(b) A linear transformation T: R" + Rn is self-adjoint if T = T*, so that
(Tu, w) = (u, Tw) for al u, w E R". If A is the matrix of T dth respect to the
standard basis, then T is self-adjoint if and only if A is symmetric, A~ = A. It
is a standard theorem that a symmetric A can be written as CDC-1 for some
diagonal matiix D (for an analy& proof, see CaEculw on Man@ldr, pg. 122).
Show that C can be chosen orthogonal, by showing that eigenvectors for distinc t
eigenvalues are orthogonal.
(c) A self-adjoint T (or the corresponding symmetric A) is called positive semi-
ddnite if (Tu, u) > O for al1 u E Rn, and positive definite if (Tu, u) > O for al1
v # O. Show that a positive definite A is non-singular. Hznt: Use the Schwarz
inequality.
(d)
Show that A' - A is always positive semi-definite.
(e)
Sliow that a positive semi-definite A can be written as A = B2 for some B.
(Remember that A is symmetrjc.)
(f) Show tliat every A E GL(n,R) can be written uniquely as A = Al .A2 where
Ai E O(n) and A2 is positive definite. Hht: Consider A' . A, and use part (e).
(g) The matrices Al and A2 are continuous functions of A. Hint: If A(") + A
and A(") = A(")]
~("12,then some subsequence of (A(")~)converges.
) GL(i1, R) is homeomorpliic to O(n) x R"("("*')/~and has exactly two com-
ponents, (A : det A > 0) and (A : det A < O). (Notice that this also gives us
anotller way of fiilding the dimension of O(n).)
32, Two continuous fuilctioils So,5 : X + Y are called homotopic if there is
a coiltjiluous function H: X x [O, i] + Y such that
The functions H; : X + Y defined by Hl (x) = H(x, t) may be thought of as a
path of fuilctions fi-om Ho = fa to HI = J. The map H is called a homotopy
between fo and J.
The i-iotation f: (X, A) + (Y, B), for A c X and B c Y, means that
f : X + Y and f (A) c B. We cal1 fl~,J : (X, A) + (Y, 3) homotopic (as maps
from (X, A) to (Y, B)) if there is an H as above such that each Hr : (X, A) +
(Y, B)-
(a) If A : [O, 11 + GL(n, R) is continuous aild H : R" x [O, 11 + R" is defiiled by
H(x, 1) = A(r)(x),show that H is continuous, so tllat Ijg and Hl are homotopic
as nlaps from (R" , R" - (O)) lo (Rn,R" - (O)). Conclude that a non-singular
linear trailsformation T: (R", R" - (0)) + (R", R" - (O)) with det T > O is
homotopic to ihe identity map.
(b) Suppose f : R" + R" is Cm and f(0) = 0, while f (R" - (0)) c R" - (O).
If Df(0) is non-singular, sl-iow that f : (R", Rn - (O)) + (R", R" - (O)) is
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.