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United Nations Global Compacts Ten Principles 1. Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and 2. Make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses. 3. Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; 4. The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor; 5. The effective abolition of child labor; and 6. The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation 7. Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges 8. Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and 9. Encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. 10.Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.

Our cross country pipeline network makes us next-door neighbor to many remote and underprivileged communities. PARCO has an extensive Schools & Clinics Support Program which aims at providing basic education and health facilities to these communities. Under this program, PARCO has provided assistance to 62 institutions along our pipeline and refinery across Pakistan. These institutions have been provided assistance in developing infrastructure, civil works, procurement of equipment, etc to help them sustain their operations of providing basic health and education. Out of 62 institutions, 48 are schools where more than 11,000 children are receiving education. PARCO`s assistance to these institutions has raised the communities` interest to enroll their children in these refurbished and well-maintained schools diverting them from child labor to primary education, raising the literacy rate. PARCO has built three schools in partnership with The Citizens Foundation a reputable NGO working in the area of imparting quality education at Yousuf Goth, Karachi and Qasba Gujrat, near PARCO Mid-Country Refinery. These schools employ all female staff belonging to the nearby communities. The presences of these campuses have generated employment for local women to earn a decent living. Amongst the above mentioned three campuses, the PARCOTCF Campus I at Karachi and Campus II at Qasba Gujrat offers education till Grade V and are operating at full capacity. During August 2012, the Company extended academic block of PARCO-TCF Primary Campus II to accommodate 180 students in addition to already existing 180 students at a cost of Rs 5.7 million. The Company built the third campus, a secondary school in Qasba Gujrat which commenced classes in April 2011. The total cost of the project was Rs 21 million with an additional cost of Rs. 2.1 million for operational expenses. All PARCO-TCF campuses are built in under-privileged communities and impart quality education to around 833 children.

To support TCFs benevolent cause, i.e. education for everyone, PARCO joined hands with TCF and spo nsored its fund raising walk ILMATHON whereby PARCORIANS actively participated with dedication. PARCO partnered with Teachers Resource Center (TRC) a non-profit, non-government organization committed to improving and reforming the standards of education in Pakistan. The TRC trainers visited at all stations and terminals and trained the government school teachers on various topics pertaining to developing a creative learning environment in the classrooms. A total number of six sessions were conducted of 9 hours each where more than 150 school teachers were trained. The initiative is being continued with more trainings during FY 201314. During 2010, PARCO along with World Wildlife Fund Pakistan (WWF-P) conducted Spellathon Project in schools that are being supported by PARCO. Spellathon is a fun educational activity for raising the awareness of students on key environmental challenges, endangered species, the importance of nature and also the unique biodiversity of Pakistan etc. Spellathon is being conducted by WWF Pakistan for the past 18 years, but was only limited to private English medium schools. It was the first time that PARCO took this activity to more than 34 Government schools that are being supported by PARCO under its Schools & Clinics Program. Besides, it was also the first time that Spellathon was conducted in our national language Urdu, to make it more understandable to around 10,000 students receiving education in these 34 Government Urdu medium schools. PARCO offered 100 percent scholarships for 4 years program of two students at the Sargodhian Spirit Trust School in Sargodha. PARCO in partnership with National Commission for Human Development (NCHD) an NGO working in rural areas for education and health - and has supported various Literacy Centers in different villages near Mid-Country Refinery at Qasba Gujrat. This initiative has helped 500 uneducated women in improving their living standards, hygiene and health. These women are taught to read, write and learn the basics of mathematics within five months. After this program, these educated women are able to understand their childrens need for education and are motivating them to pursue further education. The women are also able to handle their daily chores with a sane mind. PARCO also supports research, conferences, trade fairs, workshops and other events of educational institutions. We also provide technical equipment for labs of engineering institutions. PARCO has donated four gas turbines to the Mechanical Engineering Departments of four engineering universities of Pakistan i.e. NED University-Karachi, University of Engineering and Technology-Lahore, Mehran University-Jamshoro, Bahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultan. These turbines are now being utilized by the universities to provide hands-on training to the engineering students. During the past one year, PARCO has supported 19 Vocational Training Centers at various rural and urban areas at a cost of Rs 10 million, where more than 2,000 people are being trained every year.

PARCOs Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) at Qasba Gujrat is surrounded by many underprivileged communities, who are deprived of the basic education and health facilities. PARCO operates a Community Welfare Clinic in order to provide basic health facilities to the domestic workers working at the Mid-Country Refinery (MCR), their families and residents of nearby areas. The clinic treats approximately 3,000 patients annually. Free Eye camps are conducted every year in partnership with NGO`s specializing in eye care for communities around MCR. A Mobile Clinic van regularly visits the rural areas near Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) at Qasba Gujrat Muzaffargarh to provide free-of-charge treatment and medicines. During 2010 floods, a total number of 7,300 flood affectees were treated at Medical Camps organized by PARCO.

Under the umbrella of schools and clinics support program, PARCO has supported several Basic and Rural Health Centers based in small villages nearby PARCO cross-country pipeline and Stations and Terminals. These clinics are providing basic healthcare to the local communities within their villages. As a result, community members are no longer required to travel for long hours to the cities for basic treatment. PARCO has made philanthropic contributions during the past several years to various reputed hospitals managed by NGOs, helping the underprivileged citizens through free medical care. The amount was utilized by the hospitals to acquire critical equipment needed in healthcare.

All PARCO drivers are provided training to comply with Road Safety Rules, Pakistan Traffic Code, etc. PARCO ensures that all its employees and staff of Service Providers practice Road Safety regulations and precautions as responsible citizens. Our HSE department conducts monthly Road Safety trainings. PARCO joined hands with National Highways and Motorway Police (NH&MP) to run campaigns on Road Safety where a booklet by the name of Safar Asaan in Urdu language, was distributed on national highways to motorists. In this Road Safety project, PARCO assisted NH&MP by printing 20,000 safety booklets. The booklets were distributed in areas that are proximal to PARCO installations and stations, so that our adjoining communities are aware of PARCOs initiative in safe driving.

Click here to view PDF version of the booklet


At PARCO offices, we discourage late sittings and encourage our staff to complete work during office hours. This helps employees to spend quality time with their families and pursue a balanced work-life pattern. In-house facilities for proper work-life balance of our employees have been provided e.g. Auditorium for movies and major events, Bowling Alleys, an Officers Club with gymnasium, squash and tennis courts, swimming pools, shopping centers, sports grounds (Flood Lit Stadium), hospital are all part of facilities for the employees and their families at the Mid-Country Refinery to enhance employee satisfaction. Sports events like Cricket, Volley Ball, Swimming, Water Polo, Badminton, Table-Tennis and other tournaments; Sports Gala, etc are organized in order to keep employees physically fit and active. The company organizes regular inter-station cricket tournaments which are held at the PARCO Mid-Country Refinery and various Stations and Terminals. PARCO supports education of the children of its employees, and has established a special fund for this purpose. Scholarships and educational support is also provided to staff. The School at PARCO`s Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) Housing Complex provides subsidized education to the employees` children till pre-university level. The School also has a board which includes PARCO management and parents of children.

Ibn-e-Sina Hospital at Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) ensures timely medical assistance to the employees and their families posted at the Refinery in Qasba Gujrat which is in a remote area. PARCO sponsors 5 Non-Management Staff and 2 Management Staff for Hajj (Holy Pilgrimage) annually. PARCO provides dowry grant for the daughters of Non Management staff to meet their financial difficulties. The Company also provides funeral assistance.


Crude Oil is the basic raw material in any oil refining firm. Environmental stewardship is a prime motivation as we manage transportation of crude from Keamari Port in Karachi to our refinery in Mahmood-Kot, MCR through 864 km pipeline which is approx 400 ft above sea level. The pipeline ensures that each drop of crude oil is transported to MCR without effecting the environment. We have leak detection system, emergency shutdown system, intelligent pigging, corrosion protection, and microwave towers for communication, SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to avoid leakages, thefts and intermediate storage tanks at 5 different pumping stations. Impact on the environment from the refining process is controlled by treating and managing emissions. Low NOx (Nitrous Oxide) burners and Sulfur removal from fuel gases are examples. Waste water is discharged/reused for plants after compliance with NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards) is ensured. All contractors equipment is checked for compliance to NEQS. All effluents are checked and verified regularly before discharging by third party EPA (Environment Protection Agency) approved Labs to comply with NEQS. PARCO`s Effluent Treatment Plant has a capacity of 340 m3/hr. Waste water from the refinery is collected and through skimming, neutralization, dissolved air floatation, aeration, clarification, filtration and drying operations, the effluent water is brought within NEQs limits before discharge into local drainage or reuse for plants. PARCO proactively works to ensure that its products and fuels are environment friendly. Gasoline complies with the Euro II standard while our refinery is also capable of producing Euro II HSD. With commissioning of the DHDS plant at its Mid-Country Refinery, PARCO has the capability of producing High Speed Diesel conforming EURO II standards and is the only refinery in Pakistan to have achieved this capability. This product is helping EURO II compliant automobiles to perform better by being fuel efficient with low emissions.

About 36 km of PARCOs pipelines traverse through Kirthar National Park. In order to preserve neighboring wildlife, PARCO contributed significantly to the Sindh Wild Life Department for the preservation of Wildlife in the Kirthar National Park and Mahal Kohistan Wildlife Sanctuary. PARCO has installed a tube well and pond for crocodiles besides constructing a 700 gallon overhead tank to ensure water supply for wild life including the rare Chinkara Deer, Sindh Ibex and the endangered Houbara Bustard species. In designing and aligning its oil pipelines routes, environmental matters were addressed and the requirements of Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fully complied with. No property on the World Heritage List is impacted, e.g. rerouting PARCO pipelines around Lake Manchar was undertaken at a heavy cost to preserve the natural environment of this lake. We perform 3rd party (EPA certified) ground water monitoring of the surrounding areas of PARCO Refinery and Corporate Headquarters twice a year, to ensure that the community nearby is using safe underground water. There are 16 different parameters that are tested: pH, Color, TDS, Taste and Odor, Total Hardness, Faecal Coliform, Coliform Organisms, Arsenic, Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Cyanide, Lead, Selenium, etc. Ambient air monitoring at 1 Km and 2 Km distance around PARCOs Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) is also done twice a year by EPA certified third party monitoring NOx, SOx, CO and particulate matter. A member of WWF, PARCO helps in conservation of nature, with several initiatives other than those mentioned above, to its credit.


PARCO has always responded passionately to the nations distress calls during natural calamities, such as the earthquake or floods. The 2010 floods caused catastrophic damage to infrastructure across large areas of Pakistan. PARCO made a contribution of Rs 40 million to Prime Ministers Flood Relief Fund which included employees one day salary. The Company also opened a PARCONIANS FLOOD RELIEF account in which the Company contributed Rs 10 million. Besides this, the employees and their relatives also generously contributed more than Rs 3 million. In a major relief program, approximately 35,000 flood affectees were provided cooked food, more than 2,600 dry food packets were distributed, 9,300 flood affectees were treated at Medical Camps and 400 families were provided tented accommodation. During winter, the Company distributed 950 quilts at Bubak, Shikarpur and Fazilpur. Approximately 15 flood affected Schools & Clinics were rehabilitated. PARCO launched an expanded Rs 60 million rehabilitation program to rebuild homes destroyed by floods near its Stations, Terminals and Mid-Country Refinery (MCR), where 97 homes were completed and handed over to the respective owners.

During 2011, Pakistan was again faced with yet another natural disaster. The torrential rains hit the interior Sindh very badly, and devastated crops, livestock, peoples and Government property, displacing people off their houses etc. The Company once again extended its helping hand and provided relief to the flood victims at Badin, Nawabshah and Bubak. Altogether, during the 2010 and 2011 floods, PARCO has spent more than Rs 31 million in terms of medical camps, distribution of dry ration, cooked food, quilts and tented accommodation, reconstruction of houses, schools and clinics in the flood affected areas of Punjab and Sindh. During 2012 monsoon rains, the Country again faced massive floods at Shikarpur, Rajanpur and Kandhkot. PARCO again stood by the nation and provided dry food ration packets to 800 families. PARCO has spent approximately Rs 4.8 million in various flood relief and rehabilitation work.


Inculcating Self-Reliance: Promoting Vocational Training and Entrepreneurship In the realm of CSR, PARCO has always believed in inculcating self-reliance capabilities amongst the Pakistani youth. PARCO and its subsidiaries have been supporting many well-known institutions working in the area of vocational trainings during the past several years. The Company went a step further by searching for deserving Vocational Training Institutes (VTIs) in rural areas, nearby PARCO facilities and identified 19 centers at Machike, Faisalabad, Kot Addu, Mahmood Kot, Qasba Gujrat, Muzaffargarh, DG Khan, Multan, Fazilpur, Shikarpur, Bubak and Karachi. The institutes in these areas had skillful and experienced teachers but with less or no tools to demonstrate the practical side. PARCO provided assistance by setting up state-of-the-art computer labs and appointed well experienced instructors for conducting various professional courses. Keeping in view a great number of female students enrolled at the vocational trainings pertaining to sewing and embroidery courses, PARCO provided electrical embroidery sewing machines, furniture and computers to easily conduct quality trainings. These institutions were also uplifted and repaired through much needed civil works to create a better learning environment for students. The basic objective in supporting these vocational training centers is to enhance skills amongst the youth and especially women of Pakistan. The vocational trainings pertaining to sewing and embroidery will help the rural women in achieving self-sustenance. This act further reassures PARCOs support to the Ten Principles of UN Global Compact and Women Empowerment Principles.



Nations rich in history have a lot to offer to the world. PARCO believes in promoting and keeping alive Pakistans core values and strong cultural heritage. In this context, PARCO has published and sponsored several books on various subjects, supporting local art and culture.


PARCO's marketing initiative for PEARL Lubes in the form of Booklet "Papoo Yar Tang Na Kar" was very well received. The booklet containing humourous truck poetry was distributed with the lubricant sales. Second part of the book "Papoo Yar Tang Na Kar, Ghalib Kay Urain Gay Purzay" has been published and provides the reader with the light and refreshing interpretation of Mirza Ghalib's Poetry.


In the last sixty years great film singers K.L. Saigol, Punkaj Mullick, Khursheed, Kanan Devi, Mohammad Rafi, Talat Mahmood Mukesh, Hermant Kumar, Geeta Dutt and others came to light and left this world after enriching film music with their unforgettable songs, but no other singer was written on so profusely and with such admiration as Noor Jehan. In just one year since her demise on 23 December 2000, scores of books have appeared. Incidentally, these books are in Urdu and we find that in most of these publications the focus is more on the amorous side of her life than her achievements as a singer. This book is perhaps the first published on Noor Jehan on English. It contains articles written by prominent Pakistani writer s and published in national newspapers and magazines.


Music, especially classical music of the sub-continent, is a stunning bend of mental and physical faculties, where the artiste hones his God-gifted talent and hard work for years and years to be able to share his art with friends and offer it ti the world. Such devotion creates an obligation on society to patronize the art and the artiste and leave it as a legacy for the future. PARCO has been contributing towards preserving various arts that are linked to our culture and soil. Immortal Film Songs Inspired by Raags is a collection to bring to the listener the knowledge and joy of classical music through the popular medium of film songs.


Tufail Niazi was a rare master of the folk as well as classical music and a performer par excellence. His sensitivity to the finest details of notes found expression in his melodies and worked like magic on his listeners, leaving a lasting effect on mind. PARCO has, therefore, taken the step of sponsoring a book on Tufail Niazi to make sure that his name as great master of folk music and his repertoire as a treasure of immeasurable worth are preserved. Also included in the book are expert appreciations of Tufail Niazis art by eminent writers.


If Urdu is the Taj Mahal of sub-continental languages, then Ghazal is its sublime reflection in water in a moonlit night. When Ghazal was articulated through music, one art merged into another. But when Mehdi Hasans innovated variations in a raags theme to play out the changing nuances, it appeared that both the music and poetr y of love had reached their ultimate fulfillment. His contribution has not only revived the popularity of Ghazal but also created a new genre of Ghazal singing and changed the landscape of sub-continental music. Adding moods to the meanings of Ghazal is M ehdi Hasans singular distinction. His work deserves to be celebrated and preserved. PARCO has always endeavored to deliver the best to the people it serves, not only in its mainstream business but also in the social domain. These include such diverse presentations as divine quotations on moral reformation, great poetry on national awakening, mystical poems of venerable saints of Pakistan, introduction to classical music of the subcontinent, immortal film songs inspired by raags, popular graffiti that reflects the unique humor of the masses. The book includes the different moods of Ghazals by Mehdi Hasan, and a detailed review on his art and performances.


Kamal Dasgupta (alias Kamal Ahmed) the inimitable composer of popular Geets epitomized these sacred and universal attributes of humanity when he fell in love with Feroza Begum, a much admired singer, converted to Islam and moved and moved to then East Pakistan along with her. It is surprising that today few know the creator of Tasweer teri dil mera bahla na sake gi and Dil ko hai tum se piyar keon although millions have heard and enjoyed these and his other songs in the last half a century. It was sad when this model of humility and dedication, well sung in the prime of his life, literally died unsung in 1974 in Dhaka. The least one could do to honor the memory of Kamal Dasgupta is to introduce him to his admirers, albeit belatedly, and to

secure some of his work for prosperity. PARCO has attempted to render this service by sponsoring to securing his work in a printed form.


PARCOs journey of success has been documented in a book for todays readers as well as for posterity. Venturing Beyond Profit is a refreshing account of a public sector enterprise which through its 34 years of existence has been successfully combining public good with the financial interest of its sponsors. Written in a flowing style, the book gives an account of how a dream was converted into a reality. The book has been written by Mr. S. A. Abidi.



The monsoon has wrecked havoc in Pakistan, especially in Sindh where the unprecedented torrential rains have brought life to a standstill, causing severe damage to crops, livestock and human life. The Badin District of Sind is the worst affected, as it received over 300 mm of rain in just a matter of hours causing canals and river banks to overflow. Several acres of rice, sugarcane and cotton crop have been destroyed and people are displaced from their houses, forced to live under the open sky without proper shelter, food or medical facility. PARCO has always actively stood by the nation in times of need to provide relief in calamity hit areas. Realizing the devastation caused by the torrential rains, PARCO in coordination with a local NGO working in Badin, The Rural Uplift and Welfare Association (TRUWA), planned and distributed 250 dry ration packets amongst the flood affected families of Allahbad, District Badin. Rain affected families in the surrounding areas of Allahabad were provided these dry rations. Before PARCO Teams` arrival, these families were inaccessible by NGOs and Government relief bodies as Allahabad is located in the southern part of District Badin, approximately 12 kms inland in a very remote area. The population in Allahabad consists of farmers and their families who grow cotton, sugarcane and rice. Their crops have been destroyed by the rain and their homes are submerged in water. The dry ration packets contain flour, cooking oil, sugar, daal and tea. These basic items would enable these calamity hit families to survive till the water level recedes. PARCOs efforts to come all the way to such a remote area which is quite challenging even for 4x4 vehicles was very much appreciated by the local population.

PARCO has always extended its help in times of need, and has provided relief and rehabilitation to the calamity affected people. Due to heavy torrential rains this year several parts of the country faced flash floods, destroying acres of crops land and livestock. People have been displaced from their homes due to heavy flooding, and with most have lost almost everything. One such affected area was Shaheed Benazirabad, District Nawabshah. PARCO Team with the help of District Coordination Officer (DCO) Nawabshah, visited the flood affected families at different locations and distributed 250 dry ration packets amongst them. A large number of these victims were farmers who had lost

their crops and livestock, and were living under tents and make-shift houses. The dry ration packets contained flour, cooking oil, sugar, daal and tea sufficient for 10- 15 days for a family of five people. The local population and took a sigh of relief upon receiving ration bags and the district management appreciated PARCO and its team efforts of coming all the way to provide relief.


In the extreme winter season, flood victims in Badin District, who have lost their homes and are trying to survive, were provided quilts by PARCO. In order to provide quilts to the most deserving families, a local NGO working in Badin - The Rural Uplift and Welfare Association (TRUWA) was selected. TRUWA members identified the most needy families and assisted the PARCO Team in the distribution of 400 quilts. Earlier, PARCO had also provided 500 dry ration packets and 80 tents in Badin District.



The Ten Principles

The UN Global Compact's ten principles in the areas of human rights, labor, the environment and anti-corruption enjoy universal consensus and are derived from:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The International Labour Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Convention Against Corruption

The UN Global Compact asks companies to embrace, support and enact, within their sphere of influence, a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labour standards, the environment and anti-corruption:

Human Rights


Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor; Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labor; and Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.


Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges; Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.

Anti-Corruption Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.



Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

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Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ^ Top

Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. ^ Top

Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. ^ Top

Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. ^ Top

Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. ^ Top

Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. ^ Top

Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. ^ Top

Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. ^ Top

Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. ^ Top

Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. ^ Top

Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. ^ Top

Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. ^ Top

Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. ^ Top

Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. ^ Top

Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. ^ Top

Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. ^ Top

Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. ^ Top

Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. ^ Top

Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. ^ Top

Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. ^ Top

Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. ^ Top

Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. ^ Top

Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. ^ Top

Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. ^ Top

Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. ^ Top

Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. ^ Top

Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. ^ Top

Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. ^ Top

Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. ^ Top

Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.