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Light engines

Modular SSL
approach P.49
Color science
Optimizing color
rendering P.57
Manufacturing
Large LED
substrates P.63
LEDsmagazine.com
FEBRUARY 2013
TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODES
LED LAMPS
Lighting
manufacturers
take myriad
approaches P.33
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________ __________
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____________________________________
LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 3
2013
features
33
RETROFIT LAMPS Maury Wright
Varying approaches to LED retroft lamps show no limit
40
LUMINAIRE DESIGN Tim Whitaker
MHA Lighting takes unique approach to LED fxture
design with Rods with Holes technology
45
STANDARDS Jianzhong Jiao, Osram Opto Semiconductors
ANSI works to standardize LED datasheet for white LEDs
49
FOCUS ON Skyler Frink & Maury Wright
SSL modules
57
COLOR SCIENCE George Kelly, Avnet
Understand color science to maximize success with
LEDs part 4
63
MANUFACTURING Marcus Weddle, ARC Energy
Manufacturing LEDs on large diameter substrates:
Whats the holdup?
69
FINANCING Darren Riva, EEF
Energy Effciency Financing scheme lights up the path
to green savings
72
DESIGN FORUM Fred Sawyer & Mladen Ivankovic, Infneon
Fixed-frequency and quasi-resonant fyback controllers
drive large LED strings
76
LAST WORD Menno Trefers, Zhaga Consortium
Zhaga helps SSL luminaire makers reduce costs and
supply-chain risks
Cover Story
While incandescent lamps maintained
the same basic look over more than a
century, SSL retroft lamp manufacturers
have adopted vastly different
architectures in an attempt to get the
LED point light sources to deliver an
omnidirectional beam (see page 33).
february
columns/departments
4
COMMENTARY Maury Wright
Complex color science underlies
good SSL products
9
NEWS+ANALYSIS
Lynk Labs LED light engine dims to warm
Toshiba announces GaN-
on-Si LED production start
Konica Minolta buys Instrument Systems
Philips Lumileds announces
workhorse Luxeon T family
Siemens plans Osram spinoff
Cree announces LEDs for
directional applications
Philips introduces LED linear
and spotlight module
25
FUNDING+PROGRAMS
Digital Lumens closes $10
million round of investment to
support continued expansion
Rubicon Technology closes $25 million
secured revolving credit facility
SEMI publishes HB-LED standard
relating to sapphire substrates
DOE publishes new Caliper reports
and year in review for the program
ISSUE 58
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4 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
commentary
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Christine Shaw
& PUBLISHING DIRECTOR cshaw@pennwell.com
EDITOR Maury Wright
mauryw@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Nicole Pelletier
nicolep@pennwell.com
ASSISTANT EDITOR Skyler Frink
skylerf@pennwell.com
CONTRIBUTING Tim Whitaker
EDITOR twhitaker@pennwell.com
MARKETING MANAGER Jennifer Landry
PRESENTATION MANAGER Kelli Mylchreest
PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari Rodriguez
SENIOR ILLUSTRATOR Christopher Hipp
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Debbie Bouley
EDITORIAL OFFICES PennWell Corporation,
LEDs Magazine
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form without prior written consent of Publishers.
C
olor science is an incredibly complex
topic. I must say that I underestimated
the importance of color science in terms
of the ability of LED manufacturers and
solid-state lighting (SSL) lamp and lumi-
naire manufacturers to deliver high-qual-
ity products. Im nearing the end of three
years covering the LED and lighting space,
but still learning something new every day.
And Id highly recommend that you peruse
the fourth installment in our color science
series in this issue (p. 57).
Indeed, if you havent been following
the series, you might go back and read the
entire series even if you started a prior one
and decided the topic was just too complex.
Te article in this issue includes web links to
each of the prior articles.
George Kelly, who manages Avnets Light
Lab, has done an excellent job on the series.
I ll concede that I found the first couple
of articles very technical and difficult to
understand. And many of us will never use
the math described. But the end of the third
article and the one in this issue brought the
theory into the light of real product design.
It turns out that its really important
to understand why two light sources that
are metamers of one another they have
the same efect on the eye even though the
spectral power distribution may be vastly
different wont necessarily render col-
ors equally well. Te light refected from an
object thats illuminated by the two diferent
sources will not be metamers of one another.
Its that ref lected light and the eye
response that matters. And in the SSL indus-
try we face conficting goals of delivering
high ef cacy, excellent color rendering, and
warm color temperature. Te article in this
issue covers approaches to that task.
I sure hope to convince George to write
one more article in the series, bringing even
more practical examples to light. Mean-
while, he has agreed to do a Webcast on
February 21 on the topic. You can register at
www.ledsmagazine.com/webcasts or view
the archive if you read this column after the
live event.
Te rest of this issue covers topics rang-
ing from LED manufacturing to new pack-
aged LEDs to driver design to standards to
retroft lamps. Te News+Views section (p. 9)
includes a number of items related to the lat-
est in LEDs, including the move by Toshiba
to a gallium-nitride-on-silicon (GaN-on-Si)
manufacturing process. We also have new
components from Cree, Philips Lumileds,
and Bridgelux.
Retroft lamps are among the most popu-
lar topics that we cover with you the reader.
Tat fact led to our choice of cover photo,
and to the feature article on the topic (p. 33).
Modular light engines are becoming
increasingly popular in SSL product design,
whether the module is a proprietary design
or based on an industry standard such as
Zhaga. You will fnd modular coverage in
News+Views, in the Focus On feature (p. 49),
and in the Last Word column (p. 76) that was
written by Zhaga General Secretary Menno
Trefers. Trefers will also have presented a
Webcast on Zhagas progress by the time you
read this, but you can view the archive at the
prior Webcast link if you have missed it.
Please enjoy the issue. And I look forward
to seeing you at Strategies in Light. Come by
our booth and say hello.
Maury Wright, EDITOR
mauryw@pennwell.com
Complex color
science underlies
good SSL products
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________________________
6 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
ADVERTISERS
index
Alpha ..................................................... 47
American Bright Optoelectronics............. 14
Bayer Material Science, LLC ................... 53
Cirrus Logic ............................................ 24
Cree Inc. .............................................. CV4
CSA International ................................... 13
EBM-Papst Inc. ........................................ 7
Edison Opto Corporation ........................ 23
Epistar ..................................................... 1
ERG ....................................................... 70
Future Electronics Inc. ............................ 32
GKN Sinter Metals ................................. 70
Global Lighting Technologies .................. 37
Hangzhou Najing Technology Co. Ltd. ..... 12
Indice Ecotech ....................................... 61
Indium Corporation of America ............... 21
Instruments Systems GmbH ................... 11
Inventronics (Hangzhou) Inc. ................... 15
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas ........... 71
Lambda Research Corporation ............... 16
Lauren Manufacturing ............................ 38
Ledlink Optics Inc. .................................. 19
Lightfair International ............................. 48
Matrix Lighting Limited, Hong Kong ....... CV2
MBN GmbH ............................................ 17
Metal Coaters ............................ 27, 29, 31
NMB Technologies Corporation ............... 55
Optronic Laboratories Inc. ...................... 46
Orb Optronix ........................................... 52
Philips Lumileds ....................................... 2
Proto Labs Inc. ....................................... 39
Recom Power Inc. ............................ 73, 75
Roal Electronics USA Inc. ....................... 71
Seoul Semiconductor ............................. 30
Shanxi Guangyu LED ............................. 18
Lighting Co. Ltd.
Shat-R-Shields ....................................... 42
Shenzhen Baikang Optical Co. Ltd. .............
5 Shenzhen Refond ............................ 28
Optoelectronics Co. Ltd.
Sichuan Jiuzhou Electric ........................ 43
Group Co. Ltd.
Signcomplex Limited .............................. 67
TE Connectivity ...................................... 44
The Bergquist Company ........................... 8
Thomas Research Products .................... 68
Topco Green Synergy Group ................... 51
Underwriters Laboratories ...................... 35
Unilumin Group Co. Ltd. .......................... 20
Verde Designs ........................................ 71
FEATURED
event
|
online
Webcast
Understanding how Zhaga Books enable a
modular approach to SSL product design
http://ledsmagazine.com/features/9/12/10
The Nector S Power System - The
Intelligence in Luminaire Design
http://ledsmagazine.com/features/10/1/1
Whitepaper
Power LED Electrical, Thermal
and Optical Characterization
http://ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/28/
Thermal Simulation Simplifes LED
Luminaire Development
http://ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/27/
Thermal Simulation and Characterization
Optimizes LEDs for Automotive Applications
http://ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/26/
LED China
March 1-4, 2013
Guangzhou, China
LRC 25th Anniversary
March 20, 2013
Troy, NY
Lightfair International
April 23-25, 2013
Philadelphia, PA
China Lighting Expo
April 25-27, 2013
Beijing, China
Singapore International LED/OLED
Technology Show
May 7-9, 2013
Singapore
LED Expo Thailand
May 23-25, 2013
Bangkok, Thailand
SPARC International Lighting
June 3-5, 2013
Sydney, Australia
The LED Show
August 13-15, 2013
Las Vegas, NV
LED Japan Conference & Expo/
Strategies in Light
October 16-18, 2013
Yokohama, Japan
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/events
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Thermal management is a key factor that limits the lumen output and efciency of an LED lightsource. While as much as 80
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________________________
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 9
views
n
e
w
s
Lynk Labs has announced a new chip-on-board (COB) mod-
ule in its SnapBrite family of products that for the frst time
relies on mid-power LEDs combined with AC-driver cir-
cuitry. Te 114-mm-diameter SR114 solid-state lighting (SSL)
module accepts 120-VAC input direct from the power line
and delivers 2000 lm at an operating temperature of 65C.
Te new module achieves 100-lm/W ef cacy based on the
mid-power LEDs used and the ef ciency of AC-drive technol-
ogy that eliminates a power conversion stage relative to more
typical DC-driven LEDs. Te 100 lm/w result includes all
the required drive and protection circuitry to run the mod-
ule direct from the mains, said Chick Huber, vice president
of business development at Lynk Labs.
Te SR114 is the frst of a number of products that will
use the general design captured in the new module. Tis
frst product features a 3800K CCT and CRI of 83, and when
dimmed, using a legacy triac or phase-cut dimmer, delivers a
warmer color temperature mimicking an incandescent lamp.
CEO Mike Miskin said that the company has a number of
options in how to implement the dim-to-warm technology
including using some amber or red LEDs. Tis frst design,
however utilizes two channels. One channel uses 4000K
LEDs and the second uses very warm 2200K LEDs.
At full brightness, the 4000K LEDs deliver the bulk of the
light and the enhanced ef cacy thats common in higher-
color-temperature LEDs. As the product is dimmed to lower
drive currents, energy usage is generally decreased and the
warm-CCT LEDs contribute more of the light mix.
Te module delivers a 120 beam pattern that enables its
use in applications such as downlights, fush-mount fxtures,
and ceiling fans. Miskin said, Now that we have reached 100-
lm/w plug top ef ciency with incandescent quality dimming,
AC LEDs can fll the need for cost-sensitive, form-factor-chal-
lenged lighting applications with high system ef ciency.
The initially available SR114 uses Epistar mid-power
LEDs. At press time the LEDs had not been fully LM-80 qual-
ifed. Miskin said, however, that such tests are ongoing and
that the qualifcation should be in place around mid-Feb-
ruary. He also added that based on customer requirements,
Lynk Labs can utilize a variety of LED types to meet specifc
application needs.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/10/1/10
LED MODULE
Lynk Labs LED light
engine dims to warm
SILICON LEDS
Toshiba announces GaN-on-Si LED production start
Toshiba announced in December that it began
producing white LEDs on 200-mm (8-in) sil-
icon substrates. Te TL1F1 1W gallium-on-
silicon (GaN-on-Si) LED is the frst product
and will deliver a maximum of 112 lm at 350-
mA drive current. Te combination of larger
wafers and access to automated back-end
manufacturing tools in depreciated IC fabs
has the potential of lowering the cost of LEDs
and accelerating SSL deployment, although obstacles remain in
reaching the optical ef ciency of sapphire-based LEDs.
Subsequent to the announcement of production start, Toshiba
posted data sheets that reveal that the GaN-on-Si LEDs will ini-
tially come in a choice of 3000K, 4000K, 5000K CCTs (www.leds-
magazine.com/news/10/1/3.) Te 5000K cool-
white LED comes in 70 and 80 CRI, and the
70-CRI TL1F1-NW0 ofers the top ef cacy spec
mentioned previously. Both the 4000K TL1F1-
WH1,L and 3000K TL1F1-LW1,L deliver 84
lm/W. And both ofer a CRI of 80.
The efficacy figures dont match the lat-
est sapphire-based LEDs. For comparison,
Cree announced the new XM-L2 LED family
recently that is similar in size (p. 12). Te Cree LED measures 55
mm while the Toshiba LED measures 6.45 mm. Cree said the
XM-L2 LED can deliver 186 lm/W in cool white at 350-mA drive
current. But if the Toshiba LEDs deliver the anticipated reduction
in costs, the products could do very well. page 10
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_______
10 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
news
+
views
Toshiba from page 9
Weve been expecting more news from
the GaN-on-Si players throughout the
fall. Azzurro Semiconductors has been
attacking the problem building tem-
plate wafers that have the base GaN layer
applied, upon which LED companies can
then build their own LED structures.
Tat company has been linked to both
Osram Opto Semiconductors (www.leds-
magazine.com/news/9/1/19) and Epistar
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/10/9).
Partners Lattice Power from China and
Plessey Semiconductors from the UK are
also working on the technology (www.
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/6/12). Lattice
had claimed that it was in production of
such devices back in the summer, but SSL
products using such LEDs havent been in
evidence.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/18
BUSINESS
Konica Minolta buys
Instrument Systems
Instrument Systems GmbH, one of the LED
industrys best-known light-measurement
companies, has been acquired by Konica
Minolta Optics, Inc., efective December 1.
Instrument Systems was founded in 1986 by
its president, Richard Distl, and is based in
Munich, Germany. Te company supplies
a comprehensive range of light measuring
products for industrial and research applica-
tions. Key applications are LED and display
measurement, as well as spectroradiometry
and photometry. Te subsidiary company
Optronik Berlin GmbH is also included in
the sale.
Instrument Systems has posted very
strong growth in recent years, and its
2011/12 fnancial year, which closed in June
2012, produced the best results since the
company was founded. Combined sales with
the Optronik Berlin subsidiary rose by 27%
to EUR 30.3 million ($39.6 million), up from
EUR 23.9 million in the year ended June 2011.
Konica Minolta Optics was interested in
Instrument Systems reputation in the LED
feld. Toshihiko Karasaki, president of Kon-
ica Minolta Optics, said: Our goal is to have
a leading global position in all our corporate
divisions and to integrate international tal-
ent within our group. Instrument Systems
is the best company in LED lighting mea-
surement to consistently implement this
strategy.
The acquisition of Instrument Sys-
tems came several weeks after CSA Group
acquired LED testing company Orb Optronix
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/11/12).
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/6
PACKAGED LEDS
Philips Lumileds announces
workhorse Luxeon T family
Philips Lumileds has introduced the new
Luxeon T series of high-power LEDs that tar-
get SSL applications with directional-beam
requirements including downlights, and
MR16 and PAR retroft lamps. Te LEDs set
new ef cacy milestones for Lumileds achiev-
ing 140 lm/W at 350 mA of drive current.
Lumileds CEO Pierre Yves Lesaicherre
emphasized that Lumileds considers the
Luxeon T much more than an evolution of
the Lumileds family saying, Te Luxeon T
is going to be the workhorse in terms of high
ef cacy. Clearly Lumileds expects Luxeon T
to be the product of choice for applications
in which the LED is expected to produce
maximum forward light.
Lumileds claims several breakthroughs
for the new series beyond ef cacy, includ-
ing what it says is an industry-lowest 2.7V
forward voltage and 3C/W thermal resis-
tance. Product line director Kathleen Hart-
nett said that only one other LED maker
has reached 2.8V and that most are at 3V or
above. Te lower forward voltage simplifes
the thermal design especially critical in
space-constrained directional lamps such
as MR16 retrofts.
Lumileds will offer the LEDs in 3-step
MacAdam ellipse bins, tested at 85C.
Lesaicherre said that the company is not
matching phosphor tiles with emitters the
way it did in the original Rebel Lumiramic-
based LEDs to reach the tight binning, but
instead controlling the epitaxial (epi) pro-
cess more tightly. Weve narrowed the epi
distribution to 1 to 2 bins, said Lesaicherre .
Indeed, better process control is behind
both the binning and the lower forward volt-
age. Lesaicherre said, Te conversion to 6-in
substrates has really helped because we have
more modern equipment. Specifcally, he
said they have tighter control of tempera-
ture and gas distribution in the epi process.
Te LED package measures 3.73.7 mm.
Te prior Luxeon A product targeted simi-
lar applications but features a rectangular
package. Te new LEDs ofer a minimum CRI
of 80, and optionally a CRI of 95, across the
full range of CCTs, including 2700K, 3000K,
3500K, 4000K, and 5000K.
Lime-green LED
Lesaicherre also commented on the mys-
terious lime-green LED that is presum-
ably very important to the function of the
Philips Lighting color-changing Hue lamp
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/10/25).
Lesaicherre was guarded with details but
said that Lumileds had advanced the ef -
cacy of green LEDs that in general has
trailed other colored LEDs industry wide.
Te Hue lamp uses fve of the lime-green
LEDs, four red LEDs, and 2 blue LEDs. Tat
means that the green LED is approach-
ing the ef cacy of the red ones. Te lime-
green color itself was not the source of the
ef cacy gain. Instead, that lime-green LED
better enables the mixture to deliver the full
color-tunable range according to Lumileds
Hartnett. Lumileds does plan to ofer a lime-
green LED commercially, but is still mull-
ing over plans as to which Luxeon family in
which it will launch the product.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/7
BUSINESS
Siemens plans Osram spinoff
After shelving its plans for an initial pub-
lic ofering (IPO) of Osram, its lighting sub-
sidiary, Siemens has confrmed that it will
conduct a spinof of 80.5% of Osrams shares
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/11/22). A
plan to conduct the IPO of Osram shares was
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_______
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We bring quality to light.
Putting LEDs in the right light.
Instrument Systems Germany Phone: +49 89 45 49 43 0 ssl@instrumentsystems.com www.instrumentsystems.com
SSL solutions from the world leader in LED measurement
NEW: LGS 250
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Now we present another breakthrough in Solid-
State Lighting with our new goniophotometers
and integrating spheres.
Find out more about our innovations for SSL :
www.instrumentsystems.com/ssl
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fnally shelved in July of 2012.
Te transaction will result in Siemens
shareholders receiving one Osram share for
every ten Siemens shares. However, Siemens
still intends to retain a minority stake in
Osram, in which it wants to remain a long-
term anchor shareholder. To this end, Sie-
mens AG will retain a 17% stake in Osram
following the spinof, with the Siemens Pen-
sion Trust holding the remaining 2.5%.
Implementation of the spinof plans will
require the approval of at least three-quar-
ters of existing shareholders. Te decision
will be made at the Annual Shareholders
Meeting scheduled for January 23, 2013, after
we went to press. The Osram IPO (www.
ledsmagazine.com/news/8/3/30) was frst
announced in March 2011, and scheduled
for fall 2011. But, as we reported in August
2011, Siemens delayed its Osram IPO plan
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/28) due
to adverse market conditions.
Subsequent to the announcement of the
spinof. Osram ofered some insight on its
plans to both cut cost and invest in SSL. Te
SSL segment is seen as a key one. At Strate-
gies in Light Europe 2012, Osrams Christian
Schraft said that the companys revenue for
fscal 2011 (ended September 30, 2011) was
around EUR 5 billion, of which around 25%
was from SSL.
Osram will invest in production facili-
ties such as an LED assembly plant in China,
while at the same time selling other plants
that make products using older lighting tech-
nologies. Meanwhile the corporate reorgani-
zation program will result in the loss of an
additional 4700 Osram jobs by 2014 on top
of the 1900 jobs cut worldwide in fscal 2012.
Most of the cuts that will be implemented
both in Germany and internationally are
aimed at production facilities with products
at the end of their product life cycle, or the
closure of smaller plants with lower sales.
Te company plans to invest a low three-
digit million euro fgure over the coming
years in the assembly plant located in the
Chinese province of Jiangsu. Tis plant is
in its fnal completion stage, and its 1700
employees will manufacture products for
key segments of the Chinese market and the
entire Asia region. In fve years time, Osram
expects this region to account for around
half of the global general-lighting market.
Wolfgang Dehen, CEO of Osram Licht AG,
pointed out that the reduction in staf is a
natural consequence of switching to newer
lighting technologies, particularly LEDs.
Compared to traditional products, the depth
of our added value in LED-based products
will be signifcantly reduced. Consequently,
the personnel increase in the future felds
will only partially compensate for the change
in the traditional business, he said.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/2
PACKAGED LEDS
Cree announces LEDs for
directional applications
Cree recently announced the XLamp MK-R
packaged LED that integrates four die, and
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14 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
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the XM-L2 single-die LED both for direc-
tional applications. The MK-R measures
77 mm and fts between the 55-mm XM-L
family and the 99-mm MT-G family. Te
55-mm XM-L2 is a follow on of the origi-
nal single-die XM-L LEDs and Cree says that
its the brightest single-die packaged LED on
the market
Te new MK-R LEDs deliver as much as
1600 lm at 15W in a 5000K CCT match-
ing the light output of many larger chip-
on-board (COB) LED arrays for SSL retroft
lamps and luminaires (www.ledsmagazine.
com/news/9/12/22). The light output is
more in line with what you see from a COB
array, said Cree product marketing man-
ager Paul Scheidt.
In terms of ef cacy, Cree is touting the
MK-R for reaching the 200 lm/W level. Cree
says that the product is the follow-on com-
mercial product to the laboratory 200-
lm/W ef cacy achievement announced in
February of 2010 (www.ledsmagazine.com/
news/7/2/7). Its amazing that Cree is able
to achieve a 200 lm/W LED so quickly, said
Nicola Vendrame, CEO of Linea Light group.
Te high ef cacy of the MK-R LED means
that we can drive the LED harder for more
light output without creating heat issues.
Realistically, however, the LEDs will be
applied at much lower ef cacy levels due
to higher drive current and in many
instances warmer CCTs. For example, at
3000K CCT, 80 CRI, 700-mA drive current,
and 85C junction temperature, the MK-R
delivers 865 lm at 106 lm/W. And many
designs may drive the
LEDs even harder.
The si ngl e- di e
XM-L2 LED, mean-
whi le, maxes out
at 1198 lm at 3A of
drive current, and
can deliver 186 lm/W
efficacy at a lower
drive current. The
second-generation
design targets direc-
tional SSL applica-
tions ranging from
retrofits for direc-
tional halogen lamps to street lights.
A number of Cree LEDs share the XM-L
moniker that is representative of the pack-
age itself. Te company ofers both high-volt-
age and multi-emitter LEDs in the overall
XM-L family. Te new XM-L2 is a follow on to
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16 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
news
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the single die XM-L announced in late 2010
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/7/11/12).
Cree has announced several such sec-
ond-generation LEDs this year that all ofer
SSL product developers the option to rede-
sign a product using fewer LEDs, or boost
the performance of a product using the same
number of LEDs. Moreover, second-genera-
tion LEDs only require 3000 hours of LM-80
testing for SSL products that use the com-
ponents to become Energy Star recognized.
Te second generation XM-L2 ofers 10%
greater lumen output at a 5700K CCT and 17%
better lumen output at 3000K. Te products
are binned at 85C and 700-mA drive current,
and at 3000K deliver 224 lm and 112 lm/W.
Cree emphasized that its both the single-
die design and the performance that enables
SSL designers to break new ground. Crees
Scheidt said You can do a 50W MR16 with
just a single LED. Scheidt compared such
a theoretical MR16 with what he character-
ized as the best performing MR16 SSL lamps
on the market for replacing 50W halogen
lamps. Te comparison lamps delivered 390-
525 lm using 7-10W of power. Te theoreti-
cal Cree design would deliver 369 lm at 5W.
While the lumen output is lower for the
theoretical lamp, the beam angle is a tight 9
whereas the other lamps range from 15-25.
Te Cree lamp would deliver CBCP of 7800
cd more than double the other lamps on
the market. Scheidt said, Because its a sin-
gle die, its much more ef cient at turning
lumens to candela. Te system ef cacy on
the theoretical lamp is 75 lm/W.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/14
LIGHT ENGINES
Philips introduces LED linear
and spotlight modules
Philips Lighting has launched a third-genera-
tion LED-based Fortimo Linear Light Module
(LLM) that targets applications such as out-
door lighting including roadway applications.
Philips also announced a new generation of
the Fortimo Spotlight Module (SLM) utilizing
COB LED technology.
Te new LED LLM Gen 3 family is avail-
able in a choice of four lumen-output pack-
ages 1100, 1800, 3000, and 4500 lm. Philips
also ofers a choice of 3000K or 4000K CCT,
and a CRI greater than 70. Te LED SLM Gen
3 includes 2000- and 3000-lm versions with a
CRI of 90 and high R9 value for applications
such as retail.
Philips, is stressing the vertical illumi-
nance of the LLM products. Increasingly ver-
tical illuminance is proving more impor-
tant than horizontal illuminance in outdoor
applications especially where detection of
pedestrians is important. Tere is a discus-
sion of that issue in an article on the Street &
Area Lighting Conference that was in the Fall
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MBN GmbH
Balthasar-Schaller-Str. 3
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Tel. +49/8 21/6 00 99- 0
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E-Mail info@proled.com
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news
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issue of our sister publica-
tion Illumination in Focus (www.
illuminationinfocus.com/features/3/11/4).
Te Fortimo LED LLM provides excellent
vertical illumination for optimal facial rec-
ognition, enhancing that feeling of safety,
said Marina Kishkovich, product man-
ager outdoor LED lighting for Philips OEM
EMEA. Municipalities understand that
todays LED lighting technology not only
delivers fantastic energy savings but also
dramatically improves the quality of life for
residents. LEDs provide clear white light,
which has been proven to improve both per-
ceived and actual safety and comfort in res-
idential and urban lighting.
Moreover, SSL product developers can
now combine an LLM with a Xitanium
driver and achieve Constant Light Output
(CLO) functionality to combat lumen depre-
ciation over time and save energy. Invariably
lighting designers and specifers choose a
product with a lumen-output specifcation
that will meet the required light level years
in the future accounting in the specifca-
tion process for expected lumen deprecia-
tion. Te Philips Gen 3 product simply drives
the LEDs at lower current levels early in the
product life and over time driver gradually
increases drive current.
PACKAGED LEDS
Bridgelux introduces
Vero LED array
Livermore, CA-based Bridgelux has unveiled
the Vero LED array family, which ofers new
advancements in design fexibility, ease of
use, and energy ef ciency, says the com-
pany. Vero is also intended to be a platform
that will enable future integration opportu-
nities for smart sensors and wireless com-
munication technology.
Compared with existing Bridgelux LED
arrays, the Vero family ofers an increase in
ef cacy by up to 20%, a higher fux density, and
a simplifed assembly process that streamlines
manufacturing and improves overall system
reliability. Te Vero platform will be available
in four form factors with performance rang-
ing from 800 lm in warm white (3000K) up to
20,000 lm in cool white (5000K). Tere will be
multiple CCT and CRI options, including the
97 CRI Decor product option. Te Vero plat-
form is currently being evaluated by Bridgelux
customers and will be broadly commercially
available in the frst quarter of 2013.
Te company says that with the new Vero
platform, more of the manufacturing pro-
cess building the COB arrays and combin-
ing them with the molded-plastic component
is automated. Te array-body confguration
also makes it easier to add functionality in
the future, for example smart sensors or wire-
less-communication chips.
Te Vero product is manufactured using
highly automated processes to reduce cost,
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and can be easily upgraded for the smart
applications of the future, said Jim Miller,
chief sales and marketing of cer of Bridge-
lux. Te Vero array ofers our customers
the manufacturing and design capabilities
they need to open up new design possibili-
ties, while ultimately driving faster adoption
of LED lighting.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/8
DISTRIBUTION
Future Electronics and Philips
Lumileds restructure agreement
Te long-standing distribution agreement
between Future Lighting Solutions (FLS) and
Philips Lumileds, which kept Philips exclu-
sive to FLS and had FLS sell Philips LEDs
exclusively, has been restructured, enabling
Philips to sell its LED products through
other partners, and FLS to distribute other
suppliers SSL products.
Unlike other LED manufacturers, such as
Osram Opto Semiconductors and Cree, Phil-
ips has always sold exclusively through FLS.
Te other supplier that sticks out from the
crowd is Nichia, the largest manufacturer
of packaged LEDs according to Strategies
Unlimited, who only sells directly through
their own network and does not use any
distributors.
Te exclusive distribution agreement was
intended to last for another four years, with
a new fve-year exclusive agreement being
signed in 2011 (www.ledsmagazine.com/
press/31644). However, the companies have
decided to expand into new markets, and
have determined the best way to do that is
to restructure the deal.
Our restructured agreement allows us to
continue our collaboration with a long-term,
trusted and successful partner. With the new
agreement, we are able to serve the needs of
our growing customer base and carry on our
widespread expansion into new target mar-
kets, said Pierre-Yves Lesaicherre, CEO Phil-
ips Lumileds.
FLS, meanwhile wasted little time in add-
ing another LED manufacturer to its line card.
Te distributor and LG Innotek have signed
a worldwide distribution agreement through
which FLS will sell LG Innoteks entire port-
folio of LED lighting products, ranging from
packaged LEDs to integrated solutions.
We are excited about LG Innoteks
exceptionally strong portfolio of LED prod-
ucts, aggressive technology road map, and
unparalleled quality manufacturing capa-
bilities for the general illumination mar-
ket, said Gerry Duggan, executive vice
president of Future Electronics. Tis will
further strengthen our profciency in serv-
ing our customers growing demand for best-
in-class LED lighting solutions.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/press/37244
LICENSING
Solais Lighting licenses
ByteLight technology
ByteLight has signed a partnership agree-
ment with Solais Lighting as its inaugural
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____________
______________
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licensed lighting partner. Tis means Solais
Lighting is now licensed to manufacture and
sell ByteLight-enabled LED lamps.
ByteLight-enabled lamps from Solais
Lighting will serve as lights and positioning
beacons by transmitting proprietary signals
that can be picked up by camera-equipped
mobile devices carried by customers, visi-
tors, and workers within venues (www.leds-
magazine.com/news/9/10/12). When signals
are detected, each mobile device can calcu-
late its position without the need for an active
network connection. Tis enables venue own-
ers to deliver local content, interactive maps,
and indoor navigation features to users based
on their location inside the venue.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/press/37248
BUSINESS
GE Lighting acquires
Albeo Technology
GE Lighting has signed an agreement to
acquire Albeo Technologies, an LED fxture
manufacturer based in Boulder, Colorado.
GE Lighting of cials say the acquisition will
help GE serve as an advisor to enterprise
customers, as well as ofer a more complete
and integrated family of LED-based SSL
products. Albeo Technologies was founded
in 2004.
Some of our biggest customers told us
they wanted a GE-quality solution for high
bay, notes Maryrose Sylvester, president
and CEO of GE Lighting. Tis acquisition
accelerates our development of cutting-
edge technologies that brings customers
the energy-efficient solutions they need.
Tats what customers get at the end of the
day a refned, highly modular and scal-
able platform that delivers the GE quality
theyve come to expect.
Albeos range of products includes high
bay and low bay lighting fxtures as well as
linear, surface-mounted and under cabinet
lighting. Albeos products have been recog-
nized with 16 independently judged awards,
including six from the US Department of
Energy (DOE).
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/11/18
FINANCIALS
SemiLEDs reports frst
quarter results
SemiLEDs, a manufacturer of LED chips
and components, has announced its fnan-
cial results for the frst quarter of fscal year
2013. Revenue for the quarter was $6.2 mil-
lion, an 8% decrease when compared to the
$6.7 million of revenue in frst quarter of fs-
cal 2012.
As more of our customers have qualifed
our EV products, the demand of our LED
chips and LED components has increased,
said Trung Doan, Chairman and CEO
of SemiLEDs. We are seeing pockets of
demand while the overall LED market is still
weak; we continue to manage cost, inven-
tory and spending with a focus on proft-
able LED sectors to achieve our positive
cash fow goal.
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______
__________
__________
2013 Indium Corporation
ASIA CHINA EUROPE USA
www.indium.com
askus@indium.com
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 21
news
+
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Te company also announced improve-
ments in its EV-LED family with efficacy
hitting more than 130 lm/W for some prod-
ucts. Te company said epi and chip process
advances resulted in a 10% gain in luminous
fux and an 8% decrease in forward voltage.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/press/37387
DRIVERS
Cree announces
compatibility program
Cree has instituted a new Driver
Compatibility Program (DCP) for its LED-
based modular light engines that allows
luminaire designers freedom of a larger
choice of drivers and Cree warranty cov-
erage on the light engine. Te DCP is ini-
tially applicable to the LMH2 SSL mod-
ules. Participating companies include AC
Electronics, Code Mercenaries, Harvard
Engineering, Inventronics, Lutron, NMB
Technologies, Opulent Solutions, Phihong,
Roal Electronics, Thomas Research
Products, and Xenergi Limted. Cree plans
to extend the program both to other mod-
ular products and more driver companies.
Te biggest beneft of the DCP is warranty
centric. Previously, Cree limited its warranty
coverage on modular products to luminaire
designs that also utilized Cree drivers. Te
new program does include Cree drivers in
the approved list. But the warranty cover-
age now applies equally to luminaires that
use other drivers in the program.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/10/1/6
BUSINESS
Acuity acquires Adura Technologies
Acuity Brands has acquired the assets of
Adura Technologies, a developer of wire-
less controls and energy management tools.
Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed,
and the acquisition is not expected to mate-
rially impact Acuity Brands fscal 2013
consolidated fnancial performance.
Adura, which was founded in 2005, has
developed radio frequency mesh network-
ing technology that enables light fxtures to
communicate with sensors, switches, and
management software. Te technology is
based on the ZigBee wireless standard.
Aduras simple to use wireless technol-
ogy coupled with our broad luminaire port-
folio, Sensor Switch occupancy sensors and
Lighting Control & Design system manage-
ment software will allow for the creation of
intelligent lighting systems that are sim-
ple to use while generating greater energy
savings for our customers., said Vernon J.
Nagel, chairman, president and chief exec-
utive of cer of Acuity Brands.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/press/37388
EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT
Lighting Science Group and
Nualight appoint execs
Lighting Science Group (LSG), an LED
lighting manufacturer based in Satellite
Beach, Florida, has appointed Jeremy Cage
as CEO, efective January 2, 2013. Ireland-
based LED lighting company Nualight,
meanwhile, has appointed Per Langholz
as its non-executive chairman.
New LSG CEO Cage is a former senior
executive with PepsiCo, Inc. Cage said that
he intends to accelerate growth at LSG by
building on the companys core competen-
cies of excellence in innovation and strong
and diferentiated brand development.
Cage added that LSG will focus on
unleashing the science of light and sustain-
able technologies to markets ranging from
major cities, commercial centers, factories
and retailers in developed markets to entire
cities and villages in developing and emerg-
ing markets. Tere is much to do, and I am
eager to get started.
Nualights new chairman Langholz is the
former president of Sylvania Lighting Inter-
national, where he led the company to prof-
itable operation and annual turnover of over
EUR400 million. He has over 25 years of expe-
rience in the lighting industry. Langholz suc-
ceeds Eamonn Quinn of the Quinn family
that founded the Superquinn grocery chain.
Quinn will remain on the Nualight Group
board. Quinn welcomed the new appoint-
ment, saying, As we continue to grow glob-
ally and drive expansion into new market seg-
ments, Per Langholzs experience will make a
tremendous contribution.
The Nualight Group is a LED lighting
technology specialist with a core focus on
retail, and has pioneered LED lighting in
the refrigerated cabinets of many leading
grocery retail chains. The company has
gone from startup status 5 years ago to
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for thermal conductivity
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4th Level Ventures and the Quinn retail
family.
LIFE SCIENCE
Adaptive LED lighting improves
aircraft cabin environment
Chronobiologically-adaptive SSL scenarios
in which the color and brightness of light-
ing is varied during long-distance over-
night fights results in passengers that sleep
better and are more alert upon arrival.
Partners Osram, Bergische Universitt
Wuppertal, the Fraunhofer Institute
for Building Physics, Airbus, and Diehl
Aerospace reached the conclusion of
improved wellbeing attributed to adaptive
LED lighting after tests in a model aircraft
cabin over a period of six days.
The team found that at the start of an
overnight fight that warm-white light helps
to stimulate melatonin production and
increases passenger relaxation. Indeed, the
warm lighting was noted to reduce the heart
rate in the test subjects and yield medically
measureable improvement in sleep patterns.
Te study further revealed that blue-rich
cold light in the morning increased alert-
ness. In part, the cooler light suppresses mel-
atonin production.
Te result for passen-
gers is better produc-
tivity or more enjoy-
ment over the course
of the arrival day after
a long trip.
Both psychologi-
cal and physiological
reactions were ana-
lyzed in the test sub-
jects. Te team used
medical instruments
to capture data such
as heart rate and
ECG measurements.
Tat data was analyzed alongside assess-
ments completed by the test subjects and
by observers of the tests. Te team believes
that the work can be applied using intelli-
gent SSL systems in aircraft to help mini-
mize passenger jet lag by maintaining nor-
mal circadian rhythms.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/10/1/1
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______________

LEDMAG012013
2013 Cirrus Logic, Inc. All rights reserved. Cirrus Logic,
Cirrus, the Cirrus Logic logo designs, TruDim and the
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*Based on internal testing by Cirrus Logic of
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 25
programs
funding
Rubicon Technology
closes $25 million secured
revolving credit facility
Rubicon Technology, Inc. (NASDAQ: RBCN),
a leading provider of sapphire substrates
and products to the LED, semiconductor,
and optical industries, has closed a three
year $25 million secured revolving credit
facility with Silicon Valley Bank.
This undrawn credit facility bolsters
Rubicons strong liquidity position, said
William Weissman, chief fnancial of cer of
Rubicon Technology. We believe it is pru-
dent to establish this additional fnancial
fexibility for the future, he concluded.
Rubicon currently has no debt. Te terms
and conditions of the credit facility will be
described in the companys flings with the
Securities and Exchange Commission.
page 26
Digital Lumens closes
$10 million round of
investment to support
continued expansion
Digital Lumens rung in the New Year with
150% growth in its customer base and a
further commitment from investors to
support the com-
panys success in
LED lighting. The
company had more
than 500 large-scale
installations of its
Intel l i gent LED
Lighting System
last year.
Accordi ng to
estimates by Canac-
cord Genuity in
the "Third Cycle
V2.2" the overall
LED lighting mar-
ket grew 94% from
2011 to 2012. Digital Lumens grew much
faster than the overall market as custom-
ers deployed the Digital Lumens solution
oftentimes with multi-site roll-outs
based on the companys growing repu-
tation and demonstrated energy savings.
As it prepared itself for more growth
in 2013, the company has closed a $10
million round of funding from existing
investors including Black Coral Capital,
Flybridge Capital Partners, and Stata
Venture Partners.
Tese impressive numbers are proof
that the lighting market is moving rap-
idly to LED, and that Digital Lumens
continues to set the standard for per-
formance, ef ciency, and value with our
customers, said Tom Pincince, President
and CEO of Digital Lumens. While we
have established a leadership position
in the industrial vertical, our integrated
intelligence is applicable to the entire
lighting market. We will use this latest
investment to accelerate our expansion
into new segments and international
markets, and to further develop our
product and service oferings.
SEMI publishes HB-LED standard
relating to sapphire substrates
Te HB-LED Standards Committee of SEMI,
the global semiconductor industry associa-
tion, has approved its frst LED-related stan-
dard, entitled SEMI HB1: Specifications
for Sapphire Wafers Intended for Use for
Manufacturing High Brightness-Light
Emitting Diode Devices.
Developed by the HB-LED Wafer Task
Force, SEMI HB1 defnes and specifes the
physical geometry of 150-mm-diameter sap-
phire wafers used in HB-LED manufactur-
ing. HB1 covers dimensional, wafer prep-
aration, and crystallographic orientation
characteristics, as well as the
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26 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
appropriate measurement methods.
The document was approved by the HB-
LED Committee during the North Amer-
ica Fall 2012 meetings, recently completed
procedural review and was to be published
in January 2013.
Improving manufacturing eff iciency
and reducing cost are critical to enabling
high-volume LED manufacturing, and
150-mm sapphire wafers represent a key
inf lection point.
Five categories of single-crystal, single-
side polished sapphire wafers are covered
in HB1, including: fatted 100-mm diame-
ter, 650-m thick, polished c-axis sapphire
wafers; fatted 150-mm diameter, 1000-m
thick, polished c-axis sapphire wafers; fat-
ted 150-mm diameter, 1300-m thick, pol-
ished c-axis sapphire wafers; notched 150-
mm diameter, 1000-m thick, polished
c-axis sapphire wafers; and notched 150-mm
diameter, 1300-m thick, polished c-axis
sapphire wafers.
SEMI believes that in order to reach the
full potential of LEDs, there is a need for the
global LED manufacturing supply chain to
collaborate on industry standards to elim-
inate unnecessary costs, and better enable
equipment and process innovation.
With this in mind, key industry stake-
holders created the SEMI HB-LED Stan-
dards Committee in late 2010. Te Com-
mittee and Task Forces are comprised of
industry leaders in HB-LED devices, sap-
phire wafers, MOCVD wafer processing,
and key equipment and materials suppli-
ers to the LED industry.
Since formation, the HB-LED Committee
has initiated Task Forces on wafers, carri-
ers, assembly and automation. Committee
co-chairs are: Iain Black (Philips Lumileds),
Chris Moore (Semilab), David Reid (Silian),
and Bill Quinn (WEQ). Ongoing activities
include the following:
HB-LED Wafer Task Force (TF)
Te HB-LED Wafer TF is already developing
a revision proposal for further refnements
to the HB1 standard including:
patterned sapphire substrate (PSS)-ready
specifcation for 100-mm and 150-mm wafers
double sided polished wafer specifcations
defnitions and specifcations of impurities
and defects (wafer and bulk)
laser marking and identifcation
specifcation
bow, warp measurements.
HB-LED Equipment
Automation Task Force
The Equipment Automation TF has
developed draft document 5420A enti-
tled Specification for Cassettes for 150
mm Sapphire Wafers Used in HB-LED
Manufacturing.
To minimize impact to the industry, the
TF is leveraging existing 150-mm silicon
cassette standards with minor revisions.
Tis will allow interoperability with exist-
ing 150-mm equipment and any other 150-
mm compatible products.
Considerations were taken around the
cassettes pocket size and spacing so that the
sapphire wafers can be successfully trans-
ferred between cassettes with automated
handling equipment. A cassette standard
will also enable standardization of load
ports and transport systems.
HB-LED Impurities &
Defects Task Force
Te Impurities & Defects TF will begin
experiments and test methods based on
responses to a survey aimed at identifying
sapphire wafer defects that are relevant
or important to HB-LED manufacturing,
as well as inspection techniques that can
be applied to identify, measure, or prevent
such defects.
Upcoming Meetings
The HB-LED Wafer TF, Equipment
Automation TF, and Impurities & Defects
TF will be meeting in conjunction with the
Strategies in Light conference (February
12-14, 2013) in Santa Clara, California.
Taiwan LED Safety Task Force
The LED Safety Task Force was char-
tered in late 2011 under the Taiwan EHS
(Environmental, Health, and Safety)
Committee to develop specifcations and
guidelines related to LED manufacturing
equipment. Te activities of the task force
will result in the development of an EHS
industry standard for equipment suppliers,
raw material suppliers, module makers and
other involved parties.
DOE Caliper report evaluates
LED PAR38 lamps
A recent Caliper report from the US
Department of Energy (DOE), which is
number 20 in the series, evaluates the
independently-tested photometric perfor-
mance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps.
Te Caliper program supports testing of a
wide array of solid-state lighting (SSL) prod-
ucts available for general illumination. A
summary of the series 20 results is available
for download from the DOE SSL website.
Te series 20 results show signifcant
improvement versus earlier Caliper testing
of similar products. All of the LED PAR38
lamps tested ofer substantial energy sav-
ings compared to halogen PAR38 lamps.
Some of the LED lamps had higher ef -
cacy than compact-fuorescent (CFL) or
ceramic-metal-halide (CMH) versions.
Te lumen output of many of the prod-
ucts was equivalent to 40W to 90W halo-
gen PAR38 lamps, and all emitted between
388 and 1363 lm. Ef cacy of the LED lamps
ranged from 26 to 79 lm/W, although all
except one of the products was between 44
and 79 lm/W.
Further, LED products are available that
cover the full range of conventional PAR38
beam angles, and that have appropriate
color quality, lumen output, and center
beam intensity.
The LED PAR38 lamps had luminous
intensity distributions ranging from narrow
(8 beam angle) to very wide (64 beam angle);
the suitability of these distributions depends
on the application, but the availability of nar-
row distributions is an important fnding.
In an improvement compared to earlier
testing, 37 of the 38 products had a power
factor higher than 0.70.
However, more options within specifc
product families would be benefcial, and
LED lamps with higher lumen output may
be necessary for specialty applications.
And, as usual, lower prices would also be
benefcial to enhance the penetration of
LED lamps into the market.
Beginning in 2012, each Caliper sum-
mary report focuses on a single product
type or application. Products are selected
with the intent of capturing the current
state of the marketa cross section rang-
ing from expected low- to high-perform-
ing productswith the bulk characteriz-
ing the average of the range.
SEMI from page 25
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 27
programs funding
Next Generation Streetlights guide covers
LED technology to fnancing
The Bay Area Climate Collaborative,
Energy Solutions, the California Lighting
Technology Center, and Public Financial
Management have partnered to produce a
guidebook for municipalities considering a
transition to SSL roadway lighting.
"Next generation streetlights: LED tech-
nology and strategies for action" is a new
guidebook intended to help municipalities
that are considering
installation of LED-
based street lights.
Te Bay Area Climate
Collaborative (BACC)
and Energy Solu-
tions co-authored
the solid-state light-
ing (SSL) guide with
assistance from the
California Lighting
Technology Center
(CLTC) at the Uni-
versity of California
at Davis and support
from Public Financial
Management.
Te guide was written
primarily to assist San Fran-
cisco Bay area municipalities that are con-
sidering SSL installations. But the guide
would be informative to any municipality
considering LED-based roadway lighting.
Te document covers topics ranging from
the basics of LED lighting technology to the
use of adaptive controls in roadway applica-
tions to fnancing options for SSL projects.
Te BACC and Energy Solutions have iden-
tifed more than 240,000 municipally-owned
fxtures in the Bay area that are ripe for con-
version. "Upgrading these street lights to
LEDs would yield annual energy savings of 60
million kWh, enough to power 10,000 single-
family California homes, said Ted Pope, vice
president at Energy Solutions. "Furthermore,
advanced controls networks that tune light
levels, communicate status and provide other
features can generate additional energy and
maintenance savings through smarter man-
agement of street-light systems."
A number of SSL manufacturers and the
Pacifc Gas and Electric utility are also part-
ners in the BACC-led Next Generation Street-
light Initiative that's focused on cata-
lyzing the conversion of more than
200,000 lights.
Te partners announced the new guide
at the recent Next Generation Streetlight
Workshop held in Hayward, CA. Hay-
ward is in the process of upgrading 8000
street lights to SSL. "We know how benef-
cial the upgrade to advanced street lights
is to a citys budget, to the environment,
and to public safety," says Morad Fakh-
rai, director of public works for the City of
Hayward. "We also know that a successful
transition can be complex. Tis guide is a
great resource and will be of great beneft
to all forward-thinking cities."
"A city such as Hayward with 8000 lights
could save $450,000 per year or more in power
and maintenance costs, improve lighting qual-
ity, and reduce its climate impacts," said Rafael
Reyes, BACC executive director. "Tis is a good
time for cities to act given the currently sub-
stantial incentives available, low cost of fnanc-
ing and very attractive payback times."
Te new guidebook is available in PDF form
on the BACC website. Te BACC is a public-
private initiative of the Silicon Valley Leader-
ship Group with backing from Bank of Amer-
ica, Pacifc Gas & Electric, and more than 70%
of the municipalities in the Bay area.
Previously GE Lighting announced a part-
nership with the BACC. "LED lighting has
been identifed as a top opportunity for excel-
lent fnancial, community and environmental
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__________________
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 29
programs funding
benefts, and GE has tremendous expertise on
ef cient lighting solutions," said Rafael Reyes,
executive director of the Bay Area Climate
Collaborative. "Trough our collaboration,
we will help local governments save millions
of dollars that can be reinvested to strengthen
the regional economy."
GE Lighting will support the program
with outreach programs and sharing of the
expertise that it has gained through many
SSL street-light projects such as the ongoing
Las Vegas project that covers 50,000 fxtures.
While we regularly write about impressive
numbers of LED street lights being installed
in the US and around the world, the transi-
tion is in its infancy.
DOE compares LED pendants
Te DOE has also completed a Caliper report
covering LED pendant lighting, testing 11
linear products available in both an LED and
fuorescent versions. Fluorescent products
typically ofer more diferent confgurations,
whereas LED are typically only available in
one or two lumen packages. Te report sug-
gests that, moving forward, LED products
would beneft from a wider range of lumen
packages.
Te luminous ef cacy of LED linear pen-
dants is often higher than the ef cacy of
their fuorescent counterparts. Te speci-
fed ef cacy for the surveyed LED luminaires
reached 85 lm/W, with measured ef cacy for
the products going as high as 79 lm/W.
EPA progresses on Energy Star luminaires
and lamps specifcations
Te US Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) has published version 1.2 of the
Energy Star luminaires specifcation and
released the third draft of version 1.0 of
the Energy Star lamps specification
both of which are being driven by the SSL
transition.
Te EPA continues to tune its Energy
Star specifications for lamps and lumi-
naires, and manufacturers of LED-based
lighting products that want to seek Energy
Star status have new targets. Version 1.2
of the Energy Star luminaires specifcation
guides the design of directional and non-
directional SSL fxtures while the Energy
Star lamps specifcation that is in draft
form targets retroft lamps.
Te lamps and luminaires specifcations
aren't specifc to SSL products, but LED-
based products are driving much of the
work in the specifcations, because of the
ef cacy and light output advancements in
SSL. Still, the EPA has backed of a bit in the
planned ef cacy ramp.
Version 1.2 of the luminaires specifca-
tion is available on the EPA website. One
major change is the elimination of the pre-
viously announced plans to mandate ef -
cacy of 70 lm/W by September 1, 2013.
The EPA has left the requirement at 65
lm/W until it considers version 2.0 of the
specifcation.
Te new version also eases light output
requirements of some directional lumi-
naires such as ceiling-fan lights with
multiple heads and chandeliers. In such
non-directional products, the specifca-
tion calls for measuring the performance
of the light source, whereas in directional
products the performance of the inte-
gral luminaire is measured. Te agency
noted that in the excepted applications,
the prior 800-lm minimum requirement
isn't appropriate.
Te third draft of Energy Star lamps ver-
sion 1.0 test methods has been released as
well. Tese test methods include the ele-
vated temperature life test, ambient tem-
perature life test, elevated temperature
light output ratio, start time, and run up
time. The new draft has language that
clarifes the products that are and are not
eligible for Energy Star recognition. Te
Elevated Temperature Life Test has been
modifed. Moreover, there are changes in
luminous intensity distribution require-
ments and in uniformity of color over angle
requirements.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 31
PanchoCucamonga,CA
800-84l-4565
1ackson,MS
800-858-l203
Marletta,GA
800-669-0624
Mlddletown,OH
877-669-3602
programs funding
Caliper 2012 year in review
Te DOE has released a year-in-review of
its Caliper program, and suggests that LED
products are becoming more ef cient, less
costly, and producing more light than ever
before.
In 2012, Caliper reports focused on a sin-
gle product type, rather than using a num-
ber of diferent lamps and luminaires in a
single summary report. By doing this Caliper
could provide more in-depth analysis of the
performance baseline of conventional prod-
ucts and the expectations for LED products.
Te LED products that were examined in
2012 included foodlights, AR111/PAR36 lamps,
downright retrofts, BR30/R30 lamps, linear
pendants, wallwashers, and PAR38 lamps.
Te DOE has reviewed years of Caliper
data and highlighted some trends, although
the agency warns that some of the points
may not be statistically meaningful. Still
the comparison shows where the SSL seg-
ment is trending.
One trend the DOE has noticed include
the rise of luminous ef cacy over the years,
though 2012 saw a drop of 3 lm/W (from
55 lm/W) that may have been caused by
the inclusion of recessed downlight wall-
washers, which generally have a lower ef -
cacy regardless of their light source. Other
trends include a steady rise in CRI, with
the average rising 2 points this year to 82,
increased availability of appropriate CCTs,
and an increase in input power from a mean
of 7.7W (lamps only) in 2011 to 14.2W (lamps
only) in 2012.
Caliper has also identifed some of the
possible limitations current LED oferings
have. Tese limitations include LED prod-
ucts lacking the modularity of conventional
products, a lack of lumen package options,
the initial cost of LEDs, and inaccurate man-
ufacturer claims.
When compared to other years, the 2012
Caliper reports suggest that price is being
reduced, and the lumen output of LED lamps
is increasing. Te Caliper data shows that,
while LED products have gotten much more
competitive since 2006, there is still con-
stant improvement in quality, cost effec-
tiveness, ef cacy, and control features.
DOE updates the latest L Prize lamp
test results, rebate offers
Te DOE has released another update of
its testing of the Philips Lighting LED
60W-equivalent retroft lamp that won
the L Prize. Te tests have reached what
the agency considers the equivalent of
18 years of household use with no fail-
ures. Te DOE also released a summary
of rebates available for the SSL product
that range as high as $20 per lamp.
After 20,000 hours of operation, the
full lot of 200 sample lamps are all still
operating. Moreover, the DOE said that
average lumen maintenance remains
above 100% of their initial output. The
tests are being conducted in an envi-
ronment where the ambient tempera-
ture is maintained at 45C.
Based on typical household lamp use
that averages three hours per day, the
DOE says that the 20,000 hours is equiv-
alent to 18 years of residential usage.
Such a lifetime makes the lamp price
more palatable with Home Depot cur-
rently selling the product for $30.
Of course the price is even more attrac-
tive for consumers that can snare one of
the rebates being ofered by certain util-
ities around the US. Ef ciency Vermont
is ofering a $20 rebate through Home
Depot stores in the state. Te Southern
Minnesota Municipal Power Agency is
ofering businesses a $20 rebate and con-
sumers a $15 rebate.
Puget Sound Energy in Washing-
ton State is offering consumers a $10
rebate plus a $5 discount coupon usable
at Home Depot stores, as well as a $20
rebate for business customers. The L
Prize website includes a complete list
with other offers in Illinois, Colorado,
and Massachusetts.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 33
lighting
|
RETROFIT LAMPS
L
ED-based retroft lamps remain the
most popular topic in the solid-state
lighting (SSL) industry, despite the fact
that a form factor such as the A-lamp does
little to support the inherent advantages
of LED sources. Still, the huge number of
retroft-lamp sockets installed around the
globe make the retroft lamp important to
both lamp manufacturers and users looking
to proliferate SSL tech-
nology and save
energy. And while
the basic size and
type of socket may
be f i xed, manu-
facturers are tak-
ing vastly different
approaches to try and
win in what could be a
short-lived market.
Many of the lamp-
design topics we will dis-
cuss here could be exam-
ined relative to many
different types of retro-
ft lamps. Te potential list
includes LED-based tubes
designed for linear f luores-
cent sockets and directional
and refector products such as PAR, MR, and
BR lamps. In this article, however, we will
focus on omnidirectional A-lamps that are
the most prevalent lamp in use.
You need look no further than at a list of
the most popular articles on the LEDs Mag-
azine website for 2012 (www.ledsmagazine.
com/news/9/12/21) for proof of the appeal of
the topic at hand. More than 25% of the top
20 list had a retroft lamp focus.
But ironically, the opportunity for com-
panies to sell retroft lamps is inherently
limited. Socket saturation will occur fairly
quickly. As weve reported previously, out-
spoken Tempo Industries CEO Terry Walsh
predicted saturation within fve years at Te
LED Show last summer (www.ledsmaga-
zine.com/features/9/10/8).
Saturation will happen for two reasons.
First, demand will drop as long-lasting LED
lamps become predominant and dont need
to be replaced often. Second, purpose-built
SSL luminaires will make much better use of
LED sources and will become increasingly
popular even in residential applications. For
all of those retroft-lamp startups out there
burning through venture money, the mes-
sage had better be get to market quickly. And
for companies such as Philips Lighting, that
may have invested more than anyone in ret-
roft lamp development, good job but get your
money back in a hurry.
In actuality, there is still a huge oppor-
tunity. In a report issued in April
2012, Strategies Unlim-
ited reported t hat
there were $2. 2 bil-
lion in LED-based ret-
roft lamps sold in 2011.
The report projects 30%
annual growth through
2016. But saturation could
happen shortly after the 2016
timeframe.
Lamp design
Having covered the market a
bit, lets transition to a discus-
sion of the products and design
approaches. We will start with
Philips because of the noted suc-
cess the company has had including
with the US Department of Energy (DOE) L
Prize winning lamp and the latest change to
their design approach.
Philips has built retrofit lamps using
a number of approaches, but is proba-
bly best known for the remote-phosphor-
based designs that have a yellow or orange
tint when powered of. As we covered in a
recent contributed article, remote-phos-
phor designs that combine very ef cient blue
LEDs with phosphor on a secondary optic,
provide an ef cacy advantage over designs
that use phosphor-converted white LEDs
(www.ledsmagazine.com/features/9/7/6).
Moreover, remote phosphor can provide
Varying approaches to LED
retroft lamps show no limit
After the incandescent lamp changed little in more than a hundred years, emerging SSL lamps show
remarkably diverse approaches in attempts to replace the incumbent, reports MAURY WRIGHT.
MAURY WRIGHT is the Editor of LEDs
Magazine.
FIG. 1. Philips Lighting has taken different
design approaches on the L Prize-winning
lamp, the EnduraLED family, and the new
Energy Saving LED A19 lamp (left to right).
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34 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
lighting
|
RETROFIT LAMPS
more consistent color main-
tenance because the phos-
phor is not subject to
the heat generated by
the LED, and therefore
doesnt shift in color
over time.
The Philips remote-
phosphor design was frst
revealed several years back
when the company announced
their entry into the L Prize com-
petition for a 60W-equivalent
retroft lamp. Te company frst
commercialized the technol-
ogy in the lamps sold under the
EnduraLED and Ambient LED
brands in different parts of the
globe. Later, the company com-
mercialized the L Prize winner that
had to meet higher standards than
the Energy Star-compliant
EnduraLED products.
Fig. 1 shows the L Prize
lamp on the left and the
EnduraLED lamp in the
center. Te products share
the same shape and both
are based on three illumination chambers
with air-f low channels between the seg-
ments for cooling. Te LEDs are mounted
near the center axis of the lamp in each
segment on a vertical circuit board thats
approximately perpendicular to the center
axis. Te LEDs are directed outward and
slightly upwards and downwards to deliver
an omnidirectional beam.
There are, however, significant differ-
ences in the designs. Te L Prize lamp uses
a diferent phosphor composition, and adds
some red LEDs to deliver the combination
of the high 90 CRI required by the L Prize
rules along with ef cacy over 90 lm/W. Te
lower-cost EnduraLED product uses a phos-
phor that absorbs more of the blue LED light,
still delivers the warm 2700K CCT, but ofers
less lumen output and lower ef cacy.
Philips new architecture
Interestingly, Philips just announced a new
60W-equivalent lamp family at the end of
2012 that maintains the general shape of the
prior lamps, but that is white in the of state
(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/10). Te
new design also eliminates the segmented
approach (Fig. 1 on right).
Competitors had cer-
tainly questioned the look
of the remote-phosphor
lamps. And some speci-
fiers would be unlikely
to use the lamps in fx-
tures where the lamps
are exposed. The Home
Depot retailer even installed
signs near EnduraLED lamps
explaining to customers that
the yellow or orange lamps emit-
ted white light when powered
on. Philips insisted all along that
performance was more impor-
tant than the of-state appearance
of the remote-phosphor lamps. But
the new design could mean that the
company felt pressure to ofer lamps
with more of a legacy look.
Todd Manegold, director
of LED lamps marketing at
Philips Lighting, said, We
have been focused on repli-
cating traditional sources.
He said the company frst
attacked the problem of
delivering equivalent performance and
the warm CCT of incandes-
cent lamps, and now is
addressing aesthetics.
Despite the similar
shape of the lamps,
whi ch Manegol d
referred to as iconic
and easi ly recog-
nized as a Philips LED
lamp, the new Philips
Energy Saving LED A19
lamps are much differ-
ent internally. Te LEDs
are mounted on a plane per-
pendicular to the center axis
of the lamp, projecting light
upwards into the light chamber.
Te optic itself must ensure that
the lamps still deliver an omnidi-
rectional distribution. And clearly
the design works, because the
2700K version that Philips calls
Soft White has already gained
Energy Star status and Energy
Star requires an omnidirec-
tional beam distribution.
Philips is still using remote phosphor on
the 2700K lamp, but the phosphor is applied
on an inner dome that isnt readily visible.
Te 5000K Daylight version of the lamp sim-
ply uses phosphor-converted LEDs. Mane-
gold said that the company would be updat-
ing its 75W- and 100W-equivalent lamps
to use the new design down the road,
although the company just began shipping
the 100W-equivalent EnduraLED product in
December as we will discuss a bit later.
Best Buy Insignia lamp
While Philips moved to a planar mounting
scheme for its LEDs, another new lamp on
the market, the Insignia lamp from retailer
Best Buy, took yet another approach to ver-
tically mounting LEDs for good light distri-
bution. Insignia is retailer Best Buys house
brand for many types of consumer electron-
ics including TVs. In November the company
announced the SSL lamp along with Cree
who is supplying the LEDs for the lamp.
Te design looks white and somewhat like
a traditional lamp, although you can clearly
see the lamp is broken into three globe seg-
ments separated by what are apparently
cooling surfaces (Fig. 2). What isnt apparent
is that the LEDs are mounted on the inside
of those surfaces shining at the
globe segment on the oppo-
site side of the lamp. Tere
is nothing in the center of
the globe. The result is
a well performing 13W
lamp with a good omni-
directional beam and a
price of $16.99 for a 800-
lm 60W equivalent. Best
Buy also ofers a 9W, 450-
lm 40W-equivalent lamp.
Reviews have been gener-
ally positive for the dimming
performance as well. Te design
team behind the product remains
unknown at this point. While Cree
participated in the announcement,
the company said it did not design
the lamp. The company did per-
form its Thermal, Electri-
cal, Mechanical, Photomet-
ric and Optical (TEMPO)
test suite on the design
(www.ledsmagazine.com/
news/8/9/32). And Best
FIG. 2. The Insignia lamp
from Best Buy mounts Cree
LEDs inside the vertical
cooling surfaces directed at
the globe on the opposite
side of the lamp.
FIG. 3. Rambus has used
a cylindrical MicroLens
light guide implemented
in three segments in an
SSL A-lamp design.
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_________
UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC. 2012. BDI 21118
Partner with innovation.
As your committed partner in a rapidly evolving industry, UL is providing innovative solutions
for the entire lighting industry supply chain, including manufacturers, industry associations,
retailers, designers, contractors, end-users, showrooms and consumers. We commit to:
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36 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
lighting
|
RETROFIT LAMPS
Buy said it is designed to meet Energy Star
requirements and that certifcation is under
way. Like most of the Insignia products, the
lamp is being made by an unnamed contract
manufacturer.
Rambus MicroLens
Another new approach to retrofit lamps
comes courtesy of Rambus. Te company is
an intellectual property (IP) specialist that
doesnt manufacture products but rather
licenses technology to other manufactur-
ers. Its play in the lighting segment is a light
guide technology called MicroLens that car-
ries rays from the LED sources and includes
small optical elements embedded within the
layers of the guide to defect some rays and
provide a naturally difuse light.
MicroLens has primarily been used thus
far to develop fat planar lighting. GE Light-
ing is one licensee and recently announced
a pendant luminaire based on the technol-
ogy (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/11/17).
Cooper Lighting and Fern-Howard have also
licensed the technology.
In the case of the A-lamp
that Rambus introduced at
the Consumer Electronics
Show in Las Vegas, Rambus
has manufactured a pilot
run of an end product but
will still look to partners to
ultimately bring the prod-
uct to market. Elite Group
will be the initial source for
a 60W-equivalent A19 lamp
due in the second quarter.
The retrofit lamp uses
three cylindrically shaped
MicroLens segments that essentially form
a cylindrical lamp (Fig. 3). The LEDs are
mounted in a circular fashion around the
base of the lamp shining upwards into the
light guide.
Rambus believes that it has an approach
that will be cheaper to manufacture com-
pared to other LED lamps. Our unique
design has all the benefts of the best LED
technology available and offers a signifi-
cant bill of materials cost savings, said Jef-
fery Parker, president of the Rambus Light-
ing and Display Technology division.
Tat claim of course depends on the cost
of making the light guide. Moreover, its not
clear that the design could meet Energy Star
requirements that require uniform lumi-
nous intensity over a range of 0 to 135 with
0 being the top of the lamp. Te lamp should
deliver an even beam around the circumfer-
ence of the cylinder. But its not clear that it
could generate uniform light upwards and
downwards.
3M LED Advanced Light
Te Rambus lamp is the second product
announced in the second half of 2012 to use
light guide technology the frst being from
another surprise market entrant 3M (www.
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/8/21). Te giant
company is a materials specialist, and evi-
dently saw a good chance to use a number
of its materials technologies in a fast-grow-
ing market segment despite the fact that it
hasnt previously sold lighting products.
The approach depicted in Fig. 4 greatly
simplifes the driver design, as the driver is
FIG. 4. Materials
specialist 3M was frst
to use a light guide in a
retroft lamp, mounting
the LEDs in the base.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 37
lighting
|
RETROFIT LAMPS
located in the relatively spacious globe. Most
other SSL retroft lamps cram the driver into
the base and/or neck of the lamp. The 3M
design allows air to fow into the lamp just
above the base and exit through slots in the
upper half of the globe cooling both the LEDs
and the driver.
Te LEDs are mounted facing upwards
around the circumference of the neck of the
lamp shining upwards into the light guide.
A number of 3M materials are used in the
lamp including optically clear adhesives
used on the globe. Te design also uses 3Ms
Enhanced Specular Refector material in the
light engine. And the design uses 3M electri-
cal connectors.
Te result is an 800-lm lamp that is being
sold at many Walmart stores for $25. 3M is
offering both 3000K and 5000K versions.
Te warm-white version requires ten LEDs
to deliver the specifed fux, while the cool-
white version uses nine LEDs.
100W-equivalent race
Perhaps the most exciting news over the
course of 2012 in the retrofit lamp area
was the race to ofer the LED equivalent
of a 100W lamp. Government regulatory
guidelines around the globe are forcing
100W incandescent lamps from the mar-
ket. Ironically, such regulatory agencies
targeted 100W lamps frst because they use
more energy than lower-wattage lamps. But
those higher-output lamps are also harder
to design with LEDs because of the require-
ment of delivering on the order of 1600 lm
and handling the associated thermal issues
drawing heat away from the LEDs to
ensure reliable operation. Te industry has
eagerly sought an LED-based alternative.
Back at Lightfair International last May,
we witnessed dueling 100W-equivalent news
releases from the likes of GE Lighting, Switch
Lighting, Philips Lighting, Lighting Science
Group and Osram Sylvania (www.ledsmag-
azine.com/news/9/5/4). Most pledged to be
frst to market, but commercial delivery was
far from certain in 2012.
It turns out that Osram Sylvania won the
race by a nose over Philips Lighting (www.
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/11/6). In mid
November some Lowes retail stores had
the Sylvania Ultra LED 20W A21 lamps on
shelves. Philips EnduraLED lamps shipped
to Home Depot starting December 1. Te
other contenders have yet to ship products.
Sylvania Ultra LED
Te Sylvania product (Fig. 5) outputs 1600
lm with ef cacy of 80 lm/W. It has a CRI of
80, color temperature of 2700K and is dim-
mable to 10%. Te company said that based
on the 25,000-hr rated life, the lamp would
save consumers $220 over its life relative to
an incandescent lamp.
Todays announcement from Osram Syl-
vania shows a commitment to providing
high quality, energy saving products, said
FIG. 5. Osram won the race to deliver a
100W-equivalent lamp in the Sylvania
Ultra LED 20W A21 product.
FIG. 6. GE Lighting will use a SynJet
active cooler in its 100W-equivalent A19
lamp due on the market soon.
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___
_____________________
_______________
38 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
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RETROFIT LAMPS
Phil Rioux, Osram vice president of
lamps and general lighting. We
have a deep understanding of the
challenges facing businesses and
consumers, such as saving energy
and reducing electricity bills with-
out sacrifcing quality of light.
Te Sylvania design, like many other
SSL retrofit lamps, uses a segmented
architecture that mixes cooling channels
and the optic globe. It is white in the of
state and could probably pass for a legacy
frosted light bulb.
You may note in the product name that the
Sylvania lamp is in the A21 form factor as opposed
to the A19 form factor that is most common in res-
idential incandescent lamps. A21 lamps can have
slightly longer necks than A19 lamps. Te slight size dif-
ference matters little in many applications because they
both use the same Edison socket base. But A21 lamps wont
ft in every application.
Te Philips 100W-equivalent is also an A21 lamp. It
delivers 1780 lm consuming 22W. Sylvania also wins
the ef cacy race by a nose.
GE Lighting, for its part in the race, said all along
that it would be sometime in 2013 before it delivered
the 1600-lm Energy Smart LED lamp (Fig. 6). But
the company has steadfastly promised an A19 size.
Ironically, the company will add components to the
design to reach the smaller size.
GE has invested in Nuventix and licensed the com-
panys SynJet technology that includes active cooling
devices that create pulses of air. GE will use a SynJet in
its 1600-lm lamp and that active cooling will allow the
company to minimize the size of the heat sinks used
and hit the A19 form factor.
Te architecture comes at a price both in bill of
materials and ef cacy. GE hasnt said what the lamp
will cost, but the SynJet cooler will increase the com-
ponents costs over passive heat sinks. Moreover, the
1600-lm design will use 27W because the SynJet
does use a small amount of energy.
The startup dilemma
Returning to a theme we struck early on, new players in
the retroft lamp space face the challenge of trying to get to mar-
ket quickly with an innovative design, and capturing share prior
to saturation. No company is more instructive in the process than
Switch Lighting.
We featured Switch Lighting on the cover of LEDs Magazine back
in June of 2011 after their lamp design debuted in April of 2011. Te
design story was very compelling. Te company would fll the globe
of its lamp with liquid to draw heat away from the LEDs. At Te LED
Show last summer, CEO Tracy Bilbrough revealed the liquid to be sil-
icone based (www.illuminationinfocus.com/news/3/8/3).
Te company has introduced 40W-, 60W-, 75W-, and 100W-equiv-
alent lamps as well as a novel LED 3-way lamp. Indeed, the company
was the frst of the retroft lamp players to tout a 100W-equivalent
lamp. But only in the fall of 2012 did Switch began to sell lamps com-
mercially. Te Switch40 sells for $42.99, the Switch60 sells for $49.99,
and the Switch75 sells for $58.99. Te Switch100 is priced at $65.99
but still isnt readily available.
Te reason for the delays in shipping are basically unknown to
anyone outside the company. Surely the design is complex, and the
pricing supports that fact. Seeing sample lamps over the course of
20 months, its apparent that the design went through a number of
changes. Te LEDs that are mounted facing outward around the cen-
ter of the globe were once installed on aluminum fngers. Some type
of printed-circuit board has replaced those fngers.
Fortunately for Switch, the company had an early start in the
retroft lamp race. Tey still have an opportunity to make money
assuming the lamps deliver on the promised specs. A startup enter-
ing the market today facing a two year development cycle would
have a tough time recouping the R&D expense with socket satura-
tion looming.
FIG. 7. Switch Lighting uses a silicone-based liquid inside the
globe of its retroft lamps to cool the LEDs drawing heat to
the surface of the globe.
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40 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
luminaire design | WAVEGUIDES
M
HA Lighting has developed a
unique LED approach that opens
up the use of solid-state lighting
(SSL) in new areas and applications which
competitors are failing to address with the
same level of ef ciency. Using patented intel-
lectual property (IP), MHA Lighting is the
only known LED lighting manufacturer to
shine light sideways into an encapsulation,
rather than directly outwards. Tis avoids
direct eye-contact of the light source, and
provides a safe and ef cient light output. Te
fexibility of its patented technology allows
MHA Lighting to replace fuorescent fttings
and other conventional lighting technolo-
gies, in both indoor and outdoor applica-
tions, while meeting all relevant standards.
MHA uses a light-waveguide technology
in which the LED light is emitted sideways
into acrylic rods. Tis is achieved using spe-
cially-designed, linear, printed circuit boards
in which the sections containing the LEDs are
bent at 90 from the main sections. Te PCBs
can be interlocked so that two LEDs on verti-
cal sections can sit back to back (Fig. 1).
The LED-containing extensions of the
PCBs are then inserted into matching holes
in an acrylic rod (Fig. 2). For obvious rea-
sons, MHA describes its technology as Rods
with Holes. Te LEDs emit sideways into the
rod. Emission from the rod is controlled by a
refective coating which is designed accord-
ing to the desired light distribution. In this
way, light is emitted from the length of the
rod in a uniform manner.
Te technology overcomes the problem of
directionality, and achieves a light distribu-
tion of such high uniformity that it is better
than traditional fttings. Luminaires create
a wide, rugby-ball shape of light to pro-
vide exceptional uniformity which for most
applications, both internal and external, is
crucially important.
Te light-waveguide technology used by
MHA fts in with a growing industry trend of
maximizing useful lumens, where light is
directed ef ciently to specifc locations. Tis is
in contrast to traditional light sources, which
are typically omnidirectional and wasteful.
Unique approach
MHAs l i ght-waveguide technology
approach difers from technologies used
by other LED luminaire manufacturers,
which usually shine light directly out of the
fxture or scatter the light through an opti-
cal difuser.
Direct emission: In this approach the
LEDs are usually arranged in a cluster or
matrix to shine their light directly out of
the ftting. Te earliest forms of LED-based
halogen-replacement downlights and fu-
orescent-tube replacements utilized this
approach with mixed results. The light
MHA Lighting takes unique
approach to LED fxture design with
Rods with Holes technology
A UK-based LED lighting manufacturer is using a unique light-waveguide approach in which LED
light is shone sideways into acrylic rods. In turn, these light-emitting rods provide a uniform light
distribution, explains TIM WHITAKER.
TIM WHITAKER is an Editorial Consultant with
LEDs Magazine.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 41
output was limited and in many cases the
LEDs would overheat, or the individual light
sources were too bright, leaving an uncom-
fortable after-image for the viewer.
LEDs obscured by a diffuser: In this
approach, the LEDs are located behind a dif-
fuser so that the light source is masked from
the observer. In principle this approach pro-
duces the least amount of glare, as the LEDs
are hidden. However, the difuser introduces
losses to the system (reducing the ef ciency
by 20-30% or more). It also
inhibits control of the
beam direction, which
tends to be dominated by
the characteristics and
design of the difuser.
The MHA approach to
luminaires difers signif-
icantly from either of the
above methods. Te tech-
nology relies on refecting
the light internally and
using the optical prop-
erties of the acrylic rod before the light is
emitted in a uniform manner.
The LEDs are arranged to shine their
light sideways within the optic so that
only a small proportion of the light is emit-
ted directly from the ftting. Te remain-
ing light waves are guided and then subse-
quently refected out.
Tis approach optimizes the
utilization of light from the
LED source and also allows for
an exceptionally good degree of
beam control and uniformity
of light. Tis minimizes light
wastage and light pollution.
Te refector plays a crucial role in MHAs
technology as it is Lambertian in its refec-
tance, meaning it is difusely refective like
a matte object, as opposed to a mirror-like
refector that exhibits specular refection.
Te optical waveguide ef ciency of MHAs
Rod with Holes technology is very high and
has been evaluated extensively at the UK
National Physical Laboratory in Tedding-
ton, London. Optical ef ciency was found
to be in a range of 75-85% depending on
the specifc system confguration and the
required degree of directional beam control.
Tis ef ciency factor includes all the loss
factors associated with the light path from
the LED to the task plane. By comparison,
conventional difuser-based systems may
have ef ciencies as low as 50-60%, greatly
reducing the overall light output from the
ftting. Light difusers also tend to inhibit
any kind of directional beam control, and
this may be an important consideration for
efective overall light deployment.
Te design fexibility inherent in this tech-
FIG. 3. MHA Lightings
TiLite luminaires, with 80 CRI
and 4000K color temperature,
replaced T5 fuorescent
fttings in Scott Safetys UK
factory (www.ledsmagazine.
com/press/37007).
FIG. 1. LEDs are mounted
on PCBs on sections that
are bent at 90 to the main
board. Pairs of LEDs are
inserted into matching holes
in acrylic rods.
FIG. 2. In MHAs
Rod with Holes
technology, LED
light shines
sideways into acrylic
rods and is emitted
uniformly along the
length of the rod.
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42 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
LED manufacturing
|
LARGE SUBSTRATES
nology facilitates secondary benefts when
used in specifc tasks. For example, in street
lighting, it is possible to use lower mount-
ing heights, to reduce light pollution, reduce
glare and focus light on the task area.
Te technology ofers a high degree of
light uniformity of which the beam angle
can be adjusted by a simple modifcation of
the refector. Tis has the additional bene-
ft in internal applications, where it is pos-
sible to direct light away from windows
and concentrate it in required areas or in
external applications, such as garage fore-
courts, where light can be refected inwards
to avoid light pollution.
Visual appearance
In tandem with the beam-control character-
istics, the Rod with Holes approach creates a
luminaire where light output is perceived as
emanating from a light strip or bar, rather
than from each individual LED. When indi-
vidual LEDs can be seen directly, very power-
ful after-images can be produced along with
eye discomfort and glare. Te MHA approach
yields optimum lighting in an aesthetically-
pleasing manner, with fttings that are just as
pleasant to look at as a fuorescent.
Te high optical ef ciency of the MHA
waveguide system results in comparatively
high luminous efficacies (i.e. luminaire
lumen output per circuit watt), and thereby
a very good energy-saving performance
overall. Tis is true even against very ef -
cient fuorescent lighting systems, such as
T5s. In addition to the energy savings there
is an accompanying saving in maintenance
costs as there is no need for maintenance for
a lighting system that is predicted to last as
long as 10-15 years.
Te Rod with Holes technology encour-
ages a luminaire design in which thermal
management can be achieved via a simple
passive heat-sinking method. Te surface
area of the aluminum ftting acts as the
heat-sink, and there is no need for active
thermal control or an excessively heavy
fnned heat-sink, for example.
The MHA approach is unique in this
respect and can facilitate distinctive
designs with aesthetic appeal. Essen-
tially, MHA has a light engine that can be
adapted to suit any footprint, depending on
the application. Te company rarely has to
carry out any new product development, as
the product range essentially uses variants
of the same light engine.
FIG. 4. LED light fttings consuming 67W from MHA Lighting have replaced 170W SON
fttings at Bournemouth Airport in the UK (www.ledsmagazine.com/products/37283).
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___________
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Welcome to a new era in smart connectivity NECTOR power systems from TE Connectivity. NECTOR interconnects
give you the power to connect every oor of your intelligent building in smarter ways than ever before. Their compact
shape and smart design allow you to seamlessly integrate lighting, power and data throughout any retail, commercial
or ofce environment. With the TE NECTOR product family, the possibilities are endless.
Watch the NECTOR video to see the future of power and luminaire design at NectorPower.com
EASY. FAST. COMPACT. (All this, and brains too.)
2013 Tyco Electronics Corporation, All Rights Reserved. NECTOR, TE Connectivity and the TE connectivity (logo) are trademarks.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 45
T
he American National Standard
Institute (ANSI) is currently devel-
oping a standard datasheet for white
LEDs used for general illumination, that can
in turn help the solid-state lighting (SSL)
industry overcome obstacles to broader
deployment. Datasheets are an important for-
mat for LED manufacturers to present prod-
uct information and characteristics to users.
Over the years, more and more LED man-
ufacturers have entered the general light-
ing market, and in almost all cases they use
datasheets to communicate with users and
assist them in selecting and implementing
LEDs in lamps, light engines or luminaires.
In the past, the information LEDs manufac-
turers have provided in these datasheets has
not been consistent, and as such, users have
expressed concern over lack of fair compari-
sons when selecting LEDs.
In the general lighting industry, most of
the components used in lighting products
have been standardized by ANSI such as
bulb shape, base, etc. Moreover ANSI has
defned all major characteristics, such as
voltage, wattage, etc.
LEDs for lighting applications, on the
other hand, are still rapidly evolving. At
least for now, ANSI has decided not to stan-
dardize LED package shape, footprint or
other physical parameters, which might
restrict further technology and product
development. Instead, the proposed ANSI
LED datasheet standard seeks to standard-
ize the information being communicated
between LED manufacturers and the rest
of the industry to ensure that fair and con-
sistent comparisons can be made by LED
users. In developing the ANSI LED data-
sheet standard, the ANSI Working Group
proposed: The purpose is
to specify the standardized
white LED package data-
sheet, or data reporting for-
mat, as the means of com-
munication between LED
package producers and
users. Te defned contents
and format of the datasheet
shall be followed.
There are some who
argue the necessity of such
standardization. One con-
cern is that a standard-
ized datasheet may bury some liabilities
for the claims made by LED manufactur-
ers. Another concern is whether there are
suf cient standards to be referenced when
obtaining or measuring the characteris-
tics and properties listed in the datasheet.
After extensive discussions, however, the
experts from participating LED manufac-
turers principally agreed that an ANSI stan-
dard datasheet can be a practical approach
which will beneft the SSL industry. In addi-
tion, the establishment of some critical
standards for testing LEDs will be largely
helpful for LED manufacturers in consis-
tently obtaining the LED characteristics to
be listed in the datasheets.
Based on a broad view of datasheets cur-
rently published by major LED manufac-
turers and a general consensus from LED
industry experts, the con-
tents of the proposed ANSI
LED standard datasheet
are defined and grouped
into three areas: perfor-
mance and operational
characteristics; physical
and electrical connection
characteristics; and usage
recommendations. Te stan-
dard also recommends that
the performance charac-
teristics be obtained by the
established (or to be estab-
lished) industry standards. For example, the
photometric and colorimetric characteris-
tics should be measured by IES LM-85 (to be
published); thermal characteristics should
be measured by JEDS51-51; and lumen and
color maintenance should be measured by
IES LM-80. Te standard datasheet will also
list optional characteristics that LED manu-
facturers may want to, but do not necessar-
ily need to disclose.
In the performance characteristics area,
the standard datasheet frst addresses pho-
tometric performance. LED manufactur-
ers are required to provide information for
correlated color temperature (CCT) ver-
sus luminous f lux, color binning, lumi-
nous intensity distribution, luminous fux
changes versus forward current and ver-
sus temperature, color changes versus for-
ward current or versus temperature, and
luminous ef cacy versus forward current
ANSI works to standardize LED
datasheet for white LEDs
JIANZHONG JIAO reports that the ANSI standards body hopes to facilitate the communications of
pertinent component characteristics between LED manufacturers and SSL product developers.
DR. JIANZHONG JIAO, Director of Regulations and Emerging Technologies at OSRAM Opto
Semiconductors, Inc., is an internationally recognized lighting expert. He has been actively
involved in LED and SSL standard development activities. He serves as the past Chairman of the
SAE Lighting Committee, past Chairman of NGLIA, past Chairman of the NEMA SSL Technical
Committee, active member of IESNA Testing Procedure Committee, Roadway Lighting Committee,
and Computer Committee, ANSI SSL Working Groups, Standard Technical Panel of UL8750,
standard committees in IEEE, CIE USA, SEMI, JEDEC and other organizations. He can be reached
at jianzhong.jiao@osram-os.com
standards
|
LED DATASHEETS
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46 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
standards
|
LED DATASHEET
(as optional).
Some information is to be presented in a
table format, and other in a graphic format.
For example, for each listed CCT, whether
it is within, or in addition to ANSI C78.377
specifications, LEDs luminous f lux, CRI
values and corresponding product codes
are listed in a table format. Another exam-
ple is that the LED spectral power distribu-
tion (SPD) is provided in a graphic format.
Even though SPD may not be directly used
to design LED lamps or luminaires, it has
been widely acknowledged that LED users,
including lighting designers, fnd value in
reviewing SPD information. Te luminous
intensity in angular or spatial distribution
is also presented in the graphic format.
It is widely expected that LED lumen and
color maintenance information is needed
for designing SSL products. However, this
information can take over eight months of
LM-80 testing to become available. As such,
when new LEDs are launched for production
and the corresponding datasheets are pub-
lished, lumen maintenance test data is typ-
ically not yet available. Tus, the ANSI stan-
dard does not require lumen maintenance
information to be provided on the data-
sheet. LED manufacturers have the option
of providing this information if the previous
LM-80 data and TM-21 projection for lumen
maintenance of a similar LED product may
be used as a reference.
Because LEDs are temperature depen-
dent devices, thermal degrading is a criti-
cal design element. As such, all temperature
related characteristic changes will be listed
in the datasheet, often in a graphic format.
For the operational characteristics, the
datasheet will list operating limits, ther-
mal and electrical characteristics, forward
voltage versus forward current, forward
voltage binning, forward current versus
temperature, and forward voltage versus
temperature.
Next, the datasheet covers the physical
and electrical connection characteristics
including mechanical characteristics and
electrical diagram. It is required that the
LEDs physical properties, such as dimen-
sions, tolerances, locations of optical center,
anode and cathode, thermal pad, and elec-
trical connections, be shown in a graphic
format, so users can visualize the LEDs
physical appearance. Te electrical diagram
that indicates external electrical connec-
tion points is also required and a diagram
of the internal diode is recommended. Tis
information helps users properly connect
LEDs to the overall electronic systems used
in LED lamps, light engines or luminaires.
Te datasheet also describes the usage
recommendation. As the LED assembly
process can have an impact on overall per-
formance, a soldering temperature profle
must be provided with the acceptable tem-
perature variation versus time for the LED
during the soldering process. Exceeding the
allowed temperature during soldering can
induce short term damage or a long term
impact on LED lumen maintenance.
LED packing information is also needed
for users to purchase LEDs. Tis informa-
tion may include mechanical diagrams
that show dimensions, number of LEDs
per package and packing format if LEDs
are packed as tape and reel, tray, tube, or
another format. Optionally, the standard
also recommends LED manufacturers pro-
vide information for how the LEDs should
be handled, including equipment, ESD, etc.,
as well as what the environmental condi-
tions should be for storage.
The intent of the ANSI LED standard
datasheet is to ensure LED manufactur-
ers provide accurate, consistent and reli-
able product information, including the
order or sequence of that information. It is
not ANSIs desire to put additional burdens
on LED manufacturers when establishing
standard datasheets and the ANSI Work-
ing Group is diligently working to achieve
the balance between benefts and burdens
of such standardization. All parties involved
hope that consistent communication the
ANSI LED standard datasheet between
LED manufacturers and users will be a valu-
able tool to further assist the growth of the
SSL industry.
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___________________________________
______________________
Worldwide/Americas Headquarters 109 Corporate Boulevard South Plainfield, NJ 07080 USA +1-814-946-1611 Dial 0 www.alpha.alent.com
European Headquarters Forsyth Road Sheerwater Woking GU215RZ United Kingdom +44-1483-758-400
Asia-Pacific Headquarters 8/F, Paul Y. Centre 51 Hung To Road Kwun Tong Kowloon, Hong Kong +852-3190-3100
2013 Alpha
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The applications we address include:
LED die attach and chip-on-board (Level 1)
Package-on-board assembly (Level 2)
Luminaire board assembly and interconnect (Level 3)
Power driver and control system board assembly
(Levels 4 and 5)
Alpha offers the following products for LED
applications:
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For more information go to
www.alpha.alent.com/Markets/LED
Or, send an email to
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Alphas LED materials technology brings
value to the LED Market by:
Increasing efficiency and brightness
Increasing reliability and lifetime
Reducing cost/lumen
h
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Produced &
Managed by
AMC, Inc.
In collaboration with
The Illuminating
Engineering Society
In collaboration with
The International
Association of
Lighting Designers
Philadelphia, PA USA
Pennsylvania Convention Center
4.21.13 4.25.13
THE FUTURE. ILLUMINATED.
2013
We see the future clearly. And so will you.
www.lightfair.com
PHOTO CREDITS
(1) BANNER MD ANDERSON CANCER CENTER LANTERN OF HOPE, GILBERT, AZ USA | LIGHTING DESIGN BY CANNON
DESIGN | BILL TIMMERMAN / MARK SKALNY (2) UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE, WASHINGTON, DC USA |
LIGHTING DESIGN BY LAM PARTNERS | GLENN HEINMILLER, IALD, LAM PARTNERS, BILL FITZ-PATRICK, UNITED
STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE (3) CHANDLER CITY HALL EXTERIOR LIGHTING, CHANDLER, AZ USA | LIGHTING DESIGN BY
SMITHGROUP JJR | TIMMERMAN PHOTOGRAPHY
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 49
f
o
c
u
s

o
n
SSL modules
A modular approach to LED-based luminaire design ofers a number of benefts to product manufacturers
including fast time to market, lower upfront engineering costs, and the ability to ofer luminaires that can
be serviced or upgraded in the feld. Modular solid-state lighting (SSL) components enable custom luminaire
design based on combinations of of-the-shelf LED light engines, module holders/brackets, drivers, optics, and
other elements. Te downside of modules can be less fexibility in absolutely matching a luminaire design to
an application and slightly higher bill-of-materials cost relative to full custom designs. Still, modules ofer
benefts that will clearly make the technology a lasting part of the ongoing transition of the lighting market
to SSL technology. Te benefts of modular luminaire design (www.ledsmagazine.com/features/8/11/11) apply
in the product development process whether the components at hand are proprietary designs or based on an
evolving industry standard such as one of the Zhaga Books (www.ledsmagazine.com/features/9/7/15). Tis
compilation includes both proprietary modular products and ones built to the new Zhaga standards that allow
for interoperability of light engines, drivers, optics, and other components from multiple vendors.
Fortimo LED TDLM family by Philips
Te Fortimo LED Twistable downlight module (TDLM)
is a simple to install and easy to maintain modular LED
light. Tis module is available in two color temperatures,
3000K and 4000K, includes a choice of
two holders, and has a CRI of
80.Te family also includes
a number of different
lumen-output options,
such as a 1100-lm prod-
uct thats compliant with
Zhaga Book 2: Socketable
downlight engine. The
term socketable, or twist-
able in the Philips prod-
uct name, implies that you can
mount the light engine into a bracket
without the use of tools. Philips also ofers a 2000-lm ver-
sion that at present isnt Zhaga compliant.
LMH2 LED modules by Cree
Te proprietary Cree LMH2 LED module family delivers 95
lm/W, has a CRI of 90, and comes in color temperatures
of 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, and 4000K. Te module comes in
either a fat lens or dome lens. Since the light source and
power supply are separate, the LMH2 can be mounted and
wired in a variety of diferent confgurations. Cree recently
established a Driver Compatibility Program that established
approved drivers for CREE SSL modules and the LMH2 mod-
ule family is initially the basis for the program (p. 21).
PrevaLED Core family by Osram
Te PrevaLED Core family of light engines are compliant
with Zhaga Book 3: Round light emitting surface 9mm
23mm that is targeted at spot
l ight appl ications and
requires separate con-
trol gear. PrevaLED
modules ofer a CRI of
93. Te modules fea-
ture chip-on-board
(COB) technology to
deliver uniform light
emission across the
surface. Te family fea-
tures a number of products
with a variety of wattages from
10W to 31W, and color temperatures
that include 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, and 4000K. Te highest
ef cacy in the family is 108 lm/W.
LED P3LED Recessed Series by Cooper
Te Iris P3LED LED Recessed Series by Cooper is a Zhaga
book 3 compliant series of luminaires that feature inter-
changeable optics -- the frst luminaire that was certifed to
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a Zhaga Book. Because Zhaga speci f i cat ions
include thermal, electri- cal, mechanical, and optical
interfaces, luminaires must meet the specifcations just
as light engines must. Te series features a minimum CRI of 80, a
color temperature of 3000K, and are designed to last 50,000 hours.
Te series includes a variety of recessed luminaires, including
downlights, accents, wall wash and lens products.
Infusion LED modules by GE Lighting
GE Lightings Infusion LED modules ofer a large range of lumen
packages, which range from 850 lm to 4,500 lm. Te modules are
designed for compatibility with Zhaga Book 5: Socketable engine
with separate gear, although the modules arent yet on Zhagas list
of certifed products. Te series includes six modules, and uses a
twist-ft installation/replacement method, allowing the entire mod-
ule to be removed in seconds. Te series includes color temperature
options of 2700K, 3000K, and 4000K, with a CRI of 90.
XSM 80 series LED
modules by Xiacto
Te proprietary XSM 80 series
of LED modules by Xiacto
rely on remote- or cold-phos-
phor technology to provide
white light. Te round mod-
ules combine blue LEDs with
secondary optics coated in
phosphor and Xicato says that
technology delivers superior
color quality. Te spot-light series features LED lighting with a
color temperature range of 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, and 4000K, and a
CRI of 80. Te ef cacy for each module is above 67 lm/W, with the
highest being 96 lm/W.
TECOH CFx by Megaman
Te TECOH CFx twist-lock LED modules are designed in compliance
with the Zhaga Book 2 specifcation. Tese modules use a multi-
chip white LED array and feature a lambertian output. Because of
the twist-lock design, the light engines enable luminaires that can
be retained and upgraded as opposed to being replaced in the feld.
Te modules feature a CRI of 80, and come in color temperatures
of 2800K or 4000K.
7100/d1/d2-GR light engine
holders by A.A.G. Stucchi
These Zhaga Book 2 compliant holders by A.A.G. Stucchi are
designed to hold a Book 2-compliant modular light engine a sock-
etable LED light engine with integrated electronic control gear.
Te holder enables light engines to be installed and swapped out
if needed.
50 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
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Z020C2 by Lustrous
Te Z020C2 is a Zhaga Book 3 compliant spotlight module designed
for commercial lighting. Tese modules have a CRI of 90, and are
meant to showcase products on the retail foor. Te company was
the frst in the Asian region to win Zhaga certifcation based on
testing by UL.
PHJ65d-1/d-2 light engine
holders by BJB GmbH
Te Zhaga Book 2-compliant holders work with LED light engines
with 100-VAC through 120-VAC power requirements. Tis holder
features a closed form to reduce the penetration of dust and dirt
into the luminaire.
Refex Easy by iGuzzini
Te Refex Easy family of LED luminaires are modular recessed fx-
tures that are designed to serve several diferent applications. Te
focus on
|
SSL MODULES
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_____________
Strategies Unlimited

MAPKET!NTELL!SEN0E
PHDTDN!05 LED5 L!SHT!NS
U5A EUPDPE JAPAN
Strategies Unlimited

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LEDs & Lighting Media Group
New Market
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Light up your creative vision
with Makrolon

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Expand your LED xture design freedom with Makrolon Lumen XT
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LEDsmagazine.com
Refex Easy family, which is Zhaga Book 2 compliant, includes a wall
washer luminaire, a circular spotlight, and a square design. Te lumi-
naires come with a variety of wattages for applications as well, from
14W to 44W.
Helieon by Molex
Description: Te proprietary Helieon family of LED modules from
Molex (developed in partnership with Bridgelux) features a wide vari-
ety of products, with varying beam angles, base types, lumen outputs,
CRIs that are all 80 or above, and color temperatures of 2700K, 3000K,
3500K, and 4100K. Te versatile family is designed to serve across a
wide variety of applications.
LMR2 LED modules by Cree
The proprietary Cree LMR2 LED
module family features a CRI of
90, color temperatures of 2700K,
3000K, 3500K, and 4000K, and
comes with integrated driver
electronics, optics, and core
thermals. The modules also
include an optional heat sink
and support dimming down to
5%. Te modules are designed for
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54 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
applications in non-directional lighting, directional lighting, down-
lighting, or exterior area lighting.
SynJet ZFlow 87 Spot LED Cooler by Nuventix
Zhaga Books defne a thermal interface to a light engine as well
as electrical, optical, and mechanical interfaces, and Nuventix has
designed a number of its SynJet-based, active-cooling devices for
Zhaga-based luminaire designs. Te ZFlow 87 Spotlight LED cooler
is 87-mm in diameter and designed for use with Book 3 light engines.
Te 47W thermal-load version is pictured. Moreover the ZFlow 75
34W version is used in the Cooper Lighting P3LED luminaire.
FORTIMO LED SLM 3000 family by Philips
Te Fortimo LED Spotlight Module (SLM) 3000 family is designed
to illuminate merchandise and attract customers in a retail envi-
ronment. Te family features lamps and drivers with a high CRI
and tight color consistency. Te products include COB LED tech-
nology, which helps the system ofer performance of more than
100 lm/W. Te family is compliant with Zhaga Book 3 for spot-
light applications.
XLM 80 Series LED modules by Xiacto
Te XLM 80 series of linear rectangular modules by Xiacto target
linear lighting applications. Like the XSM 80 series, the products use
remote-phosphor technology. Family members deliver 3000-4000
lm and range in color temperature from 3000K to 4000K. Te main-
stream products have a CRI of 80, although the specialty Artist
series comes with a CRI of 90.
S-Class street lighting module by Carclo
Modular light engines comes in many form factors
driven in part by application and this
new S-Class module from Carclo is
designed specifcally for street-
lighting applications.
Carclo is an optics
special ists and
this is the compa-
ny's first complete
light-engine ofering.
The S-Class is a pro-
prietary design but still
includes the thermal, opti-
cal, and electronic elements that
can accelerate the luminaire devel-
opment cycle. Carclo views the entry
into the light-engine business in part as a way to provide custom-
ers easier access to its optics.
SynJet ZFlow 65 Cooler and
CoolTwist Heatsink by Nuventix
The SynJet ZFlow 65 Cooler and
CoolTwist Heatsink is designed
for Book 2 applications and
light engines such as the
Philips Lighting Fortimo
TDLM module target-
ing downlights. Nuventix
ofers the product in a range
of sizes with the capability of
handling thermal loads as high as 48W. Te 40W unit pictured is
95-mm in diameter and generates less than 28 dBA in acoustic noise.
EdiLex Spot Light Module by Edison-Opto
With the EdiLex Spot Light Module (SLM) Edison-Opto turned
to a COB LED array that it says provides a uniform plane of light
across the light emitting surface. Te design uses the companys
focus on
|
SSL MODULES
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Simply Brilliant!
NEW Programmable LED Drivers from NMB
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EdiPower II components that come
in versions ranging from 8-25W. Tat
enables Edison-Opto to offer light
engines that output 800, 2000, and 3000
lm. Te company says that the product
supports spot- and food-light applica-
tions via refectors that if ofers in 25, 35,
and 60 beam widths.
Linear TALEXXengine Stark LLE by Tridonic
Tridonic ofers light engines in a variety of form factors including
the TALEXXengine Stark Linear Light Engine (LLE) family that
comes in rectangular and even square confgurations (the QLE).
Te modules ofer ef cacy as high as 118 lm/W 108 lm/W includ-
ing a Tridonic driver. Te newest linear module measures 24 mm
(0.95 in) by 280 mm (11 in) for applications such as ceiling trofers.
Tridonic ofers the products in 3000K, 4000K, and 5000K CCTs.
Cetero SLM by Bridgelux
Bridgelux took advantage of its ES
series of LED arrays to design
the Cetero Spot Light Module
(SLM) that is compatible with
Zhaga Book 3. Te company
is ofering the light engine
in 800-, 1100-, and 2000-
lm packages. The mod-
ule comes in a choice of
2700K, 3000K, 3500K, and
4000K color temperatures
and a CRI of 80. Moreover,
Bridgelux speci f ies color
consistency within a 3-step
MacAdam ellipse.
focus on
|
SSL MODULES
E
i
e
e
lm
sup
tions
and 60
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...
CALL FOR PAPERS!
DEADLINE: 22 FEBRUARY 2013
Owned and Produced by: Presented by:
Strategies Unlimited

MAPKET!NTELL!SEN0E
PHDTDN!05 LED5 L!SHT!NS
Events:
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Supported by:
DEVELOPING THE
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OF LIGHTING
19-21 November 2013 M.O.C. Event Centre, Munich, Germany www.sileurope.com
The Advisory Board for Strategies in Light Europe is now
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you to submit an abstract and share your knowledge,
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 57
technology
|
COLOR SCIENCE
M
uch of the technical focus on LEDs
and solid-state lighting (SSL) to
date has been on component and
system ef cacy and the potential for saving
energy, but lighting quality matters as well.
In this part of our color-science series, we
will see how high ef cacy and
good color rendering are con-
f licting goals. Moreover, we
will address how the industry
is attacking the problem of
developing ef cient and high-
quality light sources.
In the first article of this
series we established three
foundational principles of
color vision: 1) The relative
response of the three types
of cone cells in the retina is
sufficient to explain color
vision; 2) metamerism which
is a direct result of the first
principle; and 3) color can be
characterized by numerous
sets of color-matching func-
tions, all of which are linear
transformations of each other
(www. ledsmagazi ne. com/
features/9/5/4).
In the second article we used these prin-
ciples to explain the origins and uses of
the CIE Color Diagram including predict-
ing the color coordinates in the CIE Color
Diagram for mixtures of colors (www.leds-
magazine.com/features/9/7/14). We also dis-
cussed the origins of the Planckian locus, a
curve through the center of the CIE Diagram
which plots the color coordinates of a par-
ticular type of white light sources known as
blackbody radiators. In the third article in
the series we built upon this knowledge to
show how to design LED-based illumina-
tion devices which mix the light from difer-
ent color temperature white LEDs and from
colored LEDs to achieve results not possi-
ble with white LEDs of the same color tem-
perature alone (www.ledsmagazine.com/
features/9/10/15).
In this article we will look at color ren-
dering properties of white LEDs. Color ren-
dering refers to how the color appearance of
illuminated objects can change when illu-
minated by diferent light sources. Natu-
rally we expect colors to shift somewhat
when illuminated by light sources with dif-
ferent correlated color temperatures (CCT).
We are aware of the change in colors of
objects outdoors from noon to sunset on a
sunny day. You may have even had the expe-
rience of choosing a paint color at the store
under natural or fuorescent lighting and
then being disappointed in the color of that
paint as it appears on your
walls at home under incan-
descent lighting. Both of
these examples of color ren-
dering are within our com-
mon experience, are to be
expected, and in part can be
explained by diferent CCTs of
the light sources.
What is less apparent,
though, is that the color of
an illuminated object can
change significantly when
shifting from one illumina-
tion source to another, even
when both sources have the
exact same CCT and even
when they have the exact
same chromaticity coordi-
nates. To understand how
this can happen, lets review
and apply our frst two prin-
ciples of color vision.
Our frst principle of color vision states
that the colors we see are directly related
to the relative response of the three types
of cone cells in the retina to the spectral
power distribution (SPD) of the light falling
on the cone cells. Tis means that two light
sources with widely divergent SPDs can
nonetheless still result in the same relative
response of the three types of cone cells and
hence look like the exact same color. Tis is
also why a mixture of the light from a red,
a green and a blue LED can have the same
Understand color science to maximize
success with LEDs part 4
Color rendering, or how color appears when illuminated by a light source, is crucial in the
performance of SSL systems, explains GEORGE KELLY, and in the fourth part of our series on color
science we will cover how LED and SSL architecture impacts lit objects.
GEORGE KELLY is an LED Technical Specialist
at Avnet Electronics Marketing.
FIG. 1. The SPD of the light emitted by the bulb is modifed by the
spectral refectance of the pigment of the light blue balloon forming
a new SPD that enters the eye.
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__________
______
__________________
0.9
1.0
400 450
Fluorescent
Incandescent
LED
500 550 600 650 700 750
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Wavelength (nm)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750
Wavelength (nm)
TCS01
TSC02
TCS03
TCS04
TCS05
TCS06
TCS07
TCS08
TCS09
58 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
technology
|
COLOR SCIENCE
FIG. 2. SPDs of 3000K fuorescent and Incandescent
lights compared with a white LED.
color as a 3000K incandescent lamp, even
though the SPDs of the lamp and the LED
mixture are vastly diferent. As long as the
cone responses to the two SPDs are identi-
cal, then the two sources will look identical
in color. Tis phenomenon is called metam-
erism, and is our second principle of color
vision. Any two or more SPDs that have the
same chromaticity coordinates are metam-
ers of each other.
Refected light
The situation changes when we view
refected light from two or more metameric
light sources. In this case, the spectral con-
tent of the light coming from each source is
modifed by the spectral refectance prop-
erties of the object the light is refecting of
of before it enters our eyes. A blue object for
instance refects at the blue end of the spec-
trum, roughly 400-500 nm, and absorbs the
medium to long wavelengths. Consequently,
the SPD of the refected light now is a func-
tion of both the SPD of the source and the
spectral refectance properties of the illu-
minated object (Fig. 1).
This complex interaction means that
the color of an object can shift dramati-
cally when illuminated in succession by
two metameric light sources. Even though
the two light sources have the exact same
chromaticity coordinates, if their SPDs
difer then the SPDs of the refected light
will also differ. Moreover, the SPDs of
the refected light will most likely not be
metamers of each other and consequently
will appear to shift in color at least slightly
if not dramatically.
Color rendering is of particular impor-
tance for indoor LED lighting. Te SPD of a
typical white LED is very diferent from that
of typical indoor lights whether incandes-
cent or fuorescent (Fig. 2). Consumers may
be disappointed to fnd that the colors of
familiar objects in their home or of ce will
change signifcantly when they install new
LED light bulbs.
Te lighting industry has faced this prob-
lem in the past and devel-
oped the color render-
ing index (CRI) metric to
quantify the color render-
ing properties of a partic-
ular light source compared
to that of an incandescent
source for low color tem-
peratures (< 5000K) and to
daylight for high color tem-
peratures (> 5000K). If the
match is perfect, meaning
that colors appear or ren-
der the same under the
light source in question as
they do under daylight or
an incandescent source,
then the index will be an
even 100. CRI is not perfect as a predictor of
the color rendering performance of a light
source, but it does do a reasonable job.
CRI is calculated by comparing the chro-
maticity coordinates of a set of standard
patches or color swatches when illuminated
by the light source you are testing and by a
reference light source. Tese
standard patches have spe-
cif ic spectral ref lectance
distributions, meaning the
percent refectance at each
wavelength for each patch
is specifed. Specifying the
chromaticity coordinates
of the patch is meaning-
less without specifying a
light source illuminating
the patch or more precisely
specifying the sources SPD.
CRI uses fourteen patches
in all. Eight are used to
derive the actual CRI value
(see sidebar Calculating CRI) and the
additional six provide individual measures
for specifc colors of interest. Te patches
were chosen to be representative of com-
mon materials (Fig. 3).
The importance of CRI in SSL
CRI is primarily important for indoor light-
ing and is less important for outdoor light-
ing. High-pressure sodium (HPS) street
lights for instance, have a very low CRI, in
some cases as low as 20. Tis poor color ren-
dering is ofset by exceptional luminous
ef cacy, which can be as high as 150 lm/W.
Color rendering in this application is gen-
erally considered unimportant when com-
pared to energy ef ciency. Some HPS lamps
do have slightly higher CRIs, but at the sac-
rifce of lower luminous ef cacy.
The only outdoor lighting application
where high CRI is important is architectural
lighting, such as wall washers and foodlights
used to illuminate faades and landscapes. A
low CRI in an architectural application can
signifcantly detract from the aesthetics of an
illuminated building or landscape.
In indoor lighting, CRI is particularly
important in residential, retail, and restau-
rant lighting. Color rendering in of ce envi-
ronments is of less importance, because
of ce lighting is designed to provide the best
lighting for performing tasks and less so for
aesthetics.
LED-based retroft lamps and to a lesser
extent SSL fxtures are starting to make
inroads into the residential lighting market.
For this market penetration to continue, the
cost of the LED lamps and fxtures must
continue to come down, while the quality
remains high. Te higher cost of LED light-
ing products compared to CFLs and incan-
descent bulbs can be ofset to some degree
by the long lifetime of LEDs and by the con-
FIG. 3. The spectral refectance of the eight color
swatches used in the calculation of CRI plus the strong
red used to calculate R9.
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0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
360 410 460 510 560 610 660 710 760
Wavelength (nm)
Phosphor
Blue LED
Photopic
curve
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750
Wavelength (nm)
Photopic
curve
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
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0.8
0.9
1
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
Wavelength (nm)
Photopic
curve
LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 59
technology
|
COLOR SCIENCE
tinuing increases in LED energy ef -
ciency. Te quality of LED products
though involves more than just reli-
ability. Te quality of the light pro-
duced by an SSL lamp or fxture is
also important, especially to resi-
dential customers. The quality of
light in SSL is essentially the color
rendering quality of the LEDs them-
selves. Since CRI is our only objec-
tive standard to quantify color ren-
dering, it becomes an important
product specification along with
reliability and luminous ef cacy.
Achieving high CRI with LEDs
LED manufacturers often face com-
peting goals, such as cost and per-
formance. Manufacturing high CRI
LEDs with high luminous ef cacy
especially for warm color tempera-
tures is one such challenge. Te rea-
son for this has to do with how white
LEDs actually create white light.
White LEDs are actually blue
LEDs coated with a phosphor mate-
rial. Te phosphor absorbs a portion
of the blue light from the LED with
the rest passing through the phos-
phor. Some of this light absorbed by
the phosphor excites electrons in
the phosphor molecules to a higher
energy level. As these electrons fall
back to lower energy states they emit
photons. Te spectrum of the light
emitted by the phosphor is broad-
band in nature ranging from 500-
700 nm with a peak typically around
550 nm.
If the phosphor were to absorb all
of the blue light it would glow yellow.
Since it doesnt absorb all of the light
from the blue LED, the transmitted
blue light and the yellow light emit-
ted by the phosphor combine to cre-
ate what appears to be white light.
If the mixture has more blue light
than white, it will be a cool white
with a high CCT. If the mixture has more yel-
low light from the phosphor than blue light
from the LED, it will be warm white with a
lower CCT.
Effciency and effcacy
The optical performance of this LED
architecture is rather ef cient for two rea-
sons. First, blue InGaN LEDs are very ef -
cient at turning the electrical power sup-
plied to them into optical power. The
luminous ef ciency of an LED is defned as
the optical power in radiant watts of the
light exiting the LED divided by the input
electrical power in watts. For a typ-
ical blue InGaN LED, the ef ciency
is 30-35%. Despite this high effi-
ciency, blue LEDs have very poor
luminous ef cacy because the eye
is not very sensitive at blue wave-
lengths. Indeed eye sensitivity is
what drives the use of ef cacy mea-
sured in lumens per watt as the pri-
mary figure of merit rather than
ef ciency. Te emission spectrum
of the phosphor, however, lines up
well with the eye spectral response
curve, V() and consequently most
of the luminous ef cacy of a white
LED is due to the yellow light emit-
ted by the phosphor and very little
due to the blue light passing through
the phosphor (Fig. 4).
In fact if we werent concerned
with color rendering or having the
chromaticity coordinates of the LED
fall close to the Planckian curve, we
could make a super high luminous
efficacy LED by using a phosphor
whose emission spectra matches the
V() curve as closely as possible and
then making the phosphor layer thick
enough so that all of the blue light
from the blue LED was absorbed by
the phosphor.
While matching the SPD of an
LED to the V() curve as closely as
possible will make a very ef cient
and therefore bright light, it will not
make white light. For that, we need
some light on the blue and red ends
of the spectrum even if the light at
those wavelengths contribute little
to brightness perceived by the eye.
For cool white LEDs this is rather
easy to do, by simply letting enough
of the blue light from the LED leak
through the phosphor.
For warm white LEDs, the phos-
phor must have enough power at the
red end of the spectrum to create the
warm white CCT. For a 2700K LED,
phosphors with a broad emission spectrum
are chosen that have a peak emission in the
590-630-nm range. Unfortunately these
phosphors also generate a great deal of light
beyond 650 nm where the eye has very lit-
tle response, contributing little to the lumi-
nous ef cacy of the LED. Tis is why LEDs
FIG. 4. SPDs of the blue light and phosphor of a typical
4500K white LED with a CRI of 80, overlaid on the
Photopic Curve.
FIG. 5. SPD of Osram's Brilliant Mix delivering a CCT of
2700K and CRI of 92 overlaid on the Photopic Curve.
FIG. 6. SPD of a dual-phosphor White LED delivering a
CCT of 2700K and CRI of 94 overlaid on the Photopic
Curve.
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technology
|
COLOR SCIENCE
with a lower CCT also have a lower luminous ef cacy than the cooler
color temperature LEDs in the same family.
High CRI, warm CCT
Te situation is worse when we want to have a high CRI, low color tem-
perature LED a combination desirable in residential applications. In
this case we need even more long wavelength light (600700 nm) rela-
tive to medium and short wavelengths. To accomplish this, the peak of
the phosphor has to shift farther towards the red end of the spectrum,
further lowering the luminous ef cacy of the LED.
SSL manufacturers have ofered two solutions to this problem. One
solution is to add a red LED to a white LED to boost the red content
of the spectrum without compromising the ef cacy of the white LED.
Brilliant Mix by Osram is one example of this. Brilliant Mix actually
improves the total system ef cacy by using a greenish-white LED with
a phosphor that matches the V() curve closely, consequently maximiz-
ing luminous ef cacy (Fig. 5).
Te second approach uses a two phosphor system. Te main phos-
phor is shifted towards the blue end of the spectrum and then a second
phosphor with a narrower bandwidth and a peak around 610-620 nm is
added to boost the red end of the spectrum. Tis second phosphor adds
the required power at the red end of the spectrum without wasting too
much power at wavelengths above 650 nm (Fig. 6).
Te frst approach can produce CRIs above 90 for 2700-3000K LEDs and
still maintain high luminous ef cacy. Te second approach can achieve CRIs
above 95, but with lower luminous ef cacy than lower CRI white LEDs.
Beyond CRI
CRI as a color rendering metric has several known defciencies. Te
most obvious is that it uses only eight spectral refectance distributions
(swatches) to represent the infnite number of possible spectral refec-
tance distributions of real objects that can be encountered in real appli-
cations. Several replacements for CRI have been proposed such as the
color quality scale (CQS) by Davis and Ohno at NIST (www.ledsmaga-
zine.com/news/7/5/29). Until CQS or another metric becomes the new
color rendering standard, we are left with CRI.
Te six additional swatches included in the CRI standard can be used
to some degree to make up for the small number of spectral refectance
distributions used in the standard. Te R9 value which is a saturated red
is often of interest for white LEDs since white LEDs often do not render
deep reds well due to a shortage of light at long wavelengths. Compar-
ing the R9 values of two LEDs in addition to comparing their CRI values
can be instructive, especially for applications where the color render-
ing of red is important.
Tere are also applications where a CRI approaching 100 may not be
desirable. Tis may even be the case in residential, retail and restaurant
lighting where high CRI is assumed to be essential.
For instance, in some situations you may want LED lighting that
increases the saturation of colors. CRI does not discriminate between
color rendering shifts that make colors appear more desaturated or more
saturated. All color diferences between the test and reference sources
are treated equally. It is well known that in digital photography we prefer
photos with more saturated colors. It is rather standard practice today
to increase the color saturation of digital photos using image process-
ing software.
Calculating CRI
The CRI of a light source is calculated by comparing
the chromaticity coordinates of eight standard patches
or color swatches when illuminated by the light source
in question (the test source) and by a reference light
source. The test patches are not actually illuminated
by either the test or the reference source. Instead the
chromaticity coordinates of the light that would be
refected off of each patch by each sources is calculated
by multiplying the SPDs of each source by the spectral
refectance distributions of each patch. The spectral
refectance distributions of the eight patches were
chosen to be representative of common materials. The
metric used to quantify the color differences under the
test and reference light sources is the Euclidean distance
in the CIE 1964 color space,CIEUVW , with chromaticity
coordinates, U, V, and W. An additional six patches
are also tested individually and reported separately,
providing supplemental color rendering information for
those colors.
The steps in calculating the CRI of a source from its
SPD are as follows:
Determine the CCT of the test source.
Generate the SPD of the reference source.
If the CCT of the test source is less than 5000K then
use the SPD of a blackbody radiator with the same
CCT as the test source.
If the CCT of the test source is greater than 5000K,
use the SPD standard illuminant D with the same
CCT as the test source.
Calculate the SPD of the refected light for each
of the eight spectral refectance distributions of
the color swatches for both the test and reference
sources. This is done by multiplying the SPD of each
source by the spectral refectance of each swatch on
a wavelength by wavelength basis.
Find the x, y chromaticity coordinates of the refected
light and then convert to U, V, and W chromaticity
coordinates of the CIE 1964 color standard.
Apply a von Kriess transform to the U, V, and W
values to account for chromatic adaptation by the
human visual system.
Calculate the

= CIEUVW color differences


between the test and reference sources for each
color patc h.
Calculate the specifc color rendering index for each
patch by, R

= 100 - 4.6

Average the eight Ri values to arrive at Ra, which is


the CRI value for the test source.
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__________
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technology
|
COLOR SCIENCE
Increasing color saturation
Tis fact suggests that we may pre-
fer lighting that increases color sat-
uration. By enhancing the amount
of light at key wavelengths in the
sources SPDs, we could increase the
color saturation or chroma of spe-
cifc colors and in the process reduce
the CRI. With LEDs, this is easy to
imagine. If we wanted to enhance
the primary colors we could mix in
additional red, green and blue light
from red, green and blue LEDs along
with a typical white LED (Fig. 7).
In the example in Fig. 7, red, green
and blue LEDs are added to the
warm white LED depicted in Fig. 6,
resulting in a 5500K CCT with a CRI
of 81. Although the CRI drops signifcantly
it does so because the saturation of the color
swatches in the CRI calculation increases
with the exception of swatches TCS02 (yel-
low) and TCS06 (light blue). Te saturation
of both of these swatches remains largely
unchanged. Tese results only apply to the
particular swatches use in the CRI calcu-
lations. It is practically impossible to pre-
dict how swatches with diferent spectral-
ref lectance characteristics would render
when illuminated by such a light.
Similarly, it may be possible to alter
the SPD of LED lights in such a way
to enhance the appearance of specifc
items such as food in restaurants and
in grocery stores. LED technology
gives us the tools for the frst time to
tailor the SPD of light sources at least
to some degree. How this fexibility is
used in new applications over the next
few years will be exciting to watch.
The tradeoff between CRI and
luminous ef cacy is currently a major
focus in the industry. As LED lumi-
nous ef cacies continue to improve,
LEDs will enjoy an even greater com-
petitive advantage over competing
technologies such as CFLs. At that
point the marginal return of further
increasing LED luminous ef cacy will make
trading some of that ef ciency of for higher
CRI a more attractive option. Phosphor tech-
nology should also continue to improve,
reducing the need to tradeof luminous ef -
cacy for higher CRI.
FIG. 7. Adding a red LED (640 nm), a green LED (525
nm) and a blue LED (460 nm) to the white LED shown
in Fig. 6 results in a 5500K light with a CRI of 81. Reds
and greens and purples will appear more saturated
under this light than under the light in Fig 6.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 63
2 in
8 in
4 in
6 in
LED manufacturing | LARGE SUBSTRATES
I
n the search to cut the costs of manufac-
turing LEDs, switching to large diam-
eter (6-8-in, 150-200-mm) substrates is
often brought up as a key solution. In fact,
it is mentioned so often that one might
assume a mass transition to large diameter
has already occurred. Such a transition has
been slow to happen due to both technical
and logistical challenges. But as we will dis-
cuss, the advantages will ultimately be sig-
nifcant enough that the LED manufactur-
ers will move to larger substrates, reduce
component costs, and further accelerate the
adoption of solid-state lighting (SSL).
Analysts are predicting that for 2013, less
than 20% of production will be on 6-in wafers,
with 8-in not even showing up in signifcant
numbers this year. Even three years from now,
large diameter is only predicted to be break-
ing the halfway point of all substrate sizes.
Tis may come as a surprise because the
demand for large diameter should be very
high it has often been cited as a fundamen-
tal cost saver to drive down LED chip prices.
With the industry-wide search to drive down
cost signifcantly, and large diameter seen
as a key way to accomplish this, why arent
more chip producers making this switch?
To answer this question, we will look at
three areas. First, what are the true bene-
fts of large diameter? Second, if the benefts
are truly great, then why arent more man-
ufacturers switching? Finally, well look at
some of the potential disruptions that might
bring quicker large diameter adoption, such
as c-axis CHES (controlled heat extraction
system) technology along with the pros-
pect of 8-inch substrates.
More LED chips
Well begin by looking at the main advan-
tage of moving to larger wafers more LED
chips. Yes, this is the biggest advantage, but
its also unfortunately often overstated in
this way: a large diameter 6-in wafer has
nine times more surface area than a 2-in
wafer on which to form LED chips (Fig. 1).
While the prior statement is certainly true
in regards to the simple surface area of the
wafers, the suggestion that you get 9 more
chip throughput by simply using 6-in wafers
sounds too good to be true and it is. Whats
the real story? In order to answer that, we
need to look closely at the layout of LED chips,
both on the wafer and as a group of wafers in
the MOCVD (metal organic chemical vapor
deposition) reactor where LEDs are formed.
In addition to 6- or 8-in wafers simply
being larger, we have to consider several other
factors to get a true picture of the beneft of
more LED chips. Tese factors are exclusion
zone, LED chip shape and size, and MOCVD
reactor layout. Well explain these one at a
time, then feed them into a true comparison
simulator that will give us a much more rea-
sonable look at the number of LED chips sup-
ported by various wafer sizes.
Exclusion zone
We will frst look at whats called the exclu-
sion zone on a wafer. During epitaxy, LED
material is not properly formed in this area,
meaning these chips shouldnt
be counted because they will
not result in good LEDs. For
our LED chip calculator, we
are using an industry stan-
dard 3-mm exclusion zone,
which is shown as red chips
in Fig. 2. Note that the chips
on the extreme edge of the
wafer that are actually hang-
ing of the wafer if they were
full rectangles are not going
to be counted at all for our
simulation.
One important characteris-
tic of the exclusion zone is that
it is 3-mm from the edge regardless of wafer
diameter. This fact means that the large
diameter wafers have larger exclusion zone
areas. However, as a percentage of the total
wafer surface area, the large wafers have a
smaller proportion of their area in exclu-
sion zones.
So you can see how a 6-in wafer that has
9 more gross surface area actually has more
than 9 more net area (gross area minus
exclusion zone). Te advantage results in
6-in wafers having 10.3 more net area, and
8-in wafers having 18.8 more, both as com-
pared to a 2-in wafer.
We also have to account for the rectangu-
Manufacturing LEDs on large diameter
substrates: Whats the holdup?
A transition to 6- or 8-in wafers will ultimately deliver lower-cost LEDs, although as MARCUS WEDDLE
discusses, the industry must overcome technical and logistical challenges.
MARCUS WEDDLE is Marketing Manager for ARC Energy, based in Nashua, New Hampshire. Te
company manufacturers CHES sapphire crystal growth furnaces and processing systems for the
LED, SOS, and optical/commercial industrial markets.
FIG. 1. Small- and large-diameter sapphire cores.
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64 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
Exclusion zone
(Black ring)
2 in 4 in 6 in 8 in
Gross surface area
advantage over 50 mm
- 4 9 16
Net surface area
advantage over 50 mm
- 4.4 10.3 18.8
Net LED chip count
advantage over 50 mm
- 4.6 10.9 19.8
3-mm exclusion zone edge
Chips counted in exclusion zone
Chips not counted
LED manufacturing
|
LARGE SUBSTRATES
lar footprint of LEDs. Tey dont perfectly
ft in the round shape of the wafer some
LEDs will be lost by partially crossing into
the exclusion zone. In a similar way to the
exclusion zone, these losses are a higher
percentage of the total for the smaller
wafers. The final advantage is shown in
the chart in Fig. 3 that is based on 45x45-
mil (thousandths of an inch) LEDs, includ-
ing the spaces between chips. Te result is
slightly higher gains in chip count com-
pared with area 10.9 for the 6-in and
19.8 for the 8-in wafers.
MOCVD reactor layout
At this point, weve seen that a 6-in-diameter
wafer actually holds slightly more than the
often-quoted 9 more LED chips compared
to a 2-in wafer. But now we have to consider
that LEDs are grown in groups of wafers in
an MOCVD reactor.
Te LED epitaxy process is one of the most
expensive and time consuming of all the
steps that go into the fnal delivery of an SSL
product. Te input is a group of wafers, and
the output is thousands of LEDs on those
wafers. What we are seeking to answer is
how switching to large diameter will change
that LED count after the epitaxy process. Of
course, yield a measure of chips that func-
tion correctly matters too, but we will look
at that later.
Weve already said that you shouldnt
expect the chip count you get after epitaxy
to jump by a factor of nine, and now well
see why. Te primary reason is the fact that
so many more small-diameter wafers can ft
in the reactor chamber. In a typical MOCVD
reactor confguration, 56 2-in wafers can be
loaded. In the same reactor only eight 6-in
wafers will ft. Tats a ratio of 7:1 in favor of
small diameter.
So to simply break even in the fnal count,
each 6-in wafer would need to hold 7 more
LED chips than a single 2-in wafer. How-
ever, weve already seen that a 6-in wafer
has almost 11 more
LED chips. Put in other
terms, the 6-in config-
uration results in 55%
more LED chips (1.55).
This is the final true
advantage weve been
looking for. While this
is much less than the
9 (900%) figure that
we started with, it is
still a very significant
improvement in the
number of LED chips
you get for the same
cost of time and money
for an MOCVD run. You
can compare a typical MOCVD layout for
small and large diameter wafers and their
respective chip counts in Fig. 4.
LED chip size
We do need to consider another factor, and
that is LED chip size. For our calculations
weve used 4545-mil rectangles, includ-
ing the street width, or spaces between the
chips. Tis size around one square mil-
limeter is typical for high-brightness
LEDs and is therefore a good comparison.
However, as chip sizes increase the advan-
tage for large diameter wafers also increases
slightly. For example, if you use a 6060-mil
rectangle, the advantage
for 6-in wafers increases
to 58%.
So f ar we have
focused on comparing
2-in to 6-in wafers, but
we should discuss other
sizes as well. Todays
LEDs are also made on
3- and 4-in wafers in
large numbers. What
is the relationship with
these other sizes? Mov-
ing from 2-in to 4-in
only gives 14.7% advan-
tage, using a standard layout of 14 4-in
wafers in the reactor. Te gain from 4-in to
6-in is much more signifcant at 35.2%.
For 8-in substrates, the advantage is a
very large 77% more LED chips over 2-in
and that is only from the fve 8-in wafers that
can ft in a typical MOCVD reactor. Compar-
ing a move from 6-inch to 8-in directly, there
is a 14% gain.
We now have an accurate view of the
advantage large diameter brings to the LED
chip count: 55% more for 6-in and 77% for
8-in. While these are impressive numbers,
one factor we havent taken into account in
our LED chip simulation is LED chip yield.
We will look at this important factor next.
Higher yield
Each step in the manufacturing process of
an LED chip has a yield loss, from the prepa-
ration of substrates through chip packaging.
Te yield losses at each step add up and con-
tribute to a signifcant portion of the fnal
chip cost. Tere is therefore a great deal of
focus currently on improving yield in all of
these areas.
Switching to large-diameter LED manu-
facturing has been linked to yield improve-
ment in a number of stages of the manufac-
turing process. Te potential benefts come
both directly as the larger wafer size is a
more uniform surface for epitaxy and indi-
rectly through the use of better manufactur-
ing equipment and techniques. While yield
can be a complex subject, we will briefy look
at some highlights of the possible benefts.
One of direct yield benefits of larger
wafers comes during epitaxy. In the MOCVD
chamber, any physical disturbances, such
as wafer edges, can disturb the gas fow and
FIG. 3. Larger wafers greatly increase the number of LED
chips produced per wafer.
FIG. 2. LED chips in the exclusion zones along the edge of
wafers are not usable.
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 65
200 mm
5 pockets
150 mm
8 pockets
50 mm
56 pockets
Overlay of 150 mm
showing surface
area advantage
Small diameter Large diameter
5650 mm (2") 8150 mm (6") 5200 mm (8")
Net surface area 88,274 mm
2
130,288 mm
2
147,796 mm
2
Surface area gain
vs. 50 mm
- 48% 67%
Count of 4545 mil
LED chips
62,944 97,600 111,280
LED chip count gain
vs. 50 mm
- 55% 77%
150 mm cores
Defects in the core result
lost wafers (red area)
Coring with defects cannot
be avoided with large diameter
c-axis
coring
a-axis
growth
Older technology
a-axis boule
Defect losses reduce utilization
to less than 20%
LED manufacturing
|
LARGE SUBSTRATES
FIG. 5. Taking large sapphire cores from a-axis boules
results in signifcant material losses and more defects.
reduce yield. Larger wafers
can help here because there
are fewer edges and more
undisturbed surface area.
Te resulting higher yield
during this expensive step
is an important advantage.
Te second component of
improved yield comes from
access to modern process
control and automation
tools, which are designed
around large-diameter
wafers and have been per-
fected in IC manufactur-
ing. Todays commonly
used small-diameter man-
ufacturing techniques use
manual processes, requir-
ing many human interac-
tions, and lack sophisti-
cated tracking that could spot yield issues.
Many experts have pointed to a general
need to move from a research-style produc-
tion environment to a true mass production
environment. Lets look in a little more detail
at what this means.
Automation primarily refers to the use of
machines to handle and transport wafers
removing the human element. Wafers can be
moved faster and with less damage through
automated machines instead of being hand
carried. Te beneft is a combination of fewer
skilled operators required, less loss of wafers
due to mishandling, and quicker movement
through the manufacturing steps.
In addition to more automation, the use
of more modern tools brings better process
control. Process control is the use of data
analysis to detect and predict problems
that cause yield losses in any area of the
production process. Tis involves a track-
ing and analysis of the substrate through-
out the process, extending back to the crys-
tal growth stage. Process control also takes
into account the analysis data recorded by
the various production tools.
Te use of process control is often cited
as a necessary step in advancing the LED
industry. As with automation, the tools
needed for implementing process control are
designed around large-diameter substrates,
so the beneft to switching goes beyond just
more LED chips. For additional informa-
tion on the industrys move to improve yield
through large-diameter wafer production,
see the article LED wafer and automation
standards are on the fast track, ready for
more industry feedback (www.ledsmaga-
zine.com/features/8/10/9).
Market conditions
At this point, weve seen how switching to
large diameter wafers can create more chips
per MOCVD run and improve yield in sev-
eral areas. Yet the industry
this year is still predicted to
produce over 80% of the LED
capacity using small-diame-
ter substrates. Why? Te rea-
sons come from two factors:
difficult market conditions
and technological challenges
in supplying large diameter
substrates at a competitive
cost.
Te price of 2-, 3-, and 4-in
wafers has dropped dramat-
ically in the past two years
due to an oversupply condi-
tion and lower-than-expected
demand. At the same time, a
step in the manufacturing
process called PSS (patterned
sapphi re substrate) has
increased the performance of LEDs. Tese
two factors made staying with small diam-
eter an attractive option while waiting for
higher demand. However, some large compa-
nies moved ahead despite these conditions
and are today prepared for a rapid increase
in production as demand grows.
Technology barriers
Te second barrier to the adoption of large
diameter substrates is a group of techno-
logical hurdles. It begins with challenges in
sapphire crystal growth the frst step in
creating substrates. As you can see in Fig.
5, todays sapphire for HB-LEDs is typically
grown on the a-axis, even though HB-LEDs
require c-axis wafers. To get c-axis wafers
from a-axis sapphire boules, a core must be
taken sideways wasting a large part of the
sapphire.
Todays a-axis sapphire growth tech-
nologies also result in defects that cannot
be avoided when coring for large diameter
applications. Te volume of a 6- or 8-in core
is so large that the defects become unavoid-
able and the cores must be shortened or
scrapped. Te total losses from sideways cor-
ing and defects waste over 80% of the mate-
rial. For 8-in applications, the waste is over
90% and the production costs double.
Another barrier caused by a-axis growth
is that the resulting wafers have a varia-
tion in stress and strain across their sur-
face. Because the wafer is from a sideways
core of the boule, and the boule is grown
along the a-axis, the wafer itself has a long
growth time signature across its surface.
Tis becomes signifcant during epitaxial
growth when the wafer is heated.
FIG. 4. The number of wafers that ft in an MOCVD reactor
ultimately gates the advantage of larger wafers.
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__________
________________
66 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
75+% material
utilization
CHES c-axis
growth direction
and coring
CHES
c-axis boule
2D cross-section
side view
Wafer heated during epitaxy:
3D view
Variation
in stress
and strain
during
growth
Older technology
a-axis boule
Wafers cored using
older technologies
have a long growth
time signature and
variations in stress
and strain
LED manufacturing
|
LARGE SUBSTRATES
FIG. 6. Wafers from a-axis boules are subject to warp
during the MOCVD process.
As you can see in the Fig. 6, the wafer will
bow in an uneven pattern or a warp. Tis
warping is very dif cult to counteract by
the MOCVD engineer and has caused several
attempted workarounds, including a move
to thicker wafers and the use of stress-reliev-
ing layers. Tese techniques add to the pro-
duction cost and complexity. Without coun-
teracting the warp, the result during epitaxy
is lower LED chip yield.
Te last technology barrier is in the slic-
ing and polishing of the wafer and applica-
tion of PSS techniques. Slicing and polish-
ing are dif cult processes and must be done
well to generate good yield during epitaxy.
Because the large wafers are 9-16 larger, the
dif culty increases signifcantly.
PSS application faces a similar challenge,
with the additional obstacle that the pattern
can only be seamlessly applied to a limited
size area smaller than 6 in. In order to get
PSS on a 6-in wafer, a stepper (a semiconduc-
tor manufacturing tool) must apply multi-
ple patterns, which is common in the silicon
industry. However, for HB-LEDs the edges of
the multiple pattern applications must be
closely matched or LED yield will drop. Tis
accuracy requirement is proving to be very
challenging.
Tese barriers of market conditions and
technology challenges have created multiple
limitations for the mass adoption of large-
diameter substrates. In the future, the mar-
ket demand will require the throughput and
yield only available using larger substrates,
and as a result the technology challenges
will be overcome. As proof of the possibil-
ity of overcoming the challenges, several
tier-1 manufacturers have already made the
switch and are positioned with an advantage
over the majority of the industry.
Potential substrate disruptions
It is certain that HB-LED manufactur-
ing will ultimately move to large-diame-
ter substrates. Te question is how quickly,
and what material will be used for the sub-
strates? In this last section well briefy look
at potential answers to these questions.
As we said at the beginning, adoption
of large-diameter is currently low and pre-
dicted to take years to complete. However,
advances in alternative substrates to tradi-
tional sapphire may accelerate this adoption
or carve out niche channels for some compa-
nies. But frst well focus on sapphire.
Te main challenges we noted were the
low material utilization due to a-axis growth
and the high level of defects that make larger
wafers expensive. There are alternative
growth technologies that can grow directly
on the c-axis for much lower waste. In addi-
tion, growth technologies that avoid signif-
icant defects are also available.
Sapphire grown with these characteristics
of c-axis growth (also called on-axis growth
for LED applications) and low defect levels
are very well optimized for large-diameter
applications. As you can see in Fig. 7 depict-
ing c-axis CHES technology, the problems of
low material utilization and high defect lev-
els are both solved at once, with the addi-
tional beneft of a near net shape boule. Te
result is over 75% utilization for both 6- and
8-in applications.
In addition, the problems of warp during
epitaxy that we saw from a-axis-grown sap-
phire are reduced as the c-axis CHES wafers
are grown with a single time signature across
their surface (Fig. 8). Because of these advan-
tages, it is expected that as more manufac-
turers move to large-diameter applications,
the growth technologies will also transition
to c-axis, low-defect-level growth.
Alternative substrates to sapphire, such
as silicon, silicon carbide, and gallium
nitride (GaN) are also being researched.
A small number of LED
manufacturers are even
in production on each of
these substrates, yet not
as a cost-effective alter-
native to sapphire. Each of
these alternatives has cer-
tain advantages over sap-
phire, yet multiple break-
throughs are needed for
one of them to signifi-
cantly displace sapphire.
Of the alternative sub-
strates, current predic-
tions give silicon the best
chance for success.
Because LEDs have
such a broad potential
market, there wi l l be
room for these alternative
substrates along with sap-
phire remaining predom-
inant. For example, an
advantage GaN substrate brings is higher
performance per chip albeit at very high
cost. Tis substrate may fnd a niche where a
single bright LED chip is desired or required.
The next diameter past 6-in is the 8-in
wafer. Tese wafers give another dramatic
gain in LED chip count and further opportu-
nities for yield improvement. Yet the barriers
we examined earlier are the same, with the
addition of the sapphire substrate costs dou-
bling over 6-in using a-axis growth methods.
Terefore the prediction is that one of these
FIG. 7. C-axis sapphire boules improve
material utilization and minimize defects.
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CHES c-axis
growth and coring
CHES c-axis wafer
Older technology
a-axis wafer
With c-axis growth, wafers exhibit
less bow and warp during epitaxy
2D cross-section
side view
3D view
No stress and strain due to
a single time signature of growth
LED manufacturing
|
LARGE SUBSTRATES
alternative technologies (sapphire grown
on c-axis, silicon, or another substrate) will
become dominant for 8-in wafers and beyond.
Obstacles and benefts
In summary, we found a move to large-diam-
eter-based LED manufacturing provides a
55% increase in LED chips per MOCVD
run using 6-in wafers, and a 77% using 8-in
wafers. In addition to more chips, the yield
would increase throughout the manufactur-
ing process due to better epitaxy yield, auto-
mation, and process control.
The reason these advantages havent
become common except with the largest
LED manufacturers are several market and
technology barriers. Tese include a-axis
sapphire growth technology, a depressed
market, and the use of PSS. But new c-axis-
growth technology provides an optimized
path to supplying large-diameter sapphire
substrates. Other substrate materials, such
as silicon, will likely fnd niche uses with
some manufacturers. Te advances of larger
wafers will continue to the next step of 8-in.
Large diameter has already been proven
by large tier-1 manufacturers as an impor-
tant component in reducing costs and
increasing performance of HB-LEDs. See
Philips Lumileds announces workhorse
Luxeon T LED family (www.ledsmagazine.
com/news/9/12/7) for an example.
Yet many companies are staying with
small diameter wafers until the next
demand wave comes. However, companies
that are planning ahead to gain a competi-
tive edge as is possible with large-diameter
LED manufacturing will be more ef cient,
more fexible to meet demand, and fnd suc-
cess in the future.
FIG. 8. C-axis wafers exhibit less strain and warping during epitaxy.
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_____________
Thomas Research Products
SSL Solutions Faster Than The Speed Of Light
TM
Step-Dimming
For LED Drivers
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5yearwarranty
New options for LED lighting control
from the quality LED power experts!
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LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 69
fnancing
|
SSL PROJECTS
L
ighting can represent a significant
proportion of energy consumed in
non-domestic buildings, typically
accounting for 20% to 55% of the total elec-
tricity consumption on a commercial site.
Each year in the UK, non-domestic lighting
is responsible for around 24 million tonnes
of CO2 emissions according to the Carbon
Trust. Improving the energy ef ciency of
lighting can therefore yield signifcant cost
savings, while reducing the environmental
impact. By deploying ef cient lamp tech-
nologies such as LEDs, CFLs and energy-
saving halogen lighting, cost reductions of
up to 80% are possible compared with tra-
ditional lamp technology. Intelligent light-
ing controls can be used to further reduce
energy consumption, usually between 30%
and 50% in a typical of ce environment.
Clearly, there is a compelling case for
moving to more energy-efficient lighting
systems both from the fnancial and envi-
ronmental perspectives. Nevertheless, many
companies are hesitant to take the frst step,
largely because they are reluctant to spend
their capital reserves or simply lack access
to afordable funding. According to the Bank
of England, the annual rate of growth in the
stock of lending to UK businesses was nega-
tive in the three months to August. Te stock
of lending to small and medium enterprises
(SMEs) and large businesses also contracted
over this period.
Boosting green investment appetite
To help businesses make green investments
in a tight credit environment, the Carbon
Trust and Siemens Financial Services
Limited (SFS) have initiated the Energy
Efficiency Financing scheme (EEF). The
scheme is designed to provide fnancing for
organizations acquiring energy-efficient
equipment, with afordable monthly pay-
ments designed to match and to be ofset
by the average monthly savings on energy
bills. In some cases, the value of the energy
savings can be greater than the monthly
fnance payments, allowing the end cus-
tomer to be cash-fow positive from day one.
Suppliers of energy-ef cient equipment
can also apply to become a
recognized supplier of the
scheme, which in turn will
allow them to integrate the
financing offer into their
overall sales propositions.
Tis removes the obstacle
of large up-front capital
investment for customers,
and helps suppliers to close
more deals as eforts can be
focused on providing the
best solution, rather than
being constrained by busi-
nesses facing capital budget restrictions.
In addition, fast payment of invoices for
the energy-ef cient equipment are made by
SFS to recognized suppliers directly usu-
ally within a day of receipt of correctly com-
pleted documentation meaning improved
cash fow for the suppliers.
How the EEF scheme works
Financing can start from as little as
GBP1000 and go up to as much as hundreds
of thousands of pounds, even millions. Each
application (which must be from companies
with at least three years of trading history)
is assessed on its own merits and monthly
payments are adjusted to match or be less
than a customers anticipated energy cost
savings. Tis is usually arranged over terms
between one and seven years, although in
selected cases this can be for longer periods.
Where possible, the scheme wraps every-
thing into a single fnancing package under
a loan, lease or hire-purchase arrangement.
Tis includes the cost of an energy-ef ciency
assessment, the equipment itself and instal-
lation. Customers can also include other
aspects, such as service into their monthly
payments, as well as nego-
tiating upgrades and add-
ons in the future as their
needs change. Financing
can be arranged directly by
the customer with SFS or
through the schemes rec-
ognized suppliers.
Prior to fnancing being
approved, normal checks
for credit acceptance will be
conducted and an energy-
saving assessment will be
undertaken by experienced
specialists at the Carbon Trust, giving busi-
nesses the assurance that the expected car-
bon reduction, and fnancial savings over
time, will match or exceed the finance
payments.
Reaping fnancial gains with EEF
Te EEF scheme has already helped many
organizations reap financial savings and
reduce their carbon footprint. Nailcote Hall,
a hotel situated in Solihull, Warwickshire, has
leveraged this specialist fnancing to work on
a re-lamping project, converting 670 regular
halogen light fttings (which use between
35-100W) into LED light fttings using only
7W of power. Te GBP30,000 ($ 48,000) invest-
ment should bring a saving of approximately
Energy Effciency Financing scheme
lights up the path to green savings
A UK-based fnancing scheme provides funds to cover the upfront cost of lighting equipment, with
repayments aligned with energy-bill savings, as DARREN RIVA explains.
DARREN RIVA is the Head of Financing for the
Energy Ef ciency Financing (EEF) scheme.
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GREEN LI GHTI NG LED
A New Idea in Thermal Conductivity
GKN has developed new heat sink materials to improve
thermal conductivity by as
much as 50% over traditional
materials. Our innovative
process, utilizing recycled alu-
minum and green technology
allows for greater design free-
dom vs. conventional stamped
and extruded products.
THINK Aluminum Powder Metal. THINK GKN.
GKN is the worlds largest producer of precision powder
metal products. With a focus on superior delivery, quality
and total solutions, the company offers extensive tech-
nical expertise in design, testing and various process
technologies. GKN Sinter Metals provides a wide range
of products for engines, transmissions, drivetrains, and
interiors for both the automotive and industrial markets.
Tel: 828-466-6771 Web: www.gknsintermetals.com
fnancing
|
SSL PROJECTS
PRODUCT
showcase
TO PROMOTE YOUR PRODUCT HERE, PLEASE CONTACT BOB COLLOPUY
AT bobc@pennwell .com, JOANNA HOOK AT joannah@pennwell .com
OR ALLISON O'CONNOR AT allison@jagmediasales.com
70 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
GBP12,000-14,000 a year, with a return on
investment (ROI) of around two and a half
years. As the monthly payments are less than
the monthly energy savings achieved from the
new lighting, the hotel is cash-fow positive
from the very start of the project.
Te North East Convenience Stores, a com-
pany with 18 outlets located from Blyth in
Northumberland to Eston in Middlesbrough,
has invested approximately GBP50,000 to
upgrade one of its premises with fnancing
from the EEF scheme. By replacing all refrig-
eration units and chillers with an energy-ef -
cient, remote open-deck refrigeration system,
and at the same time replacing the existing
lighting with LEDs, the electricity bill has
been cut by 40% and payback is expected in
less than two and a half years.
Paving the way for the green journey
With the esta blishment of the EEF scheme,
a large capital outlay is no longer a pre-req-
uisite for green investments by businesses.
Organizations can now easily afford to
upgrade their lighting as well as other equip-
ment to more energy-ef cient alternatives,
thereby cutting unnecessary overhead and
strengthening their competitive position.
For equipment suppliers such as light-
ing manufacturers who can ofer technical
expertise as well as a fnancing option such
as the EEF scheme in their sales proposition,
the commercial advantage they have over
their peers will no doubt beneft their busi-
ness and help make the green journey a much
smoother experience for their customers.
LINKS
Next Generation Streetlights guide covers LED technology to fnancing www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/12/13
Europe provides funds and updates legislation to stimulate growth in SSL www.ledsmagazine.com/features/9/9/3
DOE Consortium introduces fnancial tool for LED street lights www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/12
Bridgelux and Chevron partner on LED street lights, announce California installations www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/3/1
European Commission initiates public consultation on LED lighting www.ledsmagazine.com/features/9/2/2
Appalachian launches smart LED street light and SSL Energy Solutions fnancing www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/10/6
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__________
VERDE DESI GNS
VERAWATT VW(D)-100-4-25-CC
Utilizing the power
of todays micro-
controllers,
Verde Designs
has invented a
driver that can
future-proof
your LED fxture
with the click of a
button. VERAWATT LED drivers are software program-
mable via the Programming Interface Tool (PIT). The
VERAWATT series of LED drivers are unique in that
they can be confgured for virtually any dimming solu-
tion as well as the ability to dial in any current or voltage
value that your product requires. Available in both AC-DC
and DC-DC technologies, VERAWATT lets you use the
same driver, so your LEDs can change but your drive
stays the same.
Tel: 480-256-0000
Email: Sales@verde-designs.com
Web: www.verde-designs.com
Report highlights:
Comprehensive overview of the LED downlights
market, including geographical distribution, sales
channel, market drivers, and residential vs. commercial
applications.
Review of the LED downlights market and a 5-year
industry forecast.
Learn more about this report & view the table of
contents online at www.strategies-u.com or contact:
Tim Carli, tcarli@strategies-u.com, +1 650 946 3163
New Report
Available Now!
LED Downlights:
Market Analysis
and Forecast 2012
ROAL ELECTRONI CS USA I NC.
MESO Programmable LED Drivers
Extremely fexible LED Drivers
designed for fast, easy con-
fguration. Create hundreds of
confgurations from 6W to 25W
from just a few SKUs. External
analog and DALI programming
tools permit customization
of key parameters, allow-
ing designers to easily personalize drivers for discreet
fnal products without the need for extensive inventory.
Reduces design time, inventory risk and leadtimes!
AC or DC Input
Analog or Digital Control
0 10 or 1 10V
DALI or PWM
THD <20%, PF > 0.9%
50 100% Load @ 120/240Vac
60 100% Load @ 277Vac
Patent Pending: PCT/IB2012/053549
Email: ledsmag@roallivingenergy.com
Web: www.roallivingenergy.com
Visit us at
Strategies in Light
Booth #804
KONI CA MI NOLTA SENSI NG
Konica Minolta Sensings CL-500A
Illuminance Spectrophotometer
Konica Minoltas instruments are recognized for the high-
est quality and performance, reliability, innovative design,
and ease of use. The compact
and lightweight CL-500A
Illuminance Spectrophotometer
is a frst of its kind. This all-in-
one instrument is traceable to
NIST and can easily measure
color temperature, CRI, indi-
vidual R values including R9,
and display the spectral power
distribution directly on the unit. You can read the measure-
ment data using the included Excel add-in software. Data
Management Software CL-S10w can be used to control up
to 10 CL-500A units for multi-point measurements.
Visit us at Booth #717 at Strategies in Light
for more information
Tel: Toll Free (888) 473-2656
Email: marketing@se.konicaminolta.us
Web: sensing.konicaminolta.us
LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 71
PRODUCT
showcase
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________________
72 FEBRUARY 2012 LEDsmagazine.com
Startup
cell
BL
HV VCC
C
VCC
C
Bulk
R
Sense
GND
FB
CS
Gate
Converter
DC output
85 270 VAC
Control unit
PWM controller
current mode
Snubber
Precise low tolerance
peak current limitation
Active burst mode
Latch off mode
Auto restart mode
ICE3BS03LJ (Latch & jitter)
Power
management
W
hile several IC suppliers today
ofer dedicated switching ICs
designed specifically for LED
applications, the majority of these devices
do not support DC-bus output voltage lev-
els greater than 45V, with a few devices
using advanced process technology that
support up to 60V. Te output-voltage lim-
its the number of LEDs that can be driven
in a series confguration where current
is shared equally among each LED in the
string. Te limit to LEDs in a string can
both limit the total lumen output of a solid-
state lighting (SSL) design or the ability to
implement a color mixing scheme espe-
cially given that white LEDs have larger
forward voltage (Vf) values than red LEDs.
Driver developers, however, can use fxed-
frequency and quasi-resonant (QR) fyback
controllers to implement the DC-DC con-
version stage and support higher DC volt-
ages and more LEDs.
Color mixing is one of several cases
when the need to support output voltage in
excess of 60V may be desirable. For exam-
ple, a 72V output can accommodate a string
of 19 white/blue/green LEDs or 24 red LEDs.
Alternatively, a manufacturer may need to
accommodate a wider range of DC bus volt-
ages derived from the converted AC line.
For example, consider the need to accom-
modate universal AC input voltages (85V-
270V) for use in a product sold globally.
Lets examine power-stage designs that
can accommodate comparatively high DC
bus voltage values. We will discuss a QR
controller with minimal turn on losses and
subsequent low electromagnetic interfer-
ence (EMI). And we will discuss both fxed-
frequency and QR controller designs with
an added transistor to support dimming.
SPICE (Simulated Program with Integrated
Circuit Emphasis) simulation results will
demonstrate each concept and extract the
basic features of the QR controller, includ-
ing valley switching and current limit, to
prove the concept.
Typical applications for f lyback con-
trollers are in transformer-isolated AC-DC
applications. These devices also possess
features that allow them to be utilized
effectively in DC-DC buck, or step-down,
applications where supply voltages for
accommodating larger strings of LEDs
(50V and higher) are necessary. Addition-
ally these controllers can be configured
to support other useful features includ-
ing dimming and programmable current
capability.
Fixed-frequency and QR controllers
Both the fxed frequency and QR controllers
(Figs. 1 and 2) contain an embedded power
cell or start-up cell capable of working with
high input-voltage values. Before the AC line
voltage is fully applied and has stabilized,
these internal cells provide a stable supply
voltage to the IC so it can perform the neces-
sary regulation. Tis is achieved by an inter-
nal switch that charges up the capacitor on
the VCC terminals before the stabilization
of the line voltage.
Once the line voltage stabilizes, the start-
up cell becomes inactive unless power is
interrupted. Under normal AC line condi-
tions the IC derives its VCC power from a
rectifed AC source voltage. For either con-
troller, voltages in excess of 270V can be
supported at the IC input. Tis supported
input voltage value is far greater than that
supported by the typical DC-DC, fxed-fre-
quency switching regulators that exist today
for LEDs. As previously noted, most are only
capable of handling maximum supply volt-
Fixed-frequency and
quasi-resonant fyback controllers
drive large LED strings
FRED SAWYER and MLADEN IVANKOVIC explain how to drive large LED strings, including RGB
implementations, for high-lumen-output applications.
FRED SAWYER is a Senior Staf Field
Applications Engineer, and MLADEN
IVANKOVIC is a Senior Application Engineer
at Infneon Technologies.
design forum | DRIVING STRINGS
FIG. 1. Fixed-frequency fyback controller.
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C
Bus
C
VCC
C
ZC
C
FB
D
r1
~D
r4
Power
cell
FB
GND
HV VCC ZC
R
ZC2
R
ZC1
R
VCC
D
VCC
R
CS
R
b1
Optocoupler
R
b2
R
ovs1
R
ovs2
R
c1
TL431
C
DS
C
c1
C
c2
CS
Q1
Gate
85 265 VAC
Control
unit
Zero crossing detection
Power management
Digital process block
Active burst mode
Protection block
Current mode control
ICE2QS03
Current
limitation
Gate
driver
W
p
W
s
D
o
V
o
C
o
C
f
W
a
L
f Snubber
LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 73
ages of 60V (and more typically 45V).
A simple buck converter uses a fxed fre-
quency controller that supports a DC input.
Te driver acts as a constant current source,
so that regardless of the number of LEDs
connected each diode will see the same cur-
rent value. Te transistor provides the refer-
ence voltage for the feedback and is matched
with the current-sense resistor in order to
achieve the desired output regulation.
Using the fxed frequency device is a quick
and easy way to implement the DC-DC buck
converter concept. Its drawback is that as
a fxed switching frequency device it exhib-
its greater EMI than other available alter-
natives. Moreover the maximum supported
duty cycle for these controller devices is
between 80-85%. Tis means that the out-
put voltage for the LED supply can only be
80-85% of the input voltage. As an example
a 60V DC input bus would be limited to sup-
porting a 48V DC output and 12-15 LEDs.
Quasi resonant advantages
For designs having stricter EMI standards
and needing tighter diferentials between
the input and output voltage bus values, a
QR device should be employed. Te exam-
ple in Fig. 2 uses Infneons ICE2QS03, which
contains an integrated start up cell along
with a digital frequency-reduction feature.
QR operation minimizes EMI by turning on
the feld-efect transistor (FET) at the out-
put during the zero crossing phase a tech-
nique commonly known as valley switch-
ing. Another efect of turning on the FET at
the zero crossing phase is reduced turn on
losses, making this a very ef cient switching
solution for a DC-DC buck converter applica-
tion. We shall see in a subsequent example
how this solution also accommodates dim-
ming applications.
Zero-voltage-switching operation occurs
when there is a resonant condition result-
ing from inductor L1 and the FET output
capacitance in the fully of state. Under
this condition, capacitor voltage eventu-
ally begins to fall and the inductor current
goes to zero.
We simulated this circuit concept using
National Instruments Multisim SPICE soft-
ware package. Te inductor current and
FET drain waveforms are shown in Fig 3.
In this example the input voltage is 100V.
Te output voltage and Inductor L1 con-
trol the rise and fall time of the current.
Te turn on of the FET is initiated at the
valley point once the FET drain to source
voltage has been detected to reach its max-
imum value (100V). During this condition
the FET is deemed of and is subsequently
switched on by the QR controller. During
this phase the inductor current rises and
once the peak is reached the FET is fully
on. At this point the FET is turned of and
the inductor current discharges. Te FET is
fully of once the inductor current reaches
zero and the drain to source reaches 100V.
Circuit performance
Fig. 4 illustrates the total average power
(voltagecurrent) across the switching cycle
and demonstrates how the QR controller
concept minimizes losses during turn on.
FIG. 2. Quasi resonant controller.
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________________________
0
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
10 20
Time (s)
Transient analysis
Voltage (V)
Current (A)
30 40
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
10
Turn on losses
are minimized
20
Time (s)
Transient analysis
Voltage current
30 5 15 25
74 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
design forum
|
DRIVING STRINGS
We performed average power simulations
on this circuit design to determine the ef -
ciency characteristics of this QR concept.
While simulation represents only a the-
oretical result of what is to be expected
it nonetheless provides a good starting
point for evaluating this concept. The
analysis was conducted assuming ideal
components (capacitors and inductors),
so the designer can view the losses that
are strictly attributed to the application
of the QR topology.
Key f i gures f rom t he anal ysi s
include an average output power of
(96.4579+96.4551)/2= 96.45W and an aver-
age input power of (99.5510+97.3866)/2=
98.46. If you divide the output by the input
we calculate converter ef ciency of approx-
imately 98%. As noted, this fgure does not
take into account the efect from non-ideal
components and or imperfections in the
circuit-board layout.
Dimming and current programming
In our circuit design, dimming can be
implemented by applying a pulse-width
modulation (PWM) input to the feedback
(FB) pin and replacing the FB resistor with
a photo bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
placed in parallel with a current mirror
transistor such as the BC846. When the
paralleled confguration of the transistors
is turned on, the FB pin is grounded and
there is zero current.
Turning the transistors of sets the maxi-
mum current condition for the LED string.
Tus by applying a PWM input, the resis-
tance seen by the FB
pin can be changed,
which adjusts the
current f low and
establishes the dim-
ming properties.
As previously men-
tioned, the ICE2QS03
QR controller has a
di gi t al -f requency-
reduction property.
Once l i ghter load
condi t i ons exi st ,
such as during the
dimming of the LED
light engine, the con-
troller subsequently
reduces its switch-
ing frequency in accordance with the load.
This positively impacts reduces the
switching losses that are associated with
the FET and the inductor under
light load. Tus the controller
operates at optimal ef ciency
for any load condition.
Likewise the photo BJT, when
connected in parallel with the
BC846, can be used to program
the current characteristics for
the driver via PWM control.
Te PWM scheme provides an
effective bias mechanism to
the transistors giving them the
properties of a variable resistor
which in turn can control the
current levels.
Added safety features
A further modifcation to the
FIG. 3. The waveforms depict the QR-switching or valley-switching concept. The yellow
trace is the inductor current and the red trace represents the FET drain voltage.
FIG. 4. A Multisim analysis shows the average power
(voltagecurrent) over the switching cycle.
QR switching in the ICE2QS03
A review of the functions performed by the
ICE2QS03 and each of the IC pins help illustrate
the overall operational concepts discussed in
the main article.
The zero current (ZC) pin takes in the
voltage resulting from the oscillation dictated
by the inductor and FET parasitic capacitance.
Internally, this pin is connected to the zero-
crossing detector for to determine the switch-on
time of the FET for resonant operation.
The current sense (CS) pin is connected to
the shunt resistor for primary current sensing
externally, and to the PWM signal generator
to in part determine the switch-off time for
the FET. The controller ultimately uses the
CS function and the voltage present at the
feedback (FB) pin to determine when to switch
the FET off.
The circuit operates by looking at the
sensed voltage across the shunt resistor (CS)
and the voltage is applied to an internal current
measurement unit integrated inside the IC. The
output voltage from the CS pin is compared
with the regulation voltage that is represented
by the FB input. Once this current sense
voltage exceeds the FB voltage, the output fip-
fop inside the IC is reset. As a result, the FET is
switched off.
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LED1
L1
LED2
MOSFET
LED3 LED6 LED4 LED5
R4
R2
HV
Q1
BC846
R1
C1
0F
R3
Current
sense input
Out
TLE4305
Overvoltage
protection
ZC
FB
CS
Gate
GND
VCC
ICE2QSO3
HV
LEDsmagazine.com FEBRUARY 2013 75
design forum
|
DRIVING STRINGS
FIG. 5. The addition of circuit-protection features can allow the controller to survive a
fault in the LED string.
QR design introduces detection and protec-
tion circuitry, so that a break in the LED
string does not create an overvoltage con-
dition. Tis is illustrated in the block dia-
gram in Fig. 5.
Tis design adds the TLE4305, which is
a combination voltage and current regu-
lator for switch-mode power supplies. Tis
device is used in conjunction with the QR
controller to provide the internal reference
voltage needed for the current sense. It is an
extremely low internal reference voltage (200
mV) thereby facilitating the use of smaller
current sense resistors in the application.
The QR controller has a zero-crossing-
detection (ZC) pin which performs multiple-
functions. First in addition to performing
the switch on of the MOSFET, once a valley
condition has been detected, it also serves as
the output overvoltage detector. In this case,
when the output voltage exceeds a specifed
limit due to a broken LED string the QR con-
troller will undergo a shutdown for protec-
tion purposes. Te condition is triggered by
the TLE4305 which detects the overvoltage
condition via sense resistors and an internal
reference voltage.
Flyback controller suits LEDs
Weve seen that a fyback controller can
serve efficiently in DC-DC applications
where LED lighting is involved. Controllers
that contain a high-voltage start-up cell
can handle larger DC input voltages than
switching ICs specifcally designed for LED
applications. Tis allows the designer to
accommodate more LEDs in a series con-
fguration, ensuring that current is shared
equally by all LEDs in a string.
The QR controller achieves maximum
switching performance due to minimal
turn on losses which adds the beneft of
reduced EMI. However both the fxed-fre-
quency and QR controller designs can
accommodate dimming requirements by
simply adding a transistor to adjust and
control the loops feedback resistance. Te
transistor controls the amount of current
supplied to the LED string to produce the
desired dimming efect.
Likewise the driver designer has the
option to program the desired current
based on the use of PWM to defne an oper-
ating point that establishes the desired LED
current. Te designer should also bear in
mind that a QR controller enables full use
of the available bus voltage because it is not
bound to duty-cycle limitations typical in
fxed frequency devices.
A signifcant feature of the QR control-
ler scheme described here is that it also
affords the designer optimal efficiency
under dimming conditions compared to
that ofered by a fxed-frequency control-
ler approach. Under light load conditions,
the reduction of the QR controllers switch-
ing frequency minimizes associated losses
in the FET and inductor.
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_______________________
last word
76 FEBRUARY 2013 LEDsmagazine.com
last word
M
any companies in the lighting indus-
try are struggling with proftabil-
ity in the transition to LED-based
lighting. Luminaire manufacturers are seeing
their R&D costs and stock levels increasing.
Tey are writing of increasing quantities of
obsolete stock, and are facing increasing risk
of quality problems in the feld. Zhaga stan-
dards can help with these issues and acceler-
ate the adoption of solid-state lighting (SSL).
I spoke with a number of lighting man-
ufacturers who had increased their R&D
spending from around 3% of sales in 2006,
when they were designing luminaires with
conventional light sources only, to 6% of
sales last year, when 80% of the total went
on developing LED luminaires.
Such a high level of R&D spending does
not look sustainable for luminaire manufac-
turers. Costs will have to go down - not just
R&D costs, but also the cost of stock, stock
obsolescence, and the cost of quality. Why
has the R&D cost increased so much? Partly
because LEDs change faster than luminaires,
and partly because it is challenging to make
reliable luminaires that deliver the expected
long lifetime.
Modular design helps. In a modular lumi-
naire architecture, the LED technology is
separated from the optical and mechani-
cal parts of the luminaire. Te R&D efort
can then be focused on maintaining the LED
module, a term that is used here loosely to
defne the part of the luminaire that con-
tains the LED technology.
Most luminaire companies already use
modular architectures this is the only way
to develop and maintain a broad portfolio of
luminaires. While it may be obvious to sepa-
rate the LED technology, the choice of make vs
buy is less straightforward. Making your own
PCB with LEDs is attractive, and the cost is
lower than buying the equivalent of-the-shelf
module. This will get you luminaires with
minimum bill-of-materials (BOM) cost. On
the other hand, proprietary LED modules are
a burden for the R&D depart-
ment, and the design and main-
tenance of the modules will
increase your R&D cost.
Designing your own LED
modules has other pitfalls.
It is easy to get started, but
soon you will need variants
for other color temperatures,
light levels and CRI values.
Before you know it the R&D
department has doubled its
number of engineers.
Are you better of buying LED modules?
Not necessarily. They are more expensive,
and their integration into the luminaire still
needs careful engineering to make the lumi-
naire reliable. Furthermore, a module that is
competitive today may be outdated, or even
unavailable, a year from now. Te dilemma
seems to be whether you should reduce the
R&D cost or the BOM cost. And what is the
efect on your stock levels, the risk of obso-
lete stock, and the diversity of your luminaire
product portfolio?
Zhaga ofers a way out of this dilemma. By
specifying the interfaces of a series of diferent
LED modules, which Zhaga terms LED light
engines, Zhaga makes it possible for module
manufacturers to supply interchangeable LED
light sources. In the context of Zhaga, two
LED light engines are said to be interchange-
able when the luminaire manufacturer can
use either LED light engine without making
any change in the design (mechanical, optical,
thermal, or electrical) of the luminaire.
Luminaire manufacturers beneft from
interchangeability because they can more
easily switch from one sup-
plier to another. The avail-
ability of a second-source
supplier reduces risk. Not
only will interchangeable
LED light engines be more
competitive, they are less vul-
nerable to supply issues, and
that helps reduce stock levels
and the risk of obsolescence.
A subtle beneft is that inter-
changeable LED light engines
will ofer more choice in terms of CRI, CCT,
lumen levels, lifetime, color stability, etc.
Tis ofers luminaire manufacturers the pos-
sibility to play with diferent performance/
price levels in their luminaire portfolio with-
out increasing their R&D costs.
Te impact of Zhaga is already visible.
For example, suppliers of linear indoor mod-
ules have started to ofer products with the
mechanical dimensions and fxation speci-
fed in Zhaga Book 7, even though that spec-
ifcation has not been published yet. Even if
you choose to design and manufacture your
own linear modules, it now makes sense to
make them compatible with Zhaga Book 7.
You may want to purchase these modules
later from an external supplier.
MORE: www.zhagastandard.org
Zhaga helps SSL luminaire makers
reduce costs and supply-chain risks
ZHAGA CONSORTIUM General Secretary MENNO TREFFERS explains that vendor-interoperable light
engines will allow companies to support broader LED-lighting portfolios with more features.
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