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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

Author’s full name :

Date of birth

:

HOE HSYIANG LUNG

HOE HSYIANG LUNG

5 AUGUST 1986

Title

: SUSTAINABILTY: RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM

IN CAMPUS

Academic Session:

2009/2010

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860805-52-6035

(NEW IC NO. /PASSPORT NO.)

Date : 16 APRIL 2010

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ASSOC. PROF. DR JOHAN SOHAILI

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Date : 16 APRIL 2010

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“I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award for the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering.”

Tandatangan Nama Pensyarah Tarikh

:

:

:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Johan Bin Sohaili 16 April 2010

\

SUSTAINABILITY: RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM IN CAMPUS

HOE HSYIANG LUNG

A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

APRIL 2010

ii

I declare that this thesis entitled “Sustainability: Rainwater Harvesting System in Campus” is the result of my own research excpt as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature

:

Author

:

HOE HSYIANG LUNG

Date

:

16 APRIL 2010

iii

To my beloved parents whom I loved

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In preparing this thesis, I was in contact with many people as well as references. They have contributed towards my understanding and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my thesis supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. Johan Bin Sohaili, for the encouragement and guidance in this thesis as well as friendship.

My thanks also go to the librarians in Faculti Kejuruteraan Awam (FKA) for their help. I am indebted with my fellow undergraduate students for their support and assistance. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all of them in this limited space.

Last but not least, to my family members who have been supportive I wish to extend my deepest thanks.

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ABSTRACT

Harvesting rainwater will contribute towards a sustainable living. It will eliminate the wastage and reduce the dependency of potable water. The demand of potable water increases in accordance to the population. Rainwater harvesting is capable to combat water crisis and serves as an alternative water resources during water shortage. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the potential of rainwater in potable water saving, propose a rainwater harvesting system for the usage of flushing of toilets and estimate the total cost for the construction of the rainwater harvesting system. By practicing rainwater harvesting, the total dependence on usage of potable water can be minimise to only cater for activities involving direct human contact. Result indicated that the quality of rainwater samples meet the WHO standards for drinking water parameters. The rainwater harvesting system is design using the flow of gravity and the total cost for construction estimated to be RM 1715. Payback period for the rainwater harvesting system are 15.5 years. There is a probability that rainwater in UTM campus being harvested.

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ABSTRAK

Pengumpulan air hujan akan mewujudkan kehidupan lestari. Air hujan terkumpul akan mengelakkan pembaziran dan mengurangkan pergantungan terhadap air dirawat. Permintaan terhadap air dirawat sentiasa bertambar berekoran dengan populasi. Pengumpulan air hujan mampu menagatasi masalah air bekalan dan digunakan sebagai punca air alternatif apabila berlakunya kekurangan air. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji air hujan dalam penjimatan air dirawat, mencadangkan satu system pengumpulan air hujan untuk kegunaan tandas dan membuat anggaran terhadap cost pembinaan system. Dengan penggunaan air hujan, pergantungan terhadap air dirawat dapat dikurangkan kepada tujuan kegunaan manusia. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa kualiti sampel air hujan menepati parameter yang ditetapkan oleh WHO. Sistem penuaian air hujan direka supaya menggunakan graviti dan cos pembinaan dianggar sebanyak RM 1715. Permulangan balik sistem ini adalah 15.5 tahun. Kemungkinan penuaian air hujan di campus UTM dapat dijalankan.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

DECLARATION

ii

DEDICATION

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

ABSTRACT

v

ABSTRAK

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii

LIST OF TABLES

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background

1

1.2 Problem Statement

2

1.3 Study objectives

4

1.4 Scope of study

4

1.5 Significance of Study

5

2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Water

6

2.2 Water Cycle

7

viii

 

2.4 Sustainability of Rainwater

9

2.4.1 Rainwater Harvesting in Malaysia

10

2.4.2 Historical Development for Rainwater Harvesting Policy

11

2.5 Economic Impact

12

2.6 Rainwater Harvesting System Components

13

2.6.1 Collection Area

13

2.6.2 Conveyance System

15

2.6.3 Storage Tank

16

2.7 Rainwater Storage Tank Design

18

3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

20

3.1 Testing of Parameters

20

3.1.1 pH

21

3.1.2 Dissolved Oxygen

21

3.1.3 Biological Oxygen Demand

21

3.1.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand

22

3.1.5 Total Suspended Solids

23

3.1.6 Escherichia coli

23

3.2 Design of Rainwater Harvesting System

24

3.2.1

Storage Tank

24

3.2.2

Height of storage tank

24

3.2.3

Piping System

24

3.3 Cost

25

3.3.1

Water Savings

25

3.3.2

Rainwater Harvesting System

 

Construction Cost

25

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4 RESULT ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

27

4.1 Water Quality

27

4.2 Designing Rainwater Harvesting System

29

4.2.1

Flow Rates, Q

30

4.2.2

Hazen-Williams’ Coefficient, C w

31

4.2.3

Effective Pipe Length, L eff

31

4.2.4

Head Loss, h L

32

4.2.5

Flow Velocity,

32

4.2.6

Residual Pressure Head

33

4.2.7

Designing Water Storage Tank Capacity

34

4.2.8

Designing Cistern Tank

35

4.3 Cost

37

4.3.1

Collection Area

37

4.3.2

Conveyance System

38

4.3.3

Storage Tank

39

4.3.4

Concrete Platform

39

4.3.5

Summary

41

4.3.6

Cost Saving

42

5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusions

45

5.2 Recommendations

46

REFERENCES

48

APPENDICES

51

x

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Estimated Global Water Distribution

7

2.2

Pattern of Rainfall on Prominent Locations in Peninsular Malaysia

9

2.3

Sizing of Rainwater Pipe for Roof Drainage

15

2.4

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Cistern Type

17

2.5

Minimum Storage Capacity

18

2.6

Storage Requirement Per Fittings

18

2.7

Storage Requirement Per Person

19

4.1

The test results for collected rainwater

28

4.2

Comparison of test results with WHO drinking guideline, INWQS class IV and Standard A effluent

28

4.3

Design Flow Rates for Fittings

30

4.4

Hazen-Williams’ coefficients

31

4.5

Equivalent Pipe Lengths

31

4.6

The computation of flow rate

34

4.7

Calculation of cost for installation of gutter

38

4.8

Estimation of cost for the piping system

39

4.9

Total volume of concrete in m 3

40

4.10

Daywork Labour Rates

40

4.11

Workers pay

41

4.12

The overall cost for the installation of rainwater harvesting

41

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

The Water Cycle

8

2.2

A Diagram of Rainwater Harvesting Storage Tank

17

4.1

The Proposed Rainwater Harvesting System

29

4.2

Schematic Drawing for Piping System

30

4.3

The Design of Rainwater Storage Tank

35

4.4

Automation system for switching between rainwater and potable water

36

4.5

The Dimension of Rooftop

38

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background

Water is essential for life in this world. All living organisms require water to sustain life. Human consists of 57% of body water (Guyton, 1991). It is subdivided into two categories which is the intercellular and intracellular fluid (John and Bruce, 2002). Biological processes which are on going inside the human bodies majorly depend on water to help facilitate the processes. Such processes are digestion and absorption of food, serve as a medium for transportation of nutrients and oxygen in the blood stream, as an internal cooling system to sustain body temperature and so forth. Water which form streams, lakes, rivers and oceans serves as a natural habitat to accommodate millions and billions of sea creatures. Apart from that, the other common usage of water for human activities includes drinking, cooking, washing, agriculture and aquaculture, power generation, transportation, recreational and aesthetic purposes.

As the demand for clean water increases due to the increase in population growth, numerous methods have been introduced to combat the chronic problem of obtaining clean water due to the ever increasing pollution of water bodies. One of such methods introduced is Rainwater Harvesting (RWH). RWH is not considered as a new technology because it has provided a water source for communities around the world dating back to circa 1500 B.C (Hunt and Laura, 2006). This ancient

2

technology continues to serve populations today, mainly in poor, rural or dry regions of the world and island communities (Hicks, 2008).

Basically, RWH is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, land surfaces, road surfaces or rock catchments using simple techniques such as pots, tanks and cistern as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams (Prinz, 1995; Zhu et al., 2004). It consists of three basic components: a collection area (roof), a conveyance system and a cistern or storage tank (Texas Water Development Board, 2005).

Harvested rainwater is a renewable source of non potable water. Non potable uses may include toilet flushing, building or car washing, air conditioner coolant, fire suppression, industrial processes and landscape irrigation (LaBranche et al., 2007) Water harvesting systems provide flexible solutions that can effectively meet the needs of new and existing, as well as of small and large sites, using a water harvesting system is an ongoing proves that can be developed over time. The greater attraction of a rainwater harvesting system is low cost, accessibility and easy maintenance at the household level (Fayez, 2009).

1.2 Problem Statement

The water pollution in Malaysia is originated from point sources and non- point sources. Point sources that have been identified include sewage treatment plants, manufacturing and agro-based industries and animal farms. Non-point sources are mainly diffused ones such as agricultural activities and surface runoffs. According to Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2004, the Department of Environment has recorded 17,991 water pollution point sources in 2004 comprising mainly sewage treatment plants (54%), manufacturing industries (38%), animal farms (5%) and agro-based industries (3%). In 2006, a total of 1,064 water quality monitoring stations located within 146 river basins were monitored. Out of these 1,064 monitoring stations, 619 (58%) were found to be clean, 359 (34%) slightly polluted and 86 (8%) polluted. Stations located upstream were generally clean, while

3

those downstream were either slightly polluted or polluted. In terms of river basin water quality, 80 river basins (55%) were clean, 59 (40%) slightly polluted and 7 (5%) were polluted (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report, 2005).

Changing weather patterns can cause disruption to the water supply. Such phenomenon was El Nino. El Nino, driven by an abnormal warming of the eastern Pacific Ocean, can create havoc in weather patterns across the Asia-Pacific region, unleashing droughts in some places and heavy storms in others. It typically lasts from 9 to 12 months. In 1998, the El Nino related drought caused severe water stress in the states of Kedah, Penang and Selangor. The state of Selangor was forced to impose severe water rationing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya for many months. This shows that Malaysia is still not ready to face unexpected events to curb the problems that surfaces.

Population growth is inevitable. In Malaysia, population has increased from 8.1 million in 1960 to 27 million in 2008. As the population increases, the demand for clean water increases as well. And to cater the demand, dams and water treatment plant has to be constructed to meet the needs of the people. As the supply and demand are in a cat and mouse race, with the limited water resources, eventually the demand will exceed the supply and this situation will create problems to the country.

The people’s attitude also plays an important part towards creating a sustainable living. Campaigns had been ongoing to educate and remind the public that water is precious thus it is not to be wasted. Not only will it save the water bill but also reduce the water stress on water demand as well as possess sufficient reserves for emergencies uses such as droughts and dry spells.

Since clean water is important, it is seen as a waste for it to be used for flushing of toilets and for watering plants. Furthermore, rainwater can be used as a substitute by collecting and utilise it rather than let it go to waste. Apart from that, by collecting rainwater from roof, flash floods can be avoided or minimise as few percentage of rainfall is retained and thus reduce the volume of surface run-off. Besides, by using rainwater as an alternative, clean water can be saved and be used for other purposes and simultaneously decrease the demand of clean water which

4

resulted in lower cost of water bill and cost of operation in the water plants. The use of untreated rainwater for non-potable uses that would otherwise be supplied by potable water ultimately conserves municipally supplied potable water (Persyn et al.,

2004).

1.3

Study Objectives

The objectives of this study are:

(i) To estimate the amount of rainwater that can be collected in Universiti

Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) campus by obtaining the total catchment area available in campus.

(ii) Obtain the quality of the rainwater collected for decision making based on

these 6 parameters; ph, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Escherichia coli (E.Coli).

(iii) Evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and

the payback period for the system.

(iv) Propose a rainwater harvesting system.

1.4 Scope of Study

To accomplish the objectives specified above, it was necessary to obtain rainfall data and population in UTM campus. Then, the total roof area in the campus was calculated based on the aerial map of the campus. The potential rainwater harvesting volume is estimated based on the total roof area, the average annual rainfall and the runoff coefficient. After that, the potential saving percentage is calculated by dividing the potential volume of harvested rainfall by the annual

5

domestic demand. Rainwater collected is tested to obtain these 6 parameters namely pH, DO, BOD, COD, TSS and E.Coli. Next is to propose an appropriate rainwater harvesting system based on the data and information collected.

1.5 Significance of Study

This project will help to initiate a starting point to create a green campus concept into reality. Besides that, it will also give an idea to other researchers in this field to better the design to give a more effective result and the same time maximize the usage of harvested rain water. Furthermore, other campus can adapt this system and start to realize the concept of green campus to create environmental friendly surroundings as a stepping stone to educate and the same time save the environment and minimize the energy wastage.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Water

Water is the most abundant substance on Earth. About 75% of the surface is covered with salt-water oceans, the remainder consisting of continents and islands. Based on the research done by (Gleick, 1996), it is estimated that the amount of water volume on Earth is 1,386,000,000 km 3 . Based on Table 2.1, approximately 1,338,000,000km 3 that is around 97% of the total volume is saline water which is the oceans, seas and bays. The remainder 3% of Earth water is fresh water which consists of ice caps and glaciers, groundwater and surface water. Although the Earth holds that much amount of water, only the freshwater is drinkable after treatment where as the saline water have to undergo desalination processes to get rid of the salts before treated for drinking purposes.

With the little amount of availability of freshwater versus the ever growing population of the Earth now at 6 billion people and counting, we will soon deplete the natural reservoirs of this precious water for our own needs. To make things worse, pollution by human activity in the name of development has further decrease the availability of fresh water. Without fresh water, other methods such as treating water apart from fresh water will be proposed. More costly technologies will be invented to perform such task and poor countries will suffer from clean water shortage. This problem can be seen in Jordan where the scarcity of water resources seemed to be dictated by climatic conditions such as aridity and abundance of high solar radiation and by population pressure (Salemah and Bannayan, 1993). Before

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we reach a point of no return, we must have proper planning for water usage to ensure that water will always be available for us in the distant future.

Table 2.1 Estimated Global Water Distribution (Gleick, 1996)

Water source

Water volume, in cubic miles

Water volume, in cubic kilometers

Percent of

Percent of

freshwater

total water

Oceans, Seas & Bays Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow Groundwater Fresh Saline Soil Moisture Ground Ice & Permafrost Lakes Fresh Saline Atmosphere Swamp Water Rivers Biological Water

321,000,000

1,338,000,000

--

96.5

5,773,000

24,064,000

68.7

1.74

5,614,000

23,400,000

--

1.7

2,526,000

10,530,000

30.1

0.76

3,088,000

12,870,000

--

0.94

3,959

16,500

0.05

0.001

71,970

300,000

0.86

0.022

42,320

176,400

--

0.013

21,830

91,000

0.26

0.007

20,490

85,400

--

0.006

3,095

12,900

0.04

0.001

2,752

11,470

0.03

0.0008

509

2,120

0.006

0.0002

269

1,120

0.003

0.0001

Total

332,500,000

1,386,000,000

-

100

2.2 Water Cycle

Water is considered a renewable source as it cannot be destroyed nor created. There is no beginning or end to water. This is because water will continually exist in a cycle called the Water Cycle and illustrated in Figure 2.1.

The sun plays a vital role to ensure the continuity of the cycle. From the heat of the sun, water evaporates from the surface of any surface water namely oceans as the surface of the water is almost still. These vapours then rise into the atmosphere and condense into clouds as the temperature is much cooler. Evapotranspiration which is the process of transpiration from plants and evaporation from soil occurring simultaneously also involved in the process of cloud formation through the process of evaporation and condensation. The accumulation of water particles, also known as cloud, from the condensation of water vapour, until a certain point where the water particles cannot hold together longer, will fall towards Earth as rain or precipitation. Other form of precipitation can be snow or hail. Water that flows on the ground is known as surface runoff which will eventually enter rivers and oceans to continue

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the cycle. A portion of surface runoff will seep into the ground through the process

of infiltration where it will accumulate as groundwater. In time, the water will seep

back into surface water bodies and the water cycle will continue.

into surface water bodies and the water cycle will continue. Figure 2.1: The Water Cycle (United

Figure 2.1: The Water Cycle (United States Geological Survey, Colorado District)

2.3 Rainfall Pattern in South East Asia

Countries in South East Asia are blessed with abundant rainfall spread more

or less evenly throughout the annual cycle, with peaks during the monsoon periods.

It is noted that annual rainfall in these countries ranges between 1500mm to

2500mm, with certain highlands experiencing rainfall in excess of 4000mm. seasonal

variations inevitable occur, with high monsoonal rainfall in the last quarter of the

annual cycle and season low rainfall in a few regions, mostly in the first quarter of

the year. Overall monthly average rainfall ranges from 176mm to 260mm. Table 2.2

shows the pattern of rainfall on prominent locations in South East Asia. In the state

of Johor, the range of rainfall throughout the year is 156mm to 264mm with a wetter

side at the last quarter of the year. Although the average of rainfall does not depict

9

the actual situation, it provides sufficient data on how much water can be saved for the use of rainwater to substitute the potable water in activities that requires non- potable water usage.

Table 2.2: Pattern of Rainfall on Prominent Locations in Peninsular Malaysia (Jitender, 2008)

Location

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Cum Annual

Perlis

64

173

228

191

1970

Kedah

70

192

227

212

2103

Terengganu

140

120

153

479

2676

Kelantan

159

192

240

422

3038

P. Pinang

92

176

219

237

2172

Pahang

178

166

155

313

2434

Johor

188

168

156

264

2327

Selangor

145

172

153

237

2121

N. Sembilan

153

162

137

241

2077

Perak

128

161

144

211

1933

Melaka

102

145

175

139

1684

2.4 Sustainability of Rainwater

For a sustainable urban future, society must move towards the goal of efficient and appropriate water use. Rainwater harvesting has a significant role to play in this task. Water availability has been a matter of concern all over the world. It has been reported that rainwater harvesting can promote significant water saving in residences in different countries. In Germany, a study performed by Herrmann and Schimida, (1999) showed that the potential of potable water saving in a house might vary from 30% - 60%, depending on the demand and roof area. In Australia, Coombes et al. (1999) analysed 27 houses in Newcastle and concluded that rainwater usage would promote potable water saving of 60%. In Brazil, a study performed by Ghisi et al. (2006) showed the potential water saving by using water harvesting in 62 cities ranges from 34%to 92%, with an average potential for potable saving of 69%.

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, land surfaces, road surfaces or rock catchments using simple techniques such as pots, tanks and cistern as well as more complex techniques

10

such as underground check dams (Prinz, 1995; Zhu et. al, 2004). It consists of three basic components: a collection area (roof), a conveyance system and a cistern or storage tank (Texas Water Development Board, 2005). The collection of rainwater from roofs, its storage and subsequent use is a simple method of reducing the demand on both the public water supplies and waste treatment facilities. In the Uniter Kingdom, 30% of potable water supplied to the domestic sector is used for water closet (WC) flushing and the transportation of foul waste (Welsh Office, 1992). Without extensive treatment the rainwater is suitable for a range of uses such as WC flushing, garden irrigation and clothes washing. The capacity of the rainwater store is important both economically and operationally (Fewkes, 1999).

Harvested rainwater is a renewable source of clean water that is ideal for domestic and landscape uses. Water harvesting systems provide flexible solutions that can effectively meet the needs of new and existing, as well as of small and large sites, using a water harvesting system is an ongoing proves that can be developed over time. The greater attraction of a rainwater harvesting system is low cost, accessibility and easy maintenance at the household level.

2.4.1 Rainwater Harvesting in Malaysia

Malaysia’s capital city, Kuala Lumpur and its industrial state neighbor, Selangor, are working hard to find alternative water supply to cope with the rising demand in water, to this end, they are planning to build the first underground pipe in the country to get water supply from Sungai Bernam in the State of Perak starting 2009. The estimated cost for the project is RM9 billion and will be able to supply one billion liters of water daily to Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Be that as it may, the need for inter-state supply of water of water rationing may not have arisen should all Malaysians learn from the 1998 draught incident where water was rationed and many had to do without it.

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Straight after the incident, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government has introduced a guideline on rainwater harvesting in 1999 but it generally passed by without notice. Up till now very few government buildings have used rainwater harvesting. On March 27, 2006, the prime minister announced that rainwater harvesting would be made mandatory to large buildings. It remains to be seen whether this motion would be implemented without resistance or reservations.

2.4.2 Historical Development for Rainwater Harvesting Policy

The 1999 “Guidelines for Installing a Rainwater Collection and Utilization System” can be seen as the initial phase of rainwater harvesting policy in Malaysia. Introduced after the 1998 drought, it aims at reducing the dependence on treated water and provides a convenient buffer in times of emergency or a shortfall in the water supply. It also proposes the construction of “mini dams” or rainwater tanks in urban areas instead of continuing to build giant dams upstream. This may not only conserve the treated water but can act as urban flood control. Nevertheless the guideline is intended as an “ideal manual” for reference for those who want to install a rainwater collection and utilization system. It generally does not deal with cost and implementation issues. As rainwater harvesting is new to many Malaysian, as well as the fact that most of the system was not available locally, the implementation of the new policy was not really successful.

After five years of the introduction of the Guidelines, the Ministry prepared another cabinet paper to the National Water Resources Council to encourage government buildings to install a rainwater collection and utilization system. The Council has later announced that water utilization is to e encouraged but not mandatory in all federal and state government buildings, there is a need for rainwater utilization campaign and to provide a solution for prevention of mosquito breeding.

To date, only two federal government buildings have been equipped with the rainwater harvesting system, namely the Department of Irrigation and Drainage and the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication. With a few exceptions as in

12

Johore and Penang, many local governments have not implemented rainwater harvesting in their locality. Few types of council like in Sandakan and Shah Alam has introduced it in new housing developments. Despite this effort, it is unfortunate to learn that in the Kota Damansara’s new housing project; nearly 40% of the rainwater harvesting system installed has been dismantled to give way for renovation.

2.5 Economic Impact

Rainwater harvesting plays major roles in reducing potable water demands and averting water wastages. Several R&D efforts of rainwater utilization for domestic, office and mosque complex, industry and agriculture use have been conducted by NAHRIM in collaboration with other government bodies and universities.

One of the projects is installation of two 2500 litre capacity high density polyethylene (HDPE) tanks that were later replaces with a 3,300 litre brick storage tank design that incorporated aesthetic and utility aspects to trap rainwater falling onto a 60m 2 roof top area. This system was able to save on one third of the household water use of 40650 litres (Ahmad Jamaluddin and Adhityan, 2000). The rainwater utilization system for a double storey terrace house located at Taman Melawati for non-potable household use and also reducing peak storm runoff. The system was able to trap 61.4 to 65.5% of the rainwater flow. The initial cost was RM 2700 for the two HDPE tank constructions and RM4300 for the rainwater cum detention storage system. The maintenance cost for both was RM53/year. The annual total cost of the earlier system is RM188/year and the latter was RM268/year. The HDPE tank is projected to collect 109m 3 of water resulting in a unit ccost of RM1.72/m 3 . While the brick tank could collect 102m 3 of water incurring a unit cost of RM2.62/m 3 .

Second is the installation of an underground 60 m 3 storage tank to collect rainwater to be pumped to toilets and standpipes at a mosque in Ampang. The

13

installed cost of the system was RM95000 with the life expectancy of 25 years. With the annual cost of RM4100 and an annual rainwater utilization of 3249 m 3 /annum, the unit cost of water is RM1.26m 3 . in both cases, the per unit costs are both still high. The government has to urgently provide subsidies to encourage the public to install new rainwater harvesters (Mohd Shahwahid et al., 2007)

2.6 Rainwater Harvesting System Components

Rainwater is harvested sing an installation of pipes and tanks in such a way that allows automatically or manually diverting the first flush of rain that is contaminated with debris and dirt on the catchment area followed by collection in a storage tank for further use. The basic rainwater harvesting system consists of 3 major parts which is the collection area, the conveyance system and the storage tanks. The materials use for these components will influence the efficiencies as well as the quality of the rainwater collected.

2.6.1 Collection Area

Catchment area is the surface area from which rainwater can be collected as clean water. The most popular shape of rooftops in homes in Asia is a sloping roof in inverted ‘V’ shape in varied designs and architectural features (Jitender, 2008). The roof is fitted with gutters to divert rainwater into drains, to prevent erosion of ground surface directly below the edge of the roof as well as diverting the flow into storm water drains.

To harvest rainwater, a suitable catchment area namely the roof must be installed with suitable material. The material used for the roof must not jeopardize the water quality of the rainwater as well as provide a good surface to optimize the harvest rainwater. Besides that, the materials must be ready available and economically wise to reduce the starting cost for the installation of the rainwater harvesting system.

14

The effective roof area and the material used in constructing the roof influence the efficiency of collection and the water quality. Smoother, cleaner and more impervious roofing materials are preferred. They contribute to better water quality and greater quantity (Fayez, 2009)

Not all roofing materials are suitable to act as a surface to collect rainwater. One of the roofing materials that should be avoided is asphalt roof. Asphalt is commonly used as the roofing material. Nevertheless, asphalt does not give a good surface to harvest rainwater. Besides that, it can create debris from crumbling asphalt shingles and also leach petroleum into the rainwater. Next, wooden shingles are not suitable as well because it is porous and harbor mold and fungus that will end up in your rainwater harvesting system. There are those treated wooden shingles as well to avoid the growth of fungus are not fit to harvest as it will be contaminate the rainwater with chemicals.

Roofing materials that are considered acceptable for rainwater harvesting is slate or tile. It provides a good surface to harvest rain when kept clean and it does not deteriorate. Fiberglass can be considered as it provides great surface to harvest rain as well as is light weight to east the installation of roof. Apart from that, membrane roofing material, although not commonly used in residential application, is considered ideal because its chemical makeup is not friendly to bacteria and could be painted on an existing rooftop.

Nonetheless, take note that all rooftops are not clean no matter what material they are made from. The reason is that bird dropping and other debris such as leaves and branches as well as dirt will fall and contaminate the rainwater and wash into the rainwater harvesting systems. So it is wise to clean the rooftop on a regular basis, install filter and install a first flush system to remove contaminant that passes through the filter to obtain ‘clean’ rainwater.

15

2.6.2 Conveyance System

A conveyance system usually consists of gutters and pipes that deliver rainwater falling on the rooftop to cisterns or tanks. Gutter or pipes must be properly sized, sloped and installed in order to maximize the quantity of harvested water. These transport channels collect and divert water into down spouts that drain away the water into storm water drains. At suitable intervals alongside the gutters, sufficient sized vertical or slanting down spouts are installed to drain away the water into water storage tank.

The most common materials of gutters are galvanized steel, fiberglass, plastic and stainless steel. The gutters and down pipes are usually installed in the wall of the building and sometimes the down pipes are fitted inside the wall during construction.

The size of the gutters depends upon the area of the roof and the rainfall amount. The size of the gutters used ranges between 20-50 cm diameters (Alpaslan et al., 1992). Drainpipes and roof surfaces should be constructed of chemically inert materials such as wood, plastic, aluminum, or fiberglass, in order to avoid adverse effects in water quality (Fayez, 2009). Table 2.3 shows the relationship between average rate of rainfall and diameter of pipe.

Table 2.3: Sizing of Rainwater Pipe for Roof Drainage

Diameter of

Average rate of rainfall in mm/h

 

Pipe (mm)

50

75

100

125

150

200

50

13.4

8.9

6.6

5.3

4.4

3.3

65

24.1

16.0

12.0

9.6

8.0

6.0

75

40.8

27.0

20.4

16.3

13.6

10.2

100

85.4

57.0

42.7

34.2

28.5

21.3

125

-

-

80.5

64.3

53.5

40.0

150

-

-

-

-

83.6

62.7

Debris both coarse and fine may cause blockage and contaminate the water quality. To avoid blockage, leaf screens, made of ¼ inch wire mesh in a metal frame is installed above the gutters to prevent debris from entering the system. The angle bends in the system should not exceed 45 degrees. Another filtering system is placed before the head of the cistern to filter out smaller debris from the roof.

16

To ensure clean water enters the storage tank, a first flush tank is installed prior the entrance of the storage to trap the first flush of the rainwater that is used to clean the roof due to debris and dust that may have deposited on it. A small container with adequate size is installed to receive at least 30 litres of first flush dirty water for every 100 m 2 of catchment area. It is fitted with an overflow pipe that starts to deliver clean water after the container is filled with the predetermined quantity of first flush water. The dirty water collected may be used for watering of plants (Jithender, 2008).

2.6.3 Storage Tank

The water ultimately is stored in a storage tank or cistern. The size of the cistern depends on the amount of rainwater to be collected. The tank must provide for adequate capacity to receive required amount of rainwater to maximize availability of water during dry period. Typically, a 500-2000 litre capacity tank is commonly used, since the replenish frequency by rainfall in the South East Asian region is high (Jithender, 2008).

Cistern can be built in almost any geometrical shape desired. All cisterns should be watertight, durable and have a clean smooth interior. The cover needs to be tight fitting to prevent evaporation and mosquitoes. A cistern with a lid allows for easy access to attach a faucet and to occasionally clean inside. It is best to place the cistern out of direct sunlight to prevent algae and bacteria growth, which can clog the system. The use of two or more smaller cisterns enables service on one unit at a time without disrupting the entire system.

There are unlimited number of options for the construction of these tanks with respect to the shape (cylindrical, rectangular and square), the size and the material of construction (brickwork, stonework, cement bricks, plain cement concrete and reinforced cement concrete (Fayez, 2009), fiberglass, polyethylene, plastic and galvanized). Table 2.4 shows the normally used cistern types and its advantages and disadvantages of the particular cistern.

17

The placement of the cistern is elevated approximately 3 to 4 feet on a sturdy,

load bearing foundation or structure to create enough pressure to use gravity for

running the rainwater. Foundations can be made of bricks, concrete or a wooden

frame. Figure 2.2 shows a sample diagram of rainwater harvesting storage tank.

Table 2.4: Advantages and Disadvantages of a Cistern Type

Cistern type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Fiberglass tanks

Prevents algae growth and evaporation, rust resistant, durable Various sizes, shapes, alterable, inexpensive, movable Available, inexpensive Attractive, alterable, great for small systems Available, durable, great for small systems, moveable Inexpensive, attractive, moveable, alterable Low profile, inexpensive, can alter colour Durable, permanent

Higher initial costs, degradable, requires exterior coating Can deteriorate over time if not treated for UV radiation Use only new cans Hard to find, small

Polyethylene tanks

Plastic garbage can Barrels

55 gallon steel drums

Prone to corrosion, rust and/or toxins Can rust, higher long term costs

Galvanised tanks

Plaster cisterns

Large footprint, unalterable, immovable Potential to crack, difficult to maintain

Concrete tanks, stone or concrete block

to maintain Concrete tanks, stone or concrete block Figure 2.2: A Diagram of Rainwater Harvesting Storage

Figure 2.2: A Diagram of Rainwater Harvesting Storage Tank (Southface Energy Institute)

18

2.7 Rainwater Storage Tank Design

The design criteria are based on one day minimum storage of domestic tank. It is divided into 3 methods which are:

(i)

Minimum Storage Per Capacity

(ii)

Storage Requirement Per Fittings

(iii)

Storage Requirement Per Person

These 3 methods are categories based on demand in the kitchen and bathroom in a day or a person per day. Table 2.5 shows the minimum storage capacity for different type of building. Table 2.6 shows the storage requirement per fitting for different type of domestic activities that requires the usage of water and table 2.7 shows the storage requirement per person in different type of buildings. The data is obtained from MWA’s Design Guidelines for Water Supply Systems. This manual serves as useful reference material to water engineers and sub-professionals both in the public and private sectors when designing water supply systems.

Table 2.5: Minimum Storage Capacity (MWA, 2000)

Type of Building

Minimum Nominal Storage Capacity

Dwelling House (rural)

450 litres/day

Dwelling house and flats (urban)

680 litres/day

Multi-storey flats with high level bulk storage cistern

140

litres/day

Low cost housing (approved by

450

litres/day

Government) Others

One day’s supply or decided by the State Director

Table 2.6: Storage Requirement Per Fittings (MWA, 2000)

Type of Activities

Storage Requirement

Shower Sliper Bath Water Closet Lavatory Basin Sink Urinal Bed Pan Washer Wash-up Sink

450-900 litres/day

900 litres/day

180 litres/day

90 litres/day

90 litres/day

180 litres/day

180 litres/day

225 litres/day

19

Table 2.7: Storage Requirement Per Person (MWA, 2000)

Type of Building

Storage Requirement

Hotels Hostels Day Schools Boarding Schools Offices without canteens Offices with canteens Restaurants Mosque Barrack (Army/Police)

270 litres/person/day 180 litres/person/day 30 litres/person/day 180 litres/person/day 70 litres/person/day 90 litres/person/day 14 litres/person/day 14 litres/person/day 270 litres/person/day

Out of the 3 methods, the 2 nd method is used for reference. By referring to table 2.5, minimum storage capacity shows the storage capacity for a building. It will be suitable for houses that have permanent residents such as families. With the constant number of occupants thus minimum storage capacity will be more accurate for estimation. By referring to table 2.7, storage requirement per person indicate the usage of water for a person in specific place. It will be suitable for buildings that have permanent occupants as well. Due to the fact that the number of occupants is inconsistent, storage requirement per fitting is used.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

Rainwater is to be collected in the campus to be tested for these 6 parameters; pH, DO, BOD, COD, TSS and E.Coli. The location and the time of sampling are crucial to obtain the most accurate results that reflect the actual state of rivers. Therefore, the rainwater is collected at the end of the gutter before the rainwater is discharged into the drain. The collection of the sample has to be done on a rainy day and a container is used for the collection of the sample. The sample should be collected with care to ensure originality of the sample and free from other contaminants. Sample is then brought to the lab to proceed with the testing. The accuracy of the results depends on how the samples are taken. Therefore, attentions must be given to the execution of the collection and sampling techniques.

3.1 Testing of Parameters

The parameter of this study includes pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and E.Coli. pH is measured using a pH meter where as DO, BOD, and COD are measured using the HACH machine DR 5000 series. E.Coli is tested using Colilert.

21

3.1.1 pH

Calibration should be performed with at least two standard buffer solutions that span the range of pH values to be measured. For general purposes buffers at pH 4 and pH 10 are acceptable. The pH meter has one control (calibrate) to set the meter reading equal to the value of the first standard buffer and a second control (slope) which is used to adjust the meter reading to the value of the second buffer. A third control allows the temperature to be set. Standard buffer sachets, which can be obtained from a variety of suppliers, usually state how the buffer value changes with temperature.

3.1.2 Dissolved Oxygen

The High Range Dissolved Oxygen AccuVac Ampul contains reagent vacuum-sealed in a 14-mL ampule. When the AccuVac Ampul is opened in a sample containing dissolved oxygen, it forms a yellow color which turns purple. The purple color development is proportional to the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Test results are measured at 535 nm.

3.1.3 Biological Oxygen Demand

The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) test is carried out according to Standard Method APHA 5210-B. The method consists of filling the samples into an air tight 350mL BOD bottle and put into incubating at 20°C for 5 days. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is measured initially and after incubation using Microprocessor Logging DO Meter Model HI964400.

Samples for BOD testing may degrade significantly during collection, storage and analysis resulting in low BOD values. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize degradation of quality of the water samples as soon as possible by cooling them to a

22

near-freezing temperature during storage period. Chilled sample water should be warmed to 20±3°C before analysis is carried out. Formula to calculate BOD is as follows:

P

BOD5

=

Vs / (Vs + Vdw)

(3.1)

=

(DOi – DO5) / P

(3.2)

Where :

V

V

BOD 5 = Biological oxygen demand, mg/L

DO

DO

P = dilution factor

= Volume of sample = Volume of dilution water

s

dw

i

5

= initial DO of the diluted sample about 15minutes after preparation, mg/L

= final DO of the diluted sample after 5 days of incubation, mg/L

3.1.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

The procedure for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test is according to

Standard Method APHA 5220-C. The mg/L COD results are defined as the mg of O 2 consumed per liter of sample under conditions of this procedure. In this procedure, the sample is heated for two hours with a strong oxidizing agent, potassium dichromate. Oxidizable organic compounds react, reducing the dichromate ion (Cr 2 O 7 2 ) to green chromic ion (Cr 3+ ). When the 0.7–40.0 or the 3–150 mg/L colorimetric method is used, the amount of Cr 6+ remaining is determined. When the 20–1500 mg/L or 200–15,000 mg/L colorimetric method is used, the amount of Cr 3+ produced is determined. The COD reagent also contains silver and mercury ions. Silver is a catalyst, and mercury is used to complex chloride interferences. Test

results for the 0.7 to 40.0 mg/L range are measured at 350 nm. Test results for the 3

to 150 mg/L range are measured at 420 nm. Test results for the 20 to 1500 and the 2000 to 15,000 mg/L COD range are measured at 620 nm.

23

3.1.5 Total Suspended Solids

The procedure to determine Suspended Solid (SS) is according to the Standard Methods APHA 2540-D. Glass microfiber filter disc is used to filter the water sample. The weight of a clean filter paper is recorded before the sample water is poured into it. The filter paper is then dried in the oven for about an hour, cooled and weight. The calculation of the TSS is:

SS, mg/L

=

[(A-B) x 1000] / C

Where

:

A

= weight of filter + residue (mg)

B

= weight of filter (mg)

C

= volume of sample filtered (mL)

3.1.6

Escherichia coli

(3.3)

A 100mL of sample is being mixed with a reagent i.e. Colilert in a mixing bottle and then pour into a cell house and finally incubate it for 24hours under temperature of 35°C. Colilert simultaneously detects total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E.Coli) in water. It is based on IDEXX’s patented Defined Substrate Technology (DST). When total coliforms metabolise Colilerts nutrient indicator, ONPG, the sample turns yellow. When E.Coli metabolise the nutrients, the sample fluoresces. Colilert can simultaneously detect these bacteria at 1 cfu/100mL within 24 hours even with as many as 2 million heterotrophin bacteria per mL present. After 24 hours incubation, any changes of colour to yellowish, then this sample is being observed under UV light. When florescent is being observed, this indicates that E.coli is present within the sample. The calculation of E.coli is being done according to the IDEXX Quanti-Tray/2000 chart.

24

3.2 Design of Rainwater Harvesting System

The criteria needed to be taken into consideration for the design of RWH is the storage tank to store sufficient rainwater, the piping system to determine the flow rate in each pipe, type of pipe used and determine the diameter of each pipe and the height of which the tank is needed to be elevated to produce enough pressure without the use of pump.

3.2.1 Storage Tank

The storage tank volume is estimated based on the demand of water using Storage Requirement Per Fitting method in Table 2.6. For this design, 10 days of storage rainwater is used to estimate the volume. From the volume required the size of the tank can be determine.

3.2.2 Height of Storage Tank

The height of storage tank is determined using the internal plumbing design. This is a trial and error method where the height is choose until all the pressure head at each end of pipe passed the approved pressure by the local authority.

3.2.3 Piping System

For this system a dead end pipe network system is used. The computation of flow rates within the pipe is to be determine based on data obtained from MWA’s manual and then the computation of residual pressure head at the end of each pipe to ensure the pressure is sufficient as suggested by the local water authority.

25

3.3 Cost

To build rainwater harvesting system does not come without the price. Estimation of water usage and its cost and the cost of construction of rainwater harvesting system versus the estimated water saving cost have to be done in order to show that this system is useful economically and environmentally.

3.3.1 Water Savings

One of the objectives of this study is to identify the amount of clean water that can be saved and to calculate the saving of expenditure in water consumption which is replaced by rainwater. The water tariff is based on the data provided by Syarikat Air Johor (SAJ).

3.3.2 Rainwater Harvesting System Construction Cost

The cost of construction of a rainwater harvesting system is estimated based on the type of material used, the amount of the material and the workers pay. The material used is taken from Schedules of Rates (JKR, 2005).

3.4 Volume of Rainwater Collected

The volume of rainwater that could be harvested in campus is calculated considering the annual rainfall data, the total roof area and a run-off coefficient of 0.8. The coefficient indicates a loss of 20% of the rainwater that is discarded for roof cleaning and evaporation (Gould, 1993). Thus, the volume of rainwater that could be harvested is determined by using Equation 3.4.

26

V = C x A x R/1000

Where:

(3.4)

V

= annual volume of rainwater that could be harvested

C

= run-off coefficient (non-dimensional)

A

= total roof area (m2)

R

= average annual rainfall (mm/year)

1000 = conversion factor from mm to m

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.0 Introduction

The rainwater sample is taken from site located at M41. The sample is taken directly from the downpipe and the sample is taken in between the raining event. 3 samples are taken separately at 3 different raining events dated 6 February, 23 February and 8 March all in the year of 2010. After the collection which is all done in the late afternoon around 5 pm, the sample is then carefully sealed and kept in the lab and testing is done at the next day. To ensure the quality is not disturbed, the sample should be tested not more than 24 hours. The purpose is to determine the condition of the rooftop and the gutter if it is ‘dirty’ and needed to be either cleaned or replace with a new ones. By doing so, it will help with the decision making in construction of the system whether to install new roof tiles and gutter system.

4.1 Water Quality

There are 6 parameters namely pH, DO, BOD, COD, TSS and E.Coli are tested to determine the quality of rainwater using the instruments available in the environment lab in University Technology Malaysia. Table 4.1 shows the result obtained after lab testing.

28

Table 4.1: The test results for collected rainwater

Parameter

Sample(6 Feb)

Sample(23 Feb)

Sample(8 March)

pH

7.31

7.07

7.25

DO

7.83 ppm

7.92 ppm

7.85 ppm

BOD

1.13 mg/L

1.24 mg/L

1.47 mg/L

COD

5 mg/L

4 mg/L

28 mg/L

TSS

5 mg/L

4 mg/L

3 mg/L

E.Coli

0 cfu/100mL

0 cfu/100mL

0 cfu/100mL

Based on the test result compare to the WHO guideline for drinking water as stated in Table 4.2, pH, TSS and E.Coli is acceptable for drinking purpose. pH for the sample collected are in between 7.07 to 7.31 which is in the range of WHO guideline of 6.5-8.5. Although there is no value for DO, BOD, COD and TSS for WHO guideline, test results are compared with INWQS and Standard A.

Table 4.2: Comparison of test results with WHO drinking guideline, INWQS class IV and Standard A effluent

Parameter

Sample

WHO

INWQS (Class IV)

Standard A

pH

7.07-7.31

6.5-8.5

5-9

6-9

DO

7.83-7.92

- - - -

<3

-

BOD

1.13-1.47

12

50

COD

4-28

100

100

TSS

3-5

300

100

E.Coli

0

Absent in 100ml

-

-

All the parameters mentioned are below the maximum value allowed. These indicate that the water quality of the rainwater is still considered clean and the level of pollution for both organic and inorganic is at minimum due to the low value when compare relatively to the two standards. Lastly, there is no sign of E.Coli or total coliforms presence in the sample when tested for E.Coli test. This result fit the requirement for WHO guideline which requires E.Coli to be absent in 100 mL of sample.

Nevertheless, the purpose of collecting rainwater is for toilet flushing and irrigation purposes only and no consumption and human contact is allowed for precaution. Therefore, it is safe to say that the rainwater is considered clean and no further treatment is necessary. Only physical treatment such as filtering is used to ensure that the debris does not go into the storage tank which could lead to blockage.

29

4.2 Designing Rainwater Harvesting System

By using the internal plumbing design, the height of the storage tank can be determine as well as the type of pipe used, the flow rate in each pipe and the diameter of the pipe so that the residual pressure head at the end meets the criteria. Figure 4.1 shows the proposed rainwater harvesting system.

The system provides rainwater to two water cistern exist in the building and the tank is situated on top of a concrete platform which is to be raised to the required height according to the calculation. By raising the storage tank, it will enable gravity to supply rainwater to the cistern tank. The reason is to create a sustainable environment thus the usage of electricity and other energy is minimise. Besides that the cost is also taken into consideration to achieve a less energy consumption and relatively cheap system to construct. Gravity is used because it is naturally occurrence and it is sufficient to provide the energy to transfer the rainwater from the storage tank to the cistern tanks without the assistance of electrical equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption

equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater
equipments such as pumps which is costly and high energy consumption Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater

Figure 4.1: The Proposed rainwater harvesting system

30

4.2.1 Flow Rates, Q

The flow rates in each pipe is determined based on the demand at each fitting fitted at the end of the pipe system. Figure 4.2 shows the schematic drawing for piping system with numbering for calculation purposes. Table 4.3 can be used to determine the flow rate, Q for each fitting in use.

used to determine the flow rate, Q for each fitting in use. Figure 4.2: Schematic drawing

Figure 4.2: Schematic drawing for piping system

Table 4.3: Design Flow Rates for Fittings (MWA, 2000)

Fittings

Rate of Flow (litre/second)

WC flushing cistern

0.1

WC flush valve*

1.5

Wash basin tap

0.15

Bidet

0.15

Bath tap, 25mm

0.6

Shower head

0.2

Sink tap, 12mm**

0.2

Sink tap, 20mm

0.3

Sink tap, 25mm

0.6

Urinal flushing cistern

0.004 per bowl

* Discharge per flush shall not exceed 9 litre per WC and 4.5 litres per stall for bowl urinal ** Clothes and dishwashing machines in individual dwelling can normally be satisfied by a 12 mm sink tap but manufacturer’s instruction should be checked.

Example of calculation

Referring to table 4.6, pipe 1-2 provides water to 2 WC

Flow rate, Q

= 2 x 0.1litre/s = 0.2 l/s or 0.0002m 3 /s

31

4.2.2 Hazen-Williams’ Coefficient, C w

Table 4.4 provides the Hazen-Williams’ coefficient that is used for designing the internal plumbing systems. The coefficient is used for the calculation of head loss in pipe. The value chosen is 155 for uPVC pipe.

Table 4.4: Hazen-Williams’ coefficients

Type of Pipe

Hazen-Williams C w

Asbestos cement – all ages

140

Cast iron –new

130

(good condition) – 10 years old

100

– 20 years old

90

Cast iron coated – good condition old ages

135

Welded steel – uncoated – new

125

– old

100

Galvanised iron – new

130

Polyethene /ABS – all ages

155

uPVC – all ages

155

4.2.3 Effective Pipe Length, L eff

The effective pipe length is the actual pipe length plus the equivalent pipe length. The equivalent pipe length is the pipe length taking into consideration the minor losses in pipe such as stop valve, elbow etc. The effective pipe length is used in the design to consider the friction loss as well as the minor losses available in the pipe run. The equivalent pipe length for minor losses can be obtained from table 4.5.

Table 4.5: Equivalent Pipe Lengths (MWA, 2000)

Nominal Diameter

Elbow (m)

Tee (m)

Stop valve (m)

Check Valve (m)

12

0.5

0.6

4

2.5

20

0.8

1

7

4.3

25

1

1.5

10

5.6

32

1.4

2

13

6

40

1.7

2.5

16

7.9

50

2.3

3.5

22

11.5

65

3

4.5

-

-

73

3.4

5.8

34

-

100

4.5

8

-

-

32

Example of calculation

By referring to figure 4.2, let pipe 1-2 diameter, d = 65mm

Actual pipe length, L = 2 m

Pipe 1-2 contains 2 elbows, L equivalent = 2 x 3

= 6 m

Therefore, effective length for Pipe 1-2, L eff = Actual length + L equivalent

4.2.4 Head Loss, h L

= 2 m + 6 m

= 8 m

(4.1)

The head loss will consider both friction loss and minor losses such as elbow,

tee, stop valve etc. The Hazen-Williams’ formula is sufficient to be used to

determine the head loss using this formula:

Example of calculation

By referring to figure 4.2, pipe 1-2,

4.2.5 Flow Velocity,

=

.

.

.

.

=

.

(

)(

.

)

.

(

)

.

(

.

)

.

= 6.56 x 10

(4.2)

The flow velocity (m/s) in each pipe is determined by using equation

= p The flow velocity in each pipe must not exceed 2.5 m/s (MWA, 2000).

=

Example of calculation

By referring to figure 4.2, For pipe 1-2,

n =

(

.

)

p(

.

)

= 0.06 m/s

(4.3)

33

4.2.6 Residual Pressure Head

The residual pressure head at the downstream end of each pipe is determined using Bernoulli’s equation.

Example

For pipe 1-2,

+

=

+

+

(

0 + 2 =

+ 0 + 6.56 x 10

= 1.999 m

 

)

(4.4)

The value is the residual pressure head at the downstream end of pipe 1-2 that is equal to the pressure head at node 2. This pressure head will become the pressure head at the upstream end of pipe 2-3. The pressure head at each fitting must not be less than 0.8m.

The height of the outlet and the diameter of the pipe can be adjusted to fit the criteria but the cost of operation is needed to be taken into consideration as well. By having a high elevated outlet will definitely yield enough pressure to the end pipe but the cost of elevating the storage tank to that level will increase the cost of material used to elevate the storage tank and the stability of the structure has to be considered too. Besides that, the diameter of the pipe can be adjusted to suit the needs of the residual end pipe. Increasing the pipe will give rise to the residual pressure head but it also increases the cost as bigger pipe are more costly than smaller pipe. This is the process of designing internal plumbing systems for the conveyance of harvested rainwater to water closets.

Table 4.6 shows the computation of flow rates and 4.7 shows the overall computations of the required parameters to determine sufficient pressure head to the end pipe. From the calculations, few trials and errors are done on the height of the outlet of the storage tank and the diameter of the pipe to ensure that the residual pressure head meets the criteria.

34

Finally, the height of which the outlet of the tank should be elevated is 2m above datum where the datum is which the lowest elevation of the pipe system and the size of diameter are as shown in Appendix A.

Table 4.6: Computation of Flow Rates

Pipe

WC

Q (m 3 /s)

1-2

2

0.0002

2-3

1

0.0002

3-4

1

0.0001

4-5

1

0.0001

5-6

1

0.0001

4.2.7 Designing Water Storage Tank Capacity

The capacity of the water storage tank is important as it determine the amount of rainwater that can be stored. The size of storage of rainwater is important because the rainwater can be stored and used even when there is no rain but to have a very big tank will indicate a large quantity of rainwater can be stored but with higher cost of construction and taking up space. So the size of the tank as well as the cost and space need to be taken into consideration to obtain an acceptable storage tank.

The average daily use of water for flushing is 30 litres (Shaaban and Appan, 2003). There are two water closets present in the building thus the total usage per day is 60 litres or 0.06 m 3 . The number of days of storage is assumed to be 10 days. This means that a full tank can supply enough water for flushing for 10 days without rain. So the capacity of storage tank is 600 litres.

To store up 600 litres of rainwater, a taper tank model R6.8TD (2) is used (refer to Appendix B). This model has the capacity of 680 litres. Its top diameter measures 1395mm, bottom diameter is 1035mm and the height of 965mm as shown in Figure 4.3.

35

35 Figure 4.3: The design of the rainwater storage tank for 600 litres 4.2.8 Designing Cistern

Figure 4.3: The design of the rainwater storage tank for 600 litres

4.2.8 Designing Cistern Tank

In order to maximise the usage of rainwater, rainwater is prioritised to fill the cistern tank. By doing so, it will substitute the usage of potable water for flushing. Therefore, the pipe for rainwater from the storage tank has to be connected to the existing cistern tank. Whenever the toilet is flushed, rainwater will replaced the flushed water thus this is the reason of rainwater harvesting system for toilet flushing.

However, the storage tank is designed to store 10 days of water supply. In case of long days of no rain which exceed 10 days, it will cause the storage tank to be empty thus no supply of rainwater to the cistern tank. To ensure hygiene is kept, water has to be continuously flow into the cistern tank. And for that reason, potable water will assume the role of replenish the cistern tank.

The switching of roles between rainwater and potable water has to automatic so that water will always be available for flushing. So, an extra cistern tank is connected to the existing cistern tank as shown in Figure 4.4.

36

36 Figure 4.4: Automation system for switching between rainwater and potable water The extra cistern tank

Figure 4.4: Automation system for switching between rainwater and potable water

The extra cistern tank has to be sufficient to accommodate the size of the flotation device that controls the valve. Rainwater pipe from the storage tank will be connected to the existing cistern tank with the flotation device connected to the valve that controls the flow of rainwater. On the other hand, the potable water pipe will be connected to the extra cistern tank and also controlled by a valve that is connected to a flotation device. For the potable water pipe, the flotation device will be adjusted so that when the water level drops beyond the minimum level, the valve will be opened and potable water will starts to fill up the cistern tank.

The assumption to this automation system is that the rainwater will replenish the lost water due to flushing before it reaches the minimum level thus only rainwater will fills the cistern tank. When the storage tank is empty, potable water will assume its role until the next rainy day. The reason for this is to make sure that the system is sustainable whereby no additional usage of energy is required to perform this task such as the usage of electric to operate a machine that controls the switching. However, further study and field tests need to be done to obtain the best size for both cistern tanks, the minimum volume of water needed for flushing to obtain the minimum level and to evaluate the efficiency of this automation system so that necessary modification will be done if required.

37

4.3

Cost

Rainwater harvesting system consists of 3 major components, namely the collection area which is the roof, conveyance system which is the piping and the storage tank. All of this has to be taken into consideration into calculating the cost of installing the system. The cost of materials mostly referred to Schedules of rates 2005 by Public Works Department of Malaysia. Besides that, the worker pays as well as other materials that are needed to construct this system are considered.

4.3.1 Collection Area

According to the test result conducted on the quality of rainwater collected, it can be said that the water is in good quality and it is also save to say that the roof is clean and safe to use as the collection area for the rainwater. Therefore, no further changes are done to the roof and will be used as it is now.

Nevertheless, to direct all the rainwater collected to the storage tank, a gutter system has to be installed around the perimeter of the roof to allow the rainwater flows directly into the storage tank.

At the entrance of the downpipe leading towards the storage tank, a coarse strainer is installed to block big objects and debris such as leaves from entering the storage tank which can pollute the quality of the rainwater and cause blockage in the system. Next before the rainwater enters the storage tank, another fine strainer is installed to capture the smaller objects and debris.

The dimension of the roof of the building is shown in Figure 4.4. The perimeter of the roof is 92.73m. Only the middle section of the building is high enough to transfer rainwater into the storage tank. Therefore, the estimated length needed for the gutter system is the addition of 10.2 with14.18 and 10.82 and 10.86 yields 46m.

38

38 Dimension in metre Figure 4.5: The dimension of the rooftop According to the catalogue in

Dimension in metre

Figure 4.5: The dimension of the rooftop

According to the catalogue in Appendix C, 6m of F300® Gutter cost RM93. Therefore, 8 of 6m are needed to construct the required gutter system for the collection of water. Besides that, for the overall construction of the gutter, 4 Mitre Joint In is needed for the connection at the bend section, one Spouthead Fin for the downpipe, joiner at every 1m span that only include the span of 24 metre and Debris Trap before rainwater enters the downpipe. The overall cost for the installation of gutter is shown in Table 4.8.

Table 4.7: Calculation of cost for installation of gutter

Description

Quantity

Rates (RM)

Total (RM)

Gutter F300® Mitre Joint In Spouthead Fin (4” ) Joiner Debris Trap (4” ) Total

6

93

558

4

20

80

1

15

15

25

5

125

1

15

15

 

793

4.3.2 Conveyance System

The type of pipe use for this system is Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVC). The pipe will be installed from the storage tank to the cistern and first flush in order to convey the rainwater to the intended destination. The quantity is rounded

39

up to ensure that sufficient pipe is available for the system. The costing is as shown in Table 4.8.

Table 4.8: Estimation of cost for the piping system

Description

Quantity

Rate (RM) per quantity

Total (RM)

65mm class ‘D’ 32mm class ‘D’ 25mm class ‘E’ Elbow 65mm Elbow 25mm Tee 25mm Elbow 32mm Tee 32mm Stop valve 32mm Total

2

18.10

36.20

2.4

7.10

17.04

3.5

7.90

27.65

2

16.20

32.40

2

2.20

4.40

2

4.90

9.80

3

3.10

9.30

3

6.70

20.10

2

8.00

16.00

 

172.89

4.3.3 Storage Tank

The storage tank that will be used is a taper tank model R6.8TD (2) (Appendix B). This model is manufactured by Weida Water Sdn. Bhd. with the brand name Polystor®. The material used is polyethylene tank with a 10 years warranty. The price of this product is RM160.

4.3.4 Concrete Platform

The water tank has to be elevated as high as 2m above datum to achieve the sufficient pressure at the end of the pipe. A concrete platform is casted to give the structure strength to carry the burden exerted by the storage tank. Size of column use is 300 x 300 mm where as the slab for the storage tank is 1.1m x 1.1m x 0.2m.

Besides that, the structure must be laid on a firm ground. Since the structure will be build on soil, a concrete foundation will be casted to avoid settlement and give a stable foundation to the structure. The size of the foundation will be 1.1m x 1.1 m x 0.5m.

40

The concrete Grade 30 will be mixed in the ratio of 1:3:6. Cement cost RM202/tonne and 1m 3 of cement is 1.44 tonne. Sand cost RM7/tonne and 1m 3 of sand is 1.53 tonne. Aggregate cost RM20/tonne and 1m 3 of aggregate is 1.68 tonne.

Calculation 1m 3 cement @ 1.44 tonne @ RM202/tonne = RM 290.88

3m 3 sand @ 1.52 tonne @ RM7/tonne

6m 3 aggregate @ 1.60 tonne @ RM20/tonne = RM 192.00

= RM 31.92

Shrinkage 40%

= RM 514.80 = RM 205.92

10m 3

= RM 720.72

The required volume is 1.027 m 3 as shown in Table 4.9. So the cost for concrete

materials for the foundation is . 1.027 = RM 74.

Table 4.9: Total volume of concrete in m 3

Components

Dimension (m)

Total Volume (m 3 )

Slab

1.1 x 1.1 x 0.2 0.3 x 0.3 x 2 1.1 x 1.1 x 0.5

0.242

4 Columns

0.18

Footing

0.605

Total

1.027

To construct this system, workers are needed to accomplish this task. Table 4.10 shows the daywork labour rates per day. The number of workers is estimated to be 5 people. There will be 2 general labours, Concrete leveller, Carpenter and Plumber. Table 4.11 shows the number of days each worker works and their pays. Minimum of 3 days is estimated for the completion of construction of this rainwater harvesting system.

Table 4.10: Daywork Labour Rates (JKR, 2005)

Description

Unit

Rate (RM)

General Labour Concrete Leveller/Screeder Carpenter and Joiner Plumber

Day

45.00

Day

65.00

Day

65.00

Day

70.00

41

Table 4.11: Workers pay (JKR, 2005)

Workers

Days

Rate (RM)

Pay (RM)

2 General Labours Concrete Leveller/Screeder Carpenter and Joiner Plumber Total

2

45.00

180.00

1

65.00

65.00

2

65.00

130.00

2

70.00

140.00

 

515.00

As the material is made available, the concrete leveller will start with mixing the concrete to its ratio and lay at the designated position. Before concreting, the ground is to be compacted to give an even surface for concreting the foundation. Carpenter can work on building the platform for the storage tank and plumber on the piping. The next day, the platform can be raise to its intended height once the concrete has harden and fasten the column to the concrete to give extra support to the structure. The plumber will finish the piping system once platform structure has been erected. The general workers will be helping in placing the storage tank to its placed, fixing the gutters and clear up the working area.

4.3.5

Summary

Table 4.12 shows the overall cost needed for the installation of rainwater harvesting system on M41. The total cost of construction is RM 1714.89. These include the gutter, piping, storage tank, concrete and workers’ pays. This value does not depict the actual cost as it is only estimation but can be use as reference.

Table 4.12: The overall estimation cost for the installation of rainwater harvesting

Components

Amount (RM)

Gutter

793.00

Piping

172.89

Storage Tank

160.00

Concrete materials

74.00

Workers’ pays

515.00

Total

1714.89

42

4.3.6 Cost Saving

One of the advantages of installing rainwater harvesting system is the cost saving from using clean water by substituting with ‘free’ rainwater. Every state has its own water tariffs. In Johor, the cost for every cubic of water used is shown in table 4.13. Price is taken from Syarikat Air Johor (SAJ).

Table 4.13: The price per m 3 of water in RM

Usage category

Rate (m 3 )

Price per m 3 (RM)

Minimum payment (RM)

Domestic

0 - 15

0.38

4.00

16-30

1.31

31-45

1.82

46-100

2.20

>100

2.23

Industrial

0-20

2.22

18.48

21-40

2.96

>40

2.96

Government and hospital

Average rate

2.13

9.24

Shipping

Average rate

5.20

-

Estate

Average rate

1.14

-

Apartment

Average rate

1.18

4.00

For the study site, there are 2 cistern tanks thus the total volume of water used is 60 litres. Assuming 30 days in a month, the total volume of water used per month is 1800 litres which is equivalent to 1.8 m 3 . According to the water tariff, under the category government, the monthly water bill for flushing is RM9.24. The calculated payback period is as the following:

Water usage for flushing = 60 L/d Water usage for a month (30 days) = 30 x 60 = 1800 L/d Monthly water bill for flushing = 1.8 x RM 2.13 = RM 3.83 Minimum payment = RM 9.24 Yearly water bill =RM 9.24 x 12 = RM 110.88 Cost of construction = RM 1715 Payback period = RM 1715 / 110.88 = 15.5 years

43

Nevertheless, if the total volume of rainwater is harvested, the calculation is as such with the assumption that the rainfall pattern in Johor is consistent as shown in Table 2.2, the average rainfall is (188 + 168 + 156 + 264) mm/4 = 194 mm.

Area of site, A = 373.98 m 2

V = CAR/1000 = 0.8 x 373.98 x 194/1000 = 58 m 3

Amount of rainwater per month = 58 m 3 @ RM 123.54 Water bill saved per year = RM 1482.48

Assuming the cost of construction increases by 20%, the calculated payback period is:

Payback period = RM 2058 / (1482.48) Payback period = 1.4 years

From the estimation, if the rainwater harvesting system is installed to supply only for flushing, which is supplying for 2 cistern tanks, the payback period for the system is 15.5 years. This shows that after 15.5 years, every year onwards will save around RM 110.88. If the rainwater harvesting system is build to harvest all the rainwater that falls per year, it is estimated that the payback period for the system is 1.4 years. After that the yearly water bill saving is RM 1482.48. The increase in 20% of the construction cost include gutter system that might need to be modify, increase in number of cistern tanks which required extra piping system.

From Office of Asset and Development (UTM), the water utilisation for 2009 is 300000 m 3 per month @ 3.6x10 6 m 3 per year. The total built areas including buildings and paved roads, covers only about 2.7km 2 of the total campus area (Ayob Katimon and Amat Sairin Demun, 2004). In theoretical perspective, the total rainwater that can be harvested in campus is:

A

= 2.7 km 2 = 7.29 x 10 6 m 2

V

= CAR/1000

V

= 0.8 x 7.29x10 6 x 194/1000

V

= 1.13x10 6 m 3 /month > 3.0x10 5 m 3

Monthly saving = RM 1.77 million or RM21.24 million / year

44

As calculated, when the whole catchment area in campus is installed with rainwater harvesting system, the monthly saving of water after deduction from the water demand of 300000m3, is RM 1.77 million. Furthermore, if the usage and harvested rainwater is consistent throughout the year, the total water savings per year is RM 21.25 million.

Although the calculation and the value is mostly estimation, the actual saving may never reach the calculated value. Moreover, other factors are not included such as cost of rainwater harvesting, number of rainwater harvesting system installed, total catchment area that can be installed with rainwater harvesting system, non- potable water usage and so forth. The water demand is included both potable and non-potable water usage by the residents of the campus. Nevertheless, these values show us that harvested rainwater can save a significant amount of money which will help the campus in terms of financial for the water bills. Therefore, rainwater harvesting should not be taken lightly and the benefits are obvious both economically and environmentally.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1

Conclusions

From the research, it is promising if rainwater harvesting is practices in campus. It serves as a substitution for non-potable water usage for domestic activities such as flushing and irrigation and supplying freshwater in the face of increasing water scarcity and escalating demand (Sazakli et al., 2007). The amount of rainwater that can be collected in campus is 1.13x10 6 m 3 per month. This value shows that the amount is sufficient to cater the demand of non-potable water by the residents in campus as the monthly usage is 300000 m 3 consist of both potable and non-potable water usage. In terms of monetary value, the estimated saving per month is RM 1.77 million. This amount of money can help reduce the expenditure by campus on water bills which can be allocated for other means.

The payback period for the rainwater harvesting system are 15.5 years when the system is constructed for flushing only and 1.4 years when the system in constructed to fully collect the rainwater. Although the amount of rainwater collected 58 m 3 per month, rainwater is strictly for the usage of non-potable water activities such as irrigation and toilet flushing, and not for human consumption.

By using rainwater, many benefits can be seen economically and environmentally where water bills can be saved and can overcome the flash floods phenomenon respectively. It is urged that campus would take rainwater harvesting

46

system seriously in realizing its objectives to become a green campus that creates an environmental friendly surroundings and the same time save the environment and minimize the energy usage

5.2

Recommendation

Rainwater harvesting has existed even since the water crisis in 1998 but was not widespread. As UTM moves forward in becoming a green campus, there are few challenges that must be tackled. One of the challenges is saving water. Water is precious and therefore should be appreciated. Apart from educating, other methods have to be applied in order to save the water. One of the methods is rainwater harvesting.

Rainwater harvesting is a good start in saving water resources and creates a sustainable living. By clearly separating the needs for potable water and non-potable water, harvested rainwater will be used to supply the demand for non-potable water fully thus eliminating the wastage of potable water for the usage of non-potable water activities.

Potable water can be supplied via tap for drinking and cooking purposes and shower for body cleaning purposes. As for non-potable water usage, for flushing, the water can be supplied by harvested rainwater at the storage tank, for general washing such as cleaning of toilets or washing of vehicles and irrigation, a special tap can be installed. With the cooperation of everyone, water can be saved tremendously.

Before installing rainwater harvesting system in whole campus, M41 which is the building for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) office situated at Kolej Tun Dr. Ismail (KTDI) need to be further investigate to determine the efficiency of the system. Followed by installing these systems at strategic places where flushing of toilets are the most, namely faculties. Again, studies and data collection can be collected on site to check on the efficiency of the system and lastly to install this system throughout campus as a final step towards water saving.

47

After installing rainwater harvesting system, maintenance will be done annually to check for any defects in the system. Rainwater is usually free from physical and chemical contaminants such as pesticides, lead and arsenic, color and suspended materials and it is low in salt and hardness (WHO, 1993). Regular maintenance assists in gaining good quality water from rainwater tanks. The storage tank should be cleaned periodically, inner walls and floor should be scrubbed and then cleaning of the cistern using chlorine, followed by a thorough rinsing. Cracks should be patched with a non-toxic material avoid poisoning and contaminating the rainwater collected.

48

REFERENCES

Abdulla F. A. and Al-Shareef A.W., (2009). Roof rainwater harvesting systems for household water supply in Jordan, Desalination, 24, 195-207.

Ahmad Jamaluddin Shaaban and Adhityan A., (2000). Utilising Rainwater For Non- Domestic Uses and Reducing Peak Urban Runoff in Malaysia, International Rainwater Cistern Systems Conference, Mexico.

Alpaslan N., Harmancioglu N.B., and Singh V.P., (1992). The role of the entropy concept in design and evaluation of water quality monitoring networks: Entropy and Energy Dissipation in Water Resources, Water Science and Technology Library, 9, 261-282.

Coombes P.J., Argue J.R. and Kuczera G., (1999). Figtree Place: a case study in water sensitive urban development (Water Sensitive Urban Design), Urban Water, 1, 335-343.

Department of Environment Malaysia, (2005). Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2005, Malaysia: Sasyaz Holdings Sdn Bhd.

Fewkes A., (1999). Modelling the performance of rainwater collection systems:

towards a generalized approach, Urban Water, 1, 323-333.

Ghisi E., Montibeller A., and Schmidt R., (2006). Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: An analysis over 62 cities in southern Brazil, Building and Environment, 41, 204-210.

49

Gleick P.H., (1996). Water resources. Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, edited by Schneider S. H., Oxford University Press, New York, 2, 817-823.

Gould J. E., (1993). Rainwater Catchment Systems Technology: Recent Development in Africa and Asia, Proceeding Science and Technology in the Third World Development Conference, University of Strathcylde, Glasgow.

Guyton A.C., (1991). Textbook of Medical Physiology (8th edition). Philadelphia:

W.B. Saunders.

Herrmann T. and Schmida U., (1999). Rainwater utilisation in Germany: efficiency, dimensioning, hydraulic and environmental aspects, Urban Water, 1, 307-316.

Hicks B., (2008). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting at Commercial Facilities in Arlington County, Virginia, Master projects Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences Duke University.

Hunt W. F., Laura L. S., (2006). Urban Waterways, Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs and Cisterns, Stormwater Treatment Practices for Low-Impact Development. North Carolina State University and North Carolina Agricultural & Technical University Cooperative Extension.

Jitender D.S., (2008). Roof-top Harvesting of Rainwater a Sustainable Water Resource in South East Asia, 4 th International Conference on Sustainable Water Environment: Innovative Technologies and Energy Efficient Solutions Singapore, 17-19 November 2008.

JKR, (2005). Schedules of Rates, Malaysia: Jabatan Kerja Raya.

John T. H., Bruce M. K., (2002). Netter's Atlas of Human Physiology. Teterboro, New Jersey.

LaBranche A., Wack H. O., Crawford D., Crawford E., and Nikolas J. S., (2007). Virginia Rainwater Harvesting Manual, Salem Virginia: Cabell Brand.

50

Mohd. Shahwahid, Suhaimi A. R., Rasyikah M. K., Ahmad J.S., Huang Y. F. and Farah M.S, (2007). Policies and Incentives For Rainwater Harvesting In Malaysia, Proceedings of the Colloquium on Rainwater Utilisation 2007, NAHRIM, 19-20 April 2007, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

MWA, (2000). Design Guidelines for Water supply Systems, Malaysia: Malaysian Water Association.

Prinz D. (1995). Water harvesting in the Mediterranean Environment, Water Resources Management in the Mediterannean under Droughts of Water Shortage Condition, International Symposium, Nicosia, Cyprus, 135-144.

Persyn R., Russell A., Porter D. O., and Silvy V. A., (2004). Raiwater Harvesting, Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical University System.

Salemah E. and Bannayan H, (1993). Water Resources of Jordan, Present Status and Future Potential, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Amman.

Texas Water Development Board (2005). Texas manual on rainwater harvesting, Austin, Texas.

Welsh Office (1992). Using Water Wisely, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

WHO, (1993). Guidelines on Technology for Water Supply Systems in Small Communities, Center of Environment Health Activities Document No. TLM-05, Amman.

Zhu K., Zhang L, Hart W., Liu M. and Chen H., (2004). Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semi-arid Loess Plateau of northern China, Arid Environment, 57, 487-507.

APPENDIX A Computations of Residual Pressure Head at the End of each Pipe

51

5-6

3-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

 

Pipe

 

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0002

0.0002

Q 3 /s) (m

 
         

C

Coefficient

 

155

155

155

155

155

w

32

25

32

25

65

(mm)

d

1.2

1

1.2

1.5

2

L (m)

Actual

19

3.5

19.6

4

8

(m)

Length

Effective

0

0

0

0

2

Start

 

(m)

Nod Level

1.14

0

1.14

0

0

End

 

0.013637162

0.008358936

0.014067809

0.034438832

0.000656384

 

HL (m)

0.12434

0.20372

0.12434

0.40744

0.06027

End

 

Velocity

OK!

OK!

OK!

OK!

OK!

v<2.5

 

1.95655

1.9649

1.9649

1.99934

0

Start

 

Pressure head (m)

0.80291

1.95655

0.81084

1.9649

1.99934

End

OK!

 

OK!

     

> 0.8m

Head

APPENDIX B

52

APPENDIX C Price Catalogue for Gutter

53

APPENDIX C Price Catalogue for Gutter 53