Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49




Historians of the future, HF

Content: About the worksheet ; Page 2 Glossary ; Page 2 Typical Examination Instructions; Page 2 For the students; Pages Section A: Module One, Pages Section B: Module Two, Pages Section C: Module Three, Pages Section D:Listening Section, Pages Section E: Short Answers questions, Pages

About the Worksheet: The worksheet is design to demonstrate how cape Communication Studies questions can be interpreted and answered to achieve Maximum marks. From the Content, it is clear that it consists of FIVE sections: Section A: Module One- Essay Questions Section B: Module Two- Essay Questions Section C: Module Three- Essay Questions Section D: Listening Section Section E: Short Answer questions

Typical Exams Instruction 1. The duration of Paper I is 1 hour 30 minutes. 30 minutes for Paper 01/B (Listening) and 1 hour for Paper 01/A (Short answers) 2. The duration of Paper II is 2hours 30 minutes, which means that each question can get our 50 minutes of your concentration. Candidates are asked to answer THREE questions overall, one from each module. 3. Notes and textual materials are not allowed in the examination room. For the Students Students are reminded that the questions set by the Examination Council are intended to assess the range of content covered by the Syllabus. It is therefore important that a total coverage of the syllabus is done. Candidates need to make their responses to questions informant and in doing so offer a high level of analytical framework. It is therefore important for students to disregard their C.S.E.C. Level of information. You are now older and should therefore know how to handle advanced questions. Read questions carefully before you answer. The more you read the more you can highlight specific details needed for the response.

Annbar13@hotmail.com stacy banks

SECTION A MODULE 1- GATHERING AND PROCESSING INFORMATION 1. CAPE 2003 Read the extract below and answer the question that follows. Trade winds kissed me as I stepped off the airplane in St Thomas. Like playful sprites, they tugged my hair and caressed my skin. Welcome back, they seemed to sing in my ear. I didnt feel at home, though, until my husband and I had boarded the ferry to St John, the smallest of the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was our seventh visit, and with each trip, our passion for St. John has deepened. St. John is among the most romantic spots in the world, an idyllic escape from distracting hype. There are no mainstream tourist attractions. No casinos or nightclubs bursting with co-eds. No marine parks where tourists swim with stingrays. There are, however, unsullied beaches and forests lined with 20 miles (32 km) of hiking trails. There are brilliant sunsets, mountaintop vistas and luxurious villas that allow clothing-optional sunbathing. Its an island getaway, even for islanders. St. John eschews the behemoth hotels that crowd St. Thomas. There are two major hotels: the Westin Resort St. John and five-star Caneel Bay Resort. Caneel boasts seven beaches, including the public Honeymoon Beach. The 176 manicured acres, complete with exotic fauna on-site, is like golf course without holes. Its worth a visit. Caneel Bay was founded by Laurance Rockefeller, who stumbled on the island during a 1952 sailing ship. Back then 85 per cent of the island was jungle. Rockefeller purchased the property, which in 1956 he gave to the Jackson Hole Preserve, a non- profit foundation. The unspoiled island is a magnet for nature-lovers. For those so inclined, there are two main campgrounds, the national parks operation in Cinnamon Bay and the Maho Bay Camps. We, however, prefer the villas that dot St. Johns hillsides. Many sit 800 feet (240 m) above sea level, offering the perfect vantage-point for breath-taking sunsets. Driving is an adventure, but jeeps (US 390 weekly) are a great way to go. We stopped frequently for four-footed pedestrians. Goats cluster on mountain roads, pausing to nibble fronds. A bull and his harem command the right of way. At one point a wild donkey and an egret crossed one way, while a goat went another. This is an island where beautiful beaches are strung out like pearls on a chain, one gem after another. Among the most private locations is tiny Jumbie Beach. Jumbie, an African word meaning supernatural being earned its name after the 1733 slave rebellion, when salves committed suicide off its cliffs. At the end of a long day of touring, St. John offers a veritable buffet of romantic dining spots.

Pam Carlson, Un spoiled St. John, Island Life Magazine, Issue #3, 2001, pp. 75-76 (a) State the writers main point in not more than 20 words. Answer: The writer highlights the unspoiled beauty of ST. John and everything that makes it a perfect getaway even for the locals. (b) Write an essay identifying the writers purpose and commenting on the strategies and language techniques used. Answer: The Writers Purpose: The writers purposes are: - To appeal to the nature lovers - To highlight special features of the island of St. John - It is informative as it provided background information on the islands history and culture Strategies and language techniques (a) The use of short paragraphs and sentences: This is very effective as it evades confusion by making the extract very easy to read. This strategy appeals to readers who normally find wordiness very tedious. (b) The use of many figurative languages: The writer uses a lot of figurative languages. The use of the personification in the first line, Trade winds kissed me as I stepped, the similes, Like playful sprites, they tugged my hair and caressed my skin, and This is an island where beautiful beaches are strung out like pearls on a chain, and Imageries. This strategy is very much evident throughout the extract and it helps to carry out the writers overall purposes. It creates vivid description which appeals to the readers. (c) The is the use of emotive words such as tugged, caressed, which appeals to the emotion of the readers (d) The use of a combination of descriptive and expository writing : As evident the writer gives a plethora of information about St. John which includes its cultures, history and geography, but it also describes things to us as well such as its natural beauty. (e) The language is very formal, that means that it can appeal to everyone, which is the overall aim of the writer as he wants bout locals and tourists to visit ST. John. It is also important that the way in which the language is executed makes it very simple yet persuasive. (f) The Tone is very pleasant and calm as it encourages the readers to visit the island. (g) There is also the use of punctuation marks: It is after all easy to remember that punctuation is use for clarify. Commas, quotation marks, hyphens, and the correct use of full stops are used to provide further explanation which makes reading clearer and more interesting. (25 marks)

2. CAPE 2004 Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow: The value of taking supplements, vitamins and minerals is often questioned by many. They often ask: Do you really need to take supplements? If you are basically healthy, is there any advantage to taking supplements on a regular basis? And, if you develop a disorder or ailment, can you expect supplements to offer any help? The general consensus has long been that as long as people who seem healthy eat well enough to avoid specific nutritional deficiencies, they dont need to supplement their diet. The only thing they have to do is to consume a diet that meets the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and other guidelines for vitamins and mineral intakers. And therein lies the problem. Even if people accept the RDA standards do provide vitamins and minerals intakers that are adequate for good health, the evidence is overwhelming that most people dont even come close to meeting those basic nutritional requirements. Surveys show that only nine percent of all people in industrialized countries eat five daily servings of fresh fruits and vegetables, the amount recommended for obtaining the minimum level of nutrients believed necessary to prevent illness. For example, average calcium consumption in the United States and Canada is estimated to be about 60 per cent of the current suggested level of 1 000 mg for young adults, and far below the 1 200 mg recommended for men and women ages 50 to 70. According to a review of national data by experts at the University of California, Berkeley, people often make food choices that are nutritionally poor. For example, they are more likely to select French fries that broccoli as a vegetable serving, and will generally select a soft drink rather than water, fruit juice, or a glass of skim milk as a beverage. Not only may these and other foods contribute too much fat and sugar to your diet, but they can also result in less than optimal intakers of vitamins, amino acid, chelated minerals and disease fighting phytonutrients. Many diets, these experts point out, contain half the recommended amounts of magnesium and folic acid. Vitamins A, C and B6, as well as iron and zinc, are other nutrients that surveys show are at very low levels in most peoples diets.

Even with the best nutritional planning it is difficult to maintain a diet that meets the RDAs for all nutrients. For example, vegetarians, who as a group are healthier than meat eaters, still may be deficient in some nutrients, such as iron, calcium and Vitamin B12. And most people who want to maintain a healthy low-fat diet will have a problem obtaining the recommended amounts of Vitamin E from their food alone, because so many food sources for vitamin E are high in fat. Another complication is that a balanced diet may not contain the more specialized substances such as fish oils, soy isoflavones, enzymes, or alpha-lipoic acid that researchers think may promote health. For generally healthy people who cannot always eat a well balanced diet everyday, a supplement can fill in these nutritional gaps and/ or boost the nutrients they consume from adequate to optimal. There are various other reasons why people who maintain good eating habits might benefit from daily supplement. Nutritional scientists now believe that exposure to environmental pollutants such as car emissions and industrial chemicals and wastes can cause damage in many ways inside the body at the cellular level, destroying tissues and depleting the body of vital nutrients. Many supplements, particularly those that act as antioxidants, can help control the cell and tissue damage that follows toxic exposure. Recent evidence also indicates that certain medications, excess alcohol, smoking, and stress may interfere with the absorption of certain key nutrients. Even an excellent diet would be unable to make up for such a shortfall. In conclusion, specific nutritional programme of vitamins, minerals, and other supplements take into account these and other environmental and lifestyle factors which affect nutrient levels in the human body. Therefore, their use affords you an excellent opportunity to enhance your diet and, by extension your life. Value in Vitamins, Better Health, May-June 2002, Nation Publishing Co. Limited, p.4. (a) State the writers main purpose in no more than 30 words. Answer: The writer addresses the importance of taking supplements. People who eat well or even vegetarians may have deficiencies and may need additional supplements. A balanced diet can extend life .

(b) Write an essay of no more than 500 words in which you include reference to the following: (i) The writers purpose Answer: The writers purposes are as follows: - To outline the importance of nutrients our bodies need - To state why our bodies need supplements even though we may try to eat healthy - To point out that supplement ensures that our bodies get the nutrients we need whether we are busy or generally eat unhealthy foods. (ii) Strategies and language techniques used Answer: (a) There is the use of short sentences as well as short paragraphs: As goods writers know the ways in which pieces of writings are presented suggest how a reader looks at it. Just looking at the extract, readers are willing to read it because it is not look long and rather than looking boring it seems interesting. As such making the paragraphs short and the sentences as well bring s interest to ones writing before it is even read. Furthermore, this strategy helps to avoid tediousness as many writers unconsciously create in their writings. (b) There was the use of many persuasive techniques: One of the main one was the use of Rhetorical questions. These questions make the readers willing to read more, and add to the persuasive tone throughout the overall extract. The writer wants you to start taking supplements, how is he going to do that. Indeed he is going to inform you of its advantages but also persuade you as well. The writers organization is well much evident of its persuasive outlook. His view is quickly evident and he makes it clear in his conclusion. It provides facts to back up his claims such as data from the University of California which suggest the use of authoritative sources. There is also the use of statistics etc. One should also mention the fact that the writer gives constant examples to back up his claims. (c) There is the use of loaded and emotive words which appeals to the readers emotion. (d) The Use of Punctuation Marks such as the commas, the question marks, and the correct use of full stops which brings clarify throughout the entire extract. It adds to the evading of tediousness. (iii) Appropriateness of the tone and register used. Answer: The writer uses a formal register throughout the extract. And the tone is very conversational, which suggest that you can actually think you are talking to a person who has this information. What does this suggest? Well, it appeals to many readers as the language is formal and very simple, thus making it very easy to read. Though this is true it adds to the seriousness of the passage. (25 marks)

3. CAPE 2005 Read the extract below, then answer the questions that follow. From Cuba to Guyana, Trinidad to Antigua, the Caribbean exhales rum culture. These are the islands of the spirits birth, and history of rum a story of sugar plantations, slavery, emancipation, and ultimately international appreciation shadows our own. Some of us, following centuries of rumbullion exposure, have become rum snobs aghast should anything but white rum be used to make cocktails! This rum elite, fearsomely knowledgeable when it comes to flavors and aromas, distillation techniques, and secrets of blending, also knows that rum can be remarkable storyteller. And these experts say no rum story is older than that of Barbados, where the Mt Gay distillery has documentary evidence to back up its claim to be the worlds oldest surviving rum-maker 300 years old, and counting. Many historians believe this estimate to be a touch conservative; pointing out that Bajan rum was created long before. Nonetheless, the legal deed, dated 20 February 1703, complete with age-darkened, dog-eared edges, is the worlds oldest proof of rum production, listing the equipment found on the Mt Gay estate at the time: two stone windmills. one boiling house with seven coppers, one curing house and one still house. Originally called Mt Gilboa, the estate comprised several separate plantations in the northern parish of St Lucy; the name Mt Gay appeared later, to honour Sir John Gay Alleyne, an 18th Century aristocrat who managed the 280-acre estate until his death in 1801. In the 19th century, as the plantation grew in size, it passed from the ironically named Sober Family to the Thornhills. But it wasnt until 1918, when as astute businessman by the name of Aubrey Fitzosbert Ward bought the now 372- acre Mt Gay estate, that Mt Gay rum, as we know it today, truly began its ascendance into international drinking love. When Ward purchased an Aeneas Coffey still in UK permitting a single or continuous distillation process, as opposed to the double distillation process of the pot still- he revolutionized the quantity and quality of rum being produced. Shortly afterwards, Mt Gay moved its operations to Bridgetown, where the rum produced at the distillery in St Lucy was aged in Kentucky white-oak casks, blended, and finally bottled. Today the Ward family continues to be involved with Mt Gay Rum Distilleries, the majority interest in which was acquired by the Remy Cointreau Group in 1989. Adapted from Dylan Kerrigan, Rum Tales, Caribbean Beat, No. 64, November/December 2003, Media and Editorial Projects, 2003, p. 25.

(a) States the writers main point in no more than 30 words. Answer: The writer intends for the readers to understand the origins of rum in the Caribbean highlighting also important names in rum production history who have brought international recognition to the regions rum. (b) Write an essay of no more than 500 words in which you establish the writers purpose, and comment on the strategies and language techniques used. In addition, briefly evaluate the reliability of the information presented in this extract. Answer: The Writers Purpose The writers purpose is to - Give the origins and therefore of rum production in the Caribbean - Provide arguments and proves that may question the what historians say is the origin of rum

The Strategies and language Techniques

(a) The use of short sentences and short paragraphs which makes it very easy to read and less tedious. Its overall appearance makes readers willing to read it at first glance. (b) The writer play on the phrase rumbullion which suggest rebellion as extract mentions how the rum snobs argue about the type of rum being use to make cocktails. (c) There was the use of authoritative sources such as the legal deeds as the information within the extract was backed up by something. Hence the writer provides facts for his/her claim (d) There was correct usage of words. The extract is an expository and so the writers uses words which are very precise and accurate. They evoke enjoyment and interest. (e) The tone seemed sincere; the writer also seemed committed to his ideas and it appeals to the reader through interest. The tone is very conversational also. (f) There was correct use of Punctuations: punctuation marks are used appropriately. Capitals were correctly used for example. There was the use of commas and expressive dashes (-) which creates clarity etc. (g) The writer uses a formal register which means that it appeals to everyone and is very appropriate to the idea that the writing carries out. The Reliability of the extract The information within the extract seems to very correct thus brings us to its reliability. It goes a long way to explain to the readers the origins of rum in the Caribbean and it traces the years for us to understand this. Historical details such as where the rum was originated, to the names of people who have started and maintain distillation of rum is mentioned. The writer quotes from the legal deeds to back up his claim and thus suggest an overall idea that we can trust the information presented to us. Total 25 marks

4. CAPE 2006 Read the extract and answer the questions that follow. Look at them behind their counters - young, neatly outfitted in their starched fast food uniforms or their linen and polyester clerk suits. They quickly and effortlessly tap the keys on their cash registers and computers, answer phones, and look quite efficient, dont they? They seem as if they can think, dont they? Dont let the pressed clothes and technology fool you; many of them cant. Let there be a glitch or a breakdown and then youll see what lies beneath the suits and uniforms and beyond the counters operates of broken- down cash registers and computers who will fumble to spell and calculate. And you, older than they, will wonder what they spent their primary and secondary school years learning. You can spot them everyday, everywhere. Last week, for example, I saw the brain of a young attendant at a fast food outlet shut down the instant his computer crashed. Before the crash, he had appeared capable as he punched the appropriate keys for orders. But when he was faced with having to write down what his customers wanted, he could only operate in slow motion. I know because, to my misfortune, I was about to order a tuna sandwich and a large orange juice when the system failed. After a minute or two of trying to spell the two items, he scrunched up the piece of paper and started writing afresh on a second sheet. I was not sure Id get the correct meal. Two days after this calamity, I encountered one of Mr. Illiteracys pals, a Miss Innumeracy, in a store downtown when I was trying to pay a bill of $26.05 with two twenty-dollar bills. Because of a mix-up, the cash register was closed, and so the young girl had to calculate on paper how much change to give me. After an eternity of scratching her head and calculating on a sheet of paper, she handed me $14.05, but, thanks to my Standard Five teacher, I had already calculated in my head that I should have received $13.95. When I told her so, she seemed mentally paralysed. Luckily, another suited girl, who looked senior in age and rank, came to her rescue. She whipped out a calculator, pressed a few keys, and presto, gave me the right to change, scolding Miss Innumeracy for her bad math! I left, thinking sadly that there was nothing I could do to help them make up for the years they had spent in their classrooms not bothering to learn how to read, write, count or think. Adapted from Suzanne Mills, Between the Lines, Trinidad and Tobago Newsday, June 2, 2004, p.11


(a) State the writers main purpose in no more than 30 words. Answer: Using workers in a restaurant and how they work effectively, the writer intends to show how people are becoming increasingly dependent on technology in the workplace suggesting their incapability without it. (b) Write an essay of no more than 500 words in which you include reference to the following: i. The writers purpose Answer: The writers purposes are as follow: - To show dependent people are on technology - To use that to express the importance of learning other ways to do things without it e.g. checking without a cashing machine as use in the passage - To bring attention to the irony of people effectiveness in the work place- their fancy suits means nothing without the use of technology ii. Strategies and language techniques used Answer: (a) The use of short paragraphs and very short sentences which appeals the interest of the readers even before they start to read. (b) The writer is very informative and persuasive (c) The use of illustrations mainly in the writers reflection on previous encounters (d) The use of Persuasive Techniques especially rhetorical questions which wins over the readers interest in to anticipate what is coming next on the page. (e) The use of climax of words in the last lines which adds a dramatic effect to the passage, to learn how to read, write, count or think. (f) There was a plethora of literary devices e.g. hyperboles are used as the writer exaggerates the time the cashier took to calculate his changes, After an eternity of scratching her head, or After two days of this calamity. The use of metaphors, Mr. Illiteracy etc, and also onomatopoeia, She whipped out a calculator. There is also the use of the metonymy, mentally paralyzed which suggest being petrified. (g) The writers choices of words are very important as it adds to the way he exaggerates throughout the extract. The way he uses his words evokes interest as the readers get a sense of how willing he is to make his point. For example, look at these word suggestions, She whips out her calculator, after an eternity of scratching her head, I saw the brain of a young. As such one can understand that the way he puts his words on paper creates an overwhelming interest to prolong reading. (h) Punctuation plays an important role in bring out clarify throughout the extract. The use of expressive dashes helps to bring across the level of expressive writing in the extract. Commas, exclamation marks, semi- colon, correct use of full stops and the appropriate capitals brings across

clarify in the way the readers read and help with the expression and effectiveness of the words used. (i) There is evidence of expressive writing. The writer relies on his personal experiences to make his points. iii. Appropriateness of the tone and register used. Answer: Its easy to see that the tone is very conversational and the writer uses a formal register. This is very appropriate as it appeals to all readers and evokes interest. This suggests that as the readers goes deep down into what the writer is saying they crave more of what he saying. Being conversational also creates a better appreciation of the way in which the writer expresses his points. When people are in conversations they exaggerate to bring out their points. As evident the writer exaggerates to prove his points and this is seemed in his choices of words. (25 marks)

5. CAPE 2007 Read the extract below then answer the question that follows. The Leap Year Superstition The first time I heard about superstition was when I mentioned to my mother that this year was a leap year. Oh plenty people ah go dead this year, she said. Her rather pessimistic assumption startled me. Why would anyone think that because it was a leap year, more people were going to die? Thinking my mother had listened to too many tall tales, I casually mentioned the myth to a friend. Yes, a so me hear all the time, leap years are bad luck, she said. Well, I had never heard such a thing. How many people believed this? Intrigued I proceeded to conduct an informal survey. I was surprised at how many people of all ages held the same view. One person even said that it was already evident, pointing to the spate of killings in Spanish Town since the beginning of the year. But was there any other evidence that suggested that thus was a true phenomenon? My first stop, after the Internet, was a sociologist, hoping he could answer my questionwhere do people come up with this stuff? Professor Barry Cheavannes is the Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus. He told me that folklore is sometimes based on the fact, so I launched a fact-finding mission.

The Statistical Institute of Jamaica has on its website the death rates in Jamaica for the years 19991 to 2002. That time frame gave me three years to study, 1992 and 1996 and 2000. And here are the facts according to www.statinja.com. In 1991 the death rate was 5.6 per 1000 means population. In 1992 it was 5.5; 1993, 5.7; 1995, 6.7; 1997, 6.0; 1999, 6.8; 2000, 6.3; while in 2001 it was 6.2. So with the exception of 1996, there was no noticeable rise in deaths in Jamaica during a leap year. Actually, the rates seemed to drop during the leap year. Im sure many peoples hearts are lighter now. So heres some more good news. Its also said that the only time for a woman to propose marriage without bad luck is in a leap year. But didnt plan your wedding in a leap year though, or theres sure to be some bad luck. Or so the legend goes. (a) State the writers main point in no more that 30 words. Answer: It is important that we mention that the real point in the extract is how much people belief in superstitions. The writer points out the degree of belief that people link to superstitions of death on a leap year and attempts to prove the reliability on such folklores. OR Using what people say about leap years and the number of deaths, the writer points out our deep belief in superstitions and attempts to prove the reliability on suck folklores. (b) Write an ESSAY of no more than 500 words in which you identify the writers purpose, and comment on the strategies and language techniques used to achieve this purpose. Answer: The Writers purpose: The writers purpose is to - To point out how much we believe in superstitions - To prove the reliability of such superstitions using data and facts Strategies and language techniques (a) The use of short paragraphs and short sentences- this evades tediousness and brings clarify to the work. The writer as makes his work seems very interesting to read at just looking at it. As mentioned before, many readers are thrown off by long length sentences and paragraphs. (b) The writer is very persuasive. The writer uses Rhetorical questions which appeals to readers interest and makes them willing to continue reading. (c) The writer uses the first person narrative which complimented its conversational tone.


(d) There is the use of Irony and Sarcasm at the end. Though the writer is trying to prove that superstitions are not reliable, he still believes in them and this is evident in his concluding paragraph. But didnt plan your wedding in a leap year though, or theres sure to be some bad luck. (e) There is the use of statistical data to make his points more reliable as well as authoritative sources. The writer is willing to go to the University of West Indies gain information about the claim. (f) The language is very simple and effective. (g) The use of the literary device, the assonance, in tall tales. (h) The use of Punctuations which brings clarity to the writers work. Total 25 marks ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. CAPE 2008 Read the extract below carefully and then answer the question that follows. Its an alarming prospect. The recent report out of the U.K., equating the spread of surveillance technology to the rise of the Big Brother state, is enough to send more than the occasional shiver down ones spine. It would seem that George Orwells society of the further has been transport from the pages of his satirical novel, 1984, directly into the real world. The totalitarian society of Orwells novel, written way back in 1949, has no place for truth since historical records are destroyed and information is replaced by propaganda. Additionally, thought and love attract punishment, and privacy simply doesnt exist! But it is the ominous warning, Big Brother is watching you, conveyed through placards in the imaginary Orwellian state that is probably best remembered by readers of 1984. That warning is certainly a propos if the British report on the emergence of the Big Brother state is anything to go by. Drawn up by a team of respected academics, the document is said to paint a disturbing picture of what Britain (an, elsewhere I suggest!) could be like in ten years time unless the use of spy technologies is regulated. Anyone reading the newspaper or watching the international TV news within the last week or so would have gathered that the UK is one of the three world leaders in the use of


surveillance technology; and the Brits, the most spied- on citizens in what most of us still think of as the free world. A fall out of New Yorks Nine-Eleven terrorist attack and more recent London bombings, this obsession with surveillance is becoming contagious. And my guess is that it wont be long before Big Brother makes his presence more obvious here in our own backyard. The British report on the spread of surveillance technology looks at the time in the nottoo-distance future when human beings everywhere may be forced to be micro chipped, with implants under the skin storing personal information, allowing everybodys movements to be tracked. The claim made by editors- Dr David Murakami Wood (managing editor of the journal) and Dr Kristie Ball, Open University lecturer in Organization Studies, is astonishing. It asserts that by 2016, almost every movement, purchase, and communication of these chipcitizens could be monitored by a complex network of interlinking surveillance technologies! Some time ago, it was disclosed that the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in humans (with the implantation of chips in 70 mentally ill patients) was being put on trial in the United States. If the claims of the official British report prove to be accurate, such use would, in a decade or so, be unlimited and the Orwellian state would have become a reality. Only this past week, the BBC revealed the presence of 4.2, million surveillances cameras in Britain. And viewers were informed that the average Briton is caught on camera some 300 times every day! Jeannette Layne- Clarke, Shades of 1984. Sunday Sun, November 5, 2006, p.9

Write an ESSAY of no more that 500 words in which you include references to the following: (a) The writers purpose Answer: The writers purpose is to - To inform us about the rise of surveillance Technology in Britain as well as the importance of this growing technology


Give readers an idea of future surveillance technology and there implications on our survival and privacy To reveal the irony of living in a free society- infact, we are not free with such technologies

(b) Strategies and language techniques used Answer: The writer uses the following techniques and strategies: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Short paragraphs and sentences The use of punctuations such as correct full stops, exclamation marks tec. The use of authoritative sources Very informative writing, thus being an expository The use of Metonymy (a literacy device) in the extract- Big Brother State refers to an enemy The use of Irony The tone is ironic and conversational The use of a formal register

(c) The effectiveness of the strategies and language techniques identified in (b) above in achieving the writers purpose. Answer: Short paragraphs and sentences offers less tediousness in reading and appeals to the interest of the readers from a glance The use of punctuations such as the commas, expressive dashes, exclamation marks all adds to the expressive writing techniques use and strikes interest in the readers The use of Irony is very appropriate as it creates the tone of the extract, the writer intends to be ironic, he wants the readers to enjoy his views that it is rather ironic to live in a free society, because in reality we are not real The Metonymy, Big Brother State creates interest and curiosity in the readers. The readers are willing to continue reading to find out who the writer is referring to. They play close attention to his words and his expression The use of a formal register compliments the conversational tone that the writer uses Authoritative data adds to the reliability of the writers opinions and claims

Total 25 marks


SECTION B MODULE 2 LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITY 1. CAPE 2003 Read the poem below and answer the question that follows. The following is a poem written by Evan Jones, a Jamaican poet who lived in England. In this poem, the speaker is grieving over the fact that he has to be away from his homeland. The Lament of the Banana Man Gal, Im tellin you, Im tired fo true Tired of England, tired o you. But I can go back to Jamaica now Im here in Englan, Im drawin pay, I go to de underground every day Eight hours is all, half- hour fo lunch M uniforms free, an m ticket punch Punchin tickets not hard to do When Im tired o punchin, I let dem through. I get a paid holiday once a year. Ol age an sickness can touch me here. I have a room o m own, an a iron bed, Dunloppillo under m head, A Morphy- Richards to warm de air, A formica table, an easy chair. I have summer clothes, an winter clothes, An paper kerchiefs to blow m nose My yoke is easy, my burden is light, I know a place I can go to, any night. Dis place England! Im not complainin, If it col, if it rainin, it rainin. I don mind if its mostly night, Deres always inside, or de sodium light. I don min white people starin at me Dey don want me here? Dont is deir country? You won catch me bawlin any homesick tears If I don see Jamaica for a tousand years! Gal, Im tellin you, Im tired fo true, Tired of Englan, tired o you, I can go back to Jamaica now But Id want to die there anyhow.

Evan Jones, The Lament of the Banana Man. New Ships: An Anthology of West Indian Poems. Oxford University Press, 1980, pp. 29 In an essay of about 500 words, discuss: (a) The factors that may have led the speaker to use a mixture of English and Jamaican Creole features in the lament Answer: (a) The speaker is showing appreciation for both countries and showing that both languages are acceptable


(b) The process of Inter-culturation: As the speaker suggest he is home sick, that must suggest that he has been in England for quite a period of time. As such, it may be that over time he had acquired some attributes of the way they speak during socialization. (c) It may be because he is not a person of the upper class

(b) What the poet achieves by using a mixture of the two languages in this context Answer: (a) The poet makes the poem very creative by using the native tongue which shows that the persona ironically really misses his homeland. (b) It shows how comfortable she is with that aspects of her island culture (c) It makes the poem interesting as Creole is sometimes seen as a comical language (c) The implications for the wider acceptability of the Jamaican Creole arising from the poets use of language Answer: For most part, many people dont see Creole as a language and this is seen in the way that they look down on people that uses it on a daily basis. The way in which the poet uses the creoles implies that he as a user of this language sees it as a means of communication with its own syntax, lexicon, and morphology which suggest that Creole is itself a language. In some words the last letter is deleted, but it still can be understood e.g. tellin Englan (d) How a video presentation of the poem would enhance its meaning. Answer: - The video presentation would highlight the speakers expression as he uses the two languages. Maybe one would be more expressive and this would be evident in his expressions. - The words would be heard clearly creating a striking difference between the Creole and the standard English - Lighting would also be useful in conveying how the writer feels as he speaks the lighting could reflect his expressions and his mood - His costume would also give an idea of who he is and this would probably highlight why he speaks the way he does. Total 25 marks ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. CAPE 2004 Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow. Thats why this country will nevah get a head, nevah get ahead, she say, walking round her beauty parlour like a bee just sting her. She fold up towels, hang up robes, straighten things that dont need straightening. I wish Pinkie would cool down tough. People here have no discipline, she saying. The whole time I was in England, there wasnt one power cut, and thats big, prosperous country.

Now look at this little island that cant hold its head above water and every minute somebodys on strike. I start to tell her that I hear bout a whole heap of strikes in England, but I change my mind. I dont feel like arguing. I just want her to wash my hair and braid it. You dont need electricity for that. But she keep on walking up and down. She getting on my nerves now. Why she have to criticize the island so much when is the only place we have for we- selves? I say, Look, Pinkie, you can wash my hair. At least some sunshine coming in, so you can see what you doing. To tell you the truth, Miss Daisy, I dont feel like doing any work today.

The last time I see Pinkie, she shining like a morning star. Guess wha, Miss Daisy, guess wha? I cant believe is she talking. The English accent gone clean. What? I say. What? I get visa to go America. I go to the embassy from five o clock this morning, stand up three hours in line before it open and when I tell I going to visit a cousin who getting married, he never ask me a thing, just stamp multiple indefinite in me passport. Is gone me gone, you know. First plane I can get on. It too hot here, Miss Daisy, too hot. Cant stand sun. Now how you want your hair done today? Adapted from Alecia McKenzie, Pinkie, Satellite City and other Stories Longman Group U.K. Ltd., 1992, pp. 28- 30. In an essay of no more than 500 words, discuss the use of language in the excerpt, concentrating on the following. (a) The relation between the writers use of language and the context of the narrative Answer: The writers language carries both a communicative and reflective purpose. The context behind the language suggests a situation of the way in which people view such languages and their implications on communication. The context suggests a mixture of pride as in Miss Daisy and resentment as in Pinkie. The writer use of language acts a contrast to the opinions of each character. For Pinkie, as she uses her language as a reflection of what she sees as a civilized country she view Creole as shameful and this is seen in her behaviour. But, for Miss Daisy, the language is important as this is enforced by her thing of it as the only thing they have.


(b) The appropriateness of the narrators language Answer: The narrator uses two types of languages in the extract: Creole and Standard English. The Creole and Standard English are appropriate as it not only outlines two different views on what is cultures but also feelings. It suggests that both can be used as a form of communication. Towards the end, even Pinkie abandoned her use of Standard English to express her joy, thus revealing the characteristics and pleasures of both languages. (c) Whether Pinkies language was motivated by linguistic and/ or non-linguistic factors Answer: Pinkies language is basically motivated by non-linguistic factors. As evident from the beginning of the extract, pinkie does not look at the fact that Standard English has good grammar, nor the way the words are pronounced; she used Standard English because of the fact that she links it to being civilized and prosperous. A persons language is motivated by non linguistic factors when they use it in a way that has nothing to do with language, but because it is related to attitude, education or geography. In such a case, the person simply chooses that language because it suites him/ her situation and this is evident with Pinkie. In the end, Pinkie only used Creole because she now sees it as a way of expressing her joy of getting a visa. (d) Ways in which a video presentation of this interaction would help to highlight the fact that these are Caribbean speakers communicating in a Caribbean setting. Answer: The audience would get to see the non verbal form of communication or the expressions used by both Pinkie and Miss Daisy as they used both the languages - It would bring clarify as it would not only appeals to the ears but also to the sight - The costumes would be an appropriate means of suggesting the way each of these women treat the languages they use. It is obvious that Pinkie would not dress a certain way and uses Standard English - The props around them will give a particular setting which can tell us that the speakers are from the Caribbean. Total 25 marks ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. CAPE 2005 Read the excerpt below, then answer the questions that follow. I think is Mr. Robinson, Babolal said, shaking a little, as if he trembled with the horses hooves. But you best hads call him sir. Not me! Tiger said, I not sir ing anybody.


When MR. Robinson drew rein in front of the house Tigers attention was all on his companion and he didnt see when Manko held the horse while Robinson dismounted, then lead it to the side of the house. It was the woman he had seen naked by the river. She had on a white straw hat turned up at the front and pushed half-way off her head at the moment, a white shirt broken about three buttons from the neck, and a fawn-coloured pair of riding breeches tucked into brown leather riding- shoes. She dismounted swiftly and stood looking around, fumbling with her skirt at the back. Her presence upset Tiger completely and disrupted his plan of behaviour, He had intended to be cool or even cold to the supervisor, calling out the names and wages in a clear voice and leaving the house the minute he was through. At sight of the woman he had unconsciously risen from the chair and he stood now a little off guard, watching her. She came up the steps with the supervisor and Babolal was waiting, his lips parted in a kind of smile, and his whole expression denoting service behind which his uncertainty and nervousness flickered. Morning sir, morning, Babolal said, standing there and making a little half-bow, and a series of morning, sirs echoed from the labourers. I want to get on with it as quickly as possible, Babolal, Robinson said, and afterwards I want to have a little talk with you about things here. This is my wife. Have you got a chair for her? For a moment Tiger debated whether he should relinquish his seat: still unresolved he rose and pulled the chair back in an offer to Mrs. Robinson. Thank You, she said in a soft voice, and she looked at him. Was there amusement in her eyes? Did she recognize him? He stared back boldly and she appraised him swiftly as she sat. There was a slight smile on her lips; he had the feeling she was laughing at him for running away by the river like a little boy caught at a prank. While they were talking Tiger could feel Doreens eyes on him and he cursed her in his mind, and desperate to make up to himself for his flight, he suddenly blurted out to her: Have you been here long, Mrs. Robinson? Babolal shot him a mingled glance of fear and surprise but Tiger looked straight at Doreen. She answered easily, with a smile, Oh yes. We lived in Chaguanas while my husband worked there.

What next should he ask or say? Anything at all. Just keep talking. And talk good English. Do you find it too hot for you in this country? Adapted from Samuel Selvon, Turn Again Tiger, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1958, pp. 58- 60 In an essay of no more than 500 words, discuss the use of speech and body language in the excerpt, concentrating on the following: (a) A careful analysis of the context and its effect on the language behaviour of Babolal, the other labourers, and Mr. and Mrs. Robinson. (b) Tigers interpretation of, and reaction to, Mrs. Robinsons non verbal gestures. (c) What Tiger hopes to achieve by addressing Mrs. Robinson in good English (d) How Tigers discomfort would be highlighted in a video presentation of the scene. Total 25 marks ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. CAPE 2006 Read the excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow. The following is a discussion between Andrea, a university student, and Natasha, a primary school student whom Andrea tutors. Natasha was very intelligent, almost unchildlike, and Andrea felt at a loss. She didnt know how to talk to children who didnt particularly act like children, didnt know what tone to adopt, what subject might be good. She said, Do you like dolls? and Natasha said; When I grow up Im going to be an astronaut. Andrea hadnt heard that one before. Doctor, teacher, nurse and policeman she was used to, but not astronaut. Especially not from a child whod probably never been further than Kingston. She felt herself pitying the child for being so ambitious would never be fulfilled. She said, Thats a good profession. Why do you want to do that? So I can float around. My teacher says theres no gravity in space, so you have to float. They showed a movie at school about it. And I know thats what I want to do. Andrea burst out laughing. How many people were there who wanted to float? Natasha was staring at her and she tried to stop laughing, swallowed hard. Natasha said, What are you going to be? A doctor?


No Andrea said. Im studying languages. You know, French and Spanish. Ill probably teach when I graduate. Oh. She was unimpressed and Andrea felt belittled. Natasha spoke good English, which was strange because her mother knew only dialect. When Mrs. Jackson brought Natasha, she had tried to speak properly, but Andrea knew it was beyond her. She herself spoke Creole to the woman, to put her at ease, but Mrs. Jackson had been insulted. She left quickly, telling Natasha shed be back for her at one oclock. Adapted from Alecia McKenzie, Natasha, Satellite City and Other Stories, Longman, 1992, p. 31 32 In an essay of no more than 500 words, discuss: (a) Natashas possible motivation for achieving a good command of the English Language Answer: Natashas possible motivation may be: (a) She wants to be an astronaut as such she knows that a good command at English would be best suited for such a profession (b) She seems smart, as it is clear that she can recall what her teacher says which suggest her ability to learn and speak well. (b) Any possible justification for Andreas surprise that Natasha spoke English so well Answer: Andrea is very surprise that Natasha spoke English so well mainly because: (a) Natashas background: Natasha, as Andrea puts it has never been further than Kingston and furthermore her mother spoke only dialect (b) Her level of education: Natasha was at the primary school level as oppose to Andrea who was at the university level. Yet still she could have executed English even better than her. (c) She was simply a child; no child she knew has such aspiration or even so knows how to speak so well. (c) What Mrs. Jacksons behavior revels about her attitude to the use of the Creole Answer: She thinks that it is very degrading as she was insulted when Andrea spoke to her in Creole Trying to speak properly suggest that she links English to being cultured and Creole as uncivilized Her embarrassment is revealed in her leaving as quickly as possible


(d) How communication could be enhanced through a video presentation of this scene. Answer: (a) The non verbal forms of communication would be revealed more that would give meaning behind the words. The audience would get to see how Natasha reveals her unimpressed attitude to Andreas future occupation, or how Andre would look at Natasha curiously as she speaks and more importantly the audience would see how embarrassed Mrs. Jackson would have been given that she did not say so (b) The costume would have greatly interest the audience to the characteristics of the characters. For example, we would see how Natasha dresses and links it to her idea of proper speaking (c) We will see how the characters react to changes for example Mrs. Jackson. We can only assume that at first she was happy when she was trying to speak English and after she becomes sad. (d) The props behind them would suggest the perfect setting, one which was not mentioned in the scene. Total 25 marks ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. CAPE 2008 Read the poem carefully and then answer the question that follows. A Tale of Two Tongues Miss Ida speaks only English to God Scholars cannot fault the diction Of her graces and prayers; To her, it is the language of holy things; And the giver of commandments Deserves a grammar of respectability As firm and as polished As his tablets of stone But to fellow mortals she speaks Creole The tongue of the markets and fields, The language of labrish, Su-su, proverbs and stories Hot-words, tracings and preckeh; It is the way to get Hard-ears pickney to listen And facety men to keep off; It is the tongue of belly laughs And sweet body action. And to Miss Ida it is no bother To laugh and suffer in one language And worship in another. Earl McKenzie, A tale of two tongues, In Cecile Gray, Bite in Stage 3, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1972, p. 18.




In an ESSAY of no more than 500 words, discuss: (a) The difference in the language in stanzas one and two Answer: The difference is language is made clear by the distinctive characteristics that each have with respect to pronunciation, lexicon, and syntax. The language in Standard One is Standard English and the language in Stanza two is a combination of Creole and Standard English. (b) The attitudes to English and Creole as revealed in the poem. Answer: That it is clear that the persona uses both English and Creole it is also clear that she also attach different attitudes to each. It is very clear that she see Standard English as the language of the Gods. She believes that only God is worthy enough for this language. Creole is the language of laughs and suffering. In that it is good enough to speak to all man but not to God. It is the tongue of markets and fields. Putting aside, but keeping in mind, how the persona views this language we can attach the attitudes to how it is view in general. English is viewed as a civilized language that people use in formal situations. People believe that it is the proper way of communicating. Creole is therefore an uncivilized way of speaking, it is the language of markets and fields. It is informal and uncivilized. (c) How a televised reading of this poem could enhance its meaning Answer: (a) We would see how the poet expresses himself as he changes from Stanza One to Stanza Two. Would Stanza One be calm and polished and stanza two sound facey and cosmic. (b) We will see the way the poet uses an pronounces the words, would he treat both languages in the same way which can helps us determining the attitude attached to both languages Total 25 marks


SECTION C MODULE 3- SPEAKING AND WRITING The questions in this Section tend to rely on a candidates ability to write and express ones self. As such it is important for one to understand that anything that has to do with composing a presentation or has to rely on ones opinions will not be answer ed. It is keen to know however that you will be directed as to how to approach it. 1. CAPE 2003 Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. You are a member of an environment protection group that is concerned about shipments of nuclear waste through Caribbean waters. Your group is trying to sensitize persons in the community to the potential threat, and persuade them to join a protest march. (a) Indicate an appropriate channel and medium that you would use for the above purpose. Compose your presentation. Answer: (i) One may use a written channel that will carry a medium such as the Gleaner- letter to the Editors OR a spoken channel where the medium may be a general meeting or a speech. (ii) Composing your presentation: In composing your presentation, first think about what you ought to write. The question mentions shipments of nuclear waste through Caribbean waters. Hence, introduce the listeners/ readers about such shipments? After that make sure that the readers are well informed: Where are they coming from? What are Nuclear wastes? How harmful can it be? How can it impact on the lives of the Caribbean (both people and animals)? Remember to be very persuasive: Use Persuasive techniques to win them over - Rhetorical Questions - Authoritative Sources or any Statistical Data- Are they any evidence of its impact on Caribbean Society. - The use of a formal Register Remember that you are in an exam and as such the examiner does not really expect you to know any real Scientist that knows about nuclear waste, hence it is safe to make it up: Example: According to James Smith, Researcher of Aquatic live in Caribbean, Nuclear waste is very dangerous. Who is James Smith? We dont know and we dont care. You are in an exam and the aim is to prove that someday in the future you can make a presentation. Be free to make up as many statistics and sources you want or need. Using these guides write your presentation:


(b) Write a paragraph explaining the appropriateness of your composition. Answer: The composition is very important as it brings to the listeners/readers the harms of nuclear waste in the Caribbean society. It is very persuasive and informative and uses a conversational tone. The tone is also very pleasant and the register very formal thus making it appeal to everyone. The readers are therefore made to understand the main point of my composition, and the overall purpose of my composition. Not only that, they would also act towards it and do something about it. Not everyones composition would be related to the a nswer above. Remember what you write is up to you and the way you organize it and thus present it would suggest its appropriateness. Total 25 marks 2. CAPE 2004 Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. Your community market has just been renovated and vendors and authorities are quite pleased with the results. However, at a management meeting the need for vendors to cooperate with the authorities to maintain the markets cleanliness has been raised. You have been approached to conduct a campaign to make vendors aware of their responsibilities. You are well aware that the subject matter must be handled in a delicate manner. Discuss the approach you would take in creating the campaign in terms of: (a) The communication challenges you would expect to find when targeting the vendors Answer: - Deciding on the best medium and channel - Understanding the best way to communicate with the vendors in a delicate manner. - What particular language should be used or considered to make it absolutely clear - How to make it very persuasive (b) The information that must be relayed, and the vocabulary and register you would consider appropriate Answer: Information that must be relayed: - The renovation of the market - The importance of this renovation - The cost of such a Renovation and therefore the need for it to be maintained - The responsibilities of the vendors - A brief idea of the consequences of them ignoring the warnings and their responsibilities Vocabulary: The Vocabulary should be quite simple and persuasive which should create seriousness in the message being said. The message should avoid using words that the vendors would not understand as this would cause confusion and loss of interest.

Register: The register should be very formal which means that it should appeal to everyone since they are strangers. (c) Any other organizational strategies, as well as visual approaches you would employ in your campaign. Answer: - The information should be very persuasive - Posters would be placed around the market reminding them of their responsibilities e.g. KEEP HERE CLEAN - There would be the monitoring of the facilities - Regular meetings would be organized - There would be the building of dumps around the market Total 25 marks

3. CAPE 2005 Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. Your countrys Board of Tourism intends to promote the country as a destination that offers cultural and business opportunities to visitors. Wealthy elite travelers from Europe and North America are to be targeted in this campaign. (a) Identity the medium you think would effectively promote the campaign. Answer: The best medium would be a televised advertisement (b) Write the presentation that the Board of Tourism could use to promote your country. Answer: In composing your presentation think about your tone, your audience and the register that is appropriate. Your tone must be pleasant and the register very formal Think about the special features of your country and what would make it appealing to tourists. The beaches, the attitude of the people, the unique blend of cultures in Jamaica Your message should be very persuasive and so there should be the use of Persuasive techniques. Include illustrations, Rhetorical Questions, Use loaded and emotive words

Using that as a guide: Compose your presentation: (c) Point out the strategies you would employ to enhance the presentation and explain why you would consider these appropriate. Total 25 marks 4. CAPE 2006 Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows.

You are a school counsellor who has been asked to make separate addresses to parents and guardians of teenagers aged 14 17, and to teenagers themselves. The address would be based on the sensitive subject of sexual activity and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (a) Identify and justify the difference in approach that you would use in your address to BOTH audiences. Your response should focus on your use of content, language and register. (b) Describe those strategies and visual aids that could be used to enhance your presentation to BOTH audiences. Total 25 marks

5. CAPE 2007 Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. You recently joined an advertising firm. You have been assigned to a team that must design an advertisement promoting a named vegetable product aimed at pre-teens and teenagers. You are aware that pre-teens and teenagers generally dislike vegetables of any sort. You are told that parents should also be considered part of your target audience. There is a bonus for the team that comes up with the best proposal. In ESSAY format, write a PROPOSAL for the advertisement that you will present to your teammates for consideration. Your proposal must include the following. (a) (b) (c) (d) The information about the product, including the name Language codes and register you would consider appropriate Visual presentation of the product The medium for presenting the advertisement Total 25 marks 6. CAPE 2008 Read the following scenario carefully and then answer the question that follows. Your Principal has invited you to deliver the feature for the annual graduation ceremony at your school/college, in which respect, tolerance and togetherness are emphasized. Your address should be directed to both graduates and parents. (a) In no more that 50 words, explain how you would use TWO verbal and TWO non-verbal elements to influence how the audience receives your message. (b) In no more than 300 words, write the feature address in which respect, tolerance and togetherness are emphasized. Total 25 marks


SECTION D CAPE 2003 SECTION A- GATHERING AND PROCESING INFORMATION Read the report below and then answer the question that follows. Roy is fifty years old. He witnesses a motor vehicle accident and gave this report to the police. I was on my way to church when I saw the car speeding at about 80 miles per hour. The driver lost control of the car and slammed into the Honda car which was heading in the opposite direction. Myself and two other passers-by assisted the driver, his wife and his two children from the car. We rushed then to the University Hospital.

1. As the investigation officer, you need more information about the accident. What THREE other question you might ask Roy. Answer: (a) At approximately what time did the accident occur? (b) How many passengers were in the Honda car? (c) Were there any other witnesses to this accident? (d) Was the other car speeding as well?

2. (a)Give one reason why Roy would be good source of information about the accident. Answer: Roy would be a good source as he witnesses, for himself, everything that had occurred; thus making him a primary source. (b)Suggest THREE other sources from whom the police could obtain information about the accident. Answer: - Drivers of each motor vehicle - Passengers of the motor vehicle - Other witness, if possible - Other motorists on the road 3. The police are collecting data on the road accident. (a) Select THREE facts from the above report that the police could add to their data base. Answer: (a) Speeding can cause road accidents (b) Driving beyond 70 miles per hours is likely to cause an accident (c) When individuals lose control of their car they usually slam into those going in the opposite direction (d) Road accidents normally require immediate medical assistance (e) The weight of a car is sometimes proportional to the degree of damages after the accident


(b) What TWO facts would the police NOT include in their data base? Answer: (a) They would not add the fact that Roy was going to church (b) Where the persons involved in the accident were going or why they were speeding. 4. The police statistician is writing a report on road accidents in that country. (a) Why can she NOT use the data from the accidents to draw general conclusion about road accidents? Answer: (a) It is not possible to use data about the accident as Roys estimation of the speed at which the car was going maybe deeply flawed and the police has to carry out the necessary investigations to certify Roys claims (b) Because this is only one accident and the factors which may have caused this accident might be different from those of other accidents. Therefore she has to have numerous cases from which after deep analysis general conclusion s can be made. (b) List TWO types of addition information the statistician might need to make generalized statements about accidents in that country Answer: (a) Is accidents linked to a specific time in the day (b) Does the weather or climatic patterns affects accidents

SECTION B- LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITY Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow


5. Identify TWO varying response to dialect expressed in the above scenario. Answer: (a) Dialect fuh we and Standard English for big-ups in society (b) Is me yu talking to so tak yuk talk 6. What relationship between social class and language is suggested in the scenario? Answer: It is suggests that it is only members of the upper class, that is the people who have wealth and education, who speaks Standard English and if one wishes to advance one must speak English well. Consequently, as one linguists puts it Creole is viewed as the language of the Markets and the fields and therefore only people from the low/ poor class uses it. 7. Describe FOUR characteristic of dialect which George and Vishnu could use to prove to Suzie that what they speak is in fact a language. Answer: All languages have the following characteristics and so the fact that dialect has them means that it is a language. These characteristics include: (a) Phonology (b) Semantics (c) Syntax (d) Lexicon 8. Fill in the blanks in the following table Language Papiamentu FRENCH English Creole SPANISH Territory ARUBA Martinique JAMAICA Cuba

9. (a) Explain the difference in the linguistic characteristic of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. Answer: Trinidad and Tobago has a heavy accent and they use the possessive pronouns shi where Jamaica uses ar e.g. Shi bag and ar bag. (b) Give TWO similarities in the linguistic characteristic of St Lucia and Dominica. Answer: (i) For most parts both St. Lucia and Dominica speaks the same language (ii) They both share the same phonology and grammar system

10. Recently, the keynote speaker at a Caribbean regional gathering opened his address with a welcome in French Creole. Many felt this way inappropriate because some persons were unable to understand his remarks. (a) Identify THREE Caribbean territories whose citizen would have no difficulty understanding the speakers welcome. Answer: - Guadeloupe, Haiti and Martinique (b) Identify TWO Caribbean territories whose citizen would NOT understand the speakers welcome Answer: - Cuba and Puerto Rico 11. Read the advertisement below and answer the questions that follow.

Identify TWO language strategies used in the advertisement above to attract the intended audience and discuss the extent to which you consider EACH strategy effective. Answer: (a) The use of Rhetorical question which captures the immediate attention of the readers. They acknowledge what the advertisement is about to say from a glance and they are interceded to continue reading. It thus allows it to be persuasive. (b) The writer uses catchy words and rhymes which makes a good theme and evokes interest. Because the words are appealing to the readers they are willing to continue reading.


Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Give TWO features of the vernacular used by Kevin and Chaka. Answer: - The copular construct - The omission of the last letters of the words (b) What THREE difficulties would Chaka and Kevin tend to experience in learning to speaking English Answer: - They would have problems with the pronunciation of words - The use of copular - Problems would come up with proper utilization of tenses and grammar 13. Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow.


Complete the following. SENDER MESSAGE MEDIUM FEEDBACK Jim Pick me up at the airport on June 20 text messaging (email)/written Take taxi. Will be in a meeting

14. You are studying at an overseas university and you have been asked to make a presentation entitled My Country. (a) Name TWO types of non-verbal communication, other than body language, that you can use as part of your presentation. Answer: (a) Dress/ Fashion (b) Artifacts such as a guitar (c) Accentuation (b) Give ONE reason why EACH type of non-verbal communication you named in 14 (a) may enhance your presentation. Answer: (a) One might want to dress himself in the national fabric of the country, bandana. This would sensitize the audience as to the national colours of the country (b) The use of artifacts would enhance the idea that the countrys music, that is, Reggae, is an important part of its heritage and identity (c) They can hear the distinct accent of the people 15. You have been asked to undertake a research project in your country. The data have been collected and is time to write your report. List FOUR features of language organization necessary to create a good written report. Answer: (a) The use of correct sentences (b) The use of proper paragraphs (c) Grammar and other of words (d) The choice of words and thus the vocabulary is necessary to create a good written report. 16. Interviews are being held for vacation attachments. Your best friend tells you that she did well in the interview even though nothing to that effect was actually stated. What THREE non-verbal clues from the interview may have led to her assumption? Answer: - Gestures of the interviewees e.g. a smile instead of a frown - Postures of the interviewee e.g. sitting up straight instead of leaning back which may suggest him/her being bore - Tone of voice of the interviewee e.g. pleasant as opposed to rude


CAPE 2005 MODULE 1- GATHERING AND PROCESSING INFORMATION Read the scenario below, then answer question1-2 A group of agriculture science students at Miller High School, which is located in a remote community, is doing research on the transportation problems faced by the small farmers in the community. 1. (a) (i) List TWO methods, other than a questionnaire, that would be suitable for gathering data for this research. Answer: (a) Interview (b) Observation (ii) State ONE strength and ONE weakness of EACH method listed in 1(a) above. Answer: Interview: Strength:- It allows the researcher to clarify, explain and justify the responses made Weakness:- Respondents may be bias towards the situation and thus the research may not be totally objective The Observation: SEE CAPE 2007 (b) Suggest TWO reasons why a questionnaire might NOT be suitable for collecting the data for this research. Answer: (a) Being in a remote area, the questionnaire may have a very low return rate (b) Quality of data is probably not as high as with alternative methods of data collection, such as personal interviewing. 2. (a) State THREE questions which the students might ask the farmers that would elicit valid data for this research. Answer: (a) How often are you in need of Transportation? (b) What transportation problems do you experience in the community? (c) What do you suggest should be done to help the transportation problems. (b) Name FOUR sources, other than the farmers themselves that could provide information on the transportation problem faced by the farmers in the community. Answer: (a) The parents of the students at the High School (b) The Transport authority within the region (c) Other people/residents who have similar problems (d) Students/ teachers at the School who use the transportation system

MODULE 2- LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITY Read Susans monologue below, then answer questions 3-4 Lord, mi Chile, every time mi go by Tantie, she does seh mi does talk too bad. She does say ah does chop up de words an dem and mix up de language too much. She does seh mi doesnt communicate right. Lord! Dem big words dere she expec mi to use. She does seh I must speak the standard language so that I may move up in society. An yu know, I was talking nice wid Merican accent an ting! 3. (a) Susan laments being told by Tantie that she does not communicate well. Give THREE examples of structure in Susans monologue to which Tantie would object. Answer: (a) The leaving off last letters of words such as expec instead of expect (b) Grammars such as she does she mi does talk bad. (c) The misspelling of words e.g. Chile instead of Child (d) Pluralization : de words an dem (b) State FOUR reasons why Tantie sees the standard language as good language. Answer: (a) This is what society tells her as Susan puts it speak the standard language so that I may move up in society. Tantie believes that standard languages are the appropriate way to speak as it is enforced in society. (b) She may be unaware of the fact that Creole is a language. (c) Our History has given details of plantation slavery where planters forced their languages onto the slaves. It is this retention in Caribbean people that makes us think that standard English is good languages (d) Education enforces the use of standard languages instead of Creole 4. (a) State four arguments you would use to convince Tantie that what Susan is speaking is a language. Answer: (a) Creole is used as a means of communication thus serving the purpose of languages (b) It has its own grammar (c) It has its own phonology (d) It has similar characteristics as that of standard languages i.e. symbolic, arbitrary etc (e) It has its lexicon (b) Describe how history has influenced the language situation in a named territory you have studied. Answer: Jamaica It is evident that the way we speak in Jamaica is influenced by our African heritage as well as our European heritage. Infact it has been a merging of both languages. Caribbean Slaves were forced on the plantation to abandon their languages and take up that of Europeans masters. African Retention of their previous languages made it difficult and so they simply merged such

languages thus creating Jamaican Creole. We still use the Standard English as the main means of communication especially in the schools and the workplace. 5. Read the scenario below, then answer the questions that follow. In the Caribbean, it is normal for politicians to use Creole during election campaign when they move from district to district. However, when they become government ministries, they typically make their speeches in the standard language. (a) Give two reason why a political might use the two languages varieties. Answer: - Being a politician means that he/ she has to make speeches and be public speakers at time hence standard English is imperative in a formal situation - Using Creole allows for easier understanding by the people in society, it creates an idea that the politician is just a simply human as the rest of citizens and also adds to maintain culture among the people: this is who we are and what we are proud of (b) Identify THREE other groups of person who use the two different varieties in their spoken language. Answer: - Doctors - Teachers - Entertainers e.g. comedians (c) For any ONE of the groups identified in 5 (b) (i) above, state the context in which each of the two language varieties may be used. Answer: - Teachers use the Creole in class activities such as drama presentation to make it more cosmic and interesting to the students - Teachers use the Standard English when delivering a speech at a school function or when teacher a class. 6. Read the scenario illustrating below, then answer the questions that follow.


(a) In advising Paul against using too much Patios in the valedictory address, what point is Ron making about language and setting . Answer: Ron is indicating that Patois is not an acceptable language to be used at that particular setting; the graduation is a formal rather than informal occasion. (b) What FOUR technological devices could Paul use to enhance his presentation? Answer: (a) A Microphone (b) Tape Recorder (c) The use of a projector (d) The use of the computer (ii) Explain how ONE device you identified in 6 (b) above could enhance Pauls presentation. Answer: - The microphone allows for greater projection without the speaker straining his/her voice for listeners to hear. - He/she can record their voice on the tape recorder so as to notice where they are mispronouncing, or to determine the best tone. SECTION C - SPEAKING AND WRITING Consider the situation below, then answer the questions that follow. The Sixth-form Association is newly-formed organization with a small membership. The members wish to embark on recruitment message. 7. (a) List THREE aspect of the communication process that the member should consider before they begin to create their recruitment message. Answer: (a) The conceptualization of the message (b) The medium of communication (c) The effectiveness of the mode of sending message

(b) Select TWO of the aspect that you have listed in 7(a) above, and explain the significant of EACH. Answer: - The medium of the communication is necessary as one wants to reach a wide-cross section of people; hence, one has to choose a medium that will get the message across to a large majority of people. - One must consider what is going to be in the message. What would appeal to peopleThis is the significance of the conceptualization of the message. This is what is going to start the communication process and allows a feedback


8. (a) Indentify THREE means by which the members of the six-Form Association can convey their massage effectively. Answer: (a) Television broadcasts (b) Notices i.e. fliers, pamphlets, posters (c) Speech presentations (d) Radio Broadcastings (b) Select TWO of the means that you have identified in 8(a) above, 9and explain why EACH can be used to convey the message effectively. Answer: (a) Television broadcasts are effective media as it allows one to communicate with a larger audience and the repeated advertisements make it more possible for viewers to get a chance to hear/see the message (b) Speech presentations are effective as it allow for more personalized interaction with ones audience and this will prompt them to feel as if they can be a part of the solution. 9. (a) List FOUR contexts of communication that may be deemed suitable for the six-form Associations recruitment drive. Answer: (b) Choose ONE of the contexts you listed in 9(a) above and give TWO reasons for its suitability. Answer:

10. Read the scenario illustrated below, then answer the questions that follow.


(a) Suggest TWO reasons why Nigel did NOT receive the message clearly. Answer: - Difference in meaning of words. In this scenario, the difference is the meaning of prune - Difference in languages as Nigel used Creole and Janice uses Standard English (b) List FOUR elements in the communication process implied in the scenario above. Answer: (a) Message (b) Sender (c) Receiver (d) Feedback CAPE 2007 MODULE 1-GATHERING AND PROCESSING INFORMATION Read the text below, then answer the question that follows. There has been a high failure rate in CAPE communication studies at a school particular nation over the past five years. A university student is conducting research to determine the factors responsible for the high failure rate. 1 (a) State THREE methods of data collection that would be MOST suitable for the research. (3 marks) Answer: Observation; Interviews; Questionnaires (b)State ONE strength and ONE weakness of ONE of the methods identified at 1(a) above. (2 marks) Answer: Observation Strength: It allows for flexibility and the researcher gives the true picture of the activity being observed Weakness: There may be little objectivity in the researchers finding as the outcome might be affected by the researchers bias. (c) List THREE pieces of data that would be valuable to the researcher in determining the research findings. (3 marks) Answer: (a) The ways in which the teachers teaches the subject (b) The relationship between teachers and students in the classroom (c) The general performance of the students in the classroom prior to the examination 2. (a) Name THREE sources from which the researcher could collect data for the research. (3 marks) Answer: (a) The Internet e.g. C.X.C reports and evaluation on examinations (b) The students who take the examination

(c) The teachers who teach the subject (b) Suggest TWO possible findings the researcher might arrive at. (2 marks) Answer: (a) Students fail communication studies because of lack of suitable resources in school. (b) There is little preparation among students who take the examination. (c) State TWO reasons why the findings of this research might not be applicable to all schools in the nation. (2 marks) Answer: (a) Not all school are seeing a high failure rate in CAPE Communication Studies (b) In many cases, students fail to perform well because of a plethora of reasons, what may be responsible in one school is not necessary the responsible in another Total 15 marks Module 2- LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITY 3. The following statement was made by a linguist from the University of the West Indies during a TV programme. Creole is a highly structured vehicle of communication that reflects history of its different users. (a) Give TWO examples of Creole vocabulary and TWO examples of Creole grammar. VOCABULARY Answer: (i) Ignorant- angry, miserable (ii) Craven- greedy (iii) Waiter- tray (iv) Bully- pregnant GRAMMAR Answer: (i) Pluralization: de books dem; the man dem (ii) Pronouns : mi, yu, im, har, dat, them, wi (b) Briefly comment on the origin of EACH of the Creole vocabulary and grammar items given in 3 (a) Answer: - Vocabulary: Our vocabulary derived from the English vocabulary and because of African Retention our vocabulary are comes off as a combination of the two - Grammar: African Retention in Caribbean people, a mixture of the lexicon and grammar from the plantation masters and the slaves (Inter-culturation and Acculturation)


4. Read the dialogue below and answer the questions that follow: Joseph: I believe the greatest gift weve got from slavery experience is the English Language

George: Hum! You think so? I think its Creole Joseph: What? Creole? What can you really do With Creole? You cant write laws or exams or anything like that! George: But certainly you can. You can produce formal writing in Creole. After all Creole is symbolic as English! (a) Identify TWO Differing attitudes to Creole expressed in a dialogue above. (2 marks) Answer: (a) Respect and appreciation for George (b) Degrading and uncivilized for Joseph

(b) Stat FOUR characteristics of language, other than its symbolism, that Creole and English. (4 marks) Answer: (a) Language are very systematic (b) Both are dynamic as new words and pronunciation are added thus changing it constantly (c) Both are non- instinctive (d) Arbitrary in nature (c) State ONE advantage of students writing their examination in Creole. (1 marks) Answer: It highlights a special part of their culture; it shows that it is a language and it can be used as a means of communication 5. (a) you are about to open your own small business. List TWO pieces of technology equipment, other than a desktop computer, that you would purchase for this business. Explain how EACH could enhance the management of your business. (4 marks) Answer: (a) The Telephone: leads to better communication and effectiveness in the workplace (b) Fax Machine: Quick means of communication, very inexpensive to send effectiveness and it allows for effectiveness (c) State TWO effects that computer technology has had on language. Give ONE examples of EACH effect. (4 marks) Answer: (a) Due to computer technology there is more wider recognition to different languages for example, the internet has much information about these languages


(b) Due to computer technology, languages has become more dynamic- The Internet merges different languages together thus creating changes 6. (A) Two members of the youth group in community have been invited to a regional youth camp to be held in another territory. There will be tours and group members will be expected to take part in outreach programmers. State THREE areas of differences with respect to language that young people from your territory may experience at his regional camp. (3 marks) Answer: (a) The phonology used in different territories tend to differ- the accent for Jamaican and Trinidadian has a marked difference (b) The Vocabulary may differ (c) Language is symbolic: what one people attach to a certain word may not be how one sees it (b) Representatives from each territory have been asked to portray some aspect of their culture to be showcased at a Culturama show. State FOUR means by which your representatives may showcase their culture. (4 marks) Answer: (a) Their costumes (b) The bringing of props e.g. national dress, food (c) Performing music- Reggae (d) Dancing: new dances are created in Jamaica daily Total 30 Marks

MODULE 3-SPEAKING AND WRITING 7. Consider the situation below, then answer question 7and 8 You are a part-time employee at a local hotel that is about to embark on a Green the scene campaign. You have been asked to inform staff members of this new venture.

(a) Fill in the missing links in the communication process you must utilize to achieve your goal.(3 marks)


Answer: 2- Sender 4- Receiver 6- Feedback (b) State THREE reasons why number 6 in the diagram above is an important part of this communication process. (3 marks) Answer: (a) Without any feedback then communication has not taken place (b) A feedback can allow the sender to better explain and re-create what was expressed at first (c) Feedbacks are necessary for the starting of a new communication cycle (c) State TWO different channels that can help you to convey your messages effectively. Answer: (a) A speech (b) Using windows one point that has a visual channel 8. (a) List FOUR non-verbal communication behaviors that you could use to indicate displeasure with actions of staff that threaten the Green the Scene campaign. Answer: (a) The Use of Signs which indicates displeasure (b) Pictures illustrating the campaign (c) Gestures which support the campaign (d) The use of specific words or tones during meetings (b)The success of the Green the Scene campaign has attention of a national environmental Group Answer: (a) Educating these hotels on the importance of the campaign (b) Creating advertisement that support the campaign (c) Helping to sponsor initial stages in the campaign which would encourage them to do the rest 9. Your Mathematics class has been assigned a new teacher. (a) State TWO non-verbal examples of communication you may observe that hint that he/she is nervous Answer: - The tone of his or her voice - The gestures made during the lesson or the way in which he/she exporess themselves - Excess sweating (b) State THREE observations about his/her speech which may confirm nervousness Answer: (a) Repetition of words

(b) Stuttering on simply words (c) Trembling in the voice (c) State TWO examples of non-verbal communication behavior that your classmates might use to encourage the new teacher. Answer: - Gestures which entails excitement and motivations - Paying attention to him, which implies encouragement 10. You see the following advertisement in your local newspaper and you decide to enter.


(a) State TWO oral and TWO written forms that your entry may take ORAL Answer: - Using Tape Recorder - Video Recording WRITTEN Answer: - E- mail message - Mailed Letter (b) State FOUR language competencies that you must demonstrate in order to impress the judges. Answer:


PRACTISE CAPE 2004- GOOD LUCK Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow.
Recently, several media reports have suggested that teenager spend too much time watching television and, consequently, neglect other important activities. A group of Sixth-Form students at McIntosh high School in a Caribbean country has been assigned by their coordinator to research this phenomenon as it relates to their school.

1. (a) Identify TWO methods that the students could use to gather data for their research. (b) For ONE of the methods identify in (a) above, state ONE advantages and ONE disadvantage. (c) Which THREE of the following activities would the students need to do in order to conduct their research? i. ii. iii. iv. v. Choose a sample that is representative of the school population. Interview parent, teacher, and the principal, but not students. Identify other important activities. Find out if watching television prevents students from participating in other important activities. Find out the percentage of students who watch black entertainment television (BET) and Music television (MTV).

2. Two of the students are overheard discussing sources to be use for the research. Paul: I say that we should forget that article from The Gazette and concentrate instead on parents as a source. Beryl: No way! TheyGazettearticle, Are our teen watching too much television? is a much better source. (a) Explain how EACH of the sources mentioned in the dialogue above could be used in the research. (b) Name TWO other sources from which the students may collect data for the research (c) If the article in The Gazette were written about teenagers in a non-Caribbean country, how appropriate would it be use it in the research on McIntosh High School? Read the following extract from a telephone conversation and answer question 3-4. Parent: I would like to know why you are teaching my daughter Creole. She spent last studying a Creole poem Teacher: madam, I am not teaching Creole. Rather Im exposing your daughter to different language varieties and their functions in society. Parent: Rubbish! Dont waste my childs time Creole. She is already struggling with English, and the Creole makes it harder. She needs to get somewhere in life. We tax payer pay you to teach English


3. (a) The teacher in the extract makes reference to the function of different language varieties. List TWO social functions of EACH of the following languages in the Englishspeaking Caribbean. (b) Suggest TWO reasons why the parents feel that the use of Creole in school is a waste of her daughters time. (c) The parent suggest that Standard English helps one to get ahead in life In what Specific ways might this be possible? 4. (a) Identify FOUR Creole structures that is likely to present when the Creole speaker attempts to use Standard English. (b) Give FOUR reasons in support of the official use of Creole in instruction. 5. Read the dialogue below and answer the questions that follow. Terry and Mavis are in a store in New York. Mavis: Shhh. Doh talk too loud. Ah doh wants dem people to know we come from de West Indies Terry: That is why you should a gone to school and learn to speak good English Mavis: True, but whether we talk good English or not, dem could still recognize us. Terry: Ah boy, we wouldnt have this problem if it wasnt for the stupid slave trade. Mavis: how I talk not a problem for me, yuh know. Is jus because dem people ask too much question and behave like what we talking are not English. (a) State TWO features of the speech of Mavis and Terry that identify them as West Indians. (b) State TWO ways in which the slave trade has impacted on the language situation in the Caribbean. (c) The statement how I talk not a problem for me, yuh know suggest that Mavis has pride in her language. State THREE arguments that she might use to justify that pride. 6. (a) Meena has opted to open a nursery to care for three-to four years old. List TWO audiovisual aids she might use to help teach these children. (b) State ONE way in which audio- visual aid listed in 6(a) above, could be used to improve her instruction (c) List TWO modern pieces of communication equipment that would help in the overall management of the non-instructional side of the nursery. (d) State ONE way in which ONE piece of equipment identified in 6(c) above could be utilized by Meena.


7. The expression put ones foot in ones mouth is often used to point out a speaker thoughtless comment. You are tired of your friends tendency to do this and decide to discuss the process of communication as a means of preventing this from happening. State FOUR elements in the communication process that you would need to define for your friend. Write the explanation you would give your friend on the importance of the following in light of his/her tendency to make thoughtless comments. 8 Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow. You walk into a group of student who are involved in a conversation. They continue speaking but you begin to feel unwelcome. (a) Suggest THREE non-verbal cues that may alert you to the fact that you are unwelcome in the group. (b) Write statement that would have the same effect on you as the non-verbal cues. (c) State TWO ways, one verbal and other non-verbal, in which the group could make you feel welcome. 9. Your government has embarked on a campaign to alert the public about the relationship between disposal of plastic containers and the spread of the dengue fever. Your classmates feel that the message is not targeting the primary school. (a) Suggest FOUR suitable ways in which a campaign may be organized in order to reach the primary school children. (b) Choose TWO of the ways suggested in 9(a) above and give TWO reasons for the suitability of EACH. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow. Mr. President, other member of the board. Good evening and thank you for giving me this opportunity to address you on your golden anniversary-fifty years of providing service to your community. I feel a great sense of admiration for your vision and steadfastness over the year. (a) Identify the form of communication suggested by the extract. (b) Give THREE reasons to justify your answer to 10(a) above. (c) Identify ONE situation in which EACH of the following might be selected as the primary means of communication.