hampana Nagarajaiah, opcit., Bedecked seated, rutadev, Jinanthapura, ravaabeagoa, 1200 CE.) The stylus associated with Sarasvat (Amb) is also shown in the sculpture at Gangaikondacholapuram, Tamil Nadu. (See right-hand corner above the sculpture)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Gkcp1.jpg It will be disingenuous to assume that the sculpture represents Ambik, a yaki form. The accountability and culpability of the British Government is thus direct and well documented. Dr. Gautam Sengupta, Director General of Archaeological Survey of India has stated that a formal process is ongoing through UNESCO intervention to have the pratim of Sarasvat 8

returned to Dhar. (Annex A) The arbitrary cut-off date of 14 Nov. 1970 per UNESCO 1970 Convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property does NOT apply to these sacred pratim which have been stolen from the temple in Dhar. In the Indian tradition, a temple is a temple forever. This legal position has been upheld by the British judicial system in the London Nataraja case (Annex B). After protracted litigation in British courts, the pratim was ordered by the House of Lords to be returned to the temple in Tamil Nadu. The pratim was returned in 1990. (Annex shows an article detailing the court case). In Bhojal (School of Bhoja) Sarasvat was worshipped as a divinity of learning. This was not only a school but also a temple of Sarasvat as evidenced by an inscription from the days of Raja Arjunavarman. K. K. Munshi notes the importance of Raja Bhojas contribution to Hindu cultural legacy: '... during Bhojas rule civilization in Mlw had risen to a magnificent pitch. Our appreciation of Bhoja for having portrayed a faithful picture of the most glorious period of medieval Indian History [in the gramajarkath] is heightened when we take into consideration that he worked and stood for all that was glorious in Hindu Culture. (K. K. Munshi, ed. gramajarkath, Sigh Jaina granthaml, no. 30 (Bombay, 1959): 90.) An inscription on the base of a pratim notes that Vararuci, an official in Paramra kingdom, had made two pratim, together with the pratim of 3 Jnas (tirthankaras): one of Vgdevi and another of Amb. Both both forms Vgdevi and Amb represent the divinity Sarasvat. The two pratim of Sarasvat , are both of over 1000 years antiquity and are now held in the British Museum. British Museum should return the pratim for puja (worship) in Sarasvat mandiram (temple), Dhar, Central India. A pratim is a sculptural representation of divinity. After Prapratiha, a process including vedic recitations, the pratim comes alive, in a temple, as sacred murtii for worship, for offering daily puja by devotees. Such a murti renders the Hindu shrine sacred and inviolate. In the 13th Jaina Studies Workshop at SOAS held on 18 March 2011in Brunei Gellery Lecture Theatre, Michael Willis a Curator of the British Museum made a presentation: New Discoveries from Old Finds: The Sculpture of Ambik in the British Museum and its Relationship to Jain Narrative in Medieval India. An abstract of this paper is as follows (Newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies, SOAS, Univ. of London, CoJS Newsletter, March 2011, Issue 6, p. 8): This paper examines a sculpture of Ambik in the British Museum and presents a new reading of the inscription on the pedestal. The inscription is dated 1034 in the reign of King Bhoja, the celebrated ruler of the Paramra dynasty. The sculpture was recovered from the site of the old city palace at Dhr in 1875 by William Kincaid and entered the collection of the British Museum in the 1880s. Attempts to understand the inscription culminated in the 1980s with the reading of H. C. Bhayani, the well-known Sanskrit and 9

Prakrit scholar. He showed that the inscription records the creation of an image of Ambik. Interestingly, the inscription also records the making of three Jinas and Vgdev (i.e. Sarasvat) prior to the Ambik. This shows that the Sarasvat of King Bhoja at Dhr was, in fact, a Jain form of the goddess. This is confirmed by the testimony of Merutuga. A fresh examination of the British Museum inscription has shown that the donors name is given in the inscription as Vararuci. There are a number of Vararucis in the history of Indian literature, the most famous being the author of the first Prakrit grammar. In the eleventh century, Vararuci appears in a number of narrative contexts, from the Kathsaritsgara to Hemacandras Pariiaparvan. These narratives were composed in a dialectical environment, a reconstruction of which shows that the Vararuci mentioned in the British Museum inscription was probably a courtly pseudonym for Dhanapla, the author of the Tilakamajar. He adhered to Jaina pantha and served as a minister in the court of King Bhoja. http://www.soas.ac.uk/jainastudies/newsletter/file66850.pdf That the sculpture was obtained by William Kincaid is recorded in British Museum website: Acquisition name From: Maj Gen William Kincaid (official; British; Male; 1831 - 1909; Died Bournemouth 11 February 1909) Bibliography Arun Tikekara, The Kincaids: Two Generations of a British Family in the Indian Civil Service (New Delhi, 1992) The Times, Obituaries, 15 Feb 1909 Biography Born 30/10/1831 1849 (March) Ensign, Madras army 1864 (March) Appointed to adjust boundaries disputes, Bhopal agency 1866 Assistant political agent, Bundelkhand; small cause court judge and cantonment magistrate, Nowgong 1876 (August) Political Agent, Bhopal 1879 (October) Political Agent, Bhopawar, and commandant, Malwa Bhil Corps 1881 (June) Political Agent, Bhopal 1886 Returned to Europe 1889 (October) To US list (unemployed) 1890 Major-General 1891 Moved to Italy; deposited Sanchi Torso at V&A (date of return from Italy not traced) 11/2/1909 Died, Bournemouth http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?bioId =164557 The key fact conceded by the Curator of the British Museum is that William Kincaid had recovered the sculpture from the site of the old city palace at Dhr in1875 and entered the collection of the British Museum in the 1880s. In a subsequent article in JRAS, a further attempt is made to obfuscate the fact that the specific sculpture in the British Museum was taken from the Sarasvat mandiram (temple) in Dhar. 10

The article concedes that the sculpture is taken from a temple. The citation made in this article of March 2012 and in the presentation made by Dr. Michael Willis in March 2011, however, erroneously refers to the name of the deity in the sculpture as Ambik. The inscription on the sculpture itself is clear and emphatic that the divinity is Amb, NOT Ambik. Amb in Indian traditions, dating from the Rigveda, perhaps the oldest human document is a reference to Sarasvat who is worshipped by the Rigveda Rishi Grtsamada in three forms: Amb (Mother), Nad (River) and Devi (Divinity). Michael Willis, Curator, British Museum, is in error stating that the current location of the Sarasvat from Dhr remains an interesting mystery implying that it is not located in the British Museum. Willis is also in error referring to the divinity mentioned in the inscription as Ambik. (See title of the British Museum statue: Standing figure of the Jain goddess Ambik. [Michael Willis, 2012, Dhr, Bhoja and Sarasvat: from Indology to Political Mythology and Back, in: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series) (2012), 22 : pp 129-153. DOI: 10.1017/S1356186312000041 (About DOI) Published online: 2012. Full text cited at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/03/Dhr-bhoja-and-Sarasvat -from-indology.html See also: Trivedi, H. V., Inscriptions of the Paramras, Chandellas and Kachchapapaghtas and two Minor Dynasties. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, volume 7, 3 parts. (New Delhi, 197991). . The name mentioned in the inscription is Amb, NOT Ambik.]

Proof that Amb is Sarasvat comes from what is perhaps the oldest human document, Rigveda.
In Rigveda, Devi Gang is mentioned only once while Devi Sarasvat is lauded no less than seventy-two times. In a famous hymn, S'aunaka Gritasamda, the Rishi of the second Mandala in Rigveda lauds Sarasvat as ambitame, naditame, devitame Sarasvat: (RV II.41.16).

ambitame naditame devitame Sarasvat apraast iva smasi praastim Amba nas kridhi (Translation: Mother (Ambi) Supreme, River (Nadi) Supreme, Devi Supreme, Sarasvat , consider me without recognition; Amb, give me recognition). This, Ambitame and Amb in the Rigveda is the same Amb mentioned on the inscription of Bhojl Sarasvat pratim. That she is divinity of learning and arts is evidenced by what is perhaps a writing stylus carried on her unbroken right hand (out of four hands) -- a writing stylus used for creating inscriptions. 11

The object carried on her left hand is not of high resolution on the photograph and may be a portion of a measuring thread (stra) used by sthapati (sculptors, masons) artisans. A gandharva is seen above the right shoulder of the pratim perhaps with a flower-garland venerating the divinity. The lady riding a lion at the bottom right of the pratim as attribute determinant -confirms the form as divine Durga form of Amb. The standing bearded person on the bottom left of the pratim is Brahma, often associated with Sarasvat. Q.E.D. [quod erat demonstrandum (which was to be demonstrated)].

Location of ancient Sarasvat mandiram

The hall precincts are located adjacent to the tomb of Kaml al-Dn Chisht in the town of Dhr. Chisht saint, Kaml al-Dn Mlaw lived circa 12381330 was so-called because he lived in Malwa, central India. A mosque built on the tomb primarily of reused temple parts, as seen in the prayer-hall colonnades in the quadrangle. The word l not only refers to a hall but also to a workshop or school: l f. shed, stable, house AV., lm adv. at home Br., lik -- f. house, shop lex. Pa. Pk. sl -- f. shed, stable, large open -- sided hall, house , Pk. sla -- n. house ; Ash. sal cattleshed , Wg. l, Kt. l, Dm. l; Pa.weg. sl, ar. ol cattleshed on summer pasture ; Kho. al cattleshed , eli goatpen ; K. hal f. hall, house ; L. slh f. house with thatched roof ; A. xl, xli house, workshop, factory ; B. sl shed, workshop ; Or. sa shed, stable ; Bi. sr f. cowshed ; H. sl f. hall, house, school , sr f. cowshed ; M. s f. workshop, school ; Si.sal -- a, ha hall, market -- hall (Comparative Dictionary of Indo-Aryan Languages 12414).

Dhr. Interior of the Mosque at the tomb of Kaml al-Dn. Unknown photographer, 1902. Courtesy of the British Library, Photo 2/4(90), item 4303212. 12

Source of map: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dhar_Plan.jpg Three Fragments of the Iron Pillar, set in position in the 1980s by the Archaeological Survey A pillar or l a monolith cast in iron lies outside Ll masjid built in the mosque in 1045. (Balasubramaniam, R., A New Study of the Dhr Iron Pillar, Indian Journal of the History of Science 37.2 (2002), pp. 115151. Cf. Cousens, Henry, The Iron Pillar at Dhr Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report, 190203. (Calcutta, 1904), pp. 205212.) The l was about 13.5 m in length, and was broken when the Sultan of Gujart attempted to move it in the 1500s. Sarasvat mandiram in Dhr


Location of the spot where the Sarasvat pratim was discovered. C. B. Lele, reported that the sculpture had been found in the debris of the old city palace in 1875. [Lele, C. B.], Parmar Inscriptions in Dhr State, 8751310 AD (Dhr, [1944]): iii.] The city palace was being rebuilt and is now used as a school. The pratim now in the British Museum is this sculpture found in the debris of the old city palace of Dhr in 1875. This is clearly attested in the British Museum record: Accession Number: AN180732001 Place (findspot): Found/Acquired Dhr, Found in the ruins of the City Palace in 1875. It will be seen that this pratim belonged to the Bhojal, the school of Bhoja and to the temple which had the murti of Sarasvat . Bhoja Raja of Paramra dynasty (1000 to 1055 CE) was a scholar, a poet-king, to whom a number of works in Sanskrit have been ascribed including a work on poetics, garapraka (Raghavan, Venkatarama, Bhoja's garapraka, 3rd rev. ed. (Madras, 1940). One of the works attributed to Bhoja is a work in poetics and grammar titled: Sarasvatkahbharaa or 'Necklace of Sarasvat'. (R. Birw, Nryaa Daantha's Commentary on Rules III.2, 106-121 of Bhoja's Sarasvatkahbharaa, Journal of the American Oriental Society84 (1964): 15062.) Hence, the reference to the building in Dhar as Bhojal (School of Bhoja) located in Sarasvat mandiram (temple) in Dhr. Dr Alois Anton Fhrer (18531930), of Archaeological Survey of India noted: The dargh of Mauln Kaml-ud-dn, built during the reign of Mahmd Shh Khilj I., in A.H. 861, has a 14

spacious quadrangle with a colonnade of very fine Jaina pillars on each side within the square, and some are very elaborately sculpted in a similar style as those in the Dailwr temples at Ab. The floor is formed of black stone slabs from which Sanskrit inscriptions of the 12th century have been effaced. The mihrbs and mimbar of the masjid proper are very handsome. On two of the columns supporting the central dome of the masjid are inscribed a couple of grammatical stras, which show that they were probably part of a scholastic building. (Fhrer, A., Progress Report of the Epigraphical Section for the Working Season of 189293 in Annual Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey Circle, North-western Provinces and Oudh, for the year ending 30th June, 1893 (Rourkee, 1893), p.21). Captain Ernest Barnes, I.C.S., who served as the political agent at Dhr from 1900 to 1904, collected available information on Dhr and M and communicated his findings to the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch, in June, 1902. (Barnes, Ernest, 1903, Art. XI. Dhr and Mandu, JRAS Bombay Branch 21, pp. 339390.) Barnes established a small archaeological department in September, 1902 and placed the Superintendent of State Education, Mr. K. K. Lele, in charge. Luard notes that the buildings of Dhr were Bhoja's school. (Luard, C. E., Western States (Mlw). Gazetteer, 2 parts. The Central India State Gazetteer Series, vol. 5. (Bombay, 1908), p. 401.) It should have been more approrpriately called Sarasvat-mandiram. Historian, K. M. Munshi noted: Close to Sarasvat-mandira was a large well, still known as Akkal-Kui or the Well of Wisdom. (Munshi, K. M., Glory that was Grjaradea: A.D. 500 1300 (Bombay, 1955), p. 284; also recorded in: Kincaid, William, (ed.) History of Mandu, The Capital of Malwa. By a Bombay Subaltern, 2nd ed. (Bombay, 1879), note XXVI, p. 102.) That Akkal-kui means well of wisdom attests to the meaning of the Arabic word AKL to be Sarasvat. The sculpture of Sarasvat (Amb) was recovered from the site of the old city palace at Dhr in 1875 by William Kincaid and entered the collection of the British Museum in the 1880s, as attested by Dr. Michael Willis. (http://www.soas.ac.uk/jainastudies/newsletter/file66850.pdf CoJS, Newsletter of the Centre of Jaia Studies, SOAS, Univ. of London, March 2011, Issue 6, page 8). jaa, circa 1089CE, refers to Bhojas scholarship in the still-unpublished Sarasvatkahbharaavtti titled Padakapraka. Raja, C. Kunhan, Raghavan, V. et al., New Catalogus Catalogorum, 14 vols. (Chennai, 19492000) 2, p. 240; Gandhi, L. B., A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars at Pattan, Gaekawad Oriental Series, no. 76 (Baroda, 1937), pp. 3739.) Tawney translated Prabandhacintmai in 1901 and records King Bhoja's visits to the temple of Sarasvat at Dhr. [Tawney, C. H., The Prabandhacintmai or Wishing-stone of Narratives (Calcutta, 1901), pp. 4849]. Barnes noted: Finally, a recent close inspection has brought to light the fact that the reverse side of two of the great black stone slabs which form the lining of the Mehrab are covered with similar inscriptions, which happily by their position have escaped destruction, but which owing to that same position, it has only been possible up to the present to take fragmental impressions. These impressions seem to show that the inscriptions are a dramatic composition probably on an 15

historical subject, written in the reign of a successor of Bhoja. (Barnes, 1902, Dhr and Mandu, pp. 351352). Archaeological investigations at the mosque next to Kaml al-Dn's tomb revealed two serpentine inscriptions giving the alphabet and grammatical rules of Sanskrit. (Barnes, 1902, Dhr and Mandu, p. 360). While Hindus consider the shrine a Sarasvat temple, the Muslims refer to it as the Kaml Maula Masjid. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has worked out a compromise by allowing Hindus to worship at the temple on Basant Panchmi while the Muslims congregate here for prayers every Friday. A vigil is on with Hindu devotees burning an Akhand Jyoti (eternal flame), awaiting the restitution of Sarasvat pratim in the temple. Dr. Gautam Sengupta, Director General of Archaeology, India announced in the Cairo Conference held in April 2010 that Government of India has sought the intervention of UNESCO for restitution of Sarasvat pratim to the temple in Dhr. In a function held in July 2006 to bestow the first Dr. Vishnu ShriDhr Wakankar National Award to Dr. S.P. Gupta, Archaeologist, Former Deputy Prime Minster Shri Lal Krishna Advani said the state government must take an initiative to retrieve the idol of Divinity Sarasvat once enshrined in the historical Bhojal of Dhr from Britain.

http://organiser.org/archives/historic/dynamic/modulese083.html?name=Content&pa=showpage &pid=141&page=11 Sarasvat pratim was taken by the British from the palace in Dhr. This pratim together with another pratim obtained from the Malwa region are today in the possession of the British Museum. Both the Sarasvat pratim do not belong in a museum but in a temple, for a Hindu temple is a temple for ever. This legal position has been reaffirmed in the famous London Nataraja Case by the British Privy Council. 16

Yale University of USA has set a good example of restitution of artifacts to the region where they belonged; the University returned to Peru, 4,000 objects found in excavations of Machu Picchu in Peru. British Museum authorities should follow this Yale University example and arrange, suo moto, for the restitution of the two Sarasvat pratim to India to be installed in the temples in India where Hindu worshippers can restore worship of the pratim as murti in temples. A pratim of a divinity is sacred and NOT a museum or art piece. There should be a modicum of respect for the culture and traditions of people who worship Sarasvat as Divine Mother, Amb. Let us look at the two pratim of Sarasvat in the British Museum.

Details of the first Pratim (sculpture) of Sarasvat as Amb

British Museum Acquisition Number (Acquired in 1880): AN180732001 Place (findspot) Found/Acquired Dhr, Found in the ruins of the City Palace in 1875 (scope note | all objects)(Asia,South Asia,India,Madhya Pradesh,Dhr) Date 1034 Period/Culture Paramara (dynasty) The divinity, originally four-armed, is carved in high relief against the plain ground of the slab; the base has been given offsets and is inscribed. The divinity wears a tiered crown of the beehive (karaa) type with her long hair tied into a small bun on one side. Two arms of the divinity have been broken away; in the remaining arms, she holds a writing stylus and what seems to be the bottom of a noose or the stalk of a plant. On one of the stepped faces of the base is a small incised figure of a kneeling female donor with a inscribed label above. Dimensions--Height: 1285 millimetres (50.6 in.) Width: 586 millimetres Depth: 265 millimetresWeight: 250 kilograms (estimated weight) Curator's comments: The inscription demonstrates that the Vgdev at Dhr was dedicated to the Jaina form of the divinity. Registration number: 1909,1224.1 Additional IDs 1880.19 (tracking number assigned in the 1970s)


Dhr. Interior of the Mosque at the tomb of Kaml al-Dn. Unknown photographer, 1902. Courtesy of the British Library, Photo 2/4(90), item 4303212. Niche in this Bhojal (School of Bhoja) which were set up to provide for learning in Sanskrit and other subjects and now found to be vacant, are likely to have held the pratim of Sarasvat . Bibliographic reference Mankodi 1981 Willis 2012 Koezuka (1994) Cat. no. 28 L'Art de la Devoci 2007 no. 148 Blurton 1992 p.175, fig.111 Chanda 1936 Pp. 46-7, pl. X Location: G33/Ind/Free Incription Inscription Script: Ngar. Inscription Position: Base. Inscription Language: Sanskrit (corrupt) Inscription Transliteration: (1) au |

srmadbhojanredracadranagarvidyDhr[*dha]rmmadh yo ----- [damaged portion] khalu sukhaprasthpan (2) yp(sa)r [*|] vgdev[*] prathama[*] vidhya janan[m] pas[c]j jinntraym amb[] nityaphal(d)ik vararuci (m)rttim subh[] ni(3) rmmame [||] iti subha || stradhra sahirasutamaathalea ghaita || vi[j]nika sivadevena likhitam iti || (4) savat 100 91 [||*] Inscription Translation: Au. Vararuci, who is intent on the Dhrma of the Candranagar and VidyDhr [branches of the Jain religion] of srmad Bhoja the king, the apsaras [as it were] for 18

the easy removal [of ignorance? by...?], that Vararuci, having first fashioned Vgdev the mother [and] afterwards a triad of Jinas, made this beautiful image of Amb, ever abundant in fruit. Blessings! It was executed by Maathala, son of the stradhra Sahira. It was written by ivadeva the proficient. Year 1091. Inscription Comment: The inscription records the making of the image of Amb by Vararuci after he had made a divinity of speech (Vgdev ) and three Jinas. This Vararuci may be identified as Dhanapla, the author who enjoyed a prominent place in the court of king Bhoja. Source: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.as px?objectid=182355&partid=1&searchText=Ambik&fromADBC=ad&toADBC=ad&numpage s=10&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx&currentPage=1 Historian Gangoly and Dikshit, Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India noted that this sculpture was Bhoja's Sarasvat from Dhr. (Gangoly, O. C. and Dikshit, K. N., An Image of Sarasvat in the British Museum, Rpam 17 (January, 1924), pp. 12.) Sivaramamurti who was also Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India, endorsed this identification ((Sivaramamurti, C., Indian Sculpture (New Delhi, 1961), p. 106.) This clearly showed that inscription records the making of a sculpture of Amb after the making of three Jinas and Vgdev. K. M. Munshi and V. Raghavan, have also asserted that the British Museum sculpture was Bhoja's Sarasvat from Dhr. [Munshi, K.M. Glory that was Grjaradea, p. 284; Raghavan, V., Bhoja's garapraka, front matter (no pagination).] H. C. Bhayani, Sanskrit and Prakrit scholar and Kirit Mankodi detailed their reading of the inscription on the pratim of Sarasvat . (Mankodi, Kirit, A Paramra Sculpture in the British Museum: Vgdev or Yaksh Ambik? Sambodhi 9 (198081), pp. 96103.) Presence of elephant goad and lion lead some scholars to identify the pratim as Ambik (Tiwari, M. N. P., Ambik in Jaina Art and Literature (New Delhi, 1989.) The inscription records that Vararuci made an image of Vgdev and three Jinas before he commissioned the image of Amb. This indicates that Vararuci was a follower of Jaina tradition and, by extension, that the Vgdev at Dhr was dedicated to a form of the divinity worshipped by Jinas. This is confirmed by the Prabandhacintmai. In this text there is a story that Dhanapla, the celebrated Jain savant and author, showed King Bhoja some eulogistic tablets in the Sarasvat temple engraved with his poem to the first Jina. ( Tawney, Prabandhacintmai, p. 57.) This text survives as the abhapacik. (Warder, Indian Kvya Literature, 5: 4210.) Merutuga's account shows that the Vgdev at Dhr was indeed the Jain form of the divinity, just as the British Museum inscription attests. Acharya Merutuga'sPrabandhacintmai was


completed in the early years of the fourteenth century. The presence of the inscription shows that the Vgdev and Amb at Dhr were indeed forms of Sarasvat divinity. This also attests that Sarasvat temple existed during the regime of King Bhoja. In the dying days of the Paramra regime, Solanki and Vghel rulers transferred some libraries to their own cities where Paramra texts were copied, studied and preserved. (Pollock, Language of the Gods, p. 181.) The inscription of Vsaladeva from Kodinar dated 1271 records the creation of a pleasure garden (ketana) and college (sadas) sacred to Sarasvat. [A. S. Gadre, Important Inscriptions from the Baroda State (Baroda, 1943) no. 10]. Jinaprabhasri (d. 1333) states that an image of the Jina Candraprabha came to Somnth from Valabhi along with figures of Amb and Ketrapla. [U. P. Shah, Jaina Rpa Maana (New Delhi, 1987): 142; Richard Davis, Lives of Indian Images (Delhi, 1999).] The second Sarasvat Pratim now in the British Museum is the Pratim mentioned by Vararuci as Vgdev in the inscription described above. The portion of the inscription reads: Vararuci, having first fashioned Vgdev the mother [and] afterwards a triad of Jinas, made this beautiful image of Amb This is an emphatic epigraphical evidence referring to the sculpture as Amb. There is a second Pratim (sculpture) of Sarasvat as Vgdevi which is also in the British Museum, which will be detailed.

Details of the second Pratim (sculpture) of Sarasvat as Vgdevi

Description Standing figure of the Jaina goddess Sarasvat carved in white marble. The goddess is four-armed, holding a rosary (akaml) and a small book (pustaka) in her upraised and lower left hands respectively; her right hands are broken. She wears a beehiveshaped crown (karaa) and her hair is arranged in a large bun. She had an elaborate pearled necklace with loops passing under breasts. Her girdle has a long pendant down to her ankles and festoons draped over her thighs. The goddess is framed by an elaborately moulded niche carrying seated Jinas. Above are flying celestials and below donor figures and female attendants holding flywhisks. Beside the attendants are subsidiary goddesses set in small niches displaying the gesture of granting boons (varadamudr). Lotus tendril in the base. Note: It is surprising that unlike the Amb sculpture of Sarasvat which has been clearly identified as acquired by William Kincaid and submitted to the British Museum, there is no acquisition detail excepting that the sculpture is from Malwa, Central India, early 11th century CE. Since the sculpture is said to be of unrecorded provenance, British Museum either should do additional research to identify the details of acquisition of this sculpture, for example, if it was part of Capt. George Stuart Collection or give the benefit of doubt to the claimants of the sculpture that it is taken from the Dhar temple which is a principal landmark of Malwa region of Central India by all historical standards. Moreover, the sculptural features, such as the crown worn by the divinity, facial expressions, compare with the features of the Amb sculpture, pointing to the fact that this second sculpture 20

seems to match the description on the inscription of Amb sculpture where Vararuci refers to two sculptures: one of Amb and another of Vgdevi. It will be demonstrated that this second sculpture is the Sarasvat form of Vgdevi (Divinity of Speech, Learning/Knowledge). Height: 66.100 cm (26 in.) Asia OA 1880-349 Room 33: Asia From Malwa, Central India, early 11th century CE AN509475001 Place (findspot) Department: Asia Registration number: 1880.349 Location: G33/Ind/case19 Found/Acquired India, Unrecorded provenance, probably Gujart or Rjasthn (West) Note the broken sutra (thread) and rosary on the two left hands. Note the manuscript (pustaka, small book) on one of the right hands. (The second right hand is broken and may have carried a stylus). Note the three jnas surrounding the face of the divinity, exactly consistent with the inscription of Vararuci which refers to three jnas (trthankaras). Inscriptions Inscription Type: inscription Inscription Script: Ngar Inscription Position: Pedestal Inscription Comment: Later two-line inscription on the pedestal. Dimensions Height: 66.1 centimetres Associated names Representation of Sarasvat Source: http://tinyurl.com/8xm2zz6 Biographical details: Sarasvat (deity; Hindu; Buddhist; Female) Bibliography Dowson, 'A Classical Dictionary of India', New Delhi 1999, pp.528-9.


Biography Goddess of wisdom, education and learning; fair and four-armed. Daughter of iva and Prvat, wife of Brahma. Usually depicted sitting on a lotus (representing knowledge) and holding in one of her right hands a flower, which she offers to her husband, and in the other a book of palm leaves indicating her love of learning; in her left hand a string of pearls which serves as a rosary and in the other a damaru or small drum. Her mount is most often the swan or sometimes the peacock. She is the font of learning and imparts knowledge to all those who study. Therefore she is regularly worshipped in schools, universities and libraries. In Japan, Shinto deity, associated with music and water, appears popular culture as one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune (Shichifukujin). Also Known As Sarasvat; Vgdevi; Sarasvat ; Vagishvari; Benzaiten (); Sarasvat http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?bioId =137412 Sarasvat, a divinity of knowledge Sarasvat worship is equally popular among the adherants of Jaina pantha and all panthas of Hindu sanatana Dhrma. Sarasvat is celebrated all over India in two annual festivals: Basant Panchami (February) and during Navaratri (Dussehra, September. Vijaydaami day is the day for akarbhysam, day to start alphabet learning for a child.). Sarasvat is a benign divinity associated with knowledge, music and learning. Originally associated with the river Sarasvat , this divinity now has the epithet, 'V-pustaka Dhri' or bearer of the musical instrument (V), and a book. The latter is visible in her lower left hand, and she probably also held her other representative feature, a lotus, in one of her hands. She can is often also shown on her mount, the swan. Since knowledge (jna) plays a fundamental role in Jain pantha as a means to salvation, this divinity has an important place in their pantheon. She features frequently in the vast Jain libraries filled with painted manuscripts that have been found in Western India. Although a relief, the main image has been very deeply cut, and looks three-dimensional. Sarasvat stands in an architectural frame, the arch over her head bearing three small enshrined tirthankaras. Two more tirthankaras can be seen flanking the image level with her hips. Other attendant figures, and perhaps the patrons can be seen in the lowest register of the framing arch. The inscription on the base gives the name and family of the donor. Source: http://www.britishmuseum.org/images/ps185355_m.jpg http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/m/marble_relief_figure _of_sarasv.aspx Indian Images (Delhi, 1999)]. There is no record, no mention of any Sarasvat pratim being relocated to Gujarat from Dhar or any other place in India.


Candraprabha is 8th of the 24 Jinas (victors) (tirthankaras). British Museum AN145234001 granite Place (findspot): Found/Acquired Deccan (Asia,India,Deccan) Date 1050 (samvat) 993994 (CE) Description Jina (Candraprabha). Seated figure of the tirthankara Candraprabha carved in a greenish-grey ganite with black speckles. The image has tight curling hair and a srivatsa in the centre of the chest; the pupils of the eyes are shown. The base, shown in the form of a cushion, has decorative pendants in the centre and on the sides. Inscribed. Inscriptions Inscription Type: inscription Inscription Script: Nagari Inscription Language: Sanskrit Inscription Comment: Inscription gives the date 1050 and name of the tirthankara as Candraprabha. Dimensions: Height: 82 centimetres Width: 67 centimetres The pratim of Amb and Ketrapla mentioned by Jinaprabhasri (d. 1333) as brought into Somnth from Valabhi have to be identified. Valabhi was a place where there were many temples and there should have been sculptors making many pratim for temples. http://tinyurl.com/78wau3g Hundreds of sculptures of Sarasvat have been celebrated in Art and Literature and have been documented in http://www.docstoc.com/docs/116953358/Sarasvat -in-Art-and-Literature(March-2012). What is being demanded are the return to the Sarasvat temple in Dhar, the two specific pratim (sculptures) now held illegally by the British Museum and which rightly belong to the temple in Dhar, Madhya Pradesh. Views of the temple precincts:


Dr. Balram Misra: "The famous Raja Bhoja of Parmar dynasty constructed the Bhojal temple at Dhr in 1034 A D for worshipping Goddess Sarasvat . The temple served as a centre of Hindu philosophy and Sanskrit language , and a great residential University. About 1400 great scholars , poets and theologians like Maagh,Vaanabhatta,Kalidas,Bhavabhooti,Maanatunga, Bhaskarabhatta and Dhanapal got patronage at Bhojasala where many famous scriptures like the Avani Koormashatakam , Sarasvat Kahbharaa, Rja mrta, and Tithisaaranika were written . The Bhojasala was a great centre of learning of almost all prevalent Indian religions and disciplines . Raja Bhoja was well versed in 72 types of arts and 36 models of military sciences. He wrote books on various subjects like Astronomy, Ayurveda, Grammar, Politics, Sculpture,Philosophy,Chemistry, Vstu, etc ." Source: http://madhavajja.sulekha.com/blog/post/2011/05/vyaakarana-chakra-in-latmasjid/comment/2081364.htm

Dhr: city of sword blades and metallurgical traditions

Dhr is located in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. The circular ramparts of Dhr, unique in north India and an important legacy of the Paramras. They were built beginning in the 9th century. The earthen ramparts at Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India. One of the few surviving portions from the exterior, on the south west side of the town may be seen in the following photograph:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ramparts_at_Dhar,_Madhya_Pradesh,_India.jpg Fragments if the cast iron pillar of the 11th century seen in front of the Sarasvat mandiram shows that Dhar artisans were expert smiths. (V. A. Smith, 'The Iron Pillar of Dhr', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1898): 143-46; Amitava Ray, S. K. Dhua, R. R. Prasad, S. Jha, S. Banerjee,' The ancient 11th century iron pillar at Dhar, India: a microstructural insight into material characteristics', Journal of Materials Science, Letters 16 (1997): 371375.) Dhar is shortened from Dhr Nagara ('city of sword blades'). dharajala [dhr-gala] n. blood dripping from the blade or edge (of a sword). dharancala [dhrakala] m. edge (of an in strument). f. ( 2. ) margin , sharp edge , rim , blade (esp. of a sword , knife , &c ; fig. applied to the flame of fire) RV. S3Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c. (Monier-Williams Lexicon, p. 515). Dhr as centre of metallurgical excellence Excerpts from: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~bala/journalpaper/journal/journalpaper_34.pdf Corrosion resistance of the Dhar iron pillar by R. Balasubramaniam and AV Ramesh Kumar, Corrosion Science 45, 2003, pp. 2451-2465. Abstract The corrosion resistance of the 950-year old Dhar iron pillar has been addressed. The microstructure of a Dhar pillar iron sample exhibited characteristics typical of ancient Indian 25

iron. Intergranular cracking indicated P segregation to the grain boundaries. The potentiodynamic polarization behaviour of the Dhar pillar iron and mild steel, evaluated in solutions of pH 1 and 7.6, indicate that the pillar iron is inferior to mild steel under complete immersion conditions. However, the excellent atmospheric corrosion resistance of the phosphoric Dhar pillar iron is due to the formation of a protective passive lm on the surface. Rust analysis revealed the presence of crystalline magnetite (Fe3 xO4), a-Fe2O3 (hematite), goethite (a-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (c-FeOOH), akaganeite (b-FeOOH) and phosphates, and amorphous dFeOOH phases. The rust cross-section revealed a layered structure at some locations. Total length of the iron mass is 42 feet. It currently lies in three broken pieces as shown on the photograph. The history of the pillar has been described in detail elsewhere [R. Balasubramaniam, A new study of the Dhar iron pillar, Indian J. History Sci. 37 (2002) 115] and briey summarized below. Dhar, situated near Indore in Madhya Pradesh, was founded as capital of Malwa by Bhoja (10101053 AD). Local tradition holds that Bhoja constructed the pillar. The achievements of the iron industry in Malwa during Raja Bhojas reign have been well documented [ S.V. Sohoni, Historical background of iron industry in Malwa of Bhojas period, Soc. Sci. 10 (1990) 104]. Bhoja was well versed in iron metallurgy as he, in his Yuktikalpataru, discusses the manufacture of iron weapons and refers to earlier texts on iron metallurgy like Louharnava, Louhadspa and Louhapradipa [A.K. Biswas, Minerals and Metals in Ancient India, vol. II, D.K. Printworld, New Delhi, 1996]. Dhar rst came into Muslim hands around 1300 AD when Allaudin Khilji subdued Malwa as far as Dhar. In its original condition, the pillar, topped with a trishul (trident) capital, was located in front of a Shiva temple. This temple was located at the very site where the present Lat Masjid stands. The masonry basement topped with stone boulders, in front of the Lat Masjid, was the original erection site of the Dhar iron pillar. After being thrown down, its shaft was broken into at least two pieces, which lay about for a hundred years. One smaller piece (most probably without the currently missing fourth piece of the pillar) was planted at the Dilawar Khan s mosque in Mandu (in a position similar to that of the Delhi iron pillar in the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque). The greater length was erected before the Lat Masjid mosque built by Dilawar Khan at Dhar in 1405 AD out of the remains of Hindu and Jain temples. Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in 1531 AD, captured the area and wished to carry the pillar to Gujarat. In attempting to do so, the pillar fell down and broke into two pieces of lengths 22ft.and 13ft. The largest broken piece remained in the same sloping position against the masonry terrace in front of the mosque from the time of its fall in 1531 AD till the time it was removed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) around 1980 AD and placed horizontally on a platform adjoining the mosque. 26

In the Indian tradition, Sarasvat is the divinity of knowledge, learning, arts and crafts in all forms -- grammar of language or drama as literary art, or metallurgical skills. This is the reason why an annual festival celebrates the worship, in the name of Sarasvat, of artisans tools, implements and equipment. This is called ayudha pja during Navaratri (Dussehra). This tradition is exemplified by the very name of the settlement -- Dhr, the city of sword blades and metallurgical traditions. In some regions, for example, in Tamil Nadu, Sarasvati Puja is conducted along with the Ayudha Puja (the worship of weapons, tools, and implements including machines). On the ninth day of Navaratri, i.e. the Mahnavami day, books and all musical instruments are worshipped with special prayers.


Annex A Govt. of India bids to get back lost treasures From: Business Ghana India bids to get back lost treasures News Date: 20th May 2010 India is seeking UNESCO support for an international campaign to recover its priceless antiquities that were once taken away from the country through foreign invasions, a senior official of the Archaeological Survey of India said. As efforts so far to reclaim stolen treasures have proved futile, UNESCO support is required for launching an international campaign to achieve the end, ASI Director General Gautam Sengupta told PTI in the eastern metropolis. Sengupta, who attended the Cairo conference of Archaeological heads of countries last month, said India had expressed its wish to get back the stolen treasures like the exquisite Kohinoor, taken away by the British and now in the Tower of London, besides Birmingham Buddha, Amravati railings, Sarasvat idol (stolen from Bhoj temple) and many other lost valuables. He said the whereabouts of fabled Peacock throne, looted during raid by Nadir Shah and taken to Persia, were not immediately available. Information is that most of the precious antique, which we lost through raids, attacks or looting during foreign invasions in the pre-independence period are spread over museums, mostly in European countries, he said. Sengupta said the Cairo conference called for a suitable international law to ban export or ownership of stolen antiquities acquired after 1970. This would help in preventing acquisition of stolen treasures of any particular country. The ASI chief said Egypt had incurred huge loss in terms of stolen antiquities, which it desperately seeks to get back. Not only India, various other countries like Mexico, Peru, China and Bolivia, Cyprus and Guatemala also voiced the same concern to get back their stolen and looted antiquities and to join the international campaign, Sengupta said. The Peacock throne inlaid with precious stones was created in the 17th century for Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who had placed the Kohinoor diamond and kept it at the Diwan-i-aam in his imperial capital of Delhi. It was taken away by invader Nadir Shah to Persia in 1739 and after his assassination in 1747 the original throne was lost in the chaos that ensued. 28

The Sarasvat image is believed to have been at a temple at Bhojsala set up by Raja Bhoj (10101053), a Parmar king who spent his life institutionalizing culture, creating knowledge banks and developing centers for art and spirituality, in the town of Dhr in Madhya Pradesh. The image is now at the British Museum in London. The Birmingham Buddha, the largest surviving Buddha image of ancient India, was discovered in 1861 from the site of a monastery at Sultanganj in Bihar during a railway construction. It is now at the City Museum and Art Gallery in Birmingham. The Amravati railings belong to the Amravati stupa of Andhra Pradesh built between the second century BC and third century AD. In the late 19th century most of the main Amravti sculptures were taken away from the site and sent to museums. Many are in the British Museum. Source: GNA http://www.elginism.com/20100815/2947/


Annex B The London Nataraja R.Smalley, January 2010.

Siva Nataraja. Source:http://dustysojourner.wordpress.com/2009/06/26/sivanataraja-one-leg-zhanzhuang-and-quantum-mechanics/ Introduction In August or September 1976 an Indian labourer who lived near the site of a ruined Hindu temple at Pathur (Arul Thiru Viswanatha Swamy Temple), in the state of Tamil Nadu, uncovered a metal object (the Pathur Nataraja) while excavating foundations for a new cow shed. This object was known locally as a Siva Nataraja and was shown to belong to a family of bronze Hindu idols called the Pathur Bronzes. It was subsequently dated to the Chola period (9th to 13th Century) and was probably buried to prevent discovery by invading Muslims. The farmer sold the idol to a dealer in religious artifacts and eventually it ended up with a Bombay dealer (who was untraceable at the time of court proceedings). State officials in Tamil Nadu had learnt of the various sales associated with the idol and had begun their own investigations but by 1982 the whereabouts of the object was still unknown. In June of that year Robert Borden, of the Bumper Corporation of Canada, bought a Nataraja in good faith from a London dealer called Sherrier (who later produced what was found to be false provenance documents for the object). Bumper obtained a permit to export the bronze from England but did not do so as they were advised it required conservation. The London Nataraja was taken to the British Museum for assessment and conservation but later seized by the Metropolitan Police as part of an operation to return stolen religious objects to their rightful owners. Bumper then brought a claim against the Police for the return of the object and damages. The Trial There were five claimants in the case: 1. Union of India 2. State of Tamil Nadu 3. Thiru R. Sadagopan, claiming as the fit representative of the Temple 4. Arul Thiru Viswanatha Swamy Temple 5. Sivalingam. This was another surviving object of religious worship from the Temple. It is a sculptured stone phallus and in a temple of its period would have been positioned in the sanctum to be the focus of worship. It was restored as an object of worship at the Temple after its rediscovery There were two main issues: 1. Identity that the London Nataraja was the one and the same as the Pathur Nataraja 2. Title If they were the same, who of the claimants had the superior title to the object Identity


The case stating that they were the same object was supported by expert evidence on stylistic grounds of similarity between the London Nataraja and the Pathur Bronzes and expert evidence of a metallurgical, geological and entomological nature. Bumpers case was supported by Dr. Presencer (considered an honest witness) who stated that hed seen the antique object (note that it was agreed that the item was antique and showed signs of having been buried for many centuries) in London in May 1976, before the other was unearthed, and therefore they could not be the same. Metallurgical evidence was also produced to show dissimilarities between the London Nataraja and the Pathur Bronzes. The English trial judge, Mr Ian Kennedy, found that the London Nataraja was the same as the one uncovered in India in 1976. He believed Dr. Presencer to have been mistaken to the date on which hed seen the antique Nataraja. Title The Judge concluded that the institution comprising the Temple (the 4th claimant) had title to the Nataraja. If it had not been the 4th than the 5th, then the 3rd had good claims for title and the 2nd would have also had title under provisions of the Treasure Trove Act and/or Tamil Nadu law (H.R. and C.E. Act). The precedent for this was in a case from India in 1925 Mallick v Mallick. The legal principle says A Hindu idol is according to the long established authority founded upon the religious customs of the Hindus and the recognition thereof by the courts of law in India and the Privy Council, a juristic entity. It has judicial status with the power of suing and being sued. This had been an English decision that a Hindu deity is a personality of its own and can sue or be sued in a court of law. They applied the principle that once a deity always a deity and so the principle continued to be relevant in the 1980s. The Judge concluded the pious intention of the 12th century notable.. who built the templeremains in being and is personified by the Temple itself, a juristic entity which had title to the Nataraja superior to that of the defendant.

The 'London' Nataraja. Source: Ghandhi & James, 1992. The Appeal Bumper appealed against both findings and wanted the Court of Appeal to consider if Mr Justice Kennedy was entitled to make the assessments that he made. The Court of Appeal stated that the Judge was fully entitled to come to the conclusion which he reached on each aspect of the case. Identity Further evidence was admitted by Bumper which had not been previously available. An American dealer, Robert Ellsworth, testified that an antique Nataraja was being offered for sale in London in Easter of 1974. He had examined it briefly and he identified it as the disputed object bought by Bumper. They also included evidence of soil analysis showing that the size and 31

colour of soil particles on the object differed from samples taken at the excavation pit at the Temple. The Court upheld Kennedys findings on the issue of identification. Title The Court held that the Temple was acceptable as a party to proceedings and as such entitled to sue for the recovery of the Nataraja in the English courts through the 3rd claimant, although he himself was not a competent party. It considered whether a foreign legal person who would not be recognised as a legal person by our own law, could sue in the English courts? Here we had what was essentially little more than a pile of stones wishing to sue. The Courts used Salmond in Jurisprudence (12th ed, 1966) as a reference, where it was considered possible that a foreign Roman Catholic Cathedral could have a legal personality in its own country and maybe given the ability to sue for the protection and recovery of its contents. The touchstone for determining whether access should be given or refused is the comity of nations - the courteous and friendly understanding by which each nation respects the laws and usages of every other, so far as may be without prejudice to its own rights and interest. It would only enhance public policy to allow a Hindu Temple to sue here for recovery of its property to which it was entitled to recover by the law of its own country. Note that the Court accepted that the Sivalingam would be recognised in Tamil Nadu as a juristic entity which could also sue through its representative at the Temple. However as the Court had decided in favour of the Temple it was not necessary to decide if the Sivalingam would be considered a juristic entity in the eyes of English law. It was considered that the public policy of promoting the return of stolen artifacts, and those exported in breach of regulations, at least where the country is a friendly state and a member of the Commonwealth, was to be applauded and helps ensure the courts make a contribution to the international protection of cultural property. Note that the Court found that the Treasure Trove Act did not apply contrary to Kennedys decision because it could only apply to items that were ownerless. As the Temple was determined to have remained in existence and that the bronzes had been hidden to prevent removal by invaders, it followed that the bronzes had never left the possession of the Temple and therefore had never been ownerless. Post Appeal The Court of Appeal and the House of Lords awarded the Temple damages of 1000 and awarded the plaintiffs, jointly, costs totalling 303,489.67. The Nataraja was entrusted to the Indian High Commission in London and later returned to India. Bumper then appealed to the Canadian courts. Bumper resisted enforcement saying that the judgement was contrary to the public policy of Canada, as reflected by its accession to the UNESCO Convention. Bumper counterclaimed for compensation from India for the loss of the bronze and for the English costs. Bumper had five defences to the registration of the English judgements in Alberta: 1. that the judgements of the English courts were obtained by fraud on the English courts 2. that India could 32

not, as a co-signatory of the UNESCO Convention, pursue its claim for costs and damages 3. that the English judgements were contrary to public policy 4. that one of the named Indian plaintiffs (the Temple) had no status in Alberta 5. that the Indians are not entitled to interest on the English judgement debts Fraud The Alberta court felt there was no newly discovered facts which were not before the foreign court and from which it could be deduced that the foreign judgement has been obtained by fraud Equity The Alberta court rejected Bumpers claims Public Policy This point is of interest to cultural property lawyers due to Canadas status as a signatory to the UNESCO Convention. Although the UK was not a signatory the courts were able to justify the return of the object under common law principles although at the cost of the innocent purchaser being left without the right to claim for compensation (it could have if the UK had been a signatory and had implemented the Convention). Bumper argued that by bringing proceedings in England the Indian claimants should not be able to enforce their award in Alberta. The Court rejected this on the basis that there was good reason for the claimant to go to the English courts not least the location of the item. The provisions of the UNESCO Convention dont allow for a situation where property is returned by one state when its innocent purchaser resides in another. Standing Bumper argued that the Temple had no legal status in Alberta. The Court stated it was likely they would have dealt with the issue in the same way as the English courts did. Interest The Court dismissed this argument too. So long as the foreign judgement stipulated payment of interest, then interest was payable.

Siva Nataraja. Source: Wikipedia Conclusion The UK Courts decisions caused apprehension in the antiquities market because if a religious artefact found in the UK could be traced to a living temple then that Temple could pursue a claim to ownership.


The novel question was whether a foreign legal person who would not be recognised as a legal person by our own law could sue in the English courts. This was a first in the UK where a Hindu Temple could sue for stolen property in England. Also of interest is that the Sivalingam (a phallic stone idol) was ruled as having greater title than the Bumper Corporation. The results show that the English courts will do what they can to ensure the return of cultural property to its rightful owner. The arguments themselves, the principle of comity and the criterion of public policy will ensure a wider application of the decision. It was therefore a welcome development in the arena of the international protection of cultural property. 'Sources' BENNETT, W. 1990 Statue of Siva in landmark case for religious artifacts. The Independent, 5 July CASEBY, J. 1991 Hindu temple wins back stolen God. Press Association, 14 February GHANDI, S. & JAMES, J. 1992 The God That Won. International Journal of Cultural Property, Vol.1, Issue 2, pp.369-382 HERBERT, S. 1991 Law report: Hindu temple can sue for return of stolen property. The Guardian, 5 March HUTCHESSON, P.(ed.) 1991 The all England law reports 1991. Volume 4. London: Butterworths PATERSON, R.K. ? The 'curse of the London Nataraja'. Case notes from unknown publication International Journal of Cultural Property? RAKESH, M. 1991 British courts free Siva icon. Press release from unknown publication


Part 2. Lat ki and Kaml Maula Masjids are of unusual architecture; evidences of earlier Siva, Sarasvat temples at the location
Evidences that Lat ki Masjid and Kaml Maula Masjid, Dhar were constructed using materials from an earlier temples for iva and Sarasvat. The conclusive literary evidence for the existence of Sarasvat temple in Dhr during the days of Raja Bhoja, is in the work of crya Merutuga, who wrote Prabandhacintmai (tr. By C.H. Tawney, Calcutta, Asiatic Society, 1901),-- in the year 1361 of the era of Vikramditya. This work records that Bhoja visited the temple of Sarasvat. Merutuga calls the temple the Sarasvatkahbharaa or Necklace of Sarasvat. (Full text of Tawneys translation is at: http://archive.org/stream/bibliothecaindi04indigoog#page/n8/mode/1up) The most conclusive epigraphical evidence that a Sarasvat mandiram existed at this place which now stands as a mosque is provided by an in situ inscription of Arjunavarman documented by K. K. Lele in 1903 which refers to Sarasvat temple in Dhr. The inscription of Arjunavarman also records that the Prijtamajar drama was performed in the temple of Sarasvat.

Bhojal (School of Bhoja) in Dhar refers both to the centre of Sanskrit studies and the temple of Sarasvat. King Bhojas successor was Arjunavarman (1210-15 CE), who claimed that he was an incarnation of Bhoja himself. (E. Hultzsch, No. 9.Dhr Praasti of Arjunavarman: Prijtamajari-Nika by Mandana, Epigraphica Indica 8 (1905-06), Archaeological Survey of India: 96-122.) The text of the inscription includes part of Prijtamajari-Nika by Madana, the king's guru (Rja-Guru), also called Bla-Sarasvat. The inscription is now displayed inside the entrance. (S.K. Dikshit (ed.), 1968, Prijtamajar alias Vijayar by Rja-Guru Madana alias Bla-Sarasvat, Bhopal, p. xviii.) The inscription reports that the play was performed before Arjunavarman in the temple of Sarasvat. This a priori suggests that the inscription could have come from the site of the temple, upon which a mosque was constructed sometime in the 14th century. (Zafar Hasan, EIM (1909-10): 13-14, pl. II, no. 2; Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy (1971-72): 81, no. D. 73.) K. K. Lele, Superintendent of Education in the Princely State of Dhr, discovered a Sanskrit and Prakrit inscription from the time of Arjunavarman on the walls of Kaml Maula mosque. [Lele's report dated 30 December 1903: Summary of the Dramatic Inscription found at the Bhojal (Kaml Maula Mosque), Dhr, Central India, in November 1903]. Pischel also recorded this discovery of the two long inscriptions and several fragments found in the Bhojal at Dhr. (Pischel, R., Inscriptions from Dhr, Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 190304, Calcutta, 1906, pp. 238-240). Barnes noted: Finally, a recent close inspection has brought to light the fact that the reverse side of two of the great black stone slabs which form the lining of the Mehrab are covered with similar inscriptions, which happily by their position have escaped destruction, but which owing to that same position, it has only been possible up to the present to take fragmental impressions. These impressions seem to show that the inscriptions are 35

a dramatic composition probably on an historical subject, written in the reign of a successor of Bhoja. (Barnes, 1902, Dhr and Mandu, pp. 351352). The Prakrit inscription was a text of the Prakrit poem Krmaataka (Krma refers to the Viu avatar of tortoise); the text is ascribed to Bhoja. Archaeological investigations at the mosque next to Kaml al-Dn's tomb revealed two serpentine inscriptions giving the alphabet and grammatical rules of Sanskrit. (Barnes, 1902, Dhr and Mandu, p. 360.) One of the serpentine inscriptions found by K. K. Lele at Kaml Maula mosque.

A Sanskrit Vykaraa (grammar) was written (inscribed) as Chitra Kavi on the temple walls. It shows grammar in wheel shaped diagrams or pictures. Vykaraa chakra (grammar slokas written in circular diagrams)are in the mosque itself which was the Sarasvat Mandiram. Vykaraa Cakra (Wheel of Grammar) "King Bhoja built a temple for Goddess Sarasvat at Dhar . There was a large wheel depicted on the wall on which were written many verses . These were all on Vykaraa ( grammar ) . The entire Vykaraa Shastra had been written in verse and charted in the form of a wheel . The intention of the original sculptors and builders are obvious , that in the temple of Sarasvat, the goddess of speech and learning , the science of language should be always present through Vykaraa which is the mouth of the Veda Purusha . It is claimed that a mere glance at the giant wheel would make the Vykaraa clear . Since Vykaraa has the status of an object of reverence and worship , the wheel of Vykaraa was installed in a temple . "This temple , the Temple of Sarasvat, now stands as a Mosque in the present day town of Dhar in Madhya Pradesh .


http://madhavajja.sulekha.com/blog/post/2011/05/vyaakarana-chakra-in-latmasjid/comment/2081364.htm Vykaraa (Grmmar) There was a kingdom called Dhar in the old Central Provinces which under independent India has come to be known as Madhya Pradesh. This Dhar was none other than Dhara, the capital city of King Bhoja, the celebrated patron of all arts, who was a byword for generosity and philanthropy. There is a mosque Dhara. It came to light that some Sanskrit inscriptions were visible inside a niche in the mosque. Since the place belonged to Muslims and without their consent one could not get in and examine the writing, the Epigraphical Department itself could not get at it for a few years. Then some years after the attainment of Independence, men from the Epigraphical Department obtained the permission of the authorities of the mosque and investigated the writing in the inscriptions. There was a huge wheel depicted on the wall on which were written many verses. These verses were all on Vykaraa. The entire Vykaraa stra had been written in verse and charted in the form of a wheel. What was during the days of King Bhoja the temple of Sarasvat apparently has now become a mosque. The intention of the original sculptors and builders was obvious; that in the temple of Sarasvat , the goddess of speech and learning, the science of language should be always present through Vykaraa which is the mouth of the Veda Purua. It is claimed that a mere glance at the giant wheel would make the whole of Vykaraa clear. Since Vykaraa had the status of an object of reverence and worship, the wheel of Vyakarana was installed in a temple. Many years after the temple became a mosque we have been able to get the Chakra through the grace of the Goddess of Speech. The Department of Epigraphy has published the wheel in print. It has also been translated into English. From this, it is evident that sciences like the Vykaraa had not been relegated to the background as mere disciplines by Kings and Governments in those days but elevated to a level where they became objects of worship. You can realise from this how purity and refinement in language was considered very important in old times in our country. http://www.bhavans.info/heritage/echoes11.asp Images of Lat Masjid, Dhar


North gate

Inside southern part of north gate




Southwest corner of domed chamber

Viewing Zanana in the northwestern part of a dome from southeast 39

Viewing east from domed chamber

Viewing north from domed chamber FtX63XeI/AAAAAAAARYc/mFwz7IsBnhw/s320/Dhar-Lat%2BMasjid-1.jpg" />




The Lat Masjid or Pillar Mosque derives its name from a pillar made of iron which is supposed to have been set up in the 11th century. According to the most recent assessments, the height of the pillar is nearly 13.2 m. The pillar was fallen and broken into parts. The three surviving parts are displayed on a small platform outside the mosque. The pillar s original stone footing is also displayed nearby. The pillar carries a later inscription of visit of the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1598 while its movement towards the Deccan. http://www.hoparoundindia.com/madhyapradesh/dhar-attractions/lat-masjid.aspx

LAT -KI MASJID Viewing the courtyard from the southwest. Its common name "lat" is said to come from either "lat" (old) or "lath" (Pillar). It is called "Lat Masjid" as well. With the former word, it can mean "old mosque", and with the latter it may mean "mosque with pillars", as multiple pillars are significant in the west prayer room and in corridors. However, in general, it is a more convincing theory that the name comes from a monument for victory that Raja Bhoja of the Paramara Dynasty built nearby. (Matsuo Ara) This mosque, as well as Kaml Maulah Masjid, consists of the west prayer room surrounding a large courtyard, and corridors on three sides. It shows similarities to mosques remaining in Dhar and Mandu dating back to the early 15th century. Judging from a remaining inscription, it is viewed as being built in 807 AH (1404/5) by Dilawar Khan. What is specially important in this mosque is the darwaza (gate), having a square plan and cronwned by a dome on the east side. Its majestic structure and style are outstanding among the early mosques remaining in Dhar and 43

Mandu. (Matsuo Ara) This is a structure that Dilawar Khan Ghori converted from the palace of Raja Bhoja, named Raj Martand Palace, into a mosque. Outside the east gate of the mosque, there remains an iron pillar of about 6 metres in height, which is considered to have been either a victory pillar for Bhoja or a flaming torch. It is called RatIron pillar. (Naoko Fukami)

Exterior from east-southeast

Inscription East side



Kaml MAULA MASJID Viewing the prayer room from the east. This mosque was very similar to Dilawar Khan and Malik Mughith of Mandu. Both these mosque and Lat-ki Masjid seem to have been built in the early 15th century. They have similarity in structure and style. Also, there are similarities with a mosque from the Sultanate period remaining in Delhi. The common name of this mosque " Kaml Maula" seems to come from a tomb of a Muslim saint Maulanah Kaml al-Din. (Matsuo Ara) In the west prayer room surrounding a large courtyard, and the corridors on the three sides, there still remain pillars of the Hindu style. From these, we can determine that materials of a Hindu temple were converted into this building. In fact, looking at the arch-shaped mihrab at the centre, one may feel that the area between the lines of pillars in this west main prayer room would be the Hindu temple. Inside the ceiling and the top of the pillars are the same. It is an important relic showing that a direct influence of traditional Hindu workmen and craftsmen of this hilly region of central India is observed in a mosque, which is the most important building among Muslim constructions. (Matsuo Ara) 45

The antecedent of this architecture was Bhojshara, a school that was built by Raja Bhoja (reign 1010-1055) of the Paramara Dynasty. This school worshipped Sarasvat, the goddess of the earth. The well, considered to be relic of that time, still remains near the mausoleum of Maulana Kaml al-Din. It is called Akkal Kui (well of knowledge). Also, a few Sanskrit inscriptions have been found. As an inscription of Islam period, there is one dated in 1392 written with the name of Dilawar Khan Ghori. Mahmud Khilji I worshipped Maulana Kaml al-Din and he executed a major remodeling to mosque in 1457. A few years ago, the Muslims contended against the Hindus in this mosque, thus it is not currently used as a mosque. It is hard to go inside the building. (Naoko Fukami) http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/03/dhar-lat-ki-masjid-kamal-maula-masjid.html

Viewing the back of prayer room from nouthwest

Viewing courtyard from the southwest

prayer room roof


Viewing prayer room from east

Kaml Masjid prayer room viewing from northwest

Kaml Masjid prayer room viewing from southeast


Kaml Masjid Domed chamber southwest coner in front of Mihrab

Kaml Masjid Dome


Kaml Masjid Mihrab and Mimbaru



Mihrab http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~islamarc/WebPage1/htm_eng/dhar-eng.htm In Indian Parliament, among the famous panels, there is one depicting Raja Bhoj:

"Paramara Bhoja with Bhojasala (Kaml Maula Mosque) in the background (12th Century A.D.). Artist--Shri G. M. Solegaonkar, Bombay." http://alfa.nic.in/intro/p8.htm


Dhar : Bhojal Kaml Maula Mosque http://asibhopal.nic.in/gallery/dhar_dhar_bhojshala_kamal_maula_mosque.html Lat ki masjid Menu

Description Photos Facilities Tickets Notification Location Approach


Description This mosque was constructed by using materials of earlier temple. It has two gates one each on the north and east of which one is in the Jaina style. Within the precincts of the Mosque lies a


"Lat" or pillar made More Gallery Go to Gallery










Approach By Air : Indore By Bus : Dhar By Train : Indore Facilities PNB, CNB, Other signages Parking Tickets No Notification Preliminary Final Page No. P-61/92;F61/92 PDF Entry Fees

Act No. LXXI of 1951, Act No. LXXI of 1951, dt. dt. 28/11/1951 28/11/1951 Location Locality Tehsil










Click the title to enlarge the photo Courtyard

Viewing the courtyard from the southwest. Viewing the prayer room and the south corridor Left;North gate Right;East gate from the southeast corner of a courtyard. Left; Domed chamber Right;North gate

Prayer room-Interior-

The southwest corner of domed chamber

Viewing north from domed

Viewing east from domed 53

Viewing zanana in the



northwestern part of a dome from southeast

East gate


Exterior from east-southeast

Inscription of the east side

North gate

From northeast This side is north gate The southern part of north gate, inside The right back is a north entrance to zanana


Click the title to enlarge the photo Exterior

Viewing the back of prayer room Viewing courtyard from Viewing prayer room from east from nouthwest the southwest prayer room roof

Prayer room -interior-

From northwest

From southeast

Domed chamber


Domed chamber southwest coner Looked up at from the bottom in front of Mihrab


Mihrab and Mimbaru under the domed chamber Kaml MAULA MASJID / DHAR


Royal Geographical Society

The Kaml Maula exterior - Dhar - Madhya Pradesh - Central India

The Kaml Maula interior - Dhar - Madhya Pradesh - Central India


The Bhojal Mosque interior view - Dhar - Madhya Pradesh - Central India

The Bhojal Mosque interior - Dhar - Madhya Pradesh - Central India

The Bhojal Mosque interior views - Dhar- Madhya Pradesh - Central India http://mediahubpreview.edina.ac.uk/search/results;jsessionid=CDD31520B5E9CBB5B36787F372AA75B4?new search=true&searchTerm=027S0002147&movingimage=on&stillimage=on&sound=on&morelikethis=true&mhevent=morelik ethis