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MINIX File System

" Process FS, running in user mode " Main loop which
" Waits for a message " Extracts and uses msg type as index into table with procedure pointers (handlers) " Procedure does the work and returns a status value, which is send back as the reply

" Main Data structures:


" Super-block table " Open File Table " File Position Table " Bit map for free i-nodes and free zones " Block Cache
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MINIX FS Messages

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Directories and Paths


" Consist of files 16-byte entries.
" First two bytes form a 16-bit I-node number " Remaining 14 bytes are the file name

" File name lookup is done one entry at a time. " When a new file is created, a new i-node is allocated (alloc_node) and its name is written into the directory entry

i-node-nr! 2 bytes!

File name! 14 bytes!


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File Descriptors
" File descriptor is an index in a filp (file position) table. " Filp table contains file position and I-node pointer of the file, the file mode, and the count of processes using it. " Filp is a shared table that allows for:
" sharing files without sharing file positions " sharing files and share file positions (e.g. between parent and a child)
Process P1: fd=open() Process P2: fd=open()
Pos = file position inp = i-node pointer

Table lp!
Pos/inp Pos/inp Pos/inp Pos/inp Pos/inp Pos/inp pos1! pos2!

OpenFileTable!

i-n1 i-n2 i-n3 i-n4


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Zones vs. blocks


" In Minix, file space is allocated per zones " Zones are collections of consecutive blocks on the disk. (2, 4, 8) " Zone size/block size is always a power of two.

Minix File System 5

FS Layout
" Same structure for any block device. " Uses i-nodes and zones (allocation unit composed of 2n blocks) " Uses bit-maps to keep track of used/free i-nodes and zones (bit maps are not normal blocks)

" To find the zone of a block, do a n-bit shift-right of the block number.
" n=3, Each zone has 8 Blocks. And block #128 is in zone #16

" Utility program mkfs formats disk, and includes magic number in super-block (valid Minix FS)

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Super-Block on Disk and in Main Memory


" Contains the layout of the file system:
" number of nodes " number of zones " number of I-node bit map blocks " number of zone bit map blocks " first data zone " log2 (zone/block) " maximum file size " magic number " padding
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FS Mounting
A mouting is a glue between the mounted-on i-node, and the inode of the root directory of the mounted file system. Example: mount t devtype device mounted-on-dir The i-node of the mounted-on directory has the mount-flag set. At the path resolution, this means: continue search in the mounted FS

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Minix FS
" When a device is mounted, its super-block is copied into a super-block table in memory, including several information: " if FS is read-only " device from which the super-block came " pointers to the first free i-nodes/zones in the bit maps " etc

Minix Path Resolution


" The in-memory super-block of a device has 2 pointers which serves to connect the file systems:
" i-node of the root of the mounted-FS " i-node of the mounted-on-FS (e.g. /usr)

" When path resolution reaches /usr, it searches all the super-block table for the i-node pointer, and gets the pointer to the mounted-FS
i-node of the mounted-on-FS!

Super-block table!

Root i-node of the mounted FS!

/usr!

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Minix i-node
" File Type (regular, directory, special, pipe, etc.) and protection bits " 9 zone pointers (7 direct, 2 indirect), each 32 bits " Status change time updated at every file operation " When a file is opened, the inode is copied to memory into a i-node table " If an open file is re-opened, a used-counter is incremented (only if counter=0) i-node is removed from table
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Minix FS
" When a new file is created, uses the first-free-bit pointers in the super-block to allocate a new inode and one or more new zones " When a file is deleted, FS:
" locates the corresponding bits in the i-node and zone bit maps and sets them to 0 " updates the first-free-bit pointers in the super-block table entry for the device

" All blocks within a newly allocated zone are initialized (zeroed), to avaiod problem of seek +write beyond the original size of the file

Seek+write!
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Reading/Writing Files
All in files read.c and write.c: read_write is the common procedure, which calls: " rw_chunk to obtain the block address, and request the copy of it to the user space, which calls: " read_map/write_map to convert the logical position within a file to the block number (write_map) may also insert new zone numbers into the i-node or index blocks " rd_indir/wr_indir to obtain the target block address when indirect (simple/double) indexing is used " get_block checks if the required block is in the cache, if yes, gets the pointer to it. If not, then: " rw_block copies data to/from a block to memory, and calls lower-layer procedures: dev_io, rw_dev, sendrec " sys_copy transfers data from the File Server to the user process
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Allocating new blocks


" rw_chunk is called whenever a new block is required, and procedure new_block allocates the

zones:
Exampls: Free zones are: 12, 20, 31, 36 (Blocks: 24/25, 40/41, etc.)
24! 24! 25! 24! 25! 40! 24! 25! 40! 41! 24! 25! 40! 41! 62! Fig: Successive allocation of blocks of 1 KB and Zones of 2KB!
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Minix Block Cache


" Is an array of buffers with a header containing pointers, counters, flags " Entries are chained together in a double-linked list from most-recently-used to least-recently-used " A Hash table points to a single-linked list of blocks whose number has the same n low-order bits (i.e. blocks on a same device are on the same list) " To find a block, FS calls get_block, which gets the hash entry and searches in the list. If found (cache hit), use counter is incremented and a pointer to the block is returned. " If a block is not found on the hash list, the first buffer on the LRU list is chosen for removal, and if modified its contents is copied back to disk
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Minix Block Cache

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Minix Block Cache


" After the block use, procedure put_block is called to free the buffer space " It decrements the use_counter, indicating a lower probability of block re-use. If counter is 0 puts block back to LRU list; " Depending on the type of block (index, directory, data) being freed, decides:
" put block at front of end of LRU list? (if unlikely to be re-used, at front) " keep block in cache or write it back to disk? (for blocks that have been modified)

" A modified block is kept in buffer until:


" it reaches front of LRU list, and is removed, or " a SYNCH system call is executed.
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