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Human Reproduction

1 Fertilisation occurs when the nucleus of the sperm cell fuses with the ova of the .. (C) .. . 2 Fill in the Chart with the differences between the male gametes and the female gametes with regard to (a) their size (b) their structure (c) their relative numbers Sperm 2 micro meter #ead and tail !trillion Ova !" micrometers $ound On ever% month

3 &efore fertilisation can occur' the sperms have to travel from the testes to meet an ovum in the female organs. (sing the list below' name the organs' in the correct order' through which the sperms will have to pass.) uterus, sperm duct, oviduct, urethra, cervix, vagina 1sperm duct 3 urethra 3 vagina 4 cervix 5 uterus 6 oviduct 4. (a) *+plain what is meant b% ovulation. ,hen a ova is releasaed (b) #ow often does it occur in humansOnce a month 5. *+plain wh% the chance of fertilisation in humans is restricted to onl% a few da%s each month. &ecause the uteru lining onl% sta%s thin. for a few da%s

6 /he diagram below represents the events leading up to fertilisation (v)' implantation (vi) and development. 0n each case name the structures involved and' at the numbers' state briefl% what is happening or what has happened previousl%.
(v) F (vi) * 1 C (iv)

3 & 2



4 &lood from the fetus circulates through the placenta. (a) ,hat substances pass (i) from the maternal to the fetal blood nutrients and minerals and o+%gen (ii) from the fetal to the maternal bloodFast and co2 (b) &% what means is the fetal blood circulated through the placenta/hrough the umbilical cored 8 ,hat is the function of the umbilical cord/o transfer food to the fetus and ta.e awa% waste and co2 9 ,hat are the possible effects on the fetus if' during pregnanc%' the mother (a) smo.es' (b) has an infectious disease it could get transferred to the fetus 10 3escribe the events which lead to the formation of (a) identical twins' the have the same dna and the the% came from the same egg and sperm (b) fraternal twins. They are come from 2 difrrent egg and sperm 12 5umber the following events in the correct order for natural childbirth. 66 6 amniotic fluid expelled, 666 8placenta expelled from uterus, 6664baby's feet emerge from vagina, 6676abdominal contractions begin, 6668baby' head emerges from vagina, 6626amnion breaks, 6!66cervix dilates, 6669contractions of the uterus begin . 13 (a) ,hat are the advantages of human mil. over cows: mil. for feeding babies#as antibod%;s (b) 2part from the composition of the mil.' what are the other advantages of breast< feedingfree 14 5ame (a) the male se+ hormone testasorone (c) the female se+ hormone estragen which help bring about the changes at pubert% .

15 2fter ovulation (a) what structure replaces the 1raafian follicle(b) what hormone does it produce-