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Electromagnetics Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics


COMSOL is a Fully Integrated Software Suite
All modeling steps are available from one and the same environment:
CAD Import and Geometry Modeling
Meshing
Multiphysics problem setup
Solving
Visualization
Postprocessing
Export/Import of data
Based upon the finite element method, COMSOL is designed from the ground up to address arbitrary combinations
of physical equations
COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3a Product Suite
COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, COMSOL Desktop, and LiveLink are registered trademarks or trademarks of COMSOL AB. AutoCAD and Inventor are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. LiveLink for
AutoCAD and LiveLink for Inventor are not affiliated with, endorsed by, sponsored by, or supported by Autodesk, Inc. and/or any of its affiliates and/or subsidiaries. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault
Systmes S.A. or its affiliates or subsidiaries. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation or its parent, affiliates, or subsidiaries. Creo is a trademark and Pro/ENGINEER
is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S and/or in other countries. Solid Edge is a registered trademark of Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software
Inc. SpaceClaim is a registered trademark of SpaceClaim Corporation. MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Excel is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Electromagnetics in the COMSOL Multiphysics Core
Package is extended by various Modules
1) Start Here
2) Add Modules based
upon your needs
4) Interface with your CAD
data and MATLAB
3) Additional Modules extend
the physics you can address
COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, COMSOL Desktop, and LiveLink are registered trademarks or trademarks of COMSOL AB. AutoCAD and Inventor are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. LiveLink for
AutoCAD and LiveLink for Inventor are not affiliated with, endorsed by, sponsored by, or supported by Autodesk, Inc. and/or any of its affiliates and/or subsidiaries. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault
Systmes S.A. or its affiliates or subsidiaries. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation or its parent, affiliates, or subsidiaries. Creo is a trademark and Pro/ENGINEER
is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S and/or in other countries. Solid Edge is a registered trademark of Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software
Inc. SpaceClaim is a registered trademark of SpaceClaim Corporation. MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Excel is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Types of Electromagnetics Modeling
Static Low Frequency Transient High Frequency
0

t
E
( ) t sin E ( ) t E ( ) t sin E
Electric and
magnetic fields do
not vary in time.
Fields vary sinusoidally in
time, but there is
negligible radiation.
Fields vary arbitrarily in time,
radiation may or may not be
significant. Objects can be moving.
Fields vary sinusoidally
in time, energy transfer
is via radiation.
Static Field Modeling
DC Electric Currents solves for current flow in conductors
Electrostatics solves for electric fields in perfect insulators
Magnetostatics solves for the magnetic fields around magnets, and the fields around
current carrying objects

Inductor, DC current flow and Magnetostatics Parallel Plate Capacitor, Electrostatics Permanent Magnet, Magnetostatics
Mutual Inductance, Magnetic Fields Analysis
Low Frequency Modeling
AC Electric Currents considers both conduction and displacement currents in
conductive and insulating media
The Magnetic Fields can be solved for in the frequency domain to find the
conduction, displacement, and induction currents
The Magnetic and Electric fields can be solved for, if skin effects in coils require a
high accuracy model
Inductive Heating, Magnetic Fields Inductor, Magnetic and Electric Fields
Transient Modeling
Transient Electric Currents solves for displacement and conduction currents in
insulators and conductors
Transient Magnetic Fields is suitable for modeling current pulses and nonlinear
material response to field strength
Rotating Machinery considers rotary velocity and acceleration
Transient electromagnetics solves for nonlinear wave phenomena


Second Harmonic Generation,
Transient Electromagnetics
E-Core Transformer, Transient Magnetic Fields Generator, Rotating Machinery
High Frequency Modeling
Electromagnetic Waves formulation solves for the electric and magnetic fields under
the assumption that the energy transfer is via radiation
Frequency domain and eigenfrequency (resonant mode) analysis

Optical Scattering Coplanar Waveguide Filter
Microstrip Patch Antenna Array
Whenever there are electromagnetic losses, there is a
rise in temperature
J oule Heating Induction Heating Microwave Heating
Specialized user interfaces and solvers address the two-way coupled frequency-domain
electromagnetic and time-domain thermal problems
Additional Formulations
Electric Circuits Transmission Line Equations
The Electric Circuits formulation can model a lumped system
of circuit elements and couple this to the finite element model
The Transmission Line Equation formulation solves for
the electric potential along transmission lines
Formulations per Module
COMSOL Multiphysics
1
AC/DC Module RF Module
Static Electric Currents

Static J oule Heating

Electrostatics

Magnetic Fields
2

Electric Currents in Solids

Electric Currents in Shells

J oule Heating
Electrostatics

Magnetic Fields
Induction Heating

Magnetic and Electric Fields
Rotating Machinery
Electric Circuits


Electromagnetic Waves
Microwave Heating
Transient EM Waves
Time Explicit EM Waves
Transmission Line Equations
Electrical Circuits


1) Core package contains a reduced set of boundary conditions for these formulations
2) 2D and 2D-axisymmetric geometries and static and low frequency formulations only


Finite Element Based Solutions
2D: Triangular & Quadrilateral Elements
3D: Tetrahedral, Hexahedral, Triangular Prismatic,
& Bricks
1st, 2nd, & 3rd order isoparametric (curved) elements represent
geometry to high accuracy and the mesh is fully user-controllable
State of the art direct and iterative solvers can address models with
millions of unknowns
x =A
-1
b
Feature Overview: Boundary Conditions
Voltage source, Current source, & Insulating surfaces
Thin layers of electrically resistive, or conductive, material
Thin layers of high, or low, permittivity materials
Thin layers of high, or low, permeability materials
Perfectly conducting boundaries
Symmetry and periodicity conditions
Connections to external circuit models
Lumped, Coaxial, and other Waveguide feeds
Electromagnetic wave excitations
Radiating boundaries to infinity


Feature Overview: Domain Conditions
Background and Scattered Field excitations
Single Turn, Multi-Turn, and Coil Group Excitations
Infinite Elements and Perfectly Matched Layers

Iron sphere in a uniform magnetic field,
surrounded by Infinite Elements
Single Turn, Multi-Turn, and
Coil Group Excitations
Gold Sphere illuminated by a
background plane wave
Feature Overview: Material Models
All material properties can be:
Constant or nonlinearly dependent upon the fields
Isotropic, Diagonal, or Fully Anisotropic
Defined via Rule-of-Mixtures models
Bi-directionally coupled to any other physics, e.g. Temperature, Strain
Fully User-Definable

AC/DC Module supports magnetic nonlinearities, B-H curves

RF Module supports loss tangents and dispersion models
Drude-Lorentz, Debye, and Sellmeier dispersion


r r
r
D E D
P E D
E D
+
+


0
0
0
r r
r
B H B
M H B
H B
+
+




0
0 0
0
E J
Feature Overview: Data Extraction
Magnetic Forces Far-Field Radiation Pattern
]
]
]
,

,
22 21
12 11
S S
S S
Lumped Parameters
Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance, & Mutual Inductance
Impedance, Admittance, and S-parameters
Force calculation due to electric and magnetic fields
Far-field plots for radiation
Additional Modules for Electromagnetics
Plasma Module
1
MEMS Module
2
Particle Tracing Module
3

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensor Inductively Coupled Plasma Magnetic Lens
Solves DC Discharge,
Capacitively Coupled
Plasmas, Inductively
Coupled Plasmas, and
Microwave Plasmas.
Couples structural mechanics
and electrostatics for the
modeling of electroactuation,
as well as piezoelectric
devices.
Computes paths of
charged particles through
electric and magnetic
fields as well as fluid
fields.
1) Depending upon the type of plasma being modeled, the AC/DC or the RF Module may also be needed
2) Contains the same 3D electrostatic, electric currents in solids, and electric circuits capabilities as the AC/DC Module

3) Does not require any other Modules


3D CAD File Formats
ACIS
Catia V5
Creo Parametric
IGES
Inventor
Parasolid (read & write)
Pro/ENGINEER
SolidWorks
STEP
LiveLink Interface Products
LiveLink for AutoCAD
LiveLink for Creo Parametric
LiveLink for Inventor
LiveLink for Pro/ENGINEER
LiveLink for SolidWorks
LiveLink for SpaceClaim
Partner Meshing Products
Mimics
Simpleware
2D CAD File Formats
DXF
E-CAD File Formats
GDS/NETEX-G
ODB++
Mesh File Formats
NASTRAN
STL (read & write)
VRML
CAD & Meshing Interoperability
MATLAB Based Scripting
All the functionality in the
COMSOL GUI is equivalently
available via the
Live-Link for MATLAB
which also allows for scripting
and automation of model
generation, results extraction,
and design optimization
Example Models, AC/DC Module
Resistors
Capacitors
Inductors and
Coils
Magnets
Motors and
Actuators
Electromagnetic
Heating
Resistor and Capacitor Modeling
DC Resistive device analysis assumes that all materials are conductors, and solves
the equation:


Electrostatic analysis assumes all materials are insulators, thus:


AC resistive and AC capacitive devices are both solved in the frequency domain
using the same governing equation:


Transient analysis also uses the same governing equation:

( ) 0 V
( ) 0
0
V
r

( ) ( ) 0
0
+ V j
r

( ) 0
0

(
,
\
,
(
j

+ V
t
V
r

Electrostatic, Transient, and Frequency Domain
modeling of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
A parallel plate capacitor is modeled under
electrostatic, frequency domain, and transient
conditions

Fringing fields and domain size effects on
capacitance are studied

Frequency domain modeling resolves the
losses in dielectric materials

Transient modeling of the charging behavior
agrees with analytic solution



http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12695/


Modeling of Thin Conductive or Resitive Layers
Layers of highly conductive material relative to the surroundings can be modeled with
an Electric Shielding boundary condition
Layers of highly resistive material relative to the surroundings can be modeled with a
Contact Impedance boundary condition
These boundary conditions will reduce the mesh and problem size

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12623/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12621/

Modeling of Thin Layers of Dielectric Material
Thin layers of high dielectric material relative to the surroundings can be modeled
with a Dielectric Shielding boundary condition
Thin layers of relatively low dielectric material can be modeled with a Thin Low
Permittivity Gap boundary condition
These boundary conditions will reduce the mesh and problem size



http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12651/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12625/


MEMS Capacitor
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/123/
A representative Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) capacitor composed of
two plates
The objective is to compute the device capacitance
Inductor and Coil Modeling
B H
A B
J H
1

Static Magnetic Fields


are computed by solving:
Where A is the Magnetic
Vector Potential, and J is the
current density, which can be
solved simultaneously, or in a
separate analysis
( )
B H
A B
J H A
1
2

j
AC Magnetic Fields are
computed by solving:
The additional terms
represent the induced
and the displacement
currents
B H
A B
J H
A
1

t
The displacement
currents are not
included in the
governing equations
Transient Magnetic Fields
are computed by solving:
Mutual Inductance between Axisymmetric Coils
A single turn primary coil generates a magnetic field
The secondary coil has one, several, and many turns
The mutual inductance and induced currents are computed
Agreement with analytic mutual inductance is demonstrated


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12687/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12679/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12653/


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/129/
Static analysis of an inductor using the Magnetic and Electric fields formulation to find
the currents and the magnetic fields
The objective is to compute the device inductance

Integrated Square-Shaped Spiral Inductor
Inductance of a Power Inductor
At the operating frequency (1kHz) of this power inductor, the skin depth in the coil is
comparable to the thickness of the current-carrying wires
The Magnetic and Electric fields interface is used to capture the skin effect in the
wires
The admittance and inductance is computed

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/1250/
E-core Single Phase Transformer
E-core
Primary winding
Secondary winding

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/5700/
Full non-linear time domain analysis at 50 Hz is solved for the induced voltages
Non-linear magnetic material (with saturation effect) is used for the magnetic core
Windings are treated as coil bundles, without modeling each turn of wire

Inductor in Amplifier Circuit
A nonlinear 2D axisymmetric finite element model is combined with a lumped circuit
model
A 1000 turn coil is wrapped around a core with nonlinear magnetic response, the
multi-turn coil domain is used
A DC bias is applied, and the AC response at this bias is computed
The voltage and current in the device is predicted over time


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/990/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/2128/

Transponder
antenna
~1-2 cm
~1-2 m
Reader
antenna
Modeling of an RFID system
RFID systems typically consist of a small (~1cm) antenna and a larger (~1m)
reader antenna
Here, both antennas are modeled as zero-thickness lines, the larger reader
antenna has a driving current applied
The intercepted magnetic flux is used to compute the mutual inductance between
antennas


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/1264/
Multi-Turn Coil Above an Asymmetric Conductor
Plate
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/13777/
The model calculates the eddy currents and magnetic fields produced when an
aluminum conductor is placed asymmetrically above a multi-turn coil carrying an AC
current
If there is no current flow in
the model, solve:








Where V
m
is the Magnetic
Scalar Potential

Magnets, Motors & Actuators
( )
m
V

H
H 0
When modeling rotating objects, solve for the transient
magnetic fields and induced currents in the conductive
and current carrying domains, but only the magnetic fields
only in the surrounding air
( )
m
V

H
H 0
B H
A B
J B v H
A
1


t
The Magnetic Field from a Permanent Magnet
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/78/
Introductory example for magnetic field modeling considers a typical horseshoe
magnet and iron bar
Symmetry is used to reduce problem size
The magnetic fields and forces are computed

An expression is used to set up a laterally periodic magnetization:
M =( M
pre
sin(kx) , 0 , M
pre
cos(kx) )
The magnet interacts with a plate of nonlinear permeability:





Flux and forces are computed

One-sided Magnet
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/213/
Magnetic Prospecting of Iron Ore Deposits
Underground iron ore deposits result in magnetic anomalies
Here, disturbances in the background magnetic field of the Earth, due to the
presence of a ore deposit are computed
The Reduced Field formulation solves for small perturbations to a background field

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/3807/
Assumed ore deposit
Simulating the Moving Parts of a Generator
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/2122/
The Rotating Machinery, Magnetic interface solves for rotating 2D and 3D domains
composed of magnetic materials
The finite element mesh is allowed to slide at the interface
Nonlinear magnetic materials are included in the model
Induced voltages as a function of rotational speed are computed
Simulating a Generator Made From Nonlinear Materials
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/462/
A fully 3D static analysis of the magnetic fields around the rotor and stator
Permanent magnets and nonlinear magnetic materials are included in the model
Material nonlinearity is modeled via an interpolation function
Magnetic Damping of Vibrating Conducting Solids
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12437/
A metallic cantilever beam is placed in a strong magnetic field
A sinusoidal force excites the beam
Although the displacements are small, the velocities are significant
Currents are induced in a conductors moving through a magnetic field
The induced currents in the vibrating solid create a damping effect
Electromagnetic Heating
Displacement Current Losses
Dipolar molecules rotate in time
varying electric field
e
-
Conduction Current Losses
Electrons moving through a
conductor lose energy
Induction Current Losses
Time varying magnetic fields
induce currents in a conductor
J(t) H(t)
All of the above losses can be included in
the generalized heat transfer equation
( )
Losses
netic Electromag p
Q T k
t
T
C

+
E(t)
Electrical Heating of a Busbar
Direct current flows through a copper busbar
Resistive losses raise the temperature
The objective of this model is to find the peak temperature under
steady-state conditions
This is the introductory example to the COMSOL Multiphysics
Product Suite
http://www.comsol.com/products/tutorials/introduction/page2/
Inductive Heating of a Copper Cylinder
A 2D axisymmetric model of a coil around a cylinder of copper
The Induction Heating interface solves the frequency-domain electromagnetic and
time-domain thermal problem in a two-way coupled approach
The electric conductivity varies as the temperature increases
The rise in temperature over time is computed
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/148/
Example Models, RF Module
Antennas
Waveguides &
Transmission Lines
Scattering Problems
Periodic Problems
Electromagnetic
Heating
Resonant Structures
Resonant Structure Example Models
COMSOL can find the resonant frequency and Quality factor of an closed and open
cavity structures by solving the eigenvalue problem:




Typical examples:
Microwave Cavities
Optical Resonators
Filters
Coil Resonance

( ) ( )


+


j
j k
r
0 E E
0
2
0
1
Verification of eigenvalue solvers
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/9618/
Rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical air-filled metal cavities
The resonant frequency and Q-factor are computed
Mesh refinement studies are performed
Results show agreement with analytic solutions
C.A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley, 1989
Evanescent Mode Cylindrical Cavity Filter
A cylindrical cavity is partially filled with Teflon which will shift the resonant frequency
down
A slot coupled microstrip line feed with lumped ports is used
S-parameters are computed


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12015/
Cascaded Rectangular Cavity Filter
Three slot coupled cascaded rectangular cavity filters
Slot coupled microstrip line feed with lumped port
Insertion loss <2dB, -10dB S11 bandwidth ~15MHz
Much better out-of-band rejection is computed compared to a single cavity model



http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12018/
Finding the resonant frequency of a coil
A copper coil in an air domain
A perfectly matched layer domain models the surrounding
free space
Eigenvalue analysis find the resonant frequency and the
Q-factor
Frequency domain analysis also finds the resonance, and
Q-factor
Driving and tuning elements can be added to the model

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/6126/
Modeling of a Fabry-Perot Cavity
A Fabry-Perot cavity is a slab of dielectric in air
The simplest optical resonator
Objective is to find resonant frequency and Q-factor
Frequency-Domain and Eigenvalue solutions are shown


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/10005/
Tunable Evanescent Mode Cavity Filter Using a
Piezoelectric Device
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12619/
Tunable the capacitance inside the cavity by the piezoelectric device
The resonant frequency is controlled by the capacitance
Higher voltage, thinner gap, more reactance, and lower frequency resonance
Antenna Example Models
Antennas transmit and/or receive radiated electromagnetic energy. COMSOL can
compute the radiated energy, far field patterns, losses, gain, directivity, impedance
and S-parameters by solving the linear problem for the E-field:




Typical examples:
Microstrip Patch Antenna
Vivaldi Antenna
Dipole Antenna




( ) ( ) 0 E E

0
2
0
1
j k
r
Microstrip Patch Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/11742/
A low profile, planar, narrow bandwidth antenna that is easy to design and
fabricate on a PCB, used in many applications.
There is an optimum feed point between the center and edge
An inset feeding strategy is used that does not require any additional matching
parts

4 x 2 Microstrip Patch Antenna Array
Slot-coupled 4x2 array of patch antennas
Controlling the phase and magnitude assigned to each element can steer the beam
Far-Field radiation pattern is computed


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12021/
Biconical Antenna
A wide-band antenna with omni-directional radiation
pattern in azimuth angle (H-plane)
A coaxial feed with better than -10 dB S11 in the
simulation frequency range

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12075/
Radome with Double-layered Dielectric Lens
A dielectric radome is an RF-transparent enclosure for antennas
Such structures can be designed to minimize transmission losses and increase
directivity

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12027/
Dipole Antenna with a Coaxial Balun
A /4 coaxial balun (1:1) prevents undesirable currents on the outside of the feed
cable

1mm Thickness Enclosure
Shorted to The Coax Outer
Conductor
Feed Point
/4
/4
/4
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12313/
Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Array
A quartz dielectric resonator above a radiating element increases directivity and gain
Additional passive metallic antenna elements are patterned on the dielectric block
Far-field patterns and antenna impedance are computed

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12042/
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12045/
Electromagnetic Band Gap Meta-material
A periodic mushroom structure has a band gap that provides increased isolation
between two antenna elements

Decoupling
Band



With EBG
Without EBG
Balanced Patch Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/782/
A fractal antenna has multiple resonances that can operate at several bands
A patch antenna is formed on top of a printed circuit board
Antenna is driven by two coaxial feeds
The full details of the feeds are modeled
Near and Far-Fields are plotted
Sierpinski Fractal Monopole Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12721/
A fractal antenna has multiple resonances
that can operate at several bands
Dipole Antenna with Conductive Surfaces
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/8715/
The most straightforward antenna configurations which is realized with two thin
metallic rods
A sinusoidal voltage difference applied between two rods
The model computes input impedance and 3D far-field pattern
Spiral Slot Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12315/
A spiral slot antenna provides a wide-band impedance matching and bi-directional
radiation pattern
Vivaldi Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12093/
A tapered slot antenna, also known as a Vivaldi antenna
Useful for wide band applications
An exponential function is used for the taper profile
Helical Antenna
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/13681/
A helical antenna has two major modes; normal mode and axial mode.
At the normal mode, torus-shaped radiation pattern
At the axial mode, similar to an end-fire array generating a directive radiation pattern
Waveguides and Transmission Lines
Any structure that guides electromagnetic waves along its structure can be
considered a waveguide. COMSOL can compute propagation constants, impedance,
S-parameters by solving:





Typical examples:
Coaxial cable
Optical fibers and waveguides



( ) ( )
( )
z
r
j
y x
j k



z) exp( ,
0
2
0
1
E E
0 E E
Lossy Ferrite 3-Port Circulator

A microwave circulator uses an anistropic and lossy ferrite
A ferrite post, under an assumed externally biasing magnetic field is at the center of
the circulator
Non-reciprocal behavior provides isolation
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/10302/
Coupled Line Filter
A narrowband bandpass filter is realized using cascaded coupled microstrip lines,
each approximately a half-wavelength long
Input matching is better than -15dB around the center frequency
Low insertion loss and good out-of-band rejection

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12012/
Coplanar Waveguide Bandpass Filter
A Coplanar Waveguide bandpass filter can be realized using Interdigital Capacitors
and Short-circuited Stub Inductors
S-parameters are computed

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12099/
Branch Line Coupler
A Four-port network device with 90 phase difference between two coupled ports
The model computes the S-parameters

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/11727/
Rat-Race Coupler (180 Ring Hybrid)
A four-port network device with 180 phase difference between two ports can be
easily fabricated on a PCB board
The model computes the S-parameters

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/11739/
Substrate Integrated Waveguide
A waveguide-type structure fabricated on a substrate by adding vias between the
microstrip line and ground plane that is easy to fabricate and will act as a high-pass
filter
Sharp cutoff frequency at ~8.6GHz

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12127/
SMA Connectorized Wilkinson Power Divider
A Wilkinson power divider is a three-port lossless device and outperforms a T-
junction divider and a resistive divider
Computed S-parameters show good input matching and -3 dB evenly split output

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12303/
Waveguide Iris Bandpass Filter
A series of inductive diaphragms in a WR-90 waveguide result in a bandpass
frequency response
Computed S-parameters show good out-of-band rejection

http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12737/
Finding the Impedance of a Coaxial Cable
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12351/
The impedance of a coaxial cable has an analytic solution
A cross-sectional model of a coax cable is used to find the electric and magnetic
fields
The computed impedance agrees with the analytic solution
Impedance of a Parallel Wire Transmission Line
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12403/
The impedance of a parallel wire transmission line has an analytic solution
A cross-sectional model is used to find the fields
The transmission line is unshielded, so the fields extend to infinity, associated
modeling issues are addressed
The computed impedance agrees with the analytic solution
Connecting a 3D RF Model to a Circuit Model
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/10833/
A 3D model of a coaxial cable is connected to a circuit model
The source, and source impedance is modeled by the circuit model, as is the load
on the cable
Transient Modeling of a Coaxial Cable
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12349/
A 2D axisymmetric model of a coaxial cable with a transient pulse applied at one
end
The other end has a matched load, open circuit, and short circuit
Transient behavior is computed
Rectangular to Elliptical Waveguide Adapter
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/140/
A rectangular waveguide has a known, analytic
solution for the fields in cross section


An elliptical waveguide requires that a
boundary modes analysis problem be solved to
compute the field shapes


This model shows how to compute waveguide
mode shapes, and correctly compute the S-
parameters of the adapter
Polarized Circular Ports
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/14043/
This model illustrates how to align the polarization of degenerate port modes and in
particular how to model and excite the TE11 mode of circular waveguides in 3D
Photonic Crystal Waveguide Bend
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/143/
An array of high-dielectric posts in has a photonic band gaz
Removing one row of posts can create a waveguide
Over certain frequency ranges, good guiding is observed
Dielectric Slab Waveguide
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12347/
A slab of dielectric in air acts as an optical waveguide
The computed effective index is compared to analytic solution
The first guided mode is launched into waveguide

Optical fibers are the backbone of the telecommunications infrastructure
This introductory model computes the effective index of several modes

SiO
2

SiO
2
(doped)
4457 1
1
. n
4378 1
2
. n
Step Index Fiber
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/145/
Electromagnetic and Structural Analysis of a Microwave
Filter on a PCB
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/4461/
A seventh-pole low-pass Chebyshev filter implemented on a PCB
Geometry is read in from ODB++(X)
Structural deformation of the board under load
Effect of deformation on the S-parameters is solved for
Stress-Optical Effects on a Ridge Waveguide
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/190/
Structural stresses can result in a change in refractive index
Plane strain structural equations are solved for the stresses
Electromagnetic problem is solved for the effective index
Examples of Scattering Problems
An background electromagnetic field of known shape, such as a plane wave,
interacts with various materials and structures. The objective is to find the total field
and scattered fields by solving:





Typical examples:
Mie Scattering
Radar Cross Section (RCS) calculations




( ) ( )
scattered background total
total r total
j k
E E E
0 E E
+


0
2
0
1

Mie Scattering, Radar Cross Section of a Metal Sphere
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/10332/
A sphere of metal is treated as a perfect electric conductor
Plane wave irradiates the sphere
Symmetry reduces the problem size
Second order elements represent the sphere shape to high accuracy
A Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) truncates the modeling domain
Far-field calculation computes the backscattered field
Results agree with analytic solution
Radar Cross Section
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/8613/
A 2D obloid shape is illuminated by a plane wave from all angles
The scattered field formulation is used to find the RCS

Optical Scattering off of a Gold Sphere
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12415/
A gold sphere is illuminated by light of wavelength 400-700nm
Symmetry reduces the problem size
Second order elements represent the sphere shape to high accuracy
A Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) truncates the modeling domain
Gold is modeled as having negative and complex valued permittivity
Far-field calculation computes the scattered fields
Losses within the sphere are computed
Gold sphere
Beam Splitter
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12729/
A thin layer of silver is sandwiched between two glass prisms
The thin layer of silver is modeled using the computationally efficient Transition
Boundary Condition
An incoming Gaussian beam gets split into two beams
Second Harmonic Generation
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/956/
Gaussian beam passing through an optically nonlinear medium
Polarization dependents upon the electric field magnitude
Requires transient non-linear modeling
Frequency doubling is observed
Mapped Dielectric Distribution of a Metamaterial
Lens
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/13873/
Convex lens shape is defined via a known deformation of a rectangular domain
The dielectric distribution is defined on the undeformed, original rectangular domain
and is mapped onto the deformed shape of the lens
Examples of Periodic Problems
Any structure that repeats in one, two, or all three dimensions can be treated as
periodic, which allows for the analysis of a single unit cell, with Floquet Periodic
boundary conditions:



Typical examples:
Optical Gratings
Frequency Selective Surfaces




)) ( exp(
A B A B
j r r k E E
Verification of Fresnel Equations
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12407/
TE- and TM-polarized light incident upon an infinite dielectric slab
3D model uses Floquet Periodicity
Results agree with analytic solution



Plasmonic Wire Grating
A 2D array of silver cylinders patterned on a substrate is modeled with one unit cell
using Floquet periodicity
Higher-order diffraction is captured




http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/10032/

r
= -1

r
= -1

r
= 1

r
= 1
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/12583/
A bulk material of negative refractive index can be modeled
The relative permittivity and permeability are both set to -1
The boundary conditions, terminations, and material interfaces require special treatment
Modeling of Negative Refractive Index
Electromagnetic Heating Examples
An electromagnetic wave interacting with any materials will have some loss that leads
to rise in temperature over time. Any losses computed from solving the
electromagnetic problem can be bi-directionally coupled to the thermal equation:





Typical examples:
Microwave Ovens
Absorbed Radiation in Living Tissue
Tumor Ablation


( )
Losses
netic Electromag p
Q T k
t
T
C

Heating of a Dielectric Block in a Waveguide


http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/6078/
Dielectric block inside a waveguide
Waveguide walls coated with copper
There are losses in the block and at the walls of waveguide
Thermal and electrical material properties vary with temperature
The rise in temperature is computed in the block and waveguide structure
Both steady-state thermal solution and transient thermal effects are computed
Absorbed Radiation (SAR) in the Human Brain
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/2190/
A representative cell phone antenna is placed next to a head
The dielectric properties of the head are from scan data
Absorbed radiation and temperature rise is computed
Pennes Bioheat equation models living tissue

Microwave Cancer Therapy
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/30/
A coaxial cable with slot is coated with a
Teflon sleeve and forms an antenna
The antenna is inserted into the liver
The radiated power heats the tissue
The Pennes Bioheat equation models
the liver tissue
Model solves for:
The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
Temperature field
Radiated fields
Potato in a Microwave Oven
http://www.comsol.com/showroom/gallery/1424/
A half-symmetry model of a potato in a microwave oven
The electromagnetic fields are solved in the frequency domain
The thermal problem is solved transiently