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kingdom bacteria The Archaea (Listeni/?r'ki??/ or /?r'ke??/; singular archaeon) are a domain or k ingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. Archaea were initially classified as bacteria, receiving the name archaebacteria (or Kingdom Monera), but this classification is outdated.[1] Archaeal cells hav e unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life: Bacteria and Eukaryota. The Archaea are further divided into four recognized phyla. Clas sification is difficult, because the majority have not been studied in the labor atory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment. Kingdom Animalia Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metaz oa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some unde rgo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance (see Heterotroph). Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during t he Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals are divided into var ious sub-groups, some of which are: vertebrates (birds, mammals, amphibians, rep tiles, fish); mollusks (clams, oysters, octopuses, squid, snails); arthropods (m illipedes, centipedes, insects, spiders, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp); an nelids (earthworms, leeches); sponges; and jellyfish. Kingdom Plantae Plants, also called green plants (Viridiplantae in Latin), are living multicellu lar organisms of the kingdom Plantae. They form a clade that includes the flower ing plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverw orts and mosses, as well as, depending on definition, the green algae. Plants ex clude the red and brown algae, and some seaweeds such as kelp, the fungi, archae a and bacteria. Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and characteristically obtain most o f their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll contained in c hloroplasts, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and h ave lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthes ize. Plants are also characterized by sexual reproduction, modular and indetermi nate growth, and an alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common. Kingdom Fungus A fungus (/'f??g?s/; plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is a member of a large gro up of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organi sms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell wall s that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants and some protists, which contain cellulose, and unlike the cell walls of bacteria. These and other differ ences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eu mycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (is a monophyleti c group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycete s (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted t o the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek ????, mukes, meaning "f ungus"). Mycology has often been regarded as a branch of botany, even though it is a separate kingdom in biological taxonomy. Genetic studies have shown that fu

ngi are more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of th eir structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as sym bionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruit ing, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the dec omposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various fo od products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes pro duced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as b iological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many spe cies produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyke tides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials a nd buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Loss es of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g. rice blast disease) or food spoilage ca n have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. kingdom Protist Protists /'pro?t?st/ are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, which belong to the kingdom Protista. There have been attempts to remove the ki ngdom from the taxonomy but it is still very much in use.[1][2][3] The use of Pr otoctista is also preferred by various organisations and institutions.[4][5][6] Molecular information has been used to redefine this group in modern taxonomy as diverse and often distantly related phyla. The group of protists is now conside red to mean diverse phyla that are not closely related through evolution and hav e different life cycles, trophic levels, modes of locomotion and cellular struct ures.[7][8] Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, the protists do not have much in common.[9] They are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues, and this simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants. Kingdom Bacteria Bacteria (Listeni/bk't??ri?/; singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of p rokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were amon g the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habita ts. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[2] and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasiti c relationships with plants and animals. They are also known to have flourished in manned spacecraft.[3] There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million b acterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are approximately 51030 bact eria on Earth,[4] forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals .[5] Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many of the stages in nutri ent cycles dependent on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from t he atmosphere and putrefaction. In the biological communities surrounding hydrot hermal vents and cold seeps, bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain li fe by converting dissolved compounds such as hydrogen sulphide and methane to en ergy. On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested bacterial life forms thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot on the Earth.[6][7] Other r esearchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 1900 feet below the sea floor under 8500 feet of ocean off the coast of the northwes tern United States.[6][8] According to one of the researchers,"You can find micr obes everywhere they're extremely adaptable to conditions, and survive wherever they are."[6]

Kingdom Archaea The Archaea (Listeni/?r'ki??/ or /?r'ke??/; singular archaeon) are a domain or k ingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. Archaea were initially classified as bacteria, receiving the name archaebacteria (or Kingdom Monera), but this classification is outdated.[1] Archaeal cells hav e unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life: Bacteria and Eukaryota. The Archaea are further divided into four recognized phyla. Clas sification is difficult, because the majority have not been studied in the labor atory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment. Archaea and bacteria are similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very strange shapes, such as the flat and square-shaped cells of Haloquadratum w alsbyi. Despite this visual similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and se veral metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, n otably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. Other aspects of a rchaean biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes. Archaea use more energy sources than eukaryotes: ranging from o rganic compounds such as sugars, to ammonia, metal ions or even hydrogen gas. Sa lt-tolerant archaea (the Haloarchaea) use sunlight as an energy source, and othe r species of archaea fix carbon; however, unlike plants and cyanobacteria, no sp ecies of archaea does both. Archaea reproduce asexually by binary fission, fragm entation, or budding; unlike bacteria and eukaryotes, no species form spores. Biodiversity Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life.[1] This can refer to genetic va riation, species variation, or ecosystem variation[1] within an area, biome, or planet. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be highest at low latitudes near the e quator,[2] which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary pro ductivity.[3] Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Wester n Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in mid-latitudinal band in all oceans.[4] Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots,[5] and ha s been increasing through time[6][7] but will be likely to slow in the future.[8 ] Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions.[9][10][11] One est imate is that <1% 3% of the species that have existed on Earth are extant.[12]