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Session 1599

Planning LTE Network Deployments


R&D Solutions for Commercial and Defense Networks
CONFIDENTIAL RESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Brief Technology Introduction


Goals
To improve the UMTS standard to cope with future technology evolutions User demand for higher data rates and QoS
~300 Mbps downlink, ~100 Mbps uplink

Continued demand for cost reduction (CAPEX and OPEX) Low complexity Compatibility and inter-working with earlier 3GPP Releases

The resulting architecture is called EPS and comprises


E-UTRAN on the radio access side EPC on the core side

Introduced in 3GPP specification 36-series (Releases 8 and 9)


OFDMA in the downlink SC-FDMA in the uplink

Marketed as 4G
Actually a 3.9G technology Does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements. LTE-Advanced (Release 10) to be 4G compliant
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

OPNET's Model Development Consortia


LTE Model Development Consortium
Prominent network equipment manufacturers, service providers, defense organizations Benefits to Consortium Members Early access to LTE model Opportunity to influence design requirements Some current members include Aerospace Corporation, AT&T, DoCoMo EuroLabs, InterDigital, NIST, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, Hitachi and Panasonic Successful past consortia WiMAX, UMTS, MANET, MPLS, and DOCSIS

Phased release schedule


Phases I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII released so far Future features planned

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

LTE Model Features Up to Phase VII


PHY
FDD and TDD technologies supported OFDMA for downlink & SC-FDMA for uplink Supported channels: PDCCH, PUCCH, PHICH, PDSCH, PUSCH, PRACH BLER modulation curves with turbo coding and circular buffer rate matching algorithm for each modulation and coding scheme (MCS) Multiple path loss models Multipath channel model for uplink and downlink Interference on data channels from other data and control channels Intra- and inter-cell interference MIMO Transmit Diversity Spatial Multiplexing

MAC
GBR/Non-GBR EPS bearers Logical and Transport Channels Random Access Procedure Frame generation and Scheduler Channel dependent scheduling CQI and rate adaptation Scheduling Requests Buffer Status Reporting Admission Control MIMO Spatial multiplexing DRX in RRC_Connected Idle mode support

HARQ

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Mobility and Handovers


Initial cell selection Radio link monitoring Intra-E-UTRAN and intra-frequency handover with and without X2 support

Synchronous retransmissions with implicit grants on uplink Asynchronous retransmissions on downlink Type-II incremental redundancy ACK to NACK and NACK to ACK error modeling Accurate timing support for the TDD mode

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

LTE Model Features Up to Phase VII (cont.)


RLC
Acknowledged, Unacknowledged and Transparent Modes Segmentation of retransmitted PDUs in case of small grants into PDU segments Configurable RLC parameters for each radio bearer for each direction

General
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) LTE Network Deployment Wizard Dynamic failure/recovery of base stations GGSN services by EPC to legacy SGSNs Device Creator support LTE Network View Jammer node support for LTE IPv6 support

PDCP: Compression for TCP/IP and UDP/IP headers EPS Mobility Management (EMM) EPS Session Management (ESM)
S1 Signaling and EPS Bearer Setup/Modification/Release

General
Efficiency mode to disable PHY layer Tagged EPS/radio bearer related statistics 3 and 6 sector eNodeBs Router UE node Application Delay Tracking Energy consumption model Single-cell downlink broadcast

Considered New Enhancements


Improved PUCCH Modeling Uplink Power Control Semi-persistent scheduling

* This information is provided for planning purposes only and is subject to change without notice. This does not represent a commitment by OPNET to deliver any or all capabilities in any particular timeframe.

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Typical Modeled Network Architecture

UE with complete TCP/IP stack

eNodeBs (1, 3 and 6 sectors)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network with IP/GTP Support

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Data Traffic Flow in LTE Networks

Uplink data on radio bearer

IP packets entering the LTE network are mapped to GTP tunnels

Corresponding radio bearer carrying the downlink data

EPS Bearer

GTP Encapsulation/Decapsulation

Radio Bearer
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S1 Bearer

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Simulation Model Entities


LTE eNodeB lte_enodeb_atm4_ethernet4_slip4 lte_enodeb_ethernet4 lte_enodeb_slip4 lte_enodeb_3sector_slip4 lte_enodeb_6sector_slip4 LTE Attribute Configuration Object lte_attr_definer

LTE UE lte_wkstn lte_server lte_ue_ethernet_gtwy (Router UE)

LTE EPC lte_epc_atm8_ethernet8_slip8

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

LTE Network Deployment


Fast Deployment: Wireless Network Wizard
Choice to select the bandwidth, number of cells, cell radius, etc. Most of the other settings automatically taken care of

Deploying realistic conditions


Terrain Modeling Module Mobility modeling Trajectories, random mobility, programmatic mobility Application/traffic modeling Standard applications, custom applications, real application traces, application demands, IP traffic flows Traffic must be mapped to EPS bearers to achieve QoS Unmapped traffic will be handled by Default bearer Interference modeling Jammer nodes

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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

LTE Network View

EPC ID
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure Core Network Connectivity


OPNET models both E-UTRAN and EPC
A UE is connected to a core network with IP connectivity

A UE is allowed to connect to only one EPC


The UE also cannot change EPC in the simulation

EPC builds automatic GTP tunnels with an eNodeB for both uplink/downlink traffic communication with the UE
No attributes need to be configured
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Analyze Core Network Connectivity


Usually necessary only during troubleshooting when the UE does not receive any data when expected Associated eNodeB statistic (discussed later) Also lte_emm specifically traces connectivity with the core
The first attach Accept is received around 99 seconds

Also, UEs NAS state can be checked in graphical debugger at any time
Must be in EMM_Connected.

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure the Serving Cell


Scanning and Initial Cell Connectivity
A UE can automatically detect nearby eNodeBs, possibly on different channels, and connect to them Criteria: First suitable or the best eNodeB Can also force eNodeB selection at a UE

Unique for each eNodeB

What if no eNodeB is found nearby?


All uplink/downlink packets dropped UE continues scanning for a new eNodeB

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Identify UEs Current Serving Cell


Note: Connecting to an eNodeB also gives core network connectivity to that UE

eNodeB ID is configured at each eNodeB


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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

How to Use the Serving Cell Knowledge for Rapid Analysis


UE may undergo radio link failures and experience disconnection from LTE core network

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

-1 stands for no eNodeB


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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Deploy QoS in LTE


LTE Configuration node
Define the EPS bearers and their properties Identify each by a unique name QCI determines scheduling priority: {5} > {1-4} > {6-9}

UE
Deploy the EPS bearers by their names Define which application packets are mapped to each bearer Packets that are not mapped to any bearer (or all packets when no bearer defined) are mapped to Default bearer with QCI = 9
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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Analyze QoS in LTE


Per EPS bearer stats are available for collection

Stats are annotated with bearer names


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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure the Physical Profile


Step 1: Define Physical Profile in the LTE Configuration Node
FDD and TDD profiles can be configured in the LTE configuration node

FDD: UL and DL subframes are configured separately TDD: Common channel for UL and DL
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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure the Physical Profile (cont.)


Step 2: Deploy the required physical profile on the eNodeB
Once a physical profile is deployed, it cannot be changed during the simulation

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

When to Use FDD and TDD ?


Use FDD when the utilization of both UL and DL subframes is almost the same
Example: Voice or video conferencing traffic among the users in a cell

TDD when there is a asymmetric utilization of UL and DL subframes


TDD Channel Index decides the UL:DL Division Frame type cannot be changed during the simulation
TDD Channel Index UL: DL Division DL %

0
1 2 3 4 5 6

3:2
2:3 1:4 3:7 2:8 1:9 3:3:2:2

40%
60% 80% 70% 80% 90% 50%

Example: FTP or HTTP application traffic

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure Downlink MIMO


Step 1: Configure the MIMO Transmission technique
A UE may choose to use the MIMO Transmission technique configured on the eNodeB or use its own custom downlink MIMO transmission technique By default Downlink MIMO Transmission Technique is set to Use Serving eNodeB Setting

The MIMO transmission technique configured on the eNodeB is a cell wide setting for UEs without custom setting

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure Downlink MIMO (cont.)


Step 2: Configure the number of transmit antennas on eNodeB and receive antennas on UE

Number of transmit antennas supported by eNodeB : 1, 2 or 4 Number of receive antennas supported by UE : 1, 2 or 4 A minimum antenna criterion must be satisfied to support a spatial multiplexing MIMO transmission technique If not satisfied then Transmit Diversity will be used as the MIMO technique
MIMO Transmission Technique (Spatial Multiplexing) 2 Codewords- 2 Layers 2 Codewords- 3 Layers 2 Codewords- 4 Layers
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Minimum number of transmit antennas at eNodeB 2 4 4

Minimum number of receive antennas at UE 2 4 4

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure Downlink MIMO (cont.)


Step 3: Downlink multipath channel model must be configured to realize detailed physical layer effects of MIMO in PHY Enabled efficiency mode

Transmit and Receive diversity are supported only for PHY Enabled efficiency mode Spatial Multiplexing is supported for PHY Enabled and PHY Disabled efficiency modes
PHY Layer Enabled

MAC layer effects and detailed PHY layer effects of spatial multiplexing can be realized PHY Layer Disabled : Efficiency mode which bypasses the PHY Layer Only MAC layer effects of spatial multiplexing can be realized Packet drops can be modeled statistically

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Configure Uplink MIMO


Only receive diversity is feasible as only one UE Tx antenna is supported
Must use PHY Enabled efficiency mode

Step 1: Uplink Multipath Channel Model must be configured

Step 2: Configure the number of receive antennas

Number of transmit antennas supported by UE Number of receive antennas supported by eNodeB

:1 : 1, 2 or 4

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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

MIMO Configuration
Default configuration
Downlink : Spatial Multiplexing 2 codewords to 2 Layers with 2 Tx and 2 Rx antennas Uplink: Receive diversity with 1 Tx and 2 Rx antennas

Pros and Cons


MIMO Spatial Multiplexing increases throughput but is more prone to physical layer impairments Can potentially degrade performance when the link quality is bad MIMO Antenna Diversity (Transmit and Receive diversity) reduces the effects of multipath fading Not so useful if the link quality is good When the link quality is bad, using MIMO Antenna diversity technique yields better throughput than any other transmission schemes

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Analyze the Impact of PHY in LTE


Channel capacity depends upon:
Channel Bandwidth - The higher the bandwidth, the higher the capacity Modulation and coding index (MCS) - The higher the MCS index, the greater the capacity Spatial Multiplexing When enabled increases the capacity

Capacity estimate available in an OT table at the end of the simulation for each cell for both uplink and downlink
Capacity Estimate (Downlink) Mbps Channel Bandwidth (FDD only) Transmit Diversity 2x2
Low Estimate (MCS 0) 0.15 0.39 0.68 1.38 2.09 2.79 High Estimate (MCS 28) 3.27 - 4.09 8.86 10.65 14.88 17.84 30.13 36.20 45.20 54.24 60.80 73.06

SM 2CW-2L
Low Estimate (MCS 0) 0.33 0.81 1.38 2.79 4.14 5.54 High Estimate (MCS 28) 6.52 8.12 17.78 21.33 29.84 35.70 60.80 74.22 90.53 108.50 122.58 145.52

SM 2CW-3L
Low Estimate (MCS 0) 0.48 1.20 2.06 4.18 6.22 8.34 High Estimate (MCS 28) 8.63 10.54 24.45 28.19 41.20 47.03 81.84 95.48 120.99 140.69 163.96 192.27

SM 2CW-4L
Low Estimate (MCS 0) 0.66 1.62 2.77 5.58 8.27 11.09 High Estimate (MCS 28) 11.50 14.04 32.61 37.40 55.01 62.73 109.31 127.55 161.36 187.60 218.61 256.99

1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Lab 1: Deploy and Analyze an LTE Network


An LTE transit network where static application users and an application server are connected to the Internet with LTE links Deploy QoS in LTE to provide differentiated services to multiple applications Improve throughput and performance for all users by analyzing statistics Time: 35 minutes

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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Lab 1: Conclusions
Deployment of QoS improves the service offered to high priority traffic in congested LTE networks Spatial Multiplexing may not benefit all users
Use spatial multiplexing only when the signal quality is really good

Deployment of TDD can help serve asymmetric traffic better and improves performance potentially for everyone

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Analysis Tools
Statistics and ODB
Discover the causal relationships between multiple observations

Application delay tracking


Can track standard applications end to end including the LTE portion

Parametric studies
Parameter value that achieves the best performance Distributed simulations: Run multiple simulations on multiple CPUs

Visualization tools
Time controller helps correlating statistics with each other Terrain viewer helps understand pathloss and terrain profile quickly Graphical ODB reference session 1502

Reports
Performance analysis web reports OT tables
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Typical Planning and Analysis Workflow

Set/revise assumptions

Deploy scenario Define constraints

Analyze

Constraints not satisfied due to unrealistic assumptions

Find optimal configuration Constraints satisfied

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Some Tips for Effective Planning Studies


LTE model offers the efficiency mode that bypasses PHY for speedup
Physical layer can be abstracted by properly configuring a global HARQ block error rate UEs can be configured with static MCS indexes to reflect their typical link quality

Raw traffic: IP flows, application flows Large packets: Fewer events


Packets that are too large can cause undesirable effects; segmentation at TCP, IP, and MAC may diminish the benefits eventually

Jammer nodes: Eliminating the need to model interfering neighbors explicitly


Great acceleration potential for studies requiring interference
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

LTE Analysis: Jammer Nodes Study


Jammer nodes abstracting neighbor cell interference one for the eNodeB (downlink) and one for all the UEs (uplink)

Statistically same results with scenario without jammers

Example Networks Project: LTE Scenario: video_perf_under_coch_interference_w_jammers

Explicit neighbor cells Jammer nodes

Time saving in large scale simulations for rapid analysis


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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Statistical Validity of the Planning Studies


Reference Session 1576 Good practice to run the simulation with many random seeds in a typical planning study
Random seed acts as the promoted attribute Parametric studies workflow OPNET provides results with their mean values as well as the statistical confidence interval (95% by default or user entered) Observations should be statistically indifferent That is, their time series and mean values should look similar Especially useful for R&D + planning studies Incorrect custom algorithms might give a wrong notion because the results by chance look good But different random seeds can reveal those problems Reference example: Lab 2, Session 1941, OPNETWORK 2008

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

The Cell Planning Problem


Provide the required coverage while minimizing one of the resources and constraining the others:
Number of cells Cell tower location/height Transmission power

Where the following are assumed to be known


Radio spectrum and the bandwidth Number of users Traffic per user Density of users per square units of a given geographic area Maximum transmission power of the users

Some other variations of the cell planning problem are also available

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Analyze the Cell Planning Problem


Cell planning should mainly provide coverage
Coverage can be defined as that point from the center of the cell where the UEs performance is deemed acceptable At a minimum, the UE should connect to the eNodeB More performance criteria are defined as well

Cell planning should account for mobility


Need to plan cells so that handovers are as smooth as possible without service disruption If the UE sees the strength of the current eNodeB is falling, it should find a new eNodeB in its vicinity

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

What Affects the Coverage of a UE?


UEs coverage is affected by physical layer effects such as
Terrain of the region Frequencies used for communication Interference from neighboring cells Signal fading due to the pathloss Signal variance due to the multipath

Node mobility affects the coverage of UE


A UE may suffer radio link failures which causes a loss of coverage

Remedies
MIMO transmit or receive diversity can be used to reduce the effect of multipath eNodeB can make use of link adaptation to maintain a consistent link quality to reduce the physical layer effects Have additional cells so that UEs can handover without experiencing radio link failures
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Link Adaptation
UEs MCS index changes based on link quality
Good signal high MCS index, bad signal low MCS index

Price paid for low MCS index is consumption of extra radio resources lowering the data rate of the channel The eNodeB balances signal quality and channel capacity by keeping the MCS index at a maximum possible level

42

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Link Adaptation: In-Cell Mobility


As the UE moves away:
MCS index reduces to sustain link quality PDSCH utilization increases as more radio resources are required

Why did the traffic stop after some time?

UE was using a GBR bearer must always be admitted eNodeB can preemptively delete a GBR bearer if it can no longer guarantee the contract Use lte_adm trace in ODB
mltrace <enb_objid> lte_adm

43

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Link Adaptation: Conclusions


If the UE ventures farther from the base station, its MCS index is lowered and it consumes more resources as a result Additionally, the UE will also spend more power to account for more transmissions In some cases, the system may become overloaded and UEs services may be dropped by the Admission Control module Thus the cell should be planned such that UEs should be guaranteed a certain level of service in the worst case The worst case could be defined by deciding a worst case MCS index value What if the level of service cannot be guaranteed in the worst case? UE must handover to another cell so that there is no interruption in the cell coverage 44
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Mobility and Handovers


Handovers
Allowed across cells (different eNodeBs) belonging to the same core network eNodeB in any frequency or even different technology (FDD/TDD) is allowed Not allowed across core networks (different EPC nodes)

EPC 0 EPC 0 EPC 1

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How Handover Takes Place


Good behavior:
eNodeB triggers handovers based upon UEs measurement reports when a certain condition is not satisfied (we will see this soon)

Bad behavior
UE encounters radio link failure, starts scanning for a new eNodeB and initiates attachment to the eNodeB that satisfies attachment criteria

Why would UE encounter radio link failure?


Measurement reports are not received by the eNodeB due to interference There are no nearby altenative eNodeBs and the serving eNodeB cannot sustain communication with the UE Too much interference causes frequent failures even when the UE is relatively close to the serving eNodeB

A good eNodeB placement, reduction of interference and even data distribution across many eNodeBs can reduce the radio link failure problem

46

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Why Does a UE Undergo Radio Link Failure?


mltrace <ue_objid> lte_rlf

N310 timeout: Typical when the UE is far away from the eNodeB Other factors causing radio link failure
RACH access failure RLC-AM maximum retransmission exceeded threshold

In ideal situations, eNodeB should have handed over the UE before


47
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Handover Triggers
Triggers based upon two main statistics: RSRP and RSRQ
RSRP: measures the strength of signal from the current eNodeB RSRQ: measures the quality of signal from the serving cell by considering interference from neighbors
Trigger handover if the strength of serving eNodeB <= -112 dBm Trigger handover if the quality of signal from the serving eNodeB <= -5 dB

Above trigger values are standard recommended


But they can still be customized based upon a given scenarios requirements

Target eNodeB has to satisfy entry threshold too


Note: Selection threshold >= RSRP Threshold

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Using Statistics to Analyze Handover Issues

Radio link failure


RSRP of the scanned eNodeB below threshold (-110 dBm)

eNodeBs are too far apart


Either reduce the cell range or increase the transmission power
49
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Using ODB to Analyze Handovers


mltrace <src_enb_objid> lte_handover_for_<ue_name>

RSRQ threshold exceeded for some time now (-7.00 dB) eNodeB 2 is the only eligible eNodeB
RSRP and RSRQ values of that eNodeB mapped to an index Index to value map: RSRP: (-140 + index) dBm, RSRQ: (index - 40)/2 dB
50
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

The Three Resources Affecting Cell Coverage


Tower location/height
Taller towers better LOS Costs more May increase pathloss beyond a point Choose an optimal location based on the terrain The location may be unavailable or expensive

Transmission Power
Higher transmission power More coverage Also can increase interference at the cell edges

Number of cells
More cells UEs can handover without radio link failure Adding more cells can potentially increase interference Adding more cells can be costly and yield diminishing returns

51

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

The Resources for Cell Planning: Recap

Performance

Diminishing returns

Performance

Increasing LoS

Increasing pathloss

Number of cells

Tower height

Increasing coverage

Increasing interference

OPNET Modeler helps in identifying the optimal operating points on similar performance curves under the presence of realistic terrain, mobility and physical layer data

Performance
52

Transmission Power
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Lab 2: Planning LTE Cell Placement to Provide Coverage and Minimize Interference
Deploy an LTE network on a terrain in Nevada to provide coverage to 30 UEs
Start the deployment with a single cell and check if it is sufficient to provide coverage By assuming a maximum of 50 meters of tower height, deploy multiple eNodeBs to provide 100% coverage

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Adjust the transmission power of one or more eNodeBs to minimize downlink interference and improve application traffic performance
Also find out if some eNodeBs are redundant

Time: 35 minutes

53

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Lab 2: Conclusions
The terrain modeling module (TMM) allows us to model a realistic LTE cell deployment study Using the in-built LTE statistics, it is easy to rapidly analyze the cell coverage Using the TMM visualization tool, it is easy to check the line of sight (LoS) coverage and deploy multiple cells to provide the basic LoS coverage Parametric studies tool allowed us to lower transmission power of two eNodeBs and improve performance At first, interference was reduced Later, we discovered that the eNodeBs were redundant and could be eliminated from the network

54

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

The Capacity Planning Problem

Number of users

Maximize the number of users while Satisfying the application delay constraint Maximizing the throughput
Sometimes, increasing number of users can affect throughput negatively due

to TCP congestion window effects, increased interference, scheduling overheads and retransmissions, etc.

Relationship between capacity planning and cell planning A well designed cell will also have a higher capacity potential
56
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

How to Analyze the Capacity Planning Problem


Need to define acceptable application performance
Service level agreements (SLAs) can help define constraints on application delay

Need to understand factors affecting channel capacity


Bandwidth: The higher the bandwidth, the higher the capacity MCS Index: The higher the MCS index, the higher the capacity Spatial Multiplexing: Increases the capacity when enabled Other factors: Overheads (MAC overheads, LTE physical overheads), retransmissions (TCP, RLC, HARQ)

Need to understand which channels can experience saturation


Three channels: PDSCH (downlink shared), PDCCH (downlink control), PUSCH (uplink shared) For good performance, all three channels should be below saturation level

OPNET Modeler provides statistics, reports, and traces to help analyze channel capacity
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Channel Capacity Reports


Capacity reports published for both uplink/downlink for each eNodeB Assumes a single-UE case
That is, a single UE saturates the channel with its traffic

Overheads will consume some reported capacity; the rest is available for good throughput
MAC, RLC, PDCP Hence application throughput will be lesser

If all UEs are approximately similar (same MCS indexes), it is easy to estimate channel capacity
With a mix of UEs, it is difficult, and thats where planning studies are useful in OPNET Modeler

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Channel Utilization Statistics


There are Three channels of importance:
PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel

Utilization statistics track how much channels are utilized to detect if they are overloaded

Overloaded downlink

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

ODB Tracing into an LTE Frame


mltrace <enb_objid> lte_frm

Complete breakdown of uplink and downlink subframes


Number of resource blocks and corresponding bits fitted for a given UE Per codeword information in case of spatial multiplexing transmission in downlink subframes Higher layer payload in the LTE MPDU Frequency information.

It sometimes helps to look at the ODB output instead of just statistics


Per UE contribution to a subframe can be found Bit carrying capacity per UE per subframe can be found
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Role of Admission Control Module


Relevant only for GBR bearers
Before admitting into the system, admission control performs a rough check on radio resources to check if there is space to admit Some things such as retransmissions cannot be anticipated apriori Admission control can be made flexible using loading factor To account for retransmissions, set the loading factor < 1 Usually admitted GBR bearers have satisfactory traffic performance

All admitted, none preempted/rejected

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Understanding Traffic Statistics


Transmitter
Total higher layer traffic sent to PDCP/RLC

Receiver
Delay

Higher Layer

Higher Layer

Total higher layer traffic forwarded by PDCP

Higher layer traffic sent to PDCP/RLC per EPS bearer

PDCP/RLC

PDCP/RLC

Higher layer traffic forwarded by PDCP per EPS Bearer - Good throughput per EPS Bearer

Includes new transmissions , retransmissions and status reports

MAC

MAC
Recorded when HARQ decoding is successful

PHY
Includes new transmissions and HARQ retransmissions

PHY

Delay for all traffic that is delivered to the higher layer


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Delay for traffic that is delivered to the higher layer per EPS bearer

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Understanding LTE Traffic via Statistics (cont.)


Examples
Collecting MAC Traffic sent at an eNodeB shows the traffic load on the downlink channel (PDSCH) Applying the Adder filter for Traffic received by the UEs in a cell can show traffic throughput for the downlink channel (PDSCH) Applying the Adder filter for Traffic sent by the UEs in a cell can show traffic load for the uplink channel (PUSCH) Collecting MAC traffic received at the eNodeB shows the throughput on the uplink channel (PUSCH)

The difference between load and throughput is dropped traffic due to:
Congestion at the MAC Dropped packets at the physical layer due to interference/fading

Additionally traffic sent (bps, packets/sec), traffic received (bps/packets per second), and delay statistics is available per GTP tunnel as well

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Configurations of Physical Channels and Effect of Control Channels on Capacity


Downlink
PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel The size of PDCCH is dynamicModel automatically resizes PDCCH to maximize the number of resource elements left to PDSCH

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Uplink
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel bigger PRACH subtracts capacity from PUSCH PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel bigger PUCCH subtracts capacity from PUSCH

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Resources Affecting Channel Capacity


Capacity Planning Resource Number of Users
More users more load offered to the channel Less users less load offered to the channel Less bandwidth less space to carry data

Effect of more resource


Having more users increases the offered load and can worsen performance for everyone More channel bandwidth means there is more space to carry the same amount of data which leads to lower channel utilization and better application performance Enabling MIMO spatial multiplexing increases the subframe capacity without increasing the bandwidth

Cost-benefit
More users mean more revenue, so as long as the application SLAs are satisfied, number of users should be maximized More bandwidth is clearly desirable, but it can cost more money to buy this resource

Channel Bandwidth

More bandwidth More space to carry data

Multiple Antennas (MIMO spatial multiplexing)

Enabling MIMO spatial multiplexing increase in capacity More TX power better coverage and higher MCS index unless interference is high

Disabling MIMO spatial multiplexing lesser capacity

MIMO spatial multiplexing will only be beneficial if the link quality of the UE is really good otherwise there will be a lot of retransmissions as MIMO spatial multiplexing is very susceptible to physical layer effects. Increasing power drains UEs battery faster and can cause interference. Hence power should be minimized as long as coverage criterion is satisfied

Transmission Power

Less TX power less coverage and lower MCS index

Increasing power can improve the UEs MCS index and effective capacity is increased. However too much TX power can cause interference and the capacity gain is offset by retransmissions

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

The Resources for Capacity Planning: Recap


OPNET Modeler helps in identifying the optimal operating points on similar performance curves under the presence of realistic terrain, mobility and physical layer data
Performance Performance

Operator budget

Application SLA

Number of users

Bandwidth

MIMO Spatial Multiplexing Performance Performance

MIMO Transmit Diversity

Increasing MCS Transmission Power

Increasing retransmissions

Link quality

66

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Lab 3: Planning an LTE Cell to Determine Maximum Number of Users


Deploy a single cell LTE network on a Nevada terrain region to determine the number of users that can be supported in that cell Define an acceptable application service level agreement (SLA) criterion. Determine if 50 users can be supported with the given traffic profile at the beginning. If the SLA is not satisfied, progressively reduce the number of users.
Choose which users to eliminate intelligently; the users that achieve the lowest MCS index should be eliminated to maximize the number of supported users

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Determine using the above algorithm the maximum number of users that can be supported in the cell
Time: 25 minutes

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Lab 3: Conclusions
OPNETs LTE solution provides an easy way to estimate the channel capacity (OT table reports) and channel utilization (in-built statistics) to rapidly analyze capacity planning problem The Top Statistic utility allowed us to find the UEs with the lowest MCS index rapidly The capacity planning problem was solved by finding the best 32 UEs that could be supported without compromising the application quality using the iterative algorithm

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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Agenda
LTE Network Architecture, Features and Capabilities Deploying Realistic LTE Networks in OPNET Modeler
Basic Configurations and Analysis

Lab 1: Deploying and Analyzing Performance of an LTE Network Using OPNET Modeler for Planning Studies Cell Planning Study with OPNET Modeler
Lab 2: Cell Planning Lab

Capacity Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 3: Capacity Planning Lab

Battery Life Planning Study with OPNET Modeler


Lab 4: Optimizing DRX Parameters Within Application Delay SLAs
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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Battery Life Planning Problem


Cell planning and capacity planning studies are throughput oriented since we are attempting to solve
How to increase the system throughput by planning well placed cells covering a region How to squeeze as many users as possible for maximum revenue

However to achieve those objectives, the UE may end up spending its battery by increasing its transmission power Why would the battery life be important?
Autonomous and unmanned sensor networks: Static UEs Mobile UEs that do not have readily available charger Power saving feature in LTE: Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in RRC Connected state Idle mode

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

DRX in RRC Connected State


A UE starts a DRX cycle when there is no activity on the medium for a certain time A UE is in either DRX Inactive or DRX phase at all the times If there is no activity on the medium for a duration of inactivity timer, DRX phase begins UE runs DRX cycle in DRX phase DRX cycle consists of an active period and sleep period During active period, UE listens to PDCCH for downlink activity At the beginning of a DRX phase UE runs short DRX cycle first If the short DRX cycle completes successfully without transitioning to DRX Inactive phase, then from that point on UE will run only the long DRX cycle until it transitions to inactive period

DRX Configuration

Enables or Disables DRX in RRC Connected State for the UE Duration of active period Duration of short DRX cycle which includes active period Inactivity Timer Multiplication factor to the short DRX cycle gives the duration of long DRX cycle

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Idle Mode
A UE transitions to idle mode when there is no activity on the medium for a certain time When in idle mode a UE
Is disconnected from the core Runs DRX cycles to save power Keeps track of the best eNodeB by performing Cell Reselection procedure Sends a Tracking Area Update message to the core if the current eNodeB belongs to a different TA than the TA of the previous one Reconnects to the core if uplink or downlink data activity is detected Monitors the paging channel to detect downlink traffic

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Idle ModeTracking Area Update and Paging


An idling UE must update the EPC of its current tracking area
A group of eNodeBs can be in the same tracking area

EPC pages eNodeBs in UEs current tracking area when there is a DL traffic
eNodeBs broadcast the page to UE

Tracking area size must be wisely chosen


A larger tracking area may potentially have higher paging load and therefore lesser resources for PDSCH If the tracking areas are small, idling UEs may need to send frequent tracking area updates, which reduces its battery life

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Idle Mode Attributes


Idle Mode Support
eNodeB Triggered, Enabled or Disabled Enabled : eNodeB or UE Triggered

T3440
UE Trigger Upon expiry of this timer UE enters Idle mode if UE triggered

Cell Reselection attributes used only during idle mode

RRC Connection Release Timer


eNodeB Trigger Upon expiry of this timer for a UE, the serving eNodeB starts UE context release with the EPC

Tracking area update attributes Attributes related to Paging

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How to Analyze the UEs Battery Power Expenditure


Battery and power expenditure model

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

OT Report

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Pros and Cons of DRX in RRC Connected State and Idle Mode
DRX in RRC Connected State and Idle mode are two independent power saving features in LTE
DRX in RRC Connected State UE is attached and bearers are active No additional signaling required after the initial attachment Usually used during short periods of inactivity Idle Mode A UE in idle mode is disconnected and bearers are inactive Signaling required to go into and to come out of idle mode Usually used during long periods of inactivity

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

OPNET Modeler helps can identifying the optimal operating parameters that will yield maximum battery life and still have good application performance

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Lab 4: Maximize UEs Battery Life Within Application SLAs


Deploy a single cell sensor network where the UEs receive a command to send sensor data to a command center
Unless the command is received, sensor data is not sent Sensor data is time critical Sensors are costly to replacehence their battery life is extremely important

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Define an acceptable application SLA Verify the battery life with just the idle mode only enabled and idle mode and DRX both enabled Conduct a parametric study to find the optimal configuration resulting in most battery life Time: 30 minutes

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1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Lab 4: Conclusions
With default configuration we noticed that have idle mode and DRX enabled yielded the maximum power savings

OPNET Modeler allows the users to define the application SLA and the number of violation instances very easily.
Using the parametric studies feature and the distributed grid computing, one can easily determine the optimal value of the DRX sleep parameter for the given application that can satisfy the application SLA. Excise caution when deciding the idle mode and DRX setting as they depend on the application behavior
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2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Documentation References
Some important 3GPP Standards

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36213-880: for the physical layer 36300-910: for the overall description of E-UTRAN 36321-900: for the MAC operation 36322-870: for the RLC operation 36331-900: for the RRC protocol 23203-830: for the policy and control architecture 23401-860: for the EUTRAN access network LTE Phase I, II, III, IV, V, and VI Requirements Documents Requirements document for the idle mode operation (LTE Phase VII) LTE Frame Generator and Scheduler Description LTE Modulation Models LTE Multipath Fading Models

OPNET Published (LTE consortium website)

CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

User Community and Technical Support


Join the OPNET products online user forum:
https://splash.riverbed.com/community/product-lines/opnet

Riverbed Technical Support


https://support.riverbed.com/

1.415.247.7381 or 1.888.782.3822 toll-free in the US or Canada International phone support numbers are available at: https://support.riverbed.com/contact/index.htm Knowledge base:
https://supportkb.riverbed.com/support/index?page=home

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

riverbed | splash for Modeler Users


riverbed | splash is the place to connect with OPNET product experts
ExtensionsDownload new product enhancements submitted by Riverbeds OPNET product staff and customers CommunityDiscuss your challenges; announce your successes

Login with your customer username and password at


https://splash.riverbed.com/

Is there anything on riverbed | splash for Modeler users?


Sure! For example, the contributed model for IEEE 802.15.3/3b WPAN technology can be found under this link: https://splash.riverbed.com/docs/DOC-3079

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Related Sessions
1580: Modeling Custom Wireless Effects 1598: Productivity and Code Efficiency Tips for OPNET Modeler Users 1576: Obtaining Statistically Valid Simulation Results: Generation, Interpretation, and Presentation 1586: Building Realistic Application Models for Discrete Event Simulation

OPNETWORK 2011 1581: Understanding LTE Models Internals and Interfaces

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Take-Away Points
OPNET Modeler supports easy deployment and auto-configuration of LTE networks using Wireless Network Deployment Wizard Terrain modeling module can be used to model terrain and custom propagation models, which works seamlessly with LTE models
Urban propagation model coming up shortly (Session 1574 -New and

Improved Features for Modeling and Simulation)

LTE model library in OPNET Modeler is comprehensive with a variety of features which can be used in your planning and analysis studies
Cell planning, Capacity planning and battery life planning are some examples

OPNET provides extensive capabilities to provide what-if analysis


Perform parametric studies with distributed execution Evaluate protocol setting and network parameters to optimize performance
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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

1599 Planning LTE Network Deployments

Acronyms
3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project QoS: Quality of Service OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access SC-FDMA: Single-Carrier Frequency-Division Multiple Access LTE: Long Term Evolution
4G: 4th Generation

UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


3G: 3rd Generation

EPS: Evolved Packet System EPC: Evolved Packet Core E-UTRAN: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol eNodeB: Enhanced NodeB UE: User Equipment FDD: Frequency Division Duplex TDD: Time Division Duplex RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power RSRQ: Reference Signal Received Quality HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Retransmission reQuest RLC-AM: Radio Link Control Acknowledgment Mode

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CONFIDENTIALRESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any format without Riverbeds prior written consent.
2013 Riverbed Technology, Inc. Riverbed, OPNET, OPNETWORK, and all Riverbed hardware and software product names are trademarks of Riverbed. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.