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International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development

Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149



Page 475

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SELF COMPACTING
CONCRETE (SCC) USING SILICAFUME
A. Navaneethakrishnan
#1
, V.M.Shanthi
#2

#1 P.G. student, Department of Civil Engineering,
Government College of Technology, Coimbatore,
#2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Government College of Technology, Coimbatore,
ABSTRACT
Construction of durable concrete structures requires skilled labor for placing and
compacting concrete. Therefore, there is a need to render the durability of the concrete structures
to be independent of the quality of the construction worker. For the above, Self Compacting
Concrete is an obvious answer. The proposed experimental program is aimed to evaluate
performance of SCC by varying the percentage of silica fumes as replacement of cement. An
attempt has been made to study the fresh and hardened properties of Self Compacting concrete
with silica fume as a mineral admixture. A simple mix design for SCC proposed by Nan su et al.,
is used for fixing the trial mix. The trial mix which satisfies the fresh concrete properties as per
EFNARC guidelines and the one which gives maximum compressive strength is used in the
present work. Cement is replaced with various percentage of Silica fume (0%, 10%, 15% and
20%). Self Compacting Concrete with 15% silica fume showed better results when compared to
other replacements. Hence Silica fume can be effectively used for cement replacement.
Keywords: Self compacting concrete, Silica fume, EFNARC Guidelines, Compressive strength
Corresponding Author: A. Navaneethakrishnan
#


INTRODUCTION
Making concrete structures without vibration have been done in the past. Mass concrete
and shaft concrete can be successfully placed without vibration. But the above concrete are
generally of lower strength and difficult to obtain consistent quality. European Federation of
natural trade associations representing producers and applicators of specialist building products
(EFNARC) [1, 2]has drawn up specification and guidelines for Self compacting concrete to
provide a framework for design and use of high quality SCC, during 2002.
REVIEW OF LITERATURES
NAN SU et al (2001) [3] carried out an investigation on a simple mix design for Self
Compacting concrete. Compared to the method developed by the Japanese Ready-Mixed
Concrete Association (JRMCA), this method is simpler, easier for implementation and less time-
consuming, requires a smaller amount of binders and saves cost. Zoran Grdic et al (2008) [4]
studied the properties of self compacting concrete with different types of additives and this work
presents the properties of self compacting concrete, mixed with different types of additives:
flyash, silica fume, hydraulic lime and a mixture of flyash and hydraulic lime. C. Selvamony et
International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 476

al [5] in his Investigations on Self Compacted Self Curing Concrete using Lime stone powder
and Clinkers indicated the use of silica fume in Concrete significantly increased the dosage of
superplasticiser (SP). Silica fume can better reducing effect on total water absorption while
quarry dust and lime powder will not have the same effect, at 28 days. Kazumasa Ozawa [6]
carried out a research on the Development of Self compacting concrete.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The experimental procedure consists of fixing the optimum mix for SCC taking into
account the acceptance criteria for SCC as per EFNARC Guidelines. The mix ratio is found by
using the simple mix design method proposed by Nan su et al, The cement is replaced with 10%,
15% and 20% for the optimum mix and the fresh and hardened concrete properties are to be
studied [7]. Total of 32 specimens were cast and tested for compressive strength, horizontal
stress and modulus of rupture.

MATERIALS USED IN THE INVESTIGATION

The cement used in this work was Ordinary Portland Cement. The specific gravity of
cement was 3.15. The initial and final setting times were found as 30 and 346 min, respectively.
Fine aggregate used was river sand passing through IS sieve 4.75 mm obtained from a local
source [8]. The specific gravity of sand was found to be 2.63.The coarse aggregates which
passed through 12mm sieve but retained on 6mm sieve were used for the self compacting
concrete mix. The specific gravity of Coarse Aggregate was 2.73. As mineral admixture Micro
Silica was used in the present work. Cement is replaced with silica fume by 10%, 15% and 20%
by weight of cement. To improve the workability of the concrete Conplast SP430 (2% by weight
of cementitious material had been usedTo make the concrete as more workable with self
compacting character, chemical admixtures Viscosity Modifying Agent (VMA) Glenium
stream 2 of 0.5 % by weight of cementitious material were added.

4.2 MIX DESIGN FOR SCC
Aggregate size = 12.5 mm

Sp. Gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.766

Bulk density of loose coarse aggregate = 1309.62 kg/m3
Sp. Gravity of fine aggregate = 2.483

Bulk density of loose fine aggregate = 1040.8 kg/m3
Sp. Gravity of cement = 3.15

Volume ratio of fine aggregate = 54 %

Volume ratio of coarse aggregate = 46 %

SP USED naphthalene- based sulfonates
SP. Gravity = 1.064

Air content in SCC = 2 %
Design Strength of SCC = 50.9 N/mm2



International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 477

Step 1: Determination of Coarse and fine
aggregate
Assumed packing factor (PF) = 1.2


Amount of fine aggregate needed per unit
volume of SCC, Ws
= PF * WsL * S/a


= 675 kg/m3

Amount of coarse aggregate needed per unit
volume of SCC, Wg
= PF * WgL *(1- S/a)


= 723 kg/m3
Step 2: Determination of cement content




Assuming each kg of cement can provide a
compressive strength of in 28 days
= 0.11 N/mm2

Amount of cement required per unit volume
of SCC
= f'c/20 kg/m3


= 485 kg/m3
Step 3: Determination of mixing water content required by cement

Taking Water/cement ratio = 0.32


Amount of water needed
= 156 kg/m3

Step 4: Mix Proportions




Cement
= 485 kg/m3
1
Fine Aggregate = 675 kg/m3 1.39
Coarse Aggregate = 723 kg/m3 1.49
Super plasticizers SP = 9.7 kg/m3 0.02
Water = 156 kg/m3 0.32


TRIAL MIX

Table 1. Trial Mix for SCC
S.NO
MIX
RATIO
SLUMP
FLOW
SP VMA
V -
FUNNEL
REMARKS
( 650 800
mm )
(6 - 12sec)
1 1:0.97:1.9 320 1.00% 0.23% No flow Not satisfied
2 1:0.97:1.9 432 1.00% 0.23% No flow Segregation
3 1:1.2:1.7 510 1.00% 0.23% No flow Not satisfied
4 1:1.3:1.6 553 1.00% 0.23% 32 Not satisfied
5 1:1.4:1.5 630 1.00% 0.23% 17 V-Funnel not satisfied
6 1:1.4:1.5 720 2.00% 0.50% 9 SATISFIED

International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 478

By varying the volume ratio of fine and coarse aggregate in the mix design, several trial mixes
were made and the one satisfying the fresh concrete properties as per EFNARC guidelines[1, 2]
is selected as an optimum mix. Table 1 shows the trial mixes made and their fresh concrete
properties and Figure 1 shows the workability tests [9]. Table 2 shows the fresh concrete
properties for the optimum mix M6
Table 2. Fresh Concrete Properties for SCC
ID
SLUMP FLOW (650
800 mm)
V -
FUNNEL
J RING L- BOX
( 6 - 12sec) (0 10 mm) (h2/h1 = 0.8 1.0)
SCC 720 7 2 0.97
SCC_SF10% 680 9 4 0.94
SCC_SF15% 675 10 7 0.86
SCC_SF20% 654 11 8 0.84

HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES

The hardened concrete properties such as average cube compressive strength, splitting tensile
Strength and Flexural strengths were found for the optimum mix (SCC) and for SCC with 10%,
15% and 20% replacement of cement with Silica fume. The results were tabulated in table 3, 4
and 5.
Table 3: Average Cube Compressive Strength
DAYS 7
th
day (N/mm
2
) 28
th
day (N/mm
2
)
SCC 22.44 43.86
SCC_SF10% 27.06 46.93
SCC_SF15% 30.04 50.49
SCC_SF20% 18.88 36.88


Table 4: Splitting Tensile Strength Test

ID Horizontal Stress (N/mm
2
)
SCC 2.567
SCC_SF10% 2.887
SCC_SF15% 2.983
SCC_SF20% 2.921


International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 479

Table 5: Flexural Strength Test

ID Modulus of rupture (N/mm
2
)
SCC 2.321
SCC_SF10% 2.734
SCC_SF15% 2.876
SCC_SF20% 2.632

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Several trial mixes are prepared by changing the volume ratio of fine and coarse
aggregate and Mix M6 (1:1.4:1.5) which satisfies the fresh concrete properties as per
EFNARC guidelines is selected for control concrete.
Compared to the control concrete, the cube compressive strength for 7
th
day increased by
21% and 34% when cement is replaced by 10 % and 15% of silica fume respectively as
shown in Figure 3.
When 20% silica fume is replaced for cement, there in a decrease in average cube
compressive strength by 16% in comparison with the control concrete.
Whereas the average cube compressive strength increased by 7% for SCC_SF10%, 15%
for SCC_SF15% and decreased by 16% for SCC_SF20% when compared with SCC.
In comparison with SCC, the horizontal stress increased by 12% and 3% for
SCC_SF10% and SCC_SF15% and reduced by 2% for SCC_SF20% as shown in figure
4.
Modulus of Rupture, found using Flexural test is increased by 18% for SCC_SF10%, 5%
for SCC_SF15% and decreased by 8% for SCC_SF20% when compared with SCC as
shown in figure 5.

(a)Slump flow test (b) V-Funnel test
International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 480


(c) J-Ring test (d) L- Box test
Figure 1: Workability Tests

Figure 2: Cube Compression Test
CONCLUSION
In the present experimental study on Self Compacting concrete using silica fume, 32 specimens
were tested and the following conclusions are formed from the experimental investigation.
Increase in percentage of Silica fume (10%, 15% and 20%) reduces the flow of concrete.
International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 481

SCC with 15% replacement of cement with Silica fume showed good results both in
compression and tension.
From the experimental investigation it is clear that Cement can be replaced with 15%
Silica fume effectively in SCC, thereby reducing the consumption of cement, which in
turn reduces the cost.

Fig 3: Average Cube Compressive Strength

Fig 4: Splitting Tensile Strength
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
SCC SCC_SF10% SCC_SF15% SCC_SF20%
A
V
E
R
A
G
E

C
U
B
E

C
O
M
P
R
E
S
S
I
V
E

S
T
R
E
N
G
T
H

(
N
/
m
m
2
)
7th day
28th day
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
SCC SCC_SF10% SCC_SF15% SCC_SF20%
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

S
t
r
e
s
s

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development
Issue 2, Vol.4 (May 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

Page 482


Fig 5: Modulus of Rupture

REFERENCE

[1] The Europian Guidelines For Self-Compacting Concrete EFNARC, May 2002.

[2] The Europian Guidelines For Self-Compacting Concrete EFNARC, May 2005.

[3] Nan su, Kung-chung Hsu, His-wen chai, A simple mix design method for Self-
compacting concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, volume 3, issue 2, pages 1799-
1807, December 2001.

[4] Grdic Zoran,Despotovic Iva, Toplicic-curcie Gordana, Properties of self-compacting
concrete with different types of additives, Architecture and Civil engineering, Volume 6,
Issue 2, pages: 173-177, 2008.

[5] C. Selvamony, M. S. Ravikumar, S., U. Kannan

and S. Basil Gnanappa, Investigations
on Self Compacted Self Curing Concrete using Lime stone powder and
Clinkers,APRN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 5, No. 3, march
2010.

[6] Kazumasa Ozawa, Development of Self compacting concrete, EASEC-2, Vol1.

[7] BIS 1959. IS 516-1959(reaffirmed 1999), Methods of Tests for Strength of
concrete,Bureau of IndianStandards, New Delhi.

[8] BIS 1970 IS 383-1970 (reaffirmed 1997), Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates
from Natural Sources for Concrete, New Delhi.

[9] Neville AM,Brooks JJ. Concrete Technology, Malasia: Pearson Education As Pte Ltd, PP
(CTP);2008.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
SCC SCC_SF10% SCC_SF15% SCC_SF20%
M
o
d
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u
s

o
f

R
u
p
t
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