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Question1: What is personality.

Discuss various factors of an effecting personality Answer: Psychologists differ among themselves as to the meaning of personality. Most agreethat the word personality originated from the Latin persona, which referred to a theatrical mask Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions. Psychologists such as Freud, and Erik Erikson have attempted to come up with personality theories . Following are the factors which affect the personality Biological factors: The foremost determinant of personality is the biological factor, in which are included heredity, the brain and the physical stature. Psychologists and geneticists argue strongly that heredity plays an important role in ones personality. The importance of heredity varies from one personality trait to another. For example, heredity plays a more important role in determining a persons temperament than determining the values and ideals. Another factor which influences the personality is the brain of the individual. Perhaps, physical stature of an individual is the most outstanding influence on the personality of an individual. For example, the fact that a person is short or tall, fat or skinny, good looking or not, will influence others and in turn will affect the person himself. Family factors: Family and social factors are also important in giving the shape to an individuals personality. It initially starts with contact with the mother and later with other members of the family. Later still, the contact with social group influences an individuals personality. The personality of an individual is also influenced by the home environment. There is evidence to indicate that the overall environment at home created by parents is critical to personality development. Apart from the family background, social class also leaves an imprint on the personality of an individual. Situational Factors: Situational factors also influence the human personality. The effect of environment on personality is quite strong. Knowledge skill and language are acquired by a person and can be termed as learned modifications of behavior. These learned modifications cannot be passed on to the children. The children in turn must acquire them through their personal effort, experience and the interaction with the environment. Many a times the actions of the person are determined more by the situation, rather than his behavior. Therefore, the situation may potentially have a very big impact on the actions and expressions. Questio2: What is motivation. Explain the tenets of mcclellands theory of motivation. Answer: "Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalized goals within individuals. Motivation may be defined as those forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Motivation encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel, and sustain human behavior. Most successful managers have learned to understand the concept of human motivation and are able to use that understanding to achieve higher standards of subordinate work performance. According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Motivation is a class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces". American David Clarence McClelland (1917-98) achieved his doctorate in psychology at Yale in1941 and became professor at Wesleyan University. He then taught and lectured, including aspell at Harvard from 1956, where with colleagues for twenty years he studied particularlymotivation and the achievement need. He identified three basic types of motivating needs present in people. He shows that all three needs can be present in a person but the weight attached to each can vary. The three needs are:

(a) Need for achievement - where this is high then people have an intense desire to succeed and an equally intense fear of failure. (b) Need for affiliation - where this is high people tend to seek acceptance by others, need to feel loved and are concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationships. (c) Need for power - people with a high need for power seek opportunities to influence and control others, seek leadership positions and are often articulate, outspoken and stubborn. McClelland said that most people possess and exhibit a combination of these characteristics. Some people exhibit a strong bias to a particular motivational need, and this motivational or needs 'mix' consequently affects their behavior and working/managing style. Mcclelland suggested that a strong n-affil 'affiliation-motivation' undermines a manager's objectivity, because of their need to be liked, and that this affects a manager's decisionmaking capability. A strong n-pow 'authority-motivation' will produce a determined work ethic and commitment to the organization, and while n-pow people are attracted to the leadership role, they may not possess the required flexibility and people-centered skills. McClelland argues that n-ach people with strong 'achievement motivation' make the best leaders, although there can be a tendency to demand too much of their staff in the belief that they are all similarly and highly achievement-focused and results driven, which of course most people are not. McClelland's particular fascination was for achievement motivation, and this laboratory experiment illustrates one aspect of his theory about the affect of achievement on people's motivation. McClelland asserted via this experiment that while most people do not possess as strong achievement-based motivation, those who do, display a consistent behavior in setting goals: and as such the goal is considered to be achievable. This determined results-driven approach is almost invariably present in the character make-up of all successful business people and entrepreneurs. Question3 : Clarify the concept of leadership and discuss in detail the Participative Leadership style. Answer : The ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task, or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A person carries out this process by applying her leadership attributes (belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills). Different management thinkers have defined the term leadership in different ways. The following are some of prominent definitions of leadership. 1)According to Prof.George terry, Leadership denotes therelationship in which a person i.e. influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that which the leader desires. 2)According to R.Shukla, Leadership is the process of exercising an authority and decision making. 3)According to Prof .H.Koontz and ODonnell, managementleadership is the ability of manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. The CONCEPT of leadership is very old. With the emergence of human society, the need for leadership was increasingly felt in all most all spheres of mans life; it was very much needed in the field of industry and business. As management has the responsibility of getting the work done through people, its success very much dependsonthe ability of the leader who are called upon to manage.Leadership therefore, implies the combination of specificabilities, qualities and skills acquired by an individual. the leader

perform the following functions:1)To initiate: 2)To represent: 3) To provide guidance:4)to introduce change:5)To bring unity:PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP is a style of leadership that involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals and developing procedures or strategies to reach those goals. From this perspective, this leadership style can be seen as a leadership style that relies heavily on the leader functioning as a facilitator rather than simply issuing orders or making assignments. This type of involved leadership style can be utilized in business settings, volunteer organizations and even in the function of the home. One of the main benefits of participative leadership is that the process allows for the development of additional leaders who can serve the organization at a later date. Because leaders who favor this style encourage active involvement on the part of everyone on the team, people often are able to express their creativity and demonstrate abilities and talents that would not be made apparent otherwise. The discovery of these hidden assets help to benefit the work of the current team, but also alerts the organization to people within the team who should be provided with opportunities to further develop some skill or ability for future use. One potential disadvantage of participate leadership is the time factor. This leadership style does often involve the need for more time before action is taken. This is only natural, since the very nature of this leadership style means allowing input from every member of the team. However, the extra time necessary for this process often leads to decisions that ultimately benefit everyone to a greater degree than faster decisions that are more limited in scop