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DEVELOPMENT OF ATTITUDES The process of social interaction brings about certain developments including formation of attitudes.

There are various social groups which result in the development of attitudes. These would include the role of the family, cultural factors, the influence of education, the interrelationship of culture and individual experiences and the role of media in imparting information with in a particular social group. The Influence of the Family The family may be defined as group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood or adoption, constituting a single household interacting and communicating with each other in their respective social role of husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and sister creating and maintaining a common culture. According to Uroog (2000), family is an association and is a group defined by a sweet relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children. The family is the first social group that a child communieates and interacts with in a special way. Parents play the vital role of rearing their children, and not only showing concern regarding normal physical growth and development, but also converting their children into social beings. Parents often project their own belief systems, moral values and various other attitudes. Thus their children develop the tendency to develop their respective attitudes. Family influences have been evident when people have migrated to different parts of the world. Studies of Australian immigrants of Greek and Italian origin have indicated strong family influence. The same is true of Muslim Pakistani who have migrated to the United Kingdom, Canada, U.S.A. or other part of the world.

In societies like ours, the individual has to work for the welfare of the family unlike the western societies where the individual is more important. However, multicultural influences sometimes result in changes where specific attitudes are concerned. Peers Group Influences The power of peer pressure peaks in early adolescence. It is at the same time that parental involvement in school declines. Peers can positively or negatively affect each others academic performance. Not surprisingly, the more successful students had friends whose grades were high, who spent more time on homework, who had greater educational aspirations, and who devoted more time to extracurricular activities. In review of friends activity patterns from different ethnic groups, it was found that Asian American students friends placed a greater emphasis on academics, had higher performance standards, devoted more time to homework, and earned higher grades in school than other students (Duke and Meckel, 1980). Although the parents are the first socializing agents for the child, many of the more complex social skills are learnt when he becomes a member of the peer group. Some of these skills are learnt directly from the peer group member and some from teachers. Peers play a different role in child development than do families. Although the childs relationship with parents is more intense and enduring than with peers, interaction among age mates is more free and egalitarian. This quality of relationship with peers permits a new kind of interpersonal experimentation and exploration and most particularly a new kind of sensitivity, which will serve as one of the comerstones for the development of social competence, social justice and the capacity of love. Most authorities agree that peer relationship is an essential component of childs development (Akhtar, 2001).

The Function of Peers Saleem (2001) gives the following functions of peers: 1. Peers serve as reinforcing agents for behaviour. 2. Peers serve as role models 3. Peers serve as standards against which children evaluate themselves 4. Peers serve as provides of opportunities for socialising and learning Cultural Determinants The making of perceptual and cognitive organization, with reference of formation of attitudes, depends upon the individuals social environment. Sociologist, educators and social psychologist have laid a great deal of emphasis on the cultural influences on the development of attitudes. Religious belief of university students was a determinant as to whether they were liberal or conservative. Cultural differences among societies will be reflected in differences in attitudes among the individuals in those societies. However, when a particular culture group migrates to a different part of the world depicting entirely different cultural values their development of attitudes have been the outcome of multicultural influence.