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UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVERS: Methods and Techniques for Serving on a UN Observer Mission

(MILOBS 060401)

A course produced by The United Nations Institute for Training and Research, Programme of Correspondence Instruction
Course Author Lieutenant Colonel Phyllis J. Mihalas
United States Army Reserve

Series Editor Harvey J. Langholtz


Copyright 2006, UNITAR POCI

UNITAR Training Programme of Correspondence Instruction in Peacekeeping Operations Dag Hammarskjld Centre Box 20475 New York, NY 10017

Programme UNITAR de Formation Par Correspondance Aux Oprations de Maintien de la Paix Palais des Nations 1211 Geneve 10 Suisse

UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVERS: Methods and Techniques for Serving on a UN Observer Mission
(MILOBS 060401)

A Course Produced by The United Nations Institute for Training and Research, Programme of Correspondence Instruction

Course Author Lieutenant Colonel Phyllis J. Mihalas


United States Army Reserve

Series Editor Harvey J. Langholtz

Copyright 2006, UNITAR POCI

Address all correspondence to: UNITAR POCI Dag Hammarskjld Centre Box 20475 New York, NY 10017-0009

Note: All photos and graphics are from the UN website unless otherwise indicated. This course is compliant with the SGTM guidelines set forth by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations Integrated Training Service (DPKO ITS).

UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVERS: Methods and Techniques for Serving on a UN Observer Mission
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V FORMAT OF STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI METHOD OF STUDY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII

LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE UN SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Background History of the UN The Purpose and Principles of the UN The Six Principal Organs of the UN Roles and Function of the Secretary-General UN Programmes, Agencies and Commissions

LESSON 2 UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (UNPKO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

The Changing Nature of Conflicts The Need for UN Peacekeeping Fundamentals of Traditional Peacekeeping Types of UN Peacekeeping Operations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Other UN Peace Activities

LESSON 3 STRUCTURE OF UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

Generic Structure of Peacekeeping Operations Organisation and Mission of the Office of the SRSG Civilian Administration Component Military Component Representation of UN Agencies Human Rights Component Humanitarian Assistance Component Electoral Component Integration of Efforts and Cooperation Chain of Command

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LESSON 4 LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

The UN Charter UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) Principles for UN Peacekeeping Operations Law and UN Peacekeeping Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Rules of Engagement (ROE) Impact on the UN Peacekeeper

LESSON 5 STRESS MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Stress and Stress Management Types of Stress Stress Response to a Critical Incident Identifying Stress-Related Disease

LESSON 6 ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF MILOBS AND PEACEKEEPERS . . . . . . 73

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Code of Conduct Cultural Awareness Gender and Peacekeeping Child Protection

LESSON 7 PERSONAL SECURITY AWARENESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Security Responsibilities UN Security Management Basic Principles Basic Strategies, Tips, and Considerations

LESSON 8 LANDMINE AND UXO AWARENESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

Types of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Methods of Landmine Activation The Local Landmine and UXO Threat What to do if Caught in a Minefield In Case of Injury in a Minefield

LESSON 9 MEDICAL ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

HIV/AIDS Malaria Basic Life Support Basic Hygiene

LESSON 10 HUMAN RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

The Nature of Todays Conflicts What are Human Rights? The Legal Basis for Human Rights Human Rights and Host Countries International Humanitarian Law (IHL) Examples of Human Rights Violations Applying Human Rights in a Peacekeeping Environment

LESSON 11 COMMUNICATION AND NEGOTIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

11.1 11.2 11.3

Understanding Communication and Negotiation Negotiation in UN Peace Operations Working with Interpreters

LESSON 12 UN CIVIL-MILITARY COORDIATION (CIMIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6

The Need for Civil-Military Coordination Definition of UN Civil-Military Coordination Principles of CIMIC CIMIC in Practice Confidence-Building Role of the Peacekeeper

LESSON 13 MEDIA RELATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

The Importance of Media Relations Peacekeepers Actions and the Media The Public Information Office (PIO) Speaking to the Media

APPENDIX A: TABLE OF ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 APPENDIX B: COMMUNICATION AND VOICE PROCEDURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 APPENDIX C: DAILY ROUTINE AND OBSERVING TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 APPENDIX D: REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 APPENDIX E: REPORT WRITING STYLE GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 APPENDIX F: PERSONNEL ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 APPENDIX G: UNITED NATIONS LOGISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

END-OF-COURSE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

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FOREWORD
Over the years, peacekeeping missions have become more dangerous and complex. The change in the environment has made it necessary to provide comprehensive training on the individual, small group, and unit levels for those who serve as Military Observers (MILOBS) and peacekeepers. Beginning with a Strategic overview of the United Nations organisation, the course moves through the Operational spectrum of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), and ends at the Tactical level of on the ground knowledge and skills required for an individual MILOB to succeed. This Course will assist in training Military Observers by enhancing the general understanding of peacekeeping and by providing specific knowledge of methods and techniques for serving on a United Nations mission. Set up in 1948, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO) was the first peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations. Since that time, over 50 missions, including 16 that are currently active, have been established. Throughout these missions, MILOBS from the many Troop-Contributing Countries (TCC) have donned the Blue Beret. This course will serve as their introduction to service as a Military Observer.

LTC Phyllis J. Mihalas

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FORMAT OF STUDY
This course is designed for independent study at a pace determined by the student

Course format and materials permit: MODULAR STUDY EASE OF REVIEW INCREMENTAL LEARNING

Materials needed for the completion of this course are enclosed with the course listed below:

Course booklet: United Nations Military Observers: Methods and Techniques for Serving on a UN Observer Mission End-of-Course Examination (provided with this course) Answer Sheet for End-of-Course Examination Return Envelope for End-of-Course Examination

STUDENTS RESPONSIBILITY
The student is responsible for: Learning course material Completing the End-of-Course Examination Submitting the End-of-Course Examination

Please see the End-of-Course Examination Answer Sheet for submission instructions.

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METHOD OF STUDY
The following are suggestions for how to proceed with a UNITAR POCI Course. Though the student may have alternate approaches that are effective, the following hints have worked for many.

Before you begin actual studies, first browse through the overall course material. Notice the lesson outlines, which give you an idea of what will be involved as you proceed. The material should be logical and straightforward. Instead of memorising individual details, strive to understand concepts and overall perspectives in regard to the United Nations system. Set up guidelines regarding how you want to schedule your time. Study the lesson content and the learning objectives. At the beginning of each lesson, orient yourself to the main points. If you are able to, read the material twice to ensure maximum understanding and retention, and let time elapse between readings. When you finish a lesson, take the End-of-Lesson Quiz. For any error, go back to the lesson section and re-read it. Before you go on, be aware of the discrepancy in your understanding that led to the error. After you complete all of the lessons, take time to review the main points of each lesson. Then, while the material is fresh in your mind, take the End-of-Course Examination in one sitting. Your exam will be scored, and if you achieve a passing grade of 75 percent or higher, you will be awarded a Certificate-of-Completion. If you score below 75 percent, you will be given one opportunity to take a second version of the End-ofCourse Examination. One note about spelling is in order. There are six official languages at the United Nations; one of these is English as used in the UK. UNITAR POCI courses are written using English spelling.

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LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE UN SYSTEM


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Background History of the UN The Purpose and Principles of the UN The Six Principal Organs of the UN Roles and Function of the Secretary-General UN Programmes, Agencies and Commissions

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide Military Observers (MILOBS) with basic working knowledge of the UN structure, principles and general functions of the different organs. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to: Outline the background history of the United Nations; List the purposes and principles of the UN; List the ideals of the people that created the United Nations; and List the six principal organs of the UN and their general functions.

INTRODUCTION

As stated in the UN Charter, one of the most important purposes of the UN is to maintain international peace and security and to that end to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats. Peacekeeping provides the UN with one of the means of achieving international peace and security. It has developed as a pragmatic response to problems requiring the UNs actions.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

1.1

Background History of the UN

The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organisation conceived in similar circumstances during the First World War and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security. The International Labour Organisation was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War. The name United Nations, coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

UN Headquarters in New York, New York. (Photo by Harvey J. Langholtz)

After the Second World War, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organisation to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, in August-October 1944. The representatives of the 50 countries signed the Charter on 26 June 1945. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, and a majority of other signatories had ratified the Charter. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. The United Nations Charter The Charter is a basic document to which nations are signatory. It is also a basic document of the Organisation, setting out the rights and obligations of Member States, and establishing the United Nations organs and procedures. As an international document, the Charter codifies the major principles of international relations from the sovereign equality of States to the prohibition of the use of force in international relations. The Preamble to the Charter expresses the ideals and common aims of all the peoples whose government joined together to form the United Nations:

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed forces shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through the representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organisation to be known as the United Nations.

1.2

The Purpose and Principles of the UN

The purposes and principles of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are as follows. Purposes To maintain international peace and security. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples. To cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for Human Rights and fundamental freedoms. To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. Principles The UN is based on the sovereign equality of all its members. Members are to fulfil in good faith their charter of obligation. They are to settle their international disputes by peaceful means and without endangering international peace, security, and justice. They are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state. They are to give the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter. Nothing in the Charter is to authorise the UN to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

1.3

The Six Principal Organs of the UN

The Charter authorises the establishment of six principal organs. These organs are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, the Trusteeship Council, and the Secretariat. In addition, there are subsidiary organs, specialised agencies, and other bodies related to the United Nations, which, altogether, form the United Nations system.

The Six Principal Organs of the UN

TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

SECURITY COUNCIL

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL

SECRETARIAT

The General Assembly The General Assembly (GA) is the main deliberative organ of the UN. It is composed of representatives from all Member States, each of which has one vote. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new Members, and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. A simple majority is required for decisions on other matters. The General Assembly meets annually in regular sessions. Special sessions can be convened at the request of the Security Council; a majority of Members of the UN; or one Member if the majority of Members concur. An emergency special session may be called within twenty-four hours of a request by the Security Council on the vote of any nine Members of the Council or if a majority of Members concur. Because of the great number of questions that the Assembly is called upon to consider, the Assembly allocates most questions to its six Main Committees:

First Committee Second Committee Third Committee Fourth Committee Fifth Committee Sixth Committee

Disarmament and International Security Economic and Financial Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Special Political and Decolonisation Administrative and Budgetary Legal

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

Security Council The Security Council (SC) has the primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Council has 15 members: five permanent members China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States and 10 non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Each member has one vote. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of Great Power unanimity, often referred to as veto power. Under the Charter, all Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend that the parties try to reach an agreement by peaceful means. It may also set principles for a peaceful settlement. When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. The Council usually issues cease-fire directives, which prevent wider hostilities. The Council also sends United Nations peacekeeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled areas, keep opposing forces apart, and create conditions of calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. The Council may also decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes), or collective military action. Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; To call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; To take military action against an aggressor; To recommend the admission of new Members; To exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in strategic areas; and To recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the judges of the International Court of Justice.

Economic and Social Council The Charter established the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) as the principal organ to coordinate the economic, social and related work of the United Nations and the specialised agencies and institutions, known as the United Nations family of organisation. Some of the functions and powers of the Economic and Social Council are:

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

To serve as the central forum for the discussion of international economic and social issues of a global or inter-disciplinary nature and the formulation of policy recommendations on those issues addressed to Member States and to the United Nations system; To make or initiate studies and reports and make recommendations on international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters; and To promote respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom.

Today, the ECOSOC comprises of 54 members with one vote each. Of these 54 members, 18 members are elected each year and serve for a three-year term. The Council meets in an annual five-week session alternating between New York and Geneva. The Council is not a decision-making body. Members of ECOSOC prepare items for the GAs decisions and assist the Security Council when so required. International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It settles legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions to the United Nations and its specialised agencies. Its Statute is an integral part of the United Nations Charter. The Court is open to all states that are parties to its Statute. These include all Members of the United Nations and Switzerland. Only states may be parties in contentious cases and submit disputes to the Court. The Court is not open to private persons and entities or international organisations. The General Assembly and the Security Council can ask the Court for an advisory opinion on any legal question. Other organs of the United Nations and the specialised agencies, when authorised by the Assembly, can ask for advisory opinions on legal questions within the scope of their activities. The Trusteeship Council The Charter established the Trusteeship Council in 1945 to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories placed under the administration of 7 Member States, and to ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government or independence. The Charter authorised the Trusteeship Council to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories; to examine petitions from the Territories; and to undertake special missions to the Territories. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence, either as separate states or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The last to do so was the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), which became the 185th Member State. Its work completed, the Trusteeship Council consisting of the five permanent members of the Security Council has amended its rules of procedure to meet as and where occasion may require.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

The Secretariat The Secretariat is the administrative organ of Member States and is staffed by international servants. It works in duty stations around the world and carries out the diverse dayto-day work of the organisation. It services the other principal organs of the United Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid down by them. At its head is the SecretaryGeneral, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five- year renewable term. The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development. As international civil servants, staff members and the Secretary-General answer to the United Nations alone for their activities, and they take an oath not to seek or receive instructions from any government or outside authority. Under the Charter, each Member State undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and to refrain from seeking to influence them improperly in the discharge of their duties. The Secretariat is divided into several major organisational units, each of which is headed by an Under-Secretary-General or an official of an equivalent level.

THE SECRETARIAT
EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL

OFFICE OF INTERNAL OVERSIGHT SERVICES

OFFICE OF LEGAL AFFAIRS

DEPARTMENTS Department of Political Affairs Department for Disarmament Affairs Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Economic & Social Affairs

INDEPENDENT OFFICES Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

OVERSEAS OFFICES UN Office at Geneva

Office of the Iraq Programme

UN Office at Vienna

Office of the UN Security Coordinator Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention

UN Office at Nairobi

Department of General Assembly Affairs & Conference Services

Department of Public Information

Department of Management

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

1.4

Roles and Function of the Secretary-General

The Charter describes the Secretary-General as chief administrative officer of the organisation, who shall act in that capacity and perform such other functions as are entrusted to him or her by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security. These guidelines both define the powers of the office and grant it considerable scope for action. The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of the concerns of Member States. In addition, he must uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, always speaking and acting for peace, even at risk of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States.

The seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan.

This creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through day-to-day work, which includes attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies; consultations with world leaders, government officials and others; and worldwide travel intended to keep him in touch with the peoples of Member States and informed about the vast array of issues of international concern that are on the organisations agenda. Each year, the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the organisation that appraises its activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary-General is best known to the general public for using his stature and impartiality to prevent international disputes from arising, escalating, or spreading. Each Secretary-General also defines his role within the context of his particular time in office. UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan of Ghana is the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations. The first Secretary-General to be elected from the ranks of United Nations staff, he began his term on 1 January 1997. On 29 June 2001, he was unanimously appointed by the General Assembly for a second five-year term. Under the Charter, the Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. Mr. Annans predecessors were:

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Javier Perez de Cuellar Kurt Waldheim U Thant Dag Hammmarskjold Trygve Lie

(Egypt) (Peru) (Austria) (Myanmar) (Sweden) (Norway)

January 1992 January 1982 January 1972 November 1961 April 1953 February 1946 -

December 1996 December 1991 December 1981 December 1971 September 1961 November 1952

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

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The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the United Nations and to Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The Nobel Committee cited the UNs efforts to bring a more peaceful world and cited Secretary-General Annan with brining new life to the organisation. In response, the Secretary-General stated, It honours the UN but also challenges us to do more and do better, not to rest on our laurels. . . it is a great responsibility at such a difficult moment but reinforces us in pursuing the search for peace.

1.5

UN Programmes, Agencies and Commissions

Peacekeepers may encounter some of the UNs programmes, agencies or commissions working in connection with or as a part of a peacekeeping operation. The most common ones include:

UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which is voluntarily financed. It extends international protection to more than 18 million refugees, seeking to ensure that they receive asylum and favourable legal status in their asylum country. UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund, which is voluntarily financed. It helps developing countries, at their request, to improve the quality of life of their children through low-cost community-based services in maternal and child health, nutrition, sanitation and education, as well as emergency relief. UNDP United Nations Development Programme, the world's largest channel for multilateral technical and pre-investment assistance to developing countries. It supports over 6,000 projects in some 150 countries. WFP World Food Programme, the worlds largest international food aid organisation. It is responsible for handling annually around 3 million metric tons of food aid. WFPs mandate is to help poor people in developing countries by combating world hunger and poverty.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

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LESSON 1 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

The purpose of the UN is: a. International peace and security, and friendly relations among nations; b. Cooperation in solving international problems and a centre for harmonising the actions of nations; c. Neither of the above; d. Both a and b.

2.

The Secretary-General: a. Is the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO); b. Brings any matter which threatens international peace and security to the attention of the Security Council; c. Is impartial; d. All of the above.

3.

Select the statement that describes the General Assembly. a. It is the main deliberate organ of the UN and consists of all members of the UN; b. It consists of countries with GNPs higher than $2B to vote; c. It consists of countries that each have two votes; d. None of the above.

4.

The Security Council has the primary responsibility, under the Charter, to: a. Investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; b. Serve as the central forum for the discussion of international economic and social issues; c. Monitor the World Health Organisation; d. Create laws for Member nations.

5.

List and briefly discuss the six principal organs of the UN.

6.

The principal judicial organ of the UN is the: a. General Assembly; b. Congress of the UN; c. International Court of Justice; d. Supreme Court of the Hague.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

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7.

The International Court of Justice (ICJ): a. Provides international supervision for 11 Trust Territories; b. Provides advisory opinions on legal questions to the other UN organs; c. Is the administrative organ of Member States; d. Is the principal organ to coordinate the economic, social and related work of the UN.

8.

Give a brief description (2 to 4 sentences only) of the UNHCR.

9.

Give a brief description (2 to 4 sentences only) of UNICEF.

10. Give a brief description (2 to 4 sentences only) of the UNDP.

Lesson 1 / Introduction to the UN System

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

d d a a Trusteeship Council; General Assembly; Security Council; International Court of Justice; Economic and Social Council; Secretariat c b Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, voluntarily financed extends international protection to more than 18 million refugees, seeking to ensure that they receive asylum and favourable legal status in their asylum country UN Childrens Fund, voluntarily financed, helps developing countries, at their request, to improve the quality of the life of their children, through low cost community based services in maternal and child health, nutrition, sanitation and education, as well as emergency relief UN Development Programme, the worlds largest channel for multi-lateral technical and pre investment assistance to developing countries, is supporting over 6,000 projects in some 150 countries

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

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LESSON 2 UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (UNPKO)


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 The Changing Nature of Conflicts The Need for UN Peacekeeping Fundamentals of Traditional Peacekeeping Types of UN Peacekeeping Operations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Other UN Peace Activities

Lesson 2 / UN Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO)

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide MILBOS with the basic knowledge of UN peacekeeping operations. Upon completion of the lesson, all students will be familiar with UN peacekeeping operations, its fundamentals and concepts. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

List some fundamentals of traditional peacekeeping; Explain broadly the differences between traditional peacekeeping operation and complex peacekeeping operations; and List other UN peace activities.

INTRODUCTION

Military Observers (MILOBS) need to be guided by a deep understanding of UN organisations and principles. In order to operate in the mission efficiently and effectively, they should have a clear picture of the background, functions, and in particular the role of the UN in peacekeeping activities. MILOBS should also be capable of operating in a conflict or postconflict area within a multi-national and multi-disciplinary environment, respectful of different cultures and of professional ethics. They should also be able to avoid conflict-escalation while also being ready to cope with it.

Lesson 2 / UN Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO)

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2.1

The Changing Nature of Conflicts

During the first decade of the post-Cold War era, the United Nations was confronted with a significant change in the nature of conflict. Interstate wars have become more the exception than the rule. Post-Cold War conflicts have been predominantly intrastate conflicts or civil wars. Instead of wars in which two nations with organised armies face each other, todays conflict is typically an internal struggle, with irregular forces, light weapons, and guerrilla tactics. These wars take place within a state rather than between two states. Examples can be found in Somalia, the Balkans, Liberia, Haiti, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition, an increasing number of actors add to the complexity of post-Cold War conflicts. In many intrastate and ethnic conflicts, there are not just two opposing forces. Rather, there are typically rival warlords, factional leaders, para-military forces, and even organised criminal groups. The principle of reciprocity in international laws that has historically given states an incentive to cooperate with each other and to respect international norms and rules is inoperative in most of these Peacekeepers from Pakistan arrive in Che, DRC, with situations. This also applies to the UN reinforcements of ammunition to secure the area where refugees principle of state sovereignty that have amassed after fleeing their towns following brutal militia has defined whose consent was fighting. (MONUC Photo, Christophe Boulierac, January 2005) traditionally sought before undertaking a peacekeeping operation. Post-Cold War conflicts have thus blurred what lines existed between national and international; military and civilian; organised crime and legitimate political groups; and civil war and interstate war. The key problem in these situations is anarchic violence within countries, not the use of military force between them.

2.2

The Need for UN Peacekeeping

As the nature of conflicts changed from interstate conflicts to intrastate conflicts, the initial response of the international community was to expand peacekeeping greatly. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the number, size, scope, and cost of these efforts all increased dramatically. Three factors accounted for this growth. Firstly, the end of the Cold War brought an end to the superpower confrontation that so often rendered the UN unable to act. Largely due to this rivalry, from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, only one new Peacekeeping Operation (PKO), the

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in 1978 was initiated. However, in the postCold War period, with cooperation having replaced competition, the Security Council began making greater use of the UN to deal with these wars. A second factor was the change in the type and frequency of armed conflicts. The decolonisation and independence of so many countries since the end of World War II resulted in a surge in civil wars as political elites within these new nations struggled for dominance. The third factor arose out of humanitarian concerns. As the international community struggled to deal with human suffering caused by the growing number of intrastate conflicts, policymakers saw peacekeeping as a vehicle for helping to solve or mitigate humanitarian crisis. Peacekeepers were often given the task of creating a safe and secure environment within which humanitarian actors could safely operate. Peace and Security in the Charter Peacekeeping was developed as a series of ad hoc practical mechanisms used by the United Nations to help contain armed conflicts and settle them by peaceful means. The mechanism devised by the United Nations to ensure international peace and security is outlined in Chapters VI, VII and VIII of the Charter. Chapter VI provides for the settlement of disputes by a variety of peaceful measures, including negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and judicial settlement (Article 33). The Security Council is authorised to call on the parties to settle their disputes by peaceful means or to make recommendations (Article 37). Thus, the decisions or recommendations of the council for the appropriate terms of settlement of an international dispute should be carried out by the parties themselves. Chapter VI is not a provision of the UN Charter but a new and tentative concept applying to the multi-dimensional operations which, while originally mandated under Chapter VI, are forced by realities in the field to turn into a Chapter VII operation. An example of such an operation includes when humanitarian convoys need to be defended by the force of arms. Other terms to describe Chapter VI are multi-dimensional peacekeeping; robust peacekeeping; a grey area operation; and a Chapter VI operation. Chapter VII is essentially coercive and designed to deal with threats to peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression. Under Chapter VII, the United Nations Security Council should determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression to make recommendations or decide what measures shall be taken to maintain or restore international peace and security (Article 39). Before resorting to enforcement, the Security Council may call on the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it considers necessary (Article 40). These measures may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and means of communication, the severance of diplomatic relations (Article 41) or such action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security (Article 42).

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2.3

Fundamentals of Traditional Peacekeeping

The following fundamentals are applied to every peacekeeping mission:

Consent UN Peacekeeping Operations are established with the consent and cooperation of the main parties involved in a conflict. Impartiality A UN force must be impartial in character. The force cannot take sides without becoming part of the traditional conflict it has been mandated to control and resolve. Minimum Use of Force In peacekeeping operations, force will not be used to carry out the mandate. Minimum use of force does not exclude self-defence of United Nations personnel and property. The use of force must be clearly defined in the Rules of Engagement (ROE). Credibility The credibility of a peacekeeping operation is the confirmation of its ability to accomplish its mandate. In order to effectively carry out its mandate and earn the confidence of the parties, a peacekeeping force must be composed of trained personnel who are well equipped and possess high professional standards. Negotiation and Mediation Negotiation and mediation have enormous potential in deescalating a conflict, to promote a secure environment, and to develop peaceful and lasting solutions to a conflict.

Keep in mind that consent may not be the norm in complex peacekeeping. In fact, complex peacekeeping may not have consent from any party. In addition, minimum use of force may also not be the case for complex peacekeeping the degree of force authorised will be provided by the mandate. Operational and Tactical Considerations A traditional peacekeeping mission is primarily a political operation. The head of the mission is responsible for establishing the inter-operability of the various components of the mission, considering the political objectives defined in the mandate. The frame of reference for dealing with rapidly changing or unanticipated situations that require an immediate response is:

Transparency Transparency is consistent with the prevailing requirements for security. All parties should be fully aware of the motives, mission, and intentions of the operation. Coordination A peacekeeping operation may involve a wide range of organisations, e.g., United Nations relief agencies and non-governmental organisations. Personnel at all levels should seek to establish and nurture coordination within the mission, with United Nations headquarters, within their operational areas, and with the local population. Liaison Communication should be established at every possible level at the earliest opportunity. Information Information is essential for the force in order to make continuously updated assessments of the attitudes and capabilities of the parties concerned.

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Limitations and Restrictions The area of operations is strictly defined, operations to gather information are limited, and the Rules of Engagement will normally forbid the use of force unless absolutely necessary for self-defence. Armaments Peacekeeping forces are normally lightly armed and will deploy with only the armaments required for self-defence, consistent with the mandate and the situation in the area of operation. Visibility The physical visibility of a force is enhanced by wearing distinctive, easilyrecognised United Nations headgear, badges, signs, and insignia. Peacekeeping forces must also make their intentions perfectly clear to all parties. Mobility Peacekeeping forces must be mobile in order to navigate large areas. They must have the capacity to respond rapidly to incidents. Centralisation All activities of the force and all incidents it encounters may have political ramifications. Therefore, reporting and decision-making may be more centralised than in standard military operation. Forces must have adequate communication systems to facilitate the rapid transmission of information from the lowest level in the field to the mission headquarters. Self-sufficiency Peacekeeping units should arrive in the area of operations as soon as possible and with sufficient stores to operate until a logistics base is in place.

2.4

Types of UN Peacekeeping Operations

By measuring the operational environment and the level of military effort involved in all UN peacekeeping operations from 1948 to 2005, the resultant analytical framework places UN peacekeeping operations into two general categories: Traditional Peacekeeping Operations Traditional peacekeeping operations relied on the consent and cooperation of the belligerents and were largely restricted to the interposition of unarmed observers or lightly armed peacekeepers between warring states, once the following conditions had been met: a cease-fire agreement was in place, and the parties to the conflict fully consented to their deployment. The objectives of traditional peacekeeping operations are the most circumscribed of all UN operations and are generally limited simply to reporting conditions following the political agreement. Within this general objective, one can distinguish three specific military tasks commonly given to UN traditional peacekeeping operations:

Border or demilitarised zone monitoring; Cease-fire, truce, or general armistice agreement monitoring; and Supervision of the withdrawal of forces.

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Therefore, the primary military objective of most traditional peacekeeping operations is to occupy a clearly-recognised and usually linear interposition buffer zone. Traditional peacekeepers are authorised to use force only in self-defence. Traditional peacekeepers are never intended to use active force to coerce belligerents; there were, of course, never structured for this or mandated to do so. Despite this passive approach, operations are still often dangerous. Many contemporary studies refer to traditional peacekeeping as Chapter VI operations. Examples of Traditional Observation Missions UNTSO UN Truce Supervision Organisation UNMOGIP UN Military Observers Group in India and Pakistan UNOGIL UN Observation Group in Lebanon Examples of Traditional Observer and Peacekeeping Mission UNEF I UN Emergency Force I UNSF UN Security Force in New Guinea UNEF II UN Emergency Force II UNDOF UN Disengagement Observers Force UNIFIL UN Interim Force in Lebanon Complex Peacekeeping Operations Complex peacekeeping operations may be authorised under Chapter VI and VII. These operations are multi-functional missions in which the military component is only one part of a comprehensive political, diplomatic, humanitarian, and economic effort. The objectives of these missions include supporting civilian components and non-governmental organisations in the provision of humanitarian aid; the organisation and protection of elections; the supervision of government functions; the disarmament and demobilisation of a large number of parties; the repatriation and rehabilitation of refugees; the protection of safe areas; the restoration of national governments and institutions; and other such objectives. These tasks are also done as ancillary missions in many traditional peacekeeping operations but on a much smaller scale and with much less emphasis than in complex peacekeeping operation. The actual military missions of complex peacekeeping operations are more complicated than those of their buffer zone predecessors, even when conducted in a permissive environment. The environment of complex peacekeeping operations are considerably more bellicose and complex than those of traditional peacekeeping, where most missions are deployed in clearly linear buffer zones between consenting nation states. In contrast, the environment of complex peacekeeping operation is characterised largely by unstable intrastate conflicts. These often are hostile environments where a virtual state of war existed or was in temporary remission. Examples of Complex Peacekeeping Operations UNPROFOR UN Protection Force UNOSOM II UN Operation in Somalia II UNOMOZ Operacao das Nacoes Unidas en Mocambique UNAMIR UN Mission in Rwanda UNTAC UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia

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2.5

Department of Peacekeeping Operations

Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)


Office of the Under Secretary General

Mine Action Service

Executive Office

Best Practices Unit

Office of Operations

Military Division

Civilian Police Division

Office of Mission Support

Africa Division

Military Planning

Logistics Support Division

Asia and Middle East Division

Force Generation

Administrative Support Division

Europe and Latin America Division

Current Military Operations

Situation Center

Training & Evaluation

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) is the operational arm for all United Nations peacekeeping operations and it is responsible for the conduct, management, direction, planning and preparation of those operations. It develops plans and methodologies for peacekeeping operations (Office of Operations, Military Division and Civil Police Division); secures, through negotiations with governments, the personnel and equipment required for operations; provides logistical and administrative support for operations and political or humanitarian missions; proposes resource requirements and monitors and controls funds related to peacekeeping activities (Office of Mission Support); maintains contacts with parties to conflicts and members of the Security Council on the implementation of Council decisions; undertakes contingency planning for possible new operations; carries out analysis of emerging policy questions; and formulates policies and procedures in this regard. It also coordinates all United Nations activities related to landmines and develops and supports mine action programmes in peacekeeping and emergency situations (Mine Action Service). The Best Practices Unit collects lessons learned and promotes the integration of these into the planning and conduct of UN Peacekeeping Operations. The head of the department the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations directs peacekeeping operations on behalf of the Secretary-General; formulates policies and guidelines for operations; and advises the Secretary-General on all related matters.

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2.6

Other UN Peace Activities

Peacekeeping is only one of the UNs mechanisms for conflict resolution. There are other important UN peace activities, which need to be discussed as part of this lesson. These activities are the most cost-effective ways of preventing disputes from arising, stopping existing disputes from escalating into conflicts, and controlling and resolving existing conflicts. These activities include preventive diplomacy, peace-making, peacebuilding, sanctions, and disarmament. The Secretary-General continues to receive mandates from the General Assembly and the Security Council to maintain existing efforts and to undertake new ones in this field. The Secretary-General, through his special representatives, special envoys, and other emissaries on a resident or visiting basis, is actively engaged in implementing these political mandates in several countries. The primary responsibility for preventive action, peace-making, peacebuilding, sanction, and disarmament rests with the Department of Political Affairs (DPA).

Preventive diplomacy is action taken to prevent disputes from developing between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts, and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Peace-making is diplomatic action to bring hostile parties to negotiated agreements through such peaceful means as those foreseen under Chapter VI of the UN Charter. Peacebuilding is critical in the aftermath of conflict. Peacebuilding includes the identification and support of measures and structures that will promote peace and build trust and interaction among former enemies, in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. Sanctions are to apply measures not involving the use of force in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such measures are commonly referred to as sanctions. This legal basis is recalled in order to underline that the purpose of sanctions is to modify the behaviour of a party that is threatening international peace and security and not to punish or otherwise exact retribution. Disarmament is the assembly, control and disposal of weapons. Micro-disarmament is the practical disarmament in the context of the conflicts the United Nations is actually dealing with. Micro-disarmament is relevant to post-conflict peacebuilding. Disarmament can also follow enforcement action. All sanction's regimes include an arms embargo.

Ongoing Peacekeeping Missions UNTSO UN Truce Supervision Organisation, June 1948 UNMOGIP UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan, January 1949 UNFICYP UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, March 1964 UNDOF UN Disengagement Observer Force, June 1974 UNIFIL UN Interim Force in Lebanon, March 1978 MINURSO UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara, April 1991 UNOMIG UN Observer Mission in Georgia, August 1993 UNMIK UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, June 1999 UNAMSIL UN Mission in Sierra Leone, October 1999

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MONUC UNMEE UNMIL UNOCI MINUSTAH ONUB UNMIS

UN Organisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, December 1999 UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, July 2000 UN Mission in Liberia, September 2003 UN Operation in Cote dIvoire, April 2004 UN Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, June 2004 UN Operations in Burundi, June 2004 UN Mission in the Sudan, January 2005

NOTE: As the status of missions change, the following website will reflect the most updated map of current missions: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/bnote.htm.

UN Headquarters Building for the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), Asmara Eritrea.

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LESSON 2 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

List and briefly describe the five UN practices, other than peacekeeping.

2.

Why was peacekeeping developed? a. To help contain armed conflicts; b. To help settle armed conflicts by peaceful means; c. To provide a means of income for militaries in developing countries; d. None of the above.

3.

What are the two types of peacekeeping missions? a. Traditional and Complex; b. Mediation and Traditional; c. Humanitarian and Complex; d. Judicial and Traditional.

4.

Which is the operational arm for all UN Peacekeeping Operations, and responsible for the conduct, management, direction, planning and preparation of those operations? a. Office of Mission Support; b. Mine Action Service; c. Office of Operations, Military Division and Civil Police Division; d. Department of Peacekeeping Operations.

5.

Before resorting to enforcement, the UN Security Council may: a. Call on the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it considers necessary; b. Decide that the condition between the two adversaries does not warrant action; c. Ask for a third party to mediate; d. Allow the nations to struggle with the situation without UN assistance.

6.

Chapter VI provides for: a. The settlement of disputes by a variety of peaceful measures; b. Negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and judicial settlement (Article 33); c. The authorisation of the Economic and Social Committee to call on the parties to settle their disputes by peaceful means or to make recommendations (Article 37); d. The grey area between Chapters V and VII.

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7.

Which of the following characterises the importance of Chapter VII of the UN Charter? a. It is essentially coercive and designed to deal with threats to peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggression; b. It allows the United Nations Security Council to determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression; c. It allows the UNSC to make recommendations or decide what measures shall be taken to maintain or restore international peace and security; d. All of the above. List the three specific military tasks of traditional peacekeeping operations.

8.

9.

Traditional peacekeeping operations: a. Do not require the consent or cooperation of the belligerents; b. Consist of peacekeepers that come from the belligerent countries; c. Have unarmed observers and/or lightly armed military units that come from neutral Member States; d. Have no buffer zone.

10. Match the following with their missions. 1. Office of Operations, Military Division and Civil Police Division 2. Office of Mission Support 3. Mine Action Service 4. Best Practices Unit 5. Under-Secretary-General a. Maintains contacts with parties to conflicts and members of the UNSC on implementation of the Council decisions b. Develops plans for peacekeeping operations c. Coordinates all UN activities related to landmines d. Develops and supports mine action programmes e. Directs PKO on behalf of the SecretaryGeneral f. Collects lessons learned g. Secures, through negotiations with government, the personnel and equipment needed for a peacekeeping activity

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Preventive Diplomacy; Peace-Making; Peacebuilding; Sanctions; Disarmament c a d a b d Border or demilitarised zone monitoring; cease-fire, truce, or general armistice agreement monitoring; and supervision of the withdrawal of forces c 1b; 2ag; 3cd; 4f; 5e

9. 10.

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LESSON 3 STRUCTURE OF UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Generic Structure of Peacekeeping Operations Organisation and Mission of the Office of the SRSG Civilian Administration Component Military Component Representation of UN Agencies Human Rights Component Humanitarian Assistance Component Electoral Component Integration of Efforts and Cooperation

3.10 Chain of Command

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide Military Observers and peacekeepers with information on the structure of different traditional and complex United Nations peacekeeping operations. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

List the components normally present in UN peacekeeping operations; List the roles of each component; State how the different components may integrate and cooperate; and Identify his/her chain of command in accordance with his/her position in the mission.

INTRODUCTION

Since the early 1990s, peacekeeping operations have evolved significantly from exclusively military forces to todays complex missions. The expansion in both the scope and complexity of UN peacekeeping has underscored the importance of training. Peacekeeping is no longer primarily a military concern but has become more and more multi-dimensional, employing an increasing number of civilian personnel, such as civilian police; human rights and election monitors; humanitarian assistance personnel; and other components. Peacekeepers, both civilian and military, work closely with colleagues from diverse nationalities and backgrounds with various levels of training and experience. Therefore, it is important for all peacekeeping personnel to share the same understanding and knowledge of the organisation and relationship among the participants in United Nations peacekeeping operations.

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3.1

Generic Structure of Peacekeeping Operations

Peacekeeping is a joint and combined effort, composed of many elements and people united in their quest for peace. The United Nations, as the worlds major international organisation, is both large and complex, staffed with personnel from all of its Member States. Peacekeeping operations (also called missions or field missions) present a similar profile. They are manned by military personnel, or Blue Helmets, from many troop-contributing countries (TCCs). They are also manned by civilians from many organisations of the United Nations. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), governmental organisations (GO), UN Civilian Police (CIVPOL), and others are normally present in UNPKOs. Peacekeepers must be aware of all the components present in the mission area and understand the complementary roles of each for the success of the operation.

UN peacekeeping missions generic structure


SRSG or FC (Head of Mission) SRSG Staff Human Rights

Political Affairs Public Information

Legal Affairs

Deputy

Military Component

Civilian Police Component

Civilian Components

Formed Units UNMOs

Formed Units Civilian Police Monitors

Civilian Administration Humanitarian Assistance Electoral Component

In a mission, United Nations peacekeepers will normally encounter and work with the following components:

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General Civilian Administration Military component, including UN Military Observers, Civilian Police, Formed Units, and Staff Officers Human Rights component Humanitarian Assistance component Electoral component

In traditional missions, the organisation may be relatively simple. However, peacekeeping operations that respond to complex emergencies require a multi-dimensional structure. This is commonly referred to as a complex peacekeeping mission.

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Traditional Peacekeeping UNFICYP (UN Force In Cyprus)


SRSG

FC (Force Commander)

CPC (Civilian Police Commisioner)

CAO (Chief Administrative Officer)

Formed Military Units Battalions, Companies, Logisitic and Medical Units

CivPol Monitors

UN Civilian Administration

Traditional peacekeeping operations normally have as their main element a military component. Civilian Police may be present, and all are supported by a civilian administration component. These peacekeeping operations tend to maintain their structure and organisation with only minor changes for the duration of the mandate. Examples of traditional peacekeeping operations include: UNMOGIP, established in 1949; UNMEE, a recent mission (2000) with a traditional mandate of forces separation; and UNFICYP, whose organisation is described above. Complex Peacekeeping

MONUC (Mission de lOrganisation des Nations Unies au Congo)


SRSG SRSG Staff Human Rights

D/SRSG CAO (Chief Administrative Officer)

CISS (Chief Integrated Support Services)

Joint Military Commision (African Union) Military Staff

FC (Force Commander)

CPC (Civilian Police Comissioner)

Humanitarian Assistance

CivPol Monitors

Formed Military Units

CMO (Chief Military Observer)

Guard Units Riverine Units Military Police

Engineers Coy Medical Support

UNMO Teams

Complex peacekeeping operations, by definition, involve situations that require the participation of the full scope of the elements of the UN family of organisations. The Military and Civilian Police components, however important in size, normally are just specialised elements supporting the mandate with their specific capabilities. The Humanitarian Assistance, the Civil Administration, and the Public Information components, among many others, are supporting the success of the peace efforts with their own capabilities. Thus, these elements have larger organisations and resources than in traditional peacekeeping. The situations tend to be more fluid and difficult to predict, imposing continuous reassessments of the mandate. Reorganisation and redeployment are normal in these operations. The first mission to be

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described as complex was the successful UNTAC in Cambodia. Current examples of complex peacekeeping operations include: UNTAET/UNMISET in East Timor; UNAMSIL in Sierra Leone; and MONUC in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

3.2

Organisation and Mission of the Office of the SRSG

The Secretary-General, with the approval of the Security Council, appoints the head of peacekeeping operations in a mission area. This person determines the further delegation of authority in the field on behalf of the Secretary-General. The chief of the military component in a peacekeeping operation (the Force Commander or Chief Military Observer) is also appointed by the Secretary-General. He/she is given appropriate authority over all military units and personnel in the mission area in light of operational requirements. Therefore, the SRSG is a specially-appointed individual who exercises diplomatic and political authority in the mission area. An SRSG supported by political and mediation staff conducts diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict. The following are the roles and responsibilities of the Office of the SRSG:

Manages the political aspects of the mission to include the resolution and the mandate; Provides leadership to the mission; Plans the process: political / end-state / vision / steps in the process; Coordinates the overall operation by providing unity of effort and harmonising that effort through personal leadership; Coordinates the United Nations response on the ground; coordinates all policy and operational objectives; examines and supervises the roles of the various components in the mission area; Conducts aspects of peacekeeping, such as mediation and negotiation, with the various parties; encourages these parties to engage in negotiation; facilitates international action to alleviate human suffering; and Executes the Security Council Resolution based on delegation of responsibility from the Secretary-General.

3.3

Civilian Administration Component

The Civilian Administrative component is headed by the Chief Administration Officer (CAO). The Chief Administration Officer is an international civil servant, normally with extensive experience in UN peacekeeping operations and in UN administration. He/she plans and forecasts requirements in areas of logistics, personnel, and finance; provides field administration to all components of the mission; and advises the Head of Mission. The Civilian Administration component consists of United Nations employees. In this component one can find International Civil Servants supported for managerial, administrative, and clerical tasks by locally recruited staff. Translators, clerks, drivers, and janitors are examples of the support contracted to local staff.

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The Civilian Administrations tasks in support of the mission may include:


Supply support, procurement and re-supply Food services Transportation Maintenance of vehicles and equipment Field construction engineering and technical services Aviation and air services Signals and communications Personnel administration and services Security services Budgeting and financial services Health services Postal and courier services Staff assistance

The Civilian Administration provides full direct support to all the elements in the mission, according to their needs in the field. Military Observers, Civilian Police and Civilians are provided with vehicles and, in some cases, even with food and lodging where these are unavailable due to special geographical constraints, such as the desert in MINURSO. Formed units are supplied, normally through the use of contractors, with supplies such as food and fuel. In some operations, the Civilian Administration may even be responsible for supporting the local government, for examples in UNTAET in East Timor.

3.4

Military Component Military Component Generic Organisation


FC (Force Commander) COS (Chief Of Staff)

Military Staff

Formed Units

CMO (Chief Military Observers)

Infantry Units Medical Transport

Task Forces Engineers

Sector HQ

UNMO Teams

UNMOs Teams Logistics

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The military component includes formed units and MILOBS depending on the size and complexity of the mission. The Force Commander is always the chief of the military component, whenever there are formed units. The Chief Military Observer commands the MILOBS. The Force Commander provides leadership and exercises command over assigned forces. He/she will be an outstanding military officer at Major General rank, with ample UN peacekeeping and command experience and from a troop-contributing country. He/she is appointed by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. His/her responsibilities include: Command the military component, being also the main military advisor to the SRSG on military issues. The Force Commander may also be designated Head of Mission if an SRSG is not appointed; Execute the military mission; and Be responsible for discipline and conduct. Military Staff is mostly integrated by professional officers from the troop-contributing countries. In some small or traditional peacekeeping operations, these officers have Military Observers status for the UN and deploy as individuals. In complex peacekeeping or large missions, the military staff includes Non-Commissioned Officers in supporting roles, and all members are deployed as Staff Officers (formed units type). The international composition is a characteristic of UN Military Staff and is designed to ensure impartiality and proportional representation of the TCCs. They accomplish the normal duties of Staff Officers, and they normally have ranks from Major to Colonel. Each Field Mission will organise its military staff in accordance with the size, complexity, and mandate of the operations. The Formed Units assigned to peacekeeping missions are led by a designated Force Commander. In the majority of situations, formed military units: Consist of battalion-size units (Officers, NCOs and Soldiers); Are organised with up to three Motorised Infantry Companies, one Mechanised Infantry Company (Armoured Personnel Carriers), and are supported by a Headquarters Company; Are normally armed with weapons up to cal 12.7 machine guns and 81 mm mortars in traditional peacekeeping. This may vary based on a missions mandate. In some UNPKOs with a stronger mandate, heavy armour is deployed, as well as attack helicopters; Normally are organised in military style with a command and control central structure; Provide a large number of small armed detachments for manning positions, observation posts, and checkpoints or ground patrols; and May include, depending on the size of the mandate: Engineers, for camp and road maintenance and construction, potable water, etc.; Medical, at different levels with the mission to provide the medical support to all the mission personnel; Transport, such as land transport with transport sub units (trucks, buses, cars, etc), air transport (aircraft and helicopters), and even sea/river transport with ferries, boats and ships of different capabilities.

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Formed units will strongly contribute to the creation of a secure environment in support of peace. They deploy with their own equipment and specialised supplies, therefore having a large degree of self-sufficiency. Military Observers (MILOBS or UNMOs) are a group of international officers, usually under the command of a Chief Military Observer. They must have a strong professional background and receive specific training prior to deployment. In addition, these officers are: Unarmed, wearing their national uniforms and ranks, and the UN symbols on their shoulder patch and blue beret; Normally with the ranks of Captain to Lieutenant Colonel; and Organised in groups and small teams distributed in all the area of responsibility of the mission. Individuals from different TCCs always form the teams. The tasks assigned to MILOBS may include the following: Observe and report cease-fire violations; Liaise and communicate between factions; Patrol and report on isolated areas; Investigate accidents; Inspect and verify arms agreements; Negotiate and mediate between factions; Assist in cross-boundary movements; Facilitate body or POW exchange; Supervise the disarmament of militia and military forces; Monitor the separation or withdrawal of troops; Supervise the destruction of armaments; Observe and report alleged abuses of Human Rights; Assist in the conduct of a referendum or Lt Col Smailes, a UK UNAMSIL Military Observer, discusses their work with farmers in election; Provide assistance to humanitarian Sector West, UNAMSIL. (Photo by Kemal Saiki, 2003) agencies; and Supervise disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration and cantonment of military forces. The Civilian Police component is playing an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping. Civilian Police officers help build confidence in local communities. The Police Commissioner has authority over all CIVPOL deployed in the mission. His/her primary function is to assist and advise the political component SRSG and is also responsible for internal police discipline and conduct. One of the first components of Civilian Police (CIVPOL) to be deployed was in the Congo in the 1960s and has been part of the United Nations Force in Cyprus for more than 30 years. Since 1990 the police presence in every peacekeeping mission has been a regular feature. The role and functions of Civilian Police are constantly changing and are directed towards the sustainable law and order capacity of the nation and assist in the development of good governance.

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Since the 1990s their roles have varied from monitoring, advising, and assisting, to their executive role in recent complex missions. Executive roles are mandated normally in the political context of a lack of national government authorities or their inability to maintain law and order. In these cases, the United Nations Civil Police carry out their duties as in their home country, with powers to arrest and investigate local citizens. Organised in groups and teams under the command of a Civilian Police Commissioner, Civilian Police (CIVPOL) have the following responsibilities: Ensure that law and order are maintained effectively and impartially; Ensure that human rights and criminal justice standards are fully respected; Monitor law enforcement activities of local officials; Supervise or control the local civilian police; Carry out general police duties, such as the investigation of incidents; Supervise the return of refugees and POWs; Supervise the demobilisation of local police forces; Assist in registration and election procedures; and Assist in the retraining of local police forces.

3.5

Representation of UN Agencies

Since the end of the Cold War, there has been an upsurge in the number and intensity of civil wars and inter-ethnic conflicts. These have caused large-scale humanitarian crises with extensive loss of life, massive displacement of people, and widespread damage to societies in complicated political and military environments. To address these complex emergencies, the United Nations has upgraded its capacity to respond quickly and effectively. The General Assembly in 1991 established the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to coordinate the international response to humanitarian crises. Many actors, including governments, non-government organisations (NGOs), and United Nations Agencies, seek to respond simultaneously to such emergencies. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) works with these groups to ensure that there is a coherent framework within which everyone can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort.

3.6

Human Rights Component

Those involved in the Human Rights component are civilian specialists under the direction of a representative appointed by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Their tasks include the investigation and follow-up incidents where alleged violations of Human Rights have taken place. They have a very important role in complex peacekeeping, as one of the characteristics of these operations is the recurrence of human rights violations toward the local population, especially women and children.

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3.7

Humanitarian Assistance Component

These are groups of civilians usually headed by a Humanitarian Coordinator. The Humanitarian Coordinator does not command humanitarian elements; rather he/she provides international and field coordination to both agencies and NGOs. He/she provides guidance on policy and allocates tasks. He/she also provides advice to the political, military, and civilian police components, as required. Conflicts strongly affect the weak elements of any society. Women, children, and the elderly suffer. Diseases, lack of health support, and a strong diminution of the living standards of the population will accompany conflict. The humanitarian elements will use all of their resources to alleviate the crisis and support the return of the population to their normal lives. Their collective responsibilities include the following:

Food distribution Medical and shelter supply Other necessities for living Development projects Reconstruction efforts

Humanitarian assistance components work based on a strong principle of impartiality, and their presence in a conflict area is always appreciated. Humanitarian workers normally know the area and the people and arrive in the field before the peacekeepers. They should be highly respected by all, as they are doing a dangerous and difficult job to mitigate the effects of crisis and conflict.

3.8

Electoral Component

Not all of the missions have the mandate of supervising and organising free and fair elections. Where the mandate, exists there is an Electoral Component. It consists of civilians, mostly recruited through the system of United Nations Volunteers and organised in regional groups under the authority of a Chief Electoral Officer who: Monitors the process of elections; Verifies on behalf of the international community that the elections are free and fair. They are deployed in small teams in all the electoral districts of the mission area.

A woman voting in Muhira late morning in the reorganisation of elections in Kanyosha, Nyabiraba, Muhuta, and Isale communes in the Bujumbura Rural and Bubanza Provinces. (ONUB Photo, Martine Perret, 7 June 2005)

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3.9

Integration of Efforts and Cooperation

The multi-functional nature of peacekeeping operations and the complementary roles of each component in the fulfilment of a mandate require cooperation and integration of efforts. In complex peacekeeping operations all components must be considered and act as equal partners. Each provides a different capability in the support of peace. The SRSG and the SRSG office represent the political factor. The other components are elements that they use or coordinate in order to fulfil the mandate. For example, the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration process is a combined task. The military provide security and trained personnel to receive, inspect, store, and destroy the weapons. They provide, together with the Civilian Police, a safe and secure context for the parties to disarm. The Humanitarian Assistance organisations support the effort by supplying food, shelter, and tools for the demobilised soldiers, and they train them for the reintegration to civilian life. UNHCR may help the return of displaced families to their homes, thus supporting the whole process. The Explosive Ordnance Devices (EOD, mines) specialists of the Military component or UN Mine Action Service support the reintegration of demobilised soldiers, ensuring the safe use of land and communication lines (roads, bridges, etc.). Each element has its own organisation, regulations, and objectives. More importantly, each has its own organisational culture. It is important to understand and know about each element. This will result in an integration of efforts and cooperation and will allow the full use of available assets in the mission, thus setting the stage for the success of the peacekeeping operation.

3.10

Chain of Command

The chain of command in United Nations peacekeeping operations is normally integrated by the: 1. 2. 3. 4. Secretary-General Special Representative of the Secretary-General Deputy SRSG Force Commander or Chief Military Observer

This may vary in accordance with the organisation and composition of the mission. Peacekeepers in formed units are commanded by their own officers and noncommissioned officers. In all cases, discipline is a national responsibility, and the unit or contingent commander is responsible to the Force Commander. For discipline, the national chain of command applies to the MILOBS and CIVPOL. However, the operational and tasking command are commanded by the senior officer in the team or the element. UN Civilian Administration Staff and civilians of other components are subject to their own organisations regulations.

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LESSON 3 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

Which of the following are some of the components normally present in a UN Peacekeeping Operations? a. Civilian Administration, Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, Human Rights; b. Military Observers, Civilian Administration, Secretary-General; c. Electoral Staff, Civilian Police, Civilian Administration, Military; d. Human Rights Staff, Red Crescent, MILOBS, Civilian Police.

2.

Select two of the following components and describe their purpose(s) in a single paragraph: Civilian Administration, UN Military Observers, Formed Units, Civilian Police, Human Rights, Electoral Component, Humanitarian Assistance.

3.

What is one of the roles of the Civilian Administration Component? a. Supply and food services; b. Transportation and medical services; c. Field constructions and transportation; d. Maintenance of UN-owned vehicles and equipment.

4.

While you are in the field on a patrolling mission, you notice that a local mans human rights are being violated. What do you do? a. Ignore it and move on. It is a local government issue; b. Offer assistance to the man; c. Report the incident through your chain of command; d. Assume that someone has already sent it to the UNHCR.

5.

You find yourself assigned to a mission that has been assigned, as its mandate, the monitoring of free and fair elections. You have built a good relationship with the local community leader, who asks you to make sure that no one threatens or interferes with the voting process. Which of the following will you do? a. Turn this over to the local authorities; b. Tell him that you will organise a team of MILOBS to help you discourage anyone from interrupting the voting process; c. Remind him that you are only a MILOB and cannot do anything at all; d. Remind him that the Chief Electoral Officer is a member of the UN mission and is responsible for verifying that the elections are free and fair.

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6.

Identify which of the following organisations you would find in the Humanitarian Assistance Centre of a UN mission. a. UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Committee of the Red Cross, UNICEF, UNDP; b. Free the Children, OXFAM, International Committee of the Red Cross; c. International Committee of the Red Cross, UNICEF, Doctors Without Borders, World Bank; d. UN Development Programme (UNDP), Doctors Without Borders, UNHCR.

7.

As a MILOB, you are in a mission assigned to a UNMO Team that follows a Military Component Generic Organisation. What is your chain of command? Select all that apply. Military Component Generic Organisation
FC (Force Commander) COS (Chief Of Staff)

Military Staff

Formed Units

CMO (Chief Military Observers)

Infantry Units Medical Transport

Task Forces Engineers

Sector HQ

UNMO Teams

UNMOs Teams Logistics

a. b. c. d.

Your chain of command is directly to your countrys senior military in the mission; The Force Commander has military control over all assigned military; Your chain of command is through your sector HQ to the Chief Military Observer; None of the above.

8.

As a Military Observer, you will: a. Always carry a personal weapon; b. Patrol and report on isolated areas; c. Never negotiate or mediate between factions; d. Not be involved with Prisoner of War exchanges.

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9.

The Humanitarian Assistance Coordinator: a. Commands over humanitarian elements; b. Provides international and field coordination to both agencies and NGOs; c. Never provides advice to the political, military and civilian police components; d. Does no coordination whatsoever.

10. Which of the following individuals provides leadership and exercises command over assigned forces in a peacekeeping mission? a. Humanitarian Coordinator; b. NGO Organiser; c. MILOB; d. Force Commander.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

c See definitions in text a c d a b b b d

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LESSON 4 LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 The UN Charter UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) Principles for UN Peacekeeping Operations Law and UN Peacekeeping Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Rules of Engagement (ROE) Impact on the UN Peacekeeper

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide peacekeepers with the basic information of the legal framework of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

List the process by which the UN initiates a peacekeeping operation; Briefly state the concept of a mandate; Describe the legal framework for UNPKOs; Explain the concept of UN Rules of Engagement (ROE); and Describe the impact of the legal framework on personal behaviour.

INTRODUCTION

All United Nations peacekeeping operations are legitimate. Their legitimacy derives from the fact that they are established by a mandate of the Security Council. Furthermore, the respect and successful implementation of the mandate requires the support and approval of all the actors involved in the peacekeeping operation. On the basic level, it is essential that MILOBS and peacekeepers of all nations, whether military, civilian police or civilian, understand and respects the legal framework for UN peacekeeping operations (PKO). The conduct of each individual represents the United Nations, and any misconduct or mistake at the tactical level may greatly affect the operation. There are many examples of failures produced as a result of different interpretations of a mandate or other legal issues. Furthermore, many of the aspects of peacekeeping operations have a legal context, and these deal with many of the elements of complex interventions: conflict and war; military intervention by the UN or coalitions; use of force in peace operations; status of individuals and of forces in peace operations; refugees; internally displaced persons; international aid workers; and NGOs working in the field. Thus, the knowledge of the legal framework is a critical issue to include in all predeployment training for UNPKOs and MILOBS.

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4.1

The UN Charter

The Charter of the United Nations is the main legal document that states its organisation and missions. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945. During the years since its signature, many amendments have been added to it. The UN Charter does not mention peacekeeping or peace enforcement. These types of operations have developed to address particular circumstances in the latter half of the 20th Century. The level of consent of the parties involved in the conflict has an effect on the intervention and the legal aspects of the mandate. It is also the mandate that provides the legal basis for intervention. Peacekeeping Peacekeeping is mandated under Chapter VI and requires consent of the state(s) into which the UN force deploys. In short, there has to be a peace to keep. Therefore, there will normally be a cease-fire in operation, and the situation will be relatively benign. Peacekeepers and MILOBS must remain impartial toward all the parties involved. The posture of the UN peacekeeping force is reflected in the Rules of Engagement (ROE), which will normally only allow for self-defence. Peace Enforcement This is authorised under Chapter VII, entitled Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggression. The consent of the state or parties is not required. It is the only legal context for intervention. In some circumstances, the UN will delegate the authority to a regional organisation, such as NATO. Todays peacekeeping missions may contain elements of both Chapter VI and Chapter VII in their mandate, as in the case of MONUCs mandate, which is as follows: To monitor the implementation of the Cease-fire Agreement and investigate violations of the cease-fire; To establish and maintain continuous liaison with the headquarters of all the parties military forces; To develop, within 45 days of adoption of Resolution 1291, an action plan for the overall implementation of the Cease-fire Agreement by all concerned with particular emphasis on the following key objectives: the collection and verification of military information on the parties forces; the maintenance of the cessation of hostilities and the disengagement and redeployment of the parties' forces; the comprehensive disarmament, demobilisation, resettlement and reintegration of all members of all armed groups referred to in Annex A, Chapter 9.1 of the Cease-fire Agreement; and the orderly withdrawal of all foreign forces; To work with the parties to obtain the release of all prisoners of war, military captives and remains in cooperation with international humanitarian agencies; To supervise and verify the disengagement and redeployment of the parties' forces; Within its capabilities and areas of deployment, to monitor compliance with the provision of the Cease-fire Agreement on the supply of ammunition, weaponry and other war-

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related materiel to the field, including to all armed groups referred to in Annex A, Chapter 9.1; To facilitate humanitarian assistance and human rights monitoring, with particular attention to vulnerable groups including women, children and demobilised child soldiers, as MONUC deems within its capabilities and under acceptable security conditions, in close cooperation with other United Nations agencies, related organisations and nongovernmental organisations; To cooperate closely with the Facilitator of the National Dialogue, provide support and technical assistance to him, and coordinate other United Nations agencies' activities to this effect; To deploy mine action experts to asses the scope of the mine and unexploded ordnance problems, coordinate the initiation of the mine action activities, develop a mine action plan, and carry out emergency mine action activities as required in support of its mandate.

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council also decided that MONUC may take the necessary action, in the areas of deployment of its infantry battalions and as it deems it within its capabilities, to protect United Nations and co-located JMC personnel, facilities, installations and equipment, ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel, and protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.

4.2

UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR)

The UNSCR will indicate the type of peace operation that it authorises in its own language. For example, peacekeeping will mention the peace that is to be kept by reference to any agreement that exists. Peace enforcement will mention that it is authorised under Chapter VII of the UN Charter and will generally include the phrase all necessary measures. Thereafter, the UN Secretary-General will put his plan together and appoint his Special Representative (SRSG) and the Force Commander (FC). The main actors are the Security Council, the General Assembly, and the SecretaryGeneral. The mandate is a negotiated document, which gives the guidance and context of the peace operation. The Security Council is the authority for mandating and terminating UN peacekeeping operations. The mandate and the mission are central to all peacekeepers and MILOBS. It is a document that comes directly from the Security Council Resolutions. It will normally be quite specific as to the tasks to be undertaken and will translate readily in missions to each component of the mission. As the mandate is a document made by consensus, it may sometimes require an analysis by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in order to produce a refined mission statement. The mandate will determine the degree of force that can be used to execute the mission and provide for the self-defence of individuals, protected personnel, and the units deployed in the operation.

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4.3

Principles for UN Peacekeeping Operations

The following principles apply to the entire structure of the operation, from UNHQ in New York to the smallest element of the mission. Legitimacy Legitimacy derives from international support, adherence to statuary law, and conventions and credibility of the mission. Composition of the mission, including personnel from a wide range of states, reinforces legitimacy. In addition, the mission should have a clear and achievable mandate and act within international and national laws, conventions, and rules provided in the mandate. Consent In the mission area, the consent refers to acceptance of activities by the UN Force by all recognised parties in the conflict. In today's environment consent becomes fragile. A party may also withdraw its consent for the mission. Impartiality and Neutrality A UN force must be impartial in character. A careful distinction should be made here. Impartiality deals with actions and the equal treatment of both sides in a conflict. However, neutrality is a political or diplomatic position. Use of Force In peacekeeping operations, force will not be used to carry out the mandate. The use of it would be considered an enforcement action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. However, the non-use of force does not exclude the defence of UN personnel. The use of force should be clearly defined in the Rules of Engagement (ROE).

UNMEE, MaiAni, Eritrea, 2002. CIMIC Officer coordinates with Italian Contingent to send their physicians to this village clinic. This village had been without medical care for over two years. (Photo by LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5)

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4.4

Law and UN Peacekeeping

The legal aspects that may impact on UN peacekeeping derive from a number of elements. These are:

Legal issues that flow from the UN Charter and the Mandate: - Legitimacy - Consent - Use of Force Legal issues that flow from International Law: - International Humanitarian Law - International Conventions - Law of Armed Conflicts - Human Rights Law Elements of National Law: - Military Law - Domestic and Criminal Law Specific legal documents that are related to the United Nations and Member States participation in UN peacekeeping: - Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) - Status of Mission Agreement (SOMA) - Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the UN (1946) - Secretary-Generals Bulletin on the Application of International Humanitarian Law on UN Peacekeeping Forces (1999) - UN Convention on the Safety of UN and Associated Personnel (1994) - Troop-Contributing Agreements or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

The Status of Forces may be further impacted by: International Tribunals; International Criminal Court; Human Rights law; Evolving Common Law; and Landmines treaties. The impact of the legal framework varies from mission to mission, in accordance with many variables. For example, Human Rights Law is applicable in peace, conflict, and peace restoration, while International Humanitarian Law applies uniquely to conflict. In peacekeeping, the UN is not usually part of the conflict. Therefore, the UN is not party to International Humanitarian Law Conventions.

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Laws Protecting UN Service Personnel UN Personnel deployed have protections provided for in several international agreements and treaties. The basic framework is based on: UN Convention on the Safety of UN and Associated Personnel (1994) Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the UN (1946) Law of Armed Conflict (normally for Chapter VII: peace enforcement operations) UN Convention on the Safety of UN and Associated Personnel (1994) The UN Safety Convention does not apply in Chapter VII enforcement operations, but it does apply to peacekeeping (Chapter VI). Its principal areas are defining offences for crimes against UN personnel (murder, kidnapping, attack) or attacks on UN property. Adopted by the General Assembly, it entered into force in 1999. It defines UN personnel as those engaged or deployed by the Secretary-General. The Convention also defines the responsibilities of the state, stating that they: May not attack or hinder UN operations or personnel; Must ensure the safety of UN personnel; Must release detained personnel and treat them in ways consistent with the Geneva Convention until they are released; and Must prosecute or extradite offenders. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (1946) The Convention on Privileges and Immunities has a wider remit than simply UN operations. It allows for certain UN personnel to be accorded experts on mission status, which gives them certain immunities, e.g., from arrest or detention. The privileges include: Juridical personality; Immunity of property assets; and Inviolable premises. The immunities include: Personal arrest; Criminal Jurisdiction of the Host State; Functional immunity (personal, documents, equipment); Income tax; Immigration; and National Service. The Secretary-General can waive immunities for any peacekeeper, but not for the High Commanders positions. MILOBS and CIVPOL are recognised as experts on mission (Article VI), and their status is quasi-diplomatic. They have functional immunity, immunity from personal arrest and criminal jurisdiction. However, they are not tax-exempt.

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Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) LOAC consists of many aspects that regulate the conduct of states and their armed forces during conflict. Generally, it applies in circumstances of armed conflicts between states, although there are some principles that apply to non-international armed conflicts. Peacekeeping operations (Chapter VI) do not amount to international armed conflict. Therefore, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 will not generally be applicable, nor will the additional protocols. The application of the LOAC to UN operations depends on several issues, including: The type of conflict; and The extent of the contributing states obligations in LOAC. The role of UN forces is recognised in several international treaties, including: 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions 1949 (Arts. 37(1)(d) & 38 re use of the UN insignia) The Geneva Convention (GC) of 1949 is designed to safeguard military personnel who are not or no longer taking part in the fighting and persons not actively involved in hostilities, particularly civilians. Additional Protocols (AP) of 1977 sensed that the forms of conflict were changing and included other definitions of armed forces and allowed the application to non-international conflicts. UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons 1980 (Protocol II, Art. 8 and Amended Protocol II, Art. 9 re protection from the effects of mines). Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court 1998 provides for attacks against peacekeepers. UN Secretary-Generals Bulletin (1999) For the protection of UN peacekeepers, the UN Secretary-General produced the Bulletin on the Application of International Humanitarian Law on UN Peacekeeping Forces (1999). It originates from the UNEF Regulations of 1957 stating that, The Force shall observe the principles and spirit of the general international Conventions applicable to the conduct of military personnel. It is intended to establish the application of LOAC to UN personnel. The fundamental principles and rules of International Humanitarian Law set out in the Bulletin are applicable to UN forces. When in situations of armed conflict, they are actively engaged therein as combatants, to the extent and for the duration of their engagement. The Bulletin also provides for: Protection of Civilian population; Means and methods of combat; Treatment of civilians and persons hors de combat; Treatment of detained persons; and Protection of the wounded, the sick, and medical and relief personnel.

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4.5

Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)

These are documents signed in consent by the actors involved in a peacekeeping operation. When a UN force enters a State, a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) will normally have been agreed upon. This will not be possible if the state has failed or if the government is not in a position to negotiate. In these instances, the UN Convention on Privileges and Immunities will be considered to apply. A SOFA is not required in Chapter VII (peace enforcement operations). The UN has a standard form of SOFA (UN DocA/45/594, dated 9 Oct 1990). It is a legal document agreed upon between the United Nations and the host country, which defines the status of a peacekeeping operation and its members. SOFA is based on and originates from Articles 104 and 105 of the UN Charter. The SOFA grants the members of a peacekeeping operation the privileges and immunities given to mission commanders and UN officials and experts. It has direct influence on the legal status of every peacekeeper and should be known by all. It is limited to the status of the organisation, representatives of Member States, UN officials, and experts carrying out missions for the UN. The SOFA normally includes discussion on: Status of national contingents; Freedom of movement within the area of operation; Ease access to that area; Communications facilities necessary for the performing of tasks; Respect for local laws and conduct; Use of flags, uniforms, and the right to bear arms; Privileges and immunities; Jurisdiction; and Claims and disputes. Host Nations Law Exclusive jurisdiction for criminal matters is secured under the standard UN SOFA. However, other aspects of the host nations law may impact upon the UN force. The UN force should act in accordance with the host nations law and respect their customs and traditions. Contributing Countrys Law UN personnel take their own nations law with them. This involves military law (military offences) and also domestic criminal law. Every peacekeeper and MILOB is subject to the national laws of his/her own country during his/her tour of duty. The operational command from the United Nations authority in the mission applies for operational matters. The SRSG or the commanding authority establishes the guidelines for the conduct of the peacekeepers. The Code of Conduct must also guide the behaviour of the peacekeepers. Criminal offences are covered by the contributing nations jurisdiction in accordance with the UN standard SOFA. In any case of a criminal act committed by a United Nations peacekeeper or MILOB during his participation in the mission, the SOFA will define the responsibilities of the Force, the host countrys law and the national law of the peacekeeper.

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4.6

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

This document is an agreement concluded between the UN and the troop-contributing country (TCC). It is not strictly a legally binding document, but it may have legal consequences for the troop-contributing country. It is adapted to each type of contribution and mission. However, there are some basic guidelines.

Contribution: category and number of personnel. Authority: All personnel in a UNPKO are placed under the operational control of the UN. The mission commander has the responsibility to maintain order and discipline. Duties of the Troop-Contributing Country (TCC): The government has the duty to ensure that all personnel meet UN standards, and the government must comply with UN procedures regarding personnel. National personnel cannot accept nor seek instructions from any authority other than the UN. Each nation agrees to take judicial measures concerning crimes committed by national personnel assigned to the operation, and they must keep the mission commander informed of the consequences. Duties of the UN: The UN pays for travel and salary of MILOBS, CIVPOL, and civilian personnel in the mission. It also arranges the rotations of contingents and the transport of their equipment. The agreement details the financial and logistical aspects of the participation of a TCC in an operation. Communication responsibilities of the UN: The UN informs the TCC in regard to all relevant information concerning the contribution of personnel and equipment.

4.7

Rules of Engagement (ROE)

The Rules of Engagement (ROE) are operational tools that translate the legal and political aspects of the Use of Force guidance provided in the mission mandate. These operational tools are translated into the mission purpose. They represent an accommodation between the political purpose of the UN deployment, the legal constraints of the force, and the military mission. The ROE for peacekeeping will normally be restricted to self-defence. Contributing nations will require their personnel to comply with their own laws; this may require some national amplification of the ROE to ensure such compliance. ROE authorise military personnel when force may be used in the conduct of a mission or operation. Thus, they: Codify and quantify the use of force; Provide guidance to commanders; and Assist the soldier in executing his/her mission on the ground.

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ROE are not absolute and are issued as guidance (action to be taken if judged to be necessary) and as a prohibition (order not to take specific actions). ROE are one of the key documents in any UNPKO. It is essential that they are unambiguous and easy to use. Peacekeepers have the right to self-defence, which includes the right: To defend themselves; To protect other UN personnel; To protect non-UN personnel under the protection of the UN; and To response to a hostile act or demonstrated hostile intent. No rule limits this inherent right. The Commander has the authority to use all means necessary to defend the mandate and to defend the units and UN personnel. The principles for employment of UN ROE are as follows: The conduct of UNPKO is guided by international law. All personnel must operate within the framework of this document (Guidelines for UN ROE) that has been formulated in accordance with the parameters set out by the relevant Security Council Resolutions. ROE provide directions to commanders at all levels, governing the use of force within the mission area. The ROE informs commanders of the constraints imposed and the degrees of freedom they have, in the course in carrying out their mission. Throughout the conduct of peacekeeping operations, where forces are to be used, all military personnel must comply with the international principles of proportionality, the minimum use of force, and the requirements to minimise the potential for collateral damage. For a better understanding of these principles, it must be understood that: The use of force should be applied only when necessary; Only minimum force consistent with the threat should be used; A proportionate level of response be dealt; Activities cease when the hostile acts are stopped; Peacekeepers must use escalation procedures; The use of deadly force should be controlled by leaders on the ground; Collateral damage should be minimised; Targets must be positively identified; and Restrictions may be applied by the Force Commander. UN ROE Master List Although the UN guidelines for ROE define what should be included in future ROE for specific UNPKOs, adjustments may be introduced if needed. The UN master list of numbered ROE provides the rules from which specific ROE for future UNPKOs should be drawn. The master list is intended to cover the broad spectrum of requirements for any UNPKO. However, it is not deemed to be exhaustive and may be subject to subsequent adjustments as required. Based on this master list, specific ROE will be developed for each mission in accordance with all legal

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aspects and factors detailed beforehand in this module. Each armed peacekeeper will be issued an ROE CARD, which will include the ROE applicable in the mission. The five basic UN ROE are: 1. Use of force 2. Use of weapons systems 3. Authority to carry weapons 4. Authority to detain, search and disarm 5. Reactions to civil action or unrest Options of Each ROE Each of the five basic ROE has a set of pre-determined options, with different levels of use of force and for the control of their employment. The options for the use of force ROE are detailed below as an example. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Use of force, up and including deadly force, to defend oneself and other UN personnel against a hostile act or a hostile intent, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to defend other international personnel against a hostile act or a hostile intent, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to resist attempts to abduct or detain other UN personnel, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to resist attempts to abduct or detain other international personnel, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to protect UN installations, areas or goods designated by the head of the mission in consultation with the Force Commander, against a hostile act, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to protect key installations, areas or goods designated by the head of the mission in consultation with the Force Commander, against a hostile act, is authorised. Use of force, excluding deadly force, to protect key installations, areas or goods designated by the Head of Mission in consultation with the Force Commander, against a hostile act, is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, to defend any civilian person who is in need of protection against a hostile act or hostile intent, when competent local authorities are not in a position to render immediate assistance is authorised. When and where possible, permission to use force should be sought from the immediate superior commander. Use of force, to prevent the escape of any apprehended or detained person, pending hand-over to appropriate civilian authorities is authorised. Use of force, up to and including deadly force, against any limits or intends to limit freedom of movement is authorised.

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9 1.10

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4.8

Impact on the UN Peacekeeper

The documents produced and signed at the highest level of the United Nations, the host countries, the actors involved in the operation, and the TCCs all have direct influence on the mission, the tasks, and the responsibilities of each individual peacekeeper. The mandate normally describes the end state and governs the activity of all peacekeepers on the ground. A clear and achievable mandate is important so the mission can be understood clearly by all peacekeepers. Duties and responsibilities are deduced from the legal framework, which provides legitimacy to the peace operation. The objectives stated in the mandate are the guidance and mission of the peacekeepers. All peacekeepers should comply with these terms of reference:

The legal framework requires of all peacekeepers a complete impartiality; It requires them to obey and respect the Geneva Convention; The use of force must be limited to the minimum, in accordance with clearly defined and agreed upon rules of engagement; and Any crime or grave misconduct in the mission will be dealt with judicially by the home country of the person involved.

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LESSON 4 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

Which of the following has an impact on the UN peacekeeper? Select all that apply. a. The mandate normally describes the end state of the mission; b. The mission must be clearly understood; c. The peacekeeper must be impartial; d. They must obey and respect the Geneva Convention; e. They must apply force in the context of the UN ROE; f. Crimes or grave misconduct in the mission will be dealt with by the home country, and in some cases, by the host countrys justice.

2. 3.

List the five basic UN ROE. What is a mandate?

4.

Where do mandates come from? a. Economic and Social Committee; b. International Criminal Court of Justice; c. Security Council; d. Secretary-General.

5.

Name the four principles for UN peacekeeping operations.

6.

The role of UN forces is recognised in which of the following? a. The mission mandate; b. The Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court 1998; c. The UN Charter; d. Each nation-states Constitution.

7.

List at least 5 of the areas given to mission commanders and UN officials and experts as a result of the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA).

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8.

In the UN Rules of Engagement (ROE), peacekeepers have the right to which of the following? Select all that apply. a. To defend themselves; b. To protect other UN personnel; c. To protect non-UN personnel under the protection of the UN; d. To respond to a hostile act or demonstrated hostile intent.

9.

Which of the following is NOT a principle for employment of the UN ROE? a. The conduct of UNPKO is guided by international law; b. All personnel must operate within the framework of the ROE document; c. All military personnel must comply with the international principles of proportionality, minimum use of force, and the requirements to minimise the potential for collateral damage; d. Use of force is always authorised.

10. Select the false statement. a. Not all of the UN peacekeeping operations are legitimate; b. Legitimacy comes from the fact that each mission is mandated by the UN Security Council; c. The Charter of the UN is the main legal document that states its organisation and missions; d. Chapter VI of the UN Charter requires the consent of each of the parties for a PKO mission.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2.

a, b, c, d, e, f The five basic UN ROE are: Use of Force; Use of weapons systems; Authority to carry weapons; Authority to detain, search and disarm; and Reactions to civil action or unrest. A mandate is a negotiated document, which gives the guidance and context of the peace operation. The mandate and the mission are central to all peacekeepers and MILOBS. c The four principles for UNPKO are: Legitimacy; Consent; Impartiality and neutrality; and Use of forces. b Any five of the following is correct: Status of national contingents; freedom of movement within the area of operations; easy access to that area; communications facilities necessary for performing the tasks; respect for local laws and conduct; use of flags, uniforms, and the right to bear arms; privileges and immunities; jurisdiction, and claims and disputes. a, b, c, d d a

3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

LESSON 5 STRESS MANAGEMENT


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Stress and Stress Management Types of Stress Stress Response to a Critical Incident Identifying Stress-Related Disease

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide peacekeepers with the basic concept of stress and how to deal with stress symptoms. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

Define in general terms what stress is; List and explain three types of stress; and Explain stress management techniques and guidelines.

INTRODUCTION

Peacekeepers and MILOBS are both competent and resilient professionals working under extraordinary conditions. They have an increased risk of stress due to the hazardous, austere, and isolated environments in which they work. The occupational complexities that characterise peacekeeping operations, as well as the prolonged separation from family and other support systems, exacerbate these risks. The stress that peacekeepers undergo in this context represents predictable occupational hazards and normal responses to extraordinary circumstances. Most peacekeeping operations are characterised by complex emergencies. It is important to promote resilience and functional stress management through education, prevention, and advocacy.

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5.1

Stress and Stress Management

Stress management has become a very fashionable and trendy concept. It has been used in a lot of different ways, and for a lot of different reasons. But what does it mean exactly? Stress management refers to the identification and analysis of problems related to stress, as well as the application of a variety of tools to alter either the source of stress or the experience of stress. The main objective of stress management is to simply enable an individual to function at his/her optimal level in a healthy and positive manner. Why does the United Nations care about stress management? The United Nations cares for their staff members and uniformed peacekeepers. It is a primary goal to avoid negative effects to individuals following participation in peacekeeping operations. Psychologically stable and content personnel increase operational readiness and efficiency. What is Stress? Stress is the physical and psychological process of reacting to and coping with events or situations that place pressure upon a human being. Stress is often a normal reaction to an abnormal situation. It may then serve the function of self-preservation and protection in a threatening situation, enabling one to: (1) concentrate full attention on a particular threat; (2) mobilise maximum physical energy; and (3) prepare for action in order to respond to the threat. Stress serves and has always served a purpose. For our prehistoric ancestors and for us, stress had and still has great informative value. It has allowed us to survive up to the present day. Reminders: Stress is inherent to survival. Stress is necessary for human development. Stress is initially positive, but too much is unhealthy. Stress is addictive. Stress is manageable. The Stress Reaction The stress reaction is a positive and normal reaction, necessary for the protection of the individual, as well as for optimal performance. It prepares the individual for explosive performance. You can observe this by: The pupils getting bigger, which improves vision; and The pulse increasing, which is the heart pumping more blood to muscles. A stress reaction is a psychological phenomenon that affects performance, emotions, behaviour, and psychological well-being. It is also a physical process that makes the body ready to react to threat. This reaction is often described with the three Fs, which are Fright, Flight and Fight, suggesting that the stress reaction prepares the body for these situations.

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What affects an individuals reaction to stress? Life prior to a situation influences the reaction of the individual. If you have experienced similar situations you have solved the problem before. With education and skills come the set of solutions that are facilitated by the education and skill you may have. With training comes experience but also the trust needed between you and your peers and officers necessary for efficient stress management. Life brings experience. Physical fitness increases your resistance to physical, as well as psychological, trauma. It is easier to find solutions if you trust your own ability to do so. Spirituality and faith may support you in times of difficulty or danger.

5.2

Types of Stress

Peacekeepers are exposed regularly to both minor and major incidents, which can result in the build up of stress. Three types of stress are described, which are listed below in the order of increasing intensity:

Basal (basic) Stress Cumulative Stress Critical Traumatic Stress (Traumatic Stress)

Basal Stress Everyone experiences basal, or minor, stress on a daily basis. This can generate tension, frustration, irritation or anger. A persons reaction, or his/her vulnerability, is by and large determined by his/her physical and psychological strength or weakness. MILOBS and peacekeepers should be aware that they will often be confronted with stressful situations, even more so if the mission is in a conflict zone. Basal stress is unavoidable but may vary according to the normal circumstances of individuals. For individuals with a steady relationship, the stress of being away from their significant other may constitute major stress not experienced by individuals with such relationships. Typical areas of basal stress for soldiers in the field include: Lack of influence on their own situation; Lack of food variety; Repetitive or boring duties; Limited possibility for contemplation or privacy; Separation from other members of the unit; Minimal recreational possibilities; and Limited contact with loved ones at home.

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Cumulative Stress Cumulative stress is the result of strain that occurs too often (frequency), lasts too long (duration) and is too severe (intensity). This type of stress is subtle but pervasive. It happens when people suffer prolonged and unrelieved exposure to a variety of stressors. Cumulative stress is frequently due to a combination of personal, work, and incident-specific events, which generate frustration. When it goes unnoticed, or when it is not well managed, cumulative stress can result in a burnout. Cumulative stress is an excess of basal stress or other stressors that affect the individual too often, too long, or too severely. Typical situations can arise from: Repetitive situations with lack of respect from superiors; Periods with overwhelming responsibilities; Periods with insufficient rest; and Periods with non-defined operational danger (e.g., harassment, shelling, etc.). Both basic and cumulative stresses may derive from simple daily activities, or lack thereof. In peacekeeping missions, it is very important to have something valuable to do. Living in an unfamiliar environment, with little or no privacy, requires challenging activities and a strong sense of participation and fulfilment to avoid demoralisation and stress. Critical Incident Stress (Traumatic Stress) A critical incident is usually defined as an event out of the range of normal experience. It is a sudden and unexpected event that makes you loose control. It involves the perception of a threat to life and can include elements of physical or emotional loss. Critical Incident Stress (CIS) is a type of stress that is less familiar than basal stress or cumulative stress. Critical Incident Stress is the reaction to a critical incident. CIS refers to the unusually strong physical and emotional reactions experienced in the face of a critical incident. The possibility that peacekeepers will encounter one or more of these traumatic situations in a conflict zone is very high. The trauma is very often exacerbated because the peacekeeper is unable to assist or change the plight of helpless victims. CIS, or traumatic stress, describes the situation where one major emotional incidence influences well-being. Typical examples in peacekeeping situations include: Friends or oneself being affected by road traffic accidents; Local atrocities; Being under direct fire; Negative news from family or friends at home; and Direct physical threat or hostage situations.

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5.3

Stress Response to a Critical Incident

Few people remain unaffected by stress, and reactions may differ considerably. It is important that all accept that the reaction to stress is as individual as all other reactions to physical, psychological, or emotional situations. Some find that CIS is easier to live with than cumulative stress, as the reactions are more accepted by others than with cumulative stress, where a connection between the situation and the reaction may be more obscure. The severity of reactions will depend on various factors relating to the incident, as well as to the individual (e.g., suddenness, intensity, duration, available social support; individuals past experience, personal loss, perception of threat, personal ability to cope, etc.). Some reactions are immediate. Others may occur days, weeks, or even several months after the incident, resulting in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Critical incident stress-related reactions are normal reactions experienced by normal people following an abnormal event. These reactions or symptoms can interfere with an individuals ability to cope at work or at home. For a vast majority of people, most symptoms will diminish in intensity and frequency within a few days or weeks. In some cases, they may last up to three months after the event. Preparing for Stress Planning ways to address stress has the same elements as planning a military action. It must be based on experience, practice, and training. Seek to understand the situation in the mission. Find out what types of situations you may encounter and how you might be expected to perform. It is important that officers share information with their units. Operational and emotional parameters should be explained to all. Training and planning for how to manage ones own stress or that of others must be part of the preparations. Training must be repeated in mission training sessions. Suddenness and unpredictability are frequently the essence of a critical incident. One can never really be prepared to fully and totally face such an event. As with any military operation, intelligence, planning, and briefing on stress management must be followed by individual practice and preparation so that everyone will trust that they have the knowledge needed to respond optimally. If you are prepared for the situations you encounter, you have a chance to be prepared to meet the way they affect you.

If you encounter a stress reaction and are prepared for it, you may acknowledge what is behind the reaction, relate to it, and deal with it in an appropriate manner. All personnel having experienced stress-related reactions should be identified and offered follow-up upon return from the mission. National experience on stress management should be collected for the good of future deployments.

To prepare for managing stress is just as important as knowing what to do and what not to do!

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Dealing with Stress It is important for peacekeeping personnel to recognise the signs of stress and to be able to cope with the effects of traumatic situations. Most stress can be managed. Determination and selfdiscipline are keys to finding the source(s) of stress and coping with it before it has escalated to an uncontrollable level. The following guidelines have been found to be effective in stress management strategy development: Identify sources of stress; Know personal limitations; Maintaining a positive and up-beat attitude is an effective Manage time well; strategy in managing stress while serving at a mission. Be assertive but not aggressive; (MINUSTAH, UN Photo #87018, Sophia Paris, August 2005) Accept creative challenges; Get enough sleep; Rest or conserve strength; Eat regularly; Control intake of alcohol, tobacco, etc.; Make time for relaxation and physical exercise; Develop satisfying friendships and relationships; and Have a positive attitude and a sense of humour. Stress Must be Expected If you are to be prepared for the stressful situations you will encounter, you must be prepared for the way they affect you. If you get a stress reaction and are prepared for it, you will have a chance to acknowledge what is behind the reaction, relate to it, and deal with it. This is how to prepare for stress management. Non-Productive Stress Management Many see alcohol as a way to relax. Limited consumption of alcohol is acceptable in social settings, but alcohol as a means of relaxation only adds a new problem instead of solving the problems of stress. The use of alcohol as a recreational drug is unacceptable! Excessive use of alcohol or driving under the influence of alcohol is a major problem in many peacekeeping missions. Sex also does not solve or heal stress-related reactions. DPKO strongly advises against having sex at the mission. Having sex with commercial sex workers or others from the local population is against the Code of Conduct.

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5.4

Identifying Stress-Related Disease

Many people do not react to subtle changes in their own emotions or behaviour but may identify it in others. If you identify changes that may be stress-related in yourself or others, you should take necessary action and seek treatment, if appropriate. Symptoms of Stress-Related Disease The reactions and symptoms of stress-related disease may be physical, cognitive, emotional, or behavioural. Some examples of each type of reaction include: Physical symptoms: fatigue, cold sweats, elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate with pains resembling angina pectoris or systematic tremors; Cognitive symptoms: temporary confusion, difficulty concentrating, slowing of thought processes, difficulty in understanding situations and making decisions, racing ideas; Emotional symptoms: anxiety, feelings of guilt or sadness, feeling defeated and apathetic, anger, irritability, having a scapegoat mentality, feeling all-powerful, excited and invulnerable; and Behavioural symptoms: dangerous driving, hyperactivity, endless discussions and senseless arguments, staying too long in the office. Reactions to stress may also show in the performance of the individual. Concentrating on the tasks at hand may become increasingly difficult; Individuals normally in command of their performance start forgetting appointments and decisions, change their priorities, and become forgetful; and Individuals who are normally decisive suddenly stop making decisions. The physical side of stress reactions most often experienced are: Spells of dizziness and nausea; Higher than normal pulse with a feeling that the heart rushes away in periods; and Episodes of sweating. Although the range of emotional reactions to trauma is limited, such reactions may vary from one individual to another. The time it takes for these reactions to appear, as well as their severity, depends on the person's character and vulnerability at the time. These reactions typically manifest themselves when a normally well-balanced individual starts displaying episodes of: Unprovoked anger; Emotional incontinence good things become good beyond belief and sad things become sad without limits; A feeling of sadness or depression without any known reason; and A feeling of not being able to perform to expectation. Stress reactions lead to a number of other changes in the individual. A number of reactions may lead to a change in eating habits. These changes may include bulimia, anorexia, or an increase in eating, caring less about weight changes. In addition, those who are normally

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impeccably tidy may become less particular with their personal hygiene. Behavioural changes often lead to withdrawal from the company of others. Always beware of those who suddenly become invisible. The normal emotional state of an individual fluctuates between happy and unhappy, with an average around content. In a mentally healthy individual, every day will have its highs and lows. Stress reactions often make highs and lows go away, and the person becomes emotionally flat. The most important warning sign for a quiet sufferer is the withdrawal, as the person becomes a quiet nonentity and is easily overlook. Stress management is like mental first aid and should be approached in the same manner: Observe that someone (maybe yourself) is in need of help. Identify the agent or cause that has initiated the process, leading to a need for help. Change the situation of the person so that this process can no longer affect him. By caring and applying your knowledge, you start reversing the process. Continue caring until the process is fully reversed. If you cannot reverse the process fully, seek professional help. If you cannot manage your own stress, ask someone for support. If you see somebody in need of support, do not shy away. Instead, apply what you have learned. Listen, comfort, and support others. If you identify physical, behavioural, or emotional changes, or changes in performance, look for stress factors. If you believe that stress may be the cause of the changes, seek to identify which stresses are present and how they might be addressed. If possible, remove the individual from any influence that may add to the stress. Most situations can be solved at the unit level. It is no shame to the units or to the individuals involved if this level of support is not sufficient. In these cases, refer to professional stress management.

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LESSON 5 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

Stress reactions are normal reactions to an abnormal or difficult situation. a. True b. False List and describe the three types of stress, in the order of increasing intensity. Cumulative stress is the result of which factors? a. Normalcy, intensity, and frequency; b. Abnormalcy, difficulty, and frequency; c. Frequency, duration, and intensity; d. Simplicity, severity, and frequency. When unmanaged or unnoticed, cumulative stress can result in burnout. a. True b. False Basal stress is frequently due to a combination of personal, work and incident specific events, which generate frustration. a. True b. False What are some of the factors that contribute to basal and cumulative stresses? Select all that apply. a. Lack of influence; b. Little variation in food; c. Few work challenges; d. Limited sleep and privacy; e. Limited recreation. Which of the following is a non-productive way to reduce stress? Select all that apply. a. Seek help within your unit; b. Use recreational drugs; c. Increase exercise and recreation; d. Look for companionship and sexual encounters.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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8.

As an MILOB, you come across a new member to your team site who has become despondent, withdrawn, is not eating on a regular basis, and has become very argumentative. Because he/she is new to the mission, you believe that he/she misses their home and family. What is the best course of action?

9.

Difficulty concentrating, temporary confusion, and the slowing of thought processes are all examples of: a. Physical symptoms of stress; b. Cognitive symptoms of stress; c. Emotional symptoms of stress; d. Behavioural symptoms of stress.

10. The physical side of stress reactions that are most often experienced includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. Episodes of sweating; b. Higher than normal pulse; c. Increased migraine headaches; d. Spells of dizziness and nausea.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a Basal (Basic) Stress, Cumulative Stress, Critical Incident Stress c a b a, b, c, d, e b, d Refer to stress-management techniques b c

LESSON 6 ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF MILOBS AND PEACEKEEPERS


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Code of Conduct Cultural Awareness Gender and Peacekeeping Child Protection

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

Peacekeepers and MILOBS represent the UN and their own countries. Their conduct, both negative and positive, impacts on the success of the whole mission. The aim of this course is to provide a standard of behaviour for peacekeepers in the field, particularly in the areas of cultural awareness, gender, and child protection. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

List the Dos and Donts of the Code of Conduct; Explain the consequences of failing to abide by the Code of Conduct; To provide UN peacekeepers the information required to improve their ability to work and live in a multi-cultural environment; Be familiar with the concepts of cultural awareness and how to work effectively within a multi-cultural environment; Explain the impact of conflict on the roles and relationships of men and women; Explain how the presence of peacekeepers may further impact these roles in positive and negative ways; Describe the role of peacekeepers in protecting children in situations of armed conflict; and Explain the impact that violent conflict has on children.

INTRODUCTION

The UN embodies the aspirations of the people of the world for peace. In this context, the UN Charter requires that all peacekeeping personnel must maintain the highest standards of integrity and conduct. Peacekeepers, whether military, civilian police, or civilian, must comply with the guidelines on International Humanitarian Law for Forces Undertaking UN Peacekeeping Operations and all applicable portions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the fundamental basis of all their standards. It is imperative that peacekeepers understand and respect the differences in cultures; understand the significance of gender relations in the work they undertake; and uphold the rights of children in situations of armed conflict.

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6.1

Code of Conduct

Peacekeepers represent the UN and are present in the mission area to aid in the recovery from the trauma of conflict. As a result, they must consciously be prepared to accept social constraints in their public and private lives in order to do the work and to pursue the ideals of the UN. Peacekeepers are accorded certain Privileges and Immunities through agreements negotiated between the host country and the UN solely for the purpose of discharging peacekeeping duties. Expectations of the world community and the local population will be high and the actions of peacekeepers must be correspondingly high. Their actions and conduct will be closely observed. The following guiding principles summarise the core values of the UN in its task of maintaining international peace and security. They must be borne in mind by every peacekeeper.

Impartiality: Even-handedness. Not being favourable, preferential or supportive of any group, person or plan over another. Integrity: Honesty. The ability to know and do what is morally right. Respect: Acceptance of others ways. Giving value to others rights, customs, behaviours and wishes even if they are very different from your own. Loyalty: Unqualified support. Fully and always supporting someone or something even when circumstances or others may challenge this support.

In the following portion of this section, each principle is explained and accompanied by relevant Dos and Donts to guide peacekeepers. Some of these guidelines will often apply to more than one principle. Impartiality The impartial and objective pursuit of the missions mandate, regardless of provocation and challenge, is essential to preserving the legitimacy of the operation and the consent and cooperation of conflicting parties. The effort to maintain impartiality, however, must not promote inaction. On the contrary, peacekeepers must discharge their tasks firmly and objectively without fear or favour. Importantly, neither side should gain unfair advantage as a result of the activities of a peacekeeping operation. Do

Remain impartial at all times. Understand the mission mandate and any subsidiary directives and operational instructions.

Dont

Take any action that might jeopardise the mission. Make any unauthorised press statements. Improperly disclose or use information. Become involved in any illegal sexual liaisons.

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Integrity Personal integrity will establish both credibility and authority for the UN peacekeeper. It is essential to the establishment of trust with the host population and as an expression of commitment to the achievement of the mission mandate. Integrity involves behaving professionally at all times whether or not you are under observation. Do

Conduct yourself in a professional and disciplined manner. Support and encourage proper conduct. Properly account for all money and property assigned to you. Care for all UN equipment placed in your charge.

The most obvious example of a lapse in integrity is undertaking some form of misconduct, even one of a minor nature. Misconduct includes any act, omission, or negligence that is in violation of Human Rights; UN values; mission SOPs or directives; or any other applicable rules, regulations, or administrative instructions. Dont

Wilfully damage or misuse UN property or equipment. Use a vehicle improperly or without authorisation. Participate in any illegal activities or corrupt or improper practices. Attempt to use your position for personal advantage, such as to make false claims, to accept benefits, or to engage in criminal acts. Enter into any improper sexual relationships.

Respect Within a UN peacekeeping mission there will usually be a wide diversity of nationalities, races, religions, and cultural backgrounds. Part of the strength of the UN lies in this diversity, and some cultures and behaviours may be vastly different from your own. Treat all people with dignity and respect. Show respect and understanding of diverse points of view, and demonstrate this understanding in your daily work. Examine your own biases and prejudices, and avoid stereotypical attitudes. Also, exercise restraint at all times in the expression of personal views. Do

Respect the environment of the host country. Treat the inhabitants of the host country with respect, courtesy, and consideration. Support and aid the sick and weak. Respect all other peacekeepers regardless of rank, ethnic or national origin, race, or gender.

Dont

Be abusive or uncivil to any member of the public. Use unnecessary violence or threaten anyone in custody. Collect unauthorised souvenirs. Commit any act that could result in suffering of the local population, especially women, children, or the elderly.

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Loyalty Remain loyal to the values, objectives and goals of the UN and the mission mandate. You are in the mission to serve the interests of the UN and the international community. Do not pursue any national or personal agenda. Stand by decisions that are in the UNs interests even if they are unpopular or different from your personal interests. If you are in a decision-making position, resist undue political pressure from any faction or government. The sole consideration for all you actions and decisions is the interest of the UN. Do

Dedicate yourself to achieving the goals of the UN in the mission regardless of your personal views. Obey your UN superiors and respect the chain of command.

Dont

Bring discredit upon the UN, or your country through improper personal conduct, failure to perform our duties, or abuse of our positions as peacekeepers. Pursue your own personal agenda.

The Blue Helmets Code of Conduct The following ten rules included on the card of the Code of Conduct for the Blue Helmets summarise the Dos and Donts associated with the four principles previously discussed.

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Each peacekeeper is issued one card as a reminder of his personal code of conduct. Read it frequently, and do not violate the code. There will be serious personal consequences for you and possibly for the UN mission if you violate the code. This card is supported by the We are United Nations Peacekeepers card, which sets out the Dos and Donts in a recognisable format. Consequences of Violations of the Code of Conduct The immunities and privileges of the UN were briefly discussed in Lesson 4. These privileges and immunities are granted to you by the Secretary-General for the performance of your official duties and in the interest of the UN. They are not for your personal benefit. Depending on your category (formed military contingent, MILOB/Civilian Police, civilian), the immunities and privileges apply in different ways. However, regardless of application, you are still liable to disciplinary action and, in serious cases, criminal proceedings for violations of the Code of Conduct. As an individual and depending on your category, you are also liable to suffer various consequences for your misconduct. The consequences will also depend on the severity of your offence or misconduct. Minor Misconduct Minor misconduct is any act, omission, or negligence that is a violation of mission SOPs, directives, or any other applicable rules, regulations, or administrative instructions, but which does not result in major damage or injury to an individual or the mission. It may include, but is not limited to: Improper uniform appearance; Neglect in performance of duty not amounting to a wilful or deliberate act; Intoxication while on duty or in public; and Negligent driving. Serious Misconduct Serious misconduct is any act, omission, or negligence, including criminal acts, that is a violation of mission SOPs, directives, or any other applicable rules, regulations or administrative instructions that results in serious damage or injury to an individual or to the mission. Serious misconduct includes, but is not limited to: Sexual abuse and exploitation of any individual, particularly children; Harassment, including sexual harassment; Abuse of authority; Breach of confidentiality; Abuse of UN privileges and immunities; Use, possession, or distribution of illegal narcotics; Embezzlement or other financial malfeasance; Wilful disobedience of lawful order; and Driving while intoxicated or other grossly negligent driving.

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Whatever your position within the mission, your misconduct may have wide consequences and lead to: Erosion of confidence and trust in the UN. Jeopardising the achievement of the mission. Jeopardising the status and security of peacekeepers. Depending on the level of your misconduct, you may find yourself subject to one or more of the following consequences:

Internal Disciplinary Action. You may be subject to disciplinary action by your superior officer or supervisor. This may include a verbal or written censure, a reprimand, and/or retraining in a skill area. Military peacekeepers may be subject to the code of military discipline, resulting in fines, detention, repatriation, or dismissal. Repatriation/Termination of Contract. You may be repatriated to your home country on the recommendation of the Force Commander or the SRSG. For a civilian peacekeeper, this may lead to termination of your contract with the UN. No misconduct, however attractive it may seem, is worth the loss of your good reputation, your job, or your career prospects. Criminal Proceedings. In very serious cases of misconduct, especially where the laws of the host country have been broken, you may find yourself facing criminal proceedings in the host country. The immunities and privileges that you have as a UN peacekeeper do not in any way permit you to break the established laws of the land. Financial Liability. In cases of negligent damage or loss of UN property, you may be liable to bear the financial cost of replacement. This money may be sought from you or your national contingent, which may in turn take disciplinary action to recover the money from your salary.

Cases Studies The following three case studies highlight different breaches of the Code of Conduct and their implications. Each has a short scenario and a series of questions. After reading the scenario and questions, put your answers in a short paragraph format.

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Case Study 1 A Little Money on the Side

During a peacekeeping mission, two peacekeepers decided to make a little money on the side by buying alcohol cheaply from the UN PX shop and selling it to the locals for profit. They knew that alcohol was expensive in local shops, and so there would be a ready market for their trade. In a short time, word spread around the local community that alcohol was on sale at one particular UN position, and business boomed for the two soldiers. In order to secure more stock, and to avoid raising the suspicions of the PX staff, the two soldiers encouraged other peacekeepers to buy alcohol on their behalf in return for a share of the profits. Sales grew further until word of the operation reached local shopkeepers and civic leaders. They complained to the Mission Headquarters, which acted swiftly to close the illegal operation and discipline those involved, but not before several articles had appeared in the local press creating adverse publicity about the corrupt and unprincipled behaviour of the UN. 1. Do you see any violations of the Code of Conduct in this story? 2. Were these soldiers doing anything wrong? If so, what? 3. What consequences do you think their activities will have on: a. The community? b. The other UN troops at the position? c. The relations between the UN troops and the local community? d. The image of the UN and the country that these troops came from? 4. Do you think the behaviour of the soldiers poses any dangers to themselves and their colleagues? 5. What appropriate disciplinary action do you think should have been taken against these soldiers? 6. What other measures can be put in place to prevent this type of behaviour?

ANSWER: This case study is intended to draw attention to the temptations of participating in the black market. The peacekeepers would have been aware that most items in the PX shop are specially priced or discounted and are not intended for resale, and they should not have utilised this concession for personal gain. In the real-life situation of this study, the PX was closed. Because prices were higher on the local economy and it was a great distance for UN workers to get to the local business areas, this inappropriate action of a few adversely affected the larger group.

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Case Study 2 Money for Love

Peacekeepers have established their base on the outskirts of a small rural community. There is a large local family living near the camp that often come to ask the guards at the gate for food, kerosene, and other small favours. The family is quite friendly and poses no threat to the peacekeepers. There are also three attractive teenage sisters in the family. After a few weeks, one of the peacekeepers invites one of the sisters into the camp and begins an affair with her. In a short time, other peacekeepers capture the other sisters. It is obvious that the sisters are having sex with their newly found boyfriends but there is no evidence of rape. The peacekeepers who are having affairs with the sisters are now seen visiting the families late in the night and showering them with gifts of food and kerosene and other small but essential needs. The girls parents usually retire into their house whenever the peacekeepers come to visit. They have not openly expressed any displeasure with their daughters affairs, and they are obviously benefiting from the gifts and money that are being given to their daughters. The sisters are also dressing better than the other girls in the village. There is some gossip in the village about the girls and their peacekeeper-boyfriends, and the local young men have become somewhat unfriendly towards the peacekeepers. 1. What violations, if any, of the Code of Conduct can you identify in this story? 2. Do you think the peacekeepers have behaved properly? 3. How do you think the girls parents feel about these circumstances? 4. How do think the local community feels about these circumstances? 5. What could be the possible consequences for the girls and the peacekeepers if these relations are allowed to continue?

ANSWER: This case study is aimed at drawing the attention of peacekeepers to the wider consequences of sexual relations with members of the host population. Even when these sexual relations are consensual, there are likely to be negative consequences. The parents of the girls may not approve of their actions, but because of the survival benefits they derive from it, they do not complain. The local community may also not approve of strangers taking their women and may express their resentment in a number of ways. They may also feel inadequate because they may feel that the peacekeepers are buying the women because they have money. This could be a source of tension between the peacekeepers and the local community. In the real-life story from which this case study was extracted, the local young men issued threats and physically assaulted any girl who was thought to be having sexual relations with a peacekeeper. The girls were also threatened about what would happen to them after the peacekeepers left.

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Case Study 3 Are These the Sort of People the UN Sends to Help Us?

The scene is a bar very popular to peacekeepers. A group of them are spending a night out. They have been there for about three hours, and from the loudness of their conversation and their laughter, they have been drinking quite a bit. Other patrons of the bar are not looking too pleased, but nobody has requested that the peacekeepers keep their noise down. The trouble starts when one of the peacekeepers, while trying to stand up, stumbles a little and knocks the drinks off the next table. Four local young men who have also been in the bar for some time occupy that table. One of the local young men demands that the peacekeeper pays for his drink and the broken glass and compensate him for his wet clothes. The peacekeepers disagree and a loud argument begins. Other patrons join the argument, and there one local young man pushes a peacekeeper. The peacekeeper retaliates with a punch, and soon a free-for-all starts in the bar. More bottles and glasses get broken and tables and chairs pushed aside. One peacekeeper has blood gushing from the side of his head. Another has a swollen lip and a torn shirt. Other peacekeepers arrive and assist in restoring order. They also persuade the drunken peacekeepers to leave the bar. As they leave, one local was heard to say, Are these the sort of people the UN sends to help us? 1. What violations, if any, of the Code of Conduct have occurred? 2. What were the basic causes of the bar fight? 3. How could this situation have been prevented? 4. To what dangers, if any, did the situation expose the peacekeepers? 5. How could this situation affect the credibility of the UN Mission?

ANSWER: This case study is primarily intended to draw attention to the inherent dangers of peacekeepers excessive indulgence in alcohol, especially in public places. There are also lessons to be drawn from the locals comment on how such conduct affects the credibility of the UN mission in a wider sense. Even though peacekeepers may not be prevented by regulations from patronising public bars in the host country, their conduct while there is under the keen observation of the host population. Drunkenness and indulgence in drugs usually leads to the lowering of ones guard and clouds judgement. In public places within the host country, it is important that peacekeepers exhibit the highest standards.

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6.2

Cultural Awareness

Until recently, the importance of understanding culture in peace operations was underestimated. Challenges associated with culture have arisen due to the expanded and complex nature of modern peacekeeping operations. Todays missions are multi-culturally composed and take place in diverse cultural contexts. Culture is a sensitive topic. It provides understanding of group and individual beliefs, values, and behaviour, as well as how they are interpreted. It is most important that peacekeepers understand the differences in cultures and their effects to prevent misunderstandings. Culture Many factors form and influence culture hundreds of definitions, concepts, and theories exist. A simplified working definition of culture is that it is a system of both implicit and explicit meanings, beliefs, values, and behaviours shared by members of a community or a group, through which experience is interpreted and carried out. Culture determines the way we act, the manner in which we relate to others, and the way that we think about and interpret events happening around us. Culture is acquired through the process of socialisation. We learn relative values and appropriate behaviours from our community members. One level of culture deals with observable aspects, such as clothing, language, and food. Another level, which we cannot always see, includes our shared ideas, beliefs and values, which usually become apparent when people from different social systems interact. Individuals also do not embody a single culture, but rather multiple cultures. Many cultural groups exist within the larger ones, including age, gender, class, profession, and religion. Culture colours everything we see and do. It is impossible to leave our cultural lenses behind during our interactions, particularly the perspective and experience through which we interpret events. A number of factors play a role with a varying degree in shaping a culture. They include: Urbanisation Ethnic background Nationalism Religion Migration Gender Colonisation Language Industrialisation Profession Minority experience Cross-cultural adjustments Education Personal culture: values, worldview, beliefs, behaviours Social background Dangers Human beings frequently make generalisations about people and attribute characteristics to them. In other words, we create stereotypes. When we do this with cultural groups, there is a danger of developing negative stereotypes, which leads to prejudice. A cycle of prejudice begins when we start judging other cultures by our own set of standards to define the world around us.

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Lack of knowledge or an unwillingness to learn can result in an unintentional conflict or misunderstanding. The prejudices are often based on imperfect information and are normally filtered through an individuals background and experiences. The only way to break this cycle is to be aware of cultural differences and try to understand their origins. When working in a culturally-diverse environment as peacekeepers, we have to be careful to question our own cultural expectations to avoid making stereotypes or forming prejudices against other groups. Culture in Peace Operations Cross-cultural interaction in peace operations occurs at various levels: National contingents; Diverse personnel who work for diplomatic, humanitarian, and other civilian agencies; Military and civilian organisations involved in establishing and sustaining missions; International staff and local communities; and Different ethnic groups in conflict. Understanding Cultural Differences The most striking and common differences that new peacekeepers will experience include the following. Eating Habits Some nations use knives, forks, and spoons. Some use chopsticks and a spoon, while other nations have very high hygiene and use the clean right hand instead of cutlery. Some nations eat from individual plates, and others (such as Eritrea and Ethiopia) have one big common plate. Do not get surprised. Food Beef is not eaten in Hindu countries, Muslims do not eat pork, and Christians keep cats, dogs, and horses as pets. In some countries, people have no problem with eating everything that moves. These habits are different for everyone, and it is important to understand and respect that these differences exist.

Local housekeeper for Team Site Shilalo (Eritrea) makes injera, the local bread-like food that is eaten in traditional Eritrean meals. (CPT Scott Harrington, MILOB, July 2002)

Religion In most of our societies, religion is an important factor. Peacekeepers and MILOBS should be aware of and sensitive to the religious beliefs and customs in the mission area. You will find other religions not only among local people but also among other peacekeepers. Respect all religions as you do your own beliefs.

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Family and Gender In some cultures family ties are considered very important. Elders are most respected in some societies. As a rule, paying respect to elders and being humble will never be wrong. Gender beliefs of the local community may be different from yours. In some matriarchal societies, women do all the work and are the providers for the family. You will learn more on this subject in the next section. Communication Language is culture-specific. Cultural undertones always exist when a person is speaking in English and is not a native of an English-speaking country. So, if you are not a native English speaker, you may not always understand and may have to ask the person to repeat or re-phrase. When speaking English to a non-native speaker, it is best to use short sentences. Also, avoid idiomatic language and complicated grammar. Humour is a positive approach. But be aware that humour is not cross-cultural and that your sense of humour can make enemies. Body Language Body language is very important, as it conveys many things that you do not say. Different gestures have different meaning in different cultures. A smile, however, will never be misunderstood. A polite handshake is accepted in most cultures, though there are exceptions where men do not shake hands with women. Men walking hand in hand are quite common in many countries and indicate trust and friendship. In some other cultures, hand-holding may be related to sex. Dress Code Dress code is different amongst various cultures. It depends upon customs, traditions, and the climate. Peacekeepers need to understand and acclimatise. Traffic Countries have different traffic conditions and rules. These have to be understood and adapted to by the peacekeepers. Many casualties in peacekeeping are not from combat, nor from sickness. Peacekeepers and MILOBS die in traffic accidents! Drive defensively and carefully. Study the local traffic conditions.

Women of the Kunama tribe dress in vibrant colours and live in the Central-Western parts of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) in UNMEE cuts across tribal lines, as with the case of the Kunama. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, October 2002)

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Time The concept of time also differs between cultures. The military has its own understanding of what being on time means, which may differ substantially from what is understood by civilians or the local community. In some cultures, being late is a symbol of status and power. In one of the missions, when asked, a local leader said, You have the clock, we have the time. Building Cultural Awareness Culture and cultural differences can have a powerful effect and can lead to misunderstanding and conflicts. Cultural awareness is necessary to manage these differences, which we otherwise tend to measure against our own standards. As a first step, we need to fully understand our own culture, how personal cultural experiences have shaped our communication styles, and why we do things a certain way. The next step is to understand the specific culture we would be working with. Lastly, we need to view cultural differences not as weakness but as strengths that enable us to solve problems in a unique and creative manner. Culture of the Host Country If feasible, try to know at least the most current development in the local history of the mission area. You can be sure that the parties have different opinions on the history, but basic facts are helpful and make you a more convincing peacekeeper. Cultural Shock Adaptation Stages The stages of the adaptation to a new culture are: Honeymoon; Initial confrontation; Adjustment crisis; and Recovery. For a new peacekeeper or MILOB, it is normal to face some discomfort. Some become homesick or depressed, and others even get hostile towards the host nations culture. How do you manage culture shock? Speak out with your friends and your commanders. Ask questions before getting angry about attitudes or facts that you may be misinterpreting. If you have previous experience in peacekeeping, you may feel nothing, but help the younger and newer soldiers to adjust. Maintaining Good Relations The knowledge and understanding of other cultures is critical for the maintenance of good relations to all the people in the mission. It will not only help you as an individual, but your organisation will work more effectively, and the mandate will be easier to accomplish. Always remember that each organisation also has its own culture and values. As you did for other people in the mission area, do your best to know and understand the culture of all organisations, elements, and partners in UN peacekeeping.

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6.3

Gender and Peacekeeping

It is essential that peacekeepers and MILOBS of all nations, whether military, civilian police, or civilian, understand the significance of gender relations in the work they undertake. Experience in recent years has sadly demonstrated the negative effects on a conflicted population of the presence of peacekeepers who lack this appreciation, or who choose to act contrary to the principles and standards established by the United Nations. Their failure to conform to these standards and to respect the interests, needs, and desires of the population, particularly the women, has weakened the effectiveness of UN peace operations. Without an understanding of how the relations between women and men are structured, how they are affected by violent conflict, and how the mere presence of peacekeepers further impacts on those relations, there can be little meaningful advance in the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. At the same time, when such an understanding is present, UN peace operations are meaningfully enhanced, and the chances of achieving sustainable peace are greatly improved. Impact of Conflict Absence of Rule of Law, increased human rights violations. Normal law and order systems and traditional social systems and cultural taboos collapse as a result of conflict. Sexual violence is a prevalent feature of modern warfare. It is used to terrify, intimidate, and destroy the enemy psychologically. Upheaval, migration, and displacement. Women constitute the majority of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). Civilians, who are mostly women, children, and the elderly, are deliberately targeted in modern conflict. Changes in responsibility. Men and boys go to war, leaving the women to care for the home, property, and family. Womens roles change when men are absent. They have to make all family Residents in the partially destroyed Muslim enclave of Stari Vitez, decisions in the absence of males. Bosnia and Herzegovina. (UN Photo #186718C) Some women also go to war as soldiers, messengers, camp followers, and bush wives (mostly against their will). Focus on ex-combatants. Post-conflict efforts often focus on male ex-combatants and neglect the role of women during and after conflict.

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Unemployment, shortages, and disrupted social services. Conflict destroys or disrupts government and social services, such as education and health. It causes shortages in goods and services, as well as inflation of prices, growth, and often dependency on the illegal black market. The physical infrastructure (roads, bridges, transport, and power and communication lines) are often damaged. Women lose access to reproductive health care and schooling for their children. They often also lose their peacetime jobs, pensions, and other necessities of life. Because of poverty and desperation, women and children are prey to organised crime and are open to the pressures to earn a living. Some may be forced to turn to begging and prostitution. Change in Roles New roles and responsibilities. During armed conflict, women also assume new roles and responsibilities within the family and the community. Many play a more public role than they do during times of peace. It may be difficult to revert to the previous roles after the conflict. Contribution to the war and peace effort. Women contribute to the war effort in many ways: messengers, suppliers of food and shelter, safe houses, distribution of information, etc. They also contribute to the peace efforts by mobilising for action to stop the fighting, crossing the lines of fire, lobbying political figures, and more.

A local Eritrea woman begging on the street to support herself and her child. (UNMEE, Asmara, LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, July 2002)

Increased political participation. Women play a more political role, provide leadership and support, and expect this to continue in the post-conflict environment. New skills and knowledge. They also develop skills and knowledge surviving in such conditions is difficult and they become more confident and knowledgeable about life outside the domestic sphere. These positive features often go unnoticed by the international community. Peacekeepers can contribute to this education process by ensuring that they provide all possible support to leading women community members. Women are likely to provide a fuller picture of community problems than men because they have remained throughout the conflict, taken care of the children, the sick, and the elderly, and they have survived. This requires strength and resourcefulness.

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Gender Roles What is right for women and men. Every culture, including minorities within the dominant culture, has rules, beliefs, and attitudes about how men and women should behave, the work they should do, and the responsibilities they should fulfil. It is part of what society believes is right and what a society values in its men and women. Varies between cultures. Being submissive, subordinate, and discreet may be thought of as womanly in some cultures and not in others. Being tough, strong, and warlike may be valued by some societies for its men. This can change. We all have ideas of what women and men are capable of and what roles they can fill. Social differences. Not everyone in society is seen in the same way. Poor women always work often in and out of the home. Women and men may be equally discriminated against if they are from a lower caste or place in society. Likewise, race is a significant factor in societys image of what is appropriate for men and women, and age can provide women with more respect and recognition. On the contrary, in some societies, discrimination may increase if a woman is a widow. Special Vulnerabilities Women are Sexual violence. particularly vulnerable to sexual violence during armed conflict. Without the normal forces of law and order, as well as the breakdown of traditional social values and taboos and the absence of traditional male protectors, women are vulnerable. Sexual violence is often a strategic weapon of war, not a random act. All sexual violence is unacceptable. In wartime it is used to destabilise and destroy the enemy psychologically. Trafficking and forced prostitution. Organised crime often moves into the vacuum created by the absence of law enforcement. Trafficking in humans and forced prostitution has become increasingly common in post-conflict societies. Women are vulnerable and desperate and are easy prey to traffickers. Social services. Female-headed households are particularly affected by the absence of social services and the increase in poverty due to the loss of income and lack of employment. Loss of access and rights. Because of their social roles and the absence of male family members, women are often unable to move freely, to approach official structures, to get financial assistance, or to claim rights to property and inheritance.
Women and girls who were kidnapped, raped or suffered other abuses such as amputations can have difficulties reintegrating into their families and communities. (iAfrika Photos, Eric Miller)

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Gender and Sex Many languages lack a literal translation for the word gender in their vocabulary, so it is often impossible to translate. The following examples will illustrate the distinction between gender and sex. Gender refers to the ever-changing roles that the family, community, and state expect women and men to play in public and in private. Gender is about how we are expected to act and think because we are male or female. Gender changes across time and across cultures. Societys beliefs about gender have a profound impact on the opportunities that men and women have and how and whether they have access to resources and to their rights. Unlike gender, sex is fixed, determined by biology at birth, and is universally recognised. We all know the physical differences between the sexes. Gender roles are determined by the roles society give to men and women. Sex roles do not change: women give birth and breastfeed children. This is a sex role. Men cannot perform this function. However, both men and women can care for children. This is a gender role; both men and women can perform this function. Men have greater body mass, are generally physically stronger, and can grow beards. This is determined by their biological make-up. It cannot change. However, both men and women can be soldiers, political leaders, or social leaders. This is determined by society and culture. Both sex and gender roles have an impact on the freedom of movement, the need for specific services such as reproductive health care for women and influence the kinds of work people do. Gender, Culture, and Human Rights Culture changes over time. The comment is often made that, We are not here to change the culture. This is true, but the fact is that peace operations will contribute to cultural change. Culture is always in a state of change; it is not static. Conflict will speed up and re-direct cultural shifts. The international community is not present to impose cultural values. That is why the focus is on a rights-based approach. Universally-accepted human rights standards. Your personal cultural value system, or your personal views of what men and women should or should not do, is not the measurement to be used. The UN Members States have agreed on a set of universally-recognised human rights (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other such treaties), and these agreements serve as the universally-accepted standards that UN peacekeeping operations must adhere to, promote, and defend. Peacekeepers must project human rights culture. International Human Rights laws are based on universally-shared values regarding respect for the dignity and worth of the human person and the equal treatment of men and women. Perversion of these laws is partly a result of war and conflict.

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Respect and trust contribute to security. Peacekeepers have a responsibility to respect the local culture and, thereby, develop trust with the host population. This will increase the peacekeepers own security. Discrimination on the basis of gender. This is any distinction, exclusion, or restriction based on sex which is intended to prevent the recognition and exercise of rights or freedoms. Women are particularly vulnerable to violation of their rights in conflict. In conflict environments, women are particularly vulnerable. They may not receive adequate food supplies in refugee camps; may be forced to provide sexual favours to police and border guards in order to gain asylum in another country; not be able to pass on citizenship to their children in the absence of the father; be refused employment; be denied provision of specialised health care; and other violations. Sexual violence as a weapon. The most profound form of discrimination in wartime is the sexual violence committed against girls and women. Gender Discrimination The following are examples of discrimination on the basis of gender: Denial of political rights to women (right to vote, right to be elected); Lack of uniformity of laws (dress codes, freedom of movement, property rights, divorce, children, inheritance, etc.); Vulnerability to sexual crimes: rape, trafficking, abuse (prostitution, soliciting, pornography, sex with minors, etc.); Separation of men and women so that both sexes can be victimised (specific actions to kill, displace, rape or capture on the basis of sex, e.g., separation of men and women in Srebrenica: approximately 7,000 men and boys were massacred, while scores of women were raped and killed); Sex-specific mortality rates (indicate specific acts or omissions); and Sex-specific unemployment (laws that prevent women from employment, or employment in certain categories). Peacekeepers and Gender Rights Expected to uphold Human Rights. Peacekeepers are obliged to uphold human rights. As members of UN missions, they are bound by the spirit and principles of the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and other relevant international treaties and conventions. Human Rights laws. Human Rights laws are founded on the principles of being universal (for everyone), indivisible (rights cannot be selected, all apply), and equal (they are of equal value). Peacekeepers cannot choose which Human Rights to uphold and which to ignore; they must uphold all.

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UN concept of human rights. Peacekeepers cannot choose which Human Rights to uphold (on the basis of their own cultures interpretation of human rights). They are bound to uphold the UN concept of Human Rights, i.e., as per the Universal Declaration of Human Rights agreed to by most UN Member States. Protecting Gender Rights The extent to which a peacekeeper may act to uphold Gender Rights depends on the mandate of the peacekeeping operation. Actions may range from reporting to protecting, depending on the mandate of the mission and the Rules of Engagement (ROE). Reporting. There will always be a need to report, even when you may also act to protect human rights. Obtain as much information as possible of the alleged human rights abuse (make notes, take photos), and report it as soon as possible to your superior. Report on the what, where, when, who, and how of the situation. Protecting. If you are allowed or obliged by the mandate of the mission to act to protect a persons rights (such as the right to life), this will be made very clear in your orders and ROE. There will be no specific ROEs for use for protection of Gender or Human Rights; the ROEs will apply to all situations that may require the use of force. ROEs are mission-specific, as they depend on the mandate and other factors. Sexual Relationships in Peace Operations This question and answer has been included here because this question is often asked in relation to this topic. If you, as a peacekeeper or MILOB decide to engage in sex in a peacekeeping mission, please make certain you are aware of the consequences your actions might have on the local community, yourself, your home country, and the UN mission. Question: Am I allowed to have sex in a peacekeeping mission? Answer: You will be a UN peacekeeper and you are under obligation to uphold international human rights standards. Remember the eyes of the whole world are on you. You will not only be judged as an individual, you will now be judged as a national of your country and a representative of the UN.

Your actions must be guided by: International human rights standards; The UN Peacekeeping Code of Conduct; In case of formed military units, the national laws of your country and your military disciplinary codes; The specific instructions in this regard from your superiors; and The laws, culture, religion, and values of the host country.

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Always be guided in your personal action by the knowledge that, on- or off-duty, you represent the United Nations. Think of the consequences of your actions and how they will impact others. Power Imbalance Peacekeepers are powerful because they have money, mobility, access to food, water and other goods, and force. This causes a power imbalance between the peacekeepers and the host population. Use the power to do good. Most peacekeepers use this power to do good. The international presence can have a positive effect by initiating and supporting efforts to stop organised crime and improve the conditions of the local population, including that of women. Do not allow others to abuse power. Some peacekeepers have, however, used the powerful situation they are in to abuse vulnerable populations. They do this by using prostitutes, thus encouraging prostitution, including often children; by spreading HIV/AIDS in the process; by getting involved in or even unknowingly encouraging organised crime involving prostitution and the trafficking of women; by abandoning children they have fathered; and by abandoning women who have been promised marriage or other benefits in exchange for a sexual relationship. This compounds the difficulties these communities face. Such behaviour is illegal and morally unacceptable and will not be tolerated by the United Nations. We should not allow a few irresponsible people to impact negatively on the credibility of the UN and the peace operation and, therefore, on our ability to achieve our overall goal of sustainable peace.

6.4

Child Protection

In recent years the Secretary-General and the Security Council have actively undertaken the task of placing the issue of child rights in situations of armed conflict squarely on the UN peace and security agenda. The Security Council has expressed its resolve to give special attention to child rights and protection and has adopted four resolutions devoted to child protection in times of armed conflict. Resolutions 1379 (2001), 1314 (2000), and 1261 (1999) call upon parties to armed conflicts to include child protection provisions in peace agreements and to address child rights concerns throughout the consolidation of peace in the aftermath of conflict. Pursuant to the Councils recommendation, the Secretary-General has submitted annual reports to the Council on Children and Armed Conflict since 2000 and has referred to child protection concerns in scores of recent other reports to the Council. In recognition of the critical role peace operations play in providing protection to children, the Security Council has explicitly incorporated the protection of children into the mandates for the missions in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) by its Resolution 1260 (1999) and in the

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Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) by its Resolution 1279 (1999), and it has endorsed the deployment of Child Protection Advisers in both of these missions. Many peace operations without such explicit provisions also address child protection concerns in the execution of their mandate, often in collaboration with the United Nations Country Team (UNCT). Understanding Child Protection Definition of a child. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC) defines a child as a person under the age of 18 years. Regardless of what local laws apply to children in the country of the mission, the UN CRC definition guides the behaviour of mission personnel. By respecting the UN CRC definition in their own behaviour, mission personnel will be contributing to the protection of children and improving their development opportunities. Children are vulnerable. Children are vulnerable at all times, but particularly in situations of armed conflict. Both boys and girls are affected by conflict, but girls are particularly vulnerable to sexual A young refugee girl with a food ration stands at a table exploitation, family and community at the temporary facility in Karlovac, Croatia. (UN violence, and discrimination made worse by Photo #159244C) conflict. Boys are vulnerable to forced recruitment by armed groups or forces. Conflict increasingly affects women and children. In many conflict-affected areas, children comprise as much as half or more of the population, making them the majority not a minority. Gender must be a cross-cutting concern, as special attention needs to be given to the vulnerability of girls in all considerations. Childhood should be protected. Children need special protection in view of their young age, small size, and lack of maturity. They are also learning about life, and there are many things they do not understand, as well as many dangers they do not suspect. This is why they need the protection of adults. War violates every right of a child. War violates a childs right to life, food, shelter, security, education, sexual integrity, non-discrimination, health, and many others. Armed conflict takes away a childs right to grow up and develop in peace and security so that he/she can achieve their full human potential.

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Facts and Figures The following is a list of important facts and figures provided by UNICEFs State of the Worlds Children 2000. In the past 10 years, about two million children have been killed and four to five million have been disabled as a result of wars and armed conflict. War and armed conflict have left one million children orphaned and 12 million homeless. About 300,000 children under 18 are currently taking part in hostilities around the world. Of the 23 million refugees worldwide, 50% are children. Women and girls constitute a massive 80% of civilian victims of conflict. About 800 children are killed or maimed by landmines every month. The number of child refugees increases by approximately 5,000 per day. Most child soldiers are between the ages of 15 and 18, but there are children as young as 8 or 9 who have been recruited by armed groups. They include both boys and girls. The Rights of a Child In peacekeeping missions, there are personnel from many different backgrounds and cultures. The concept of childhood is understood differently in different contexts, but in the UN context, peacekeepers are obliged to uphold the internationally accepted and agreed upon common standards for child rights, which are stated in the following documents: The Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols; The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict; The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees; The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women; and The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. CRC Guiding Principles The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has three key principles that should guide all of the actions of adults towards children: Non-discrimination (Article 2): No discrimination on the basis of race, gender, colour, religion, ethnicity, etc. Best interest of the child (Article 3): Acting in the best interest of the child means doing what is best for the child and not what is best for you. For example, if you have a child who needs to go to school, and there is an excellent school across town, you will make the effort to send that child to that school, although it would be more convenient for you to send the child to a school that is located near your home. Participation (Article 12): States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

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Impact of Conflict on Children Basic needs. War violates every right of a child. A conflict situation often results in a situation where some childrens basic needs, like food and water, health care, and shelter are severely affected. Armed conflict also usually causes basic social services like education and clinics to seize functioning. Refugees. Many children become refugees or internally displaced when they flee from the fighting and violence, and some get separated from their parents. Sexual abuse. Because of the general lawlessness, the breakdown of social taboos and the lack of peacetime cultural and social protection measures, the sexual abuse of children increases considerably during war. Those close to the fighting, such as child soldiers, camp followers, and girls who are forced to clean and cook for soldiers, are most at risk. Mines and violence. A disproportionately high number of children become victims of mines because they are more often exposed to mined areas since they play in close proximity to these danger zones. Children also often witness violence, such as the killing of their parents and the rape of female adults or older girls. Often they become victims of violence themselves. Child soldiers. Boys and girls are often forced to become soldiers, or they join one of the fighting factions because it is their only means of survival. As child soldiers, they are often exposed to drugs and participate in or witness severe human rights abuses and violence that will affect them for the rest of their lives. Girls are often forced to become camp followers and are treated as sex slaves or bush wives that have to cook, clean, and sexually serve their masters, on whom they are dependent for their survival. Effect of Conflict on Children Traumatised children. Children who have witnessed violence, especially perpetrated against close relatives; children who have been victims of violence; and children who have been perpetrators of violence (and often all three) are typically traumatised. They find it very difficult to adjust to normal life. Malnourished children. The lack of food and health care, especially among younger children, hamper physical and mental development and can cause health problems suffered later in life. Orphans and street children. Children whose parents are killed during the war, or who get separated from their parents during the conflict, end up having to fend for themselves as street children, or they may be treated as unaccompanied children in a refugee context or as orphans by state institutions. Countries recovering from war typically do not have developed social welfare systems, and the children in these categories not covered by international humanitarian efforts are most often left to fend for themselves.

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Child Soldiers A child soldier is any person who is under 18 and who is part of a regular force or armed group in any capacity, other than purely as family members. It does not only refer to those carrying arms but includes cooks, porters, messengers, and those accompanying such groups, including girls recruited as concubines or forced into marriage. The recruitment and use of child soldiers is governed by the 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and in Africa, by the 1991 OAU African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. The International Criminal Court (ICC) also refers specifically to child soldiers. Reporting on Child Soldiers Peacekeepers, particularly United Nations Military Observers, have an important role to play in reporting on child soldiers. They are often based closest to the front lines or go on verification missions to frontline areas and are, thus, likely to have the most frequent contact with child soldiers. When child soldiers are encountered, MILOBS should take the time to complete a child soldiers reporting checklist, which would typically be distributed to MILOBS in such missions. The checklist will help them to gather information such as names, numbers, sex, place of origin, physical condition, and post-conflict expectations of the child soldiers. The information will be very useful to the Child Protection Unit in the mission; to those agencies and NGOs specifically mandated to deal with child protection issues, like UNICEF; and in the planning and execution of the Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration (DDR) programme. Child Protection in Peace Operations Prevention. Work will be undertaken to make the local authorities and armed factions aware of the rights of children and to establish monitoring and support structures in order to prevent the abuse of the rights of children, or to mitigate it where it has already occurred (for example, in the case of child soldiers). Humanitarian assistance. Some agencies and NGOs will focus humanitarian programmes specifically on the needs of children to assist them with basic needs (food, water, sanitation, health care, and shelter), education, and other developmental necessities.

Khmer Rouge child soldiers at the perimeter of the French UNTAC camp. (UN Photo #159496, by J. Bleibtreu)

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Collection of data. Research will be undertaken to map the extent and type of problems so that the prevention, humanitarian assistance, protection, and advocacy and education programmes can be designed according to the real needs of the situation. This kind of research will also help the programmes to be designed in ways that will be most effective according to local customs and cultures. Advocacy and education. Work will be undertaken to advocate child protection issues and to educate local authorities, fighting factions, politicians, peacekeepers, and others. This will typically extend to the peacebuilding phase, where new lawmakers will be encouraged to adopt or strengthen laws promoting the rights of children. Building institutions. Work will be undertaken to build new institutions, as well as rehabilitate and support existing institutions, that will provide care and protection for children. Personal contributions. Peacekeepers often feel the need to make positive personal contributions to the welfare of children. There are many examples of good work carried out by peacekeepers on behalf of groups of children or individual children. However, the trainer needs to remind participants that efforts to help the situation of children need to be coordinated through the appropriate mission structures, UN or non-governmental humanitarian agencies. Peacekeepers should not assist individual children, projects, or programmes without first consulting specialist colleagues and/or people associated with credible child-focused organisations such as UNICEF, Save the Children, IRC, and others. What Can the Peacekeeper or MILOB Do? The extent to which a peacekeeper may act to uphold Child (Human) Rights depends on the mandate on the peace operation. Actions may range from reporting to protecting, depending on the mandate of the mission and the Rules of Engagement (ROE). Reporting. There will always be a need to report, even when you may also act to protect human rights. Obtain as much information as possible of the alleged human rights abuse (make notes, take photos) and report it as soon as possible to your superior. Report on: What, Where, When, Who, How? Protecting. If you are allowed by the mandate of the mission to act to protect a persons rights (e.g., the right to life), this will be made very clear in your orders and Rules of Engagement (ROEs). There will be no specific ROEs for the protection of Child or Human Rights; the ROEs will apply to all situations that may require the use of force. ROEs are mission-specific, as they depend on the mandate and other factors.

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Peacekeepers are expected to protect children within the limits of the mission mandate and to respect their rights both in their duties and in their personal behaviour: In their daily work, peacekeepers should: Report violations when found, and, if specific mandate allows intervention, follow ROEs; Uphold and promote child protection through example; and Provide indirect assistance through security and other support for humanitarian assistance. For example, they can help with the logistics for the distribution of humanitarian relief or with the demobilisation of child soldiers. In their individual behaviour, peacekeepers should keep the following in mind: Children are defined by international standards and UN DPKO disciplinary procedures as anyone under the age of 18. Codes of conduct do exist, and clear disciplinary standards and procedures are in place and will be enforced. Serious breaches of the Code of Conduct may not only result in repatriation but also in prosecution under national or international law. The credibility of an entire mission can be undermined by the behaviour of individuals. Recent scandals involving UN peacekeepers have rocked the international community. Documented reports of the exploitation and abuse of children and women in Somalia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Eritrea, and Mozambique by peacekeepers or MILOBS have severely damaged the credibility of the UN.

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LESSON 6 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

The four principles of the Code of Conduct are: a. Impartiality, integrity, respect, and loyalty; b. Integrity, professionalism, respect for diversity, and loyalty; c. Impartiality, commitment, respect, and loyalty; d. Impartiality, diversity, integrity, and respect.

2.

An example of serious misconduct is: a. Harassment, including sexual harassment; b. Breach of confidentiality; c. Embezzlement or other financial malfeasance; d. All of the above.

3.

Which of the following best describes culture? Select all that apply. a. A shared system of meanings, beliefs, values, and behaviours; b. A system of beliefs that have nothing in common; c. A system that has nothing to do with our behaviour; d. The way that we act and relate to others.

4.

The village elders believe that all MILOBS are deceitful and dishonest because a former MILOB stole money from the local market. In fact, the locals believe that all MILOBS are thieves and refuse to deal with them at all. This is an example of: a. Ignorance; b. Objective behaviour; c. Stereotyping; d. Rational thinking.

5.

Human rights are: a. Imposed by the international community; b. Applicable only in certain situations; c. Only represented by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; d. Based on gender.

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6.

Sexual violence towards girls and women during armed conflict is: a. Not a typical consequence of war; b. Generally not considered a weapon of war; c. Prevalent due to the absence of law enforcement; d. Acceptable under certain circumstances.

7.

In deciding whether or not to engage in sexual activities during a mission, peacekeepers should: a. Abide by the Code of Conduct; b. Consider the fact that they represent the United Nations; c. Make the decision based on their own discretion; d. Both a. and b.

8.

According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, what is the official definition of a child? a. A person under the age of 16; b. A person under the age of 18; c. A person under the age of 21; d. A person who is not married.

9.

Humanitarian assistance, advocacy and education, and building institutions are all methods used to promote awareness for: a. Refugees; b. Mines and violence; c. Child protection; d. Sexual abuse.

10. To uphold Child Rights, peacekeepers are encouraged to: a. Promote child protection through example; b. Report violations only if the situation requires mission support; c. Assist individual children without first consulting with appropriate organisations; d. Both a. and b.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a d a, d c a c d b c a

LESSON 7 PERSONAL SECURITY AWARENESS


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Security Responsibilities UN Security Management Basic Principles Basic Strategies, Tips, and Considerations

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

This lesson will provide you with information on the UN policies and procedures for personal security and tips for your personal safety while deployed in the field. The aim of this lesson is to provide the student with the knowledge required for increasing their safety awareness in United Nations peacekeeping operations. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to state:

Individual security responsibility; The five basic principles of personal security; and The actions to take for residential security, car accidents, or hijacks.

INTRODUCTION

UN personnel, including peacekeepers and MILOBS, are finding themselves in more diverse security environments than ever before. It is critical that everyone has a clear understanding of basic security awareness principles and responsibilities to ensure that they can effectively perform their duties. For example, one must always be aware of considerations for security while at the residence. This can include such activities as walking or jogging or preparing for travel (either internationally or internally in the country of assignment). They must also keep in mind of what to do in the event of a breakdown, accident, ambush, or car hijacking. These details are provided to better prepare the peacekeeper for the daily threats he/she may encounter.

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7.1

Security Responsibilities

Host government - primary responsibility Peacekeeping missions - own security Observer Missions Host government Local authorities Regional peacekeeping force

In all peacekeeping missions, an agreement will be reached with the host government for the security of UN personnel and property. However, in most peacekeeping missions conflict and crisis exist, and the authority of the government(s) may not be present in all areas. As with agency operations, the host government has the primary responsibility. In a peacekeeping mission, the force has a capability to defend itself; therefore, they can, in many instances, provide their own security. In a military observer mission, observers are not armed, and security responsibility reverts back to the host government, local authorities, or even a regional peacekeeping force, if one is present in the country.

7.2

UN Security Management

Secretary-General

UN Security Coordinator

Designated Official

The field Security Handbook is a cornerstone of the UN Security Programme. It establishes the UN security policy and addresses the UN system-wide security management plan. It is revised every two years. The Secretary-General is the overall United Nations security authority. The UNSECOORD (United Nations Security Coordinator) is the proponent agency for the UN Security System. UNSECOORD duties are: Acting as the main security advisor to the Secretary-General; Acting on behalf of the Secretary-General; Coordinating responses to security threats; Maintaining databases and distributing information; Reviewing and evaluating all country security plans; and Recruiting and managing all field security officers.

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Every UN agency and organisation has a Security Focal Point. The primary tasks for this person are: To manage all security matters; To interface with UNSECOORD to support agency field operations; To coordination among different elements; and To ensure that staff comply with system-wide security policies, procedures, and instructions. Head of Mission (HOM) As you have already seen in an earlier lesson, there are specific roles and functions of the Head of Mission, both SRSG and FC. In this lesson, we will stress the role and functions of the Head of Mission in terms of their security responsibilities. The Head of Mission (HOM) can be either a Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG, Civilian), a Force Commander (FC, Military), or a Chief Military Observer (CMO, Military). The HOM is responsible for the security of all personnel assigned to the mission, and he/she reports to the Secretary-General through the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. In some cases, the HOM is responsible for the security of not only mission personnel but also UN agency personnel. In this case, the HOM has the title of Designated Chief Security Officer. Chief Security Officer (CSO) Each newly established peacekeeping mission has a security section, which is managed by a Chief Security Officer (CSO). This individual is a mission appointee and is responsible for advising the HOM on security matters affecting the mission. The CSO focuses primarily on the security needs of the civilian component but routinely advises the HOM on security-related issues regarding the force. The CSO is responsible for accomplishing the following duties:

Brief staff and dependants on security measures; Ensure that locally recruited staff understand security measures; Establish the travel clearance system; and Provide staff with appropriate security instructions.

The CSO may be supported by an alternate designated official who is a member of the Senior Management Team (SMT). The system also includes Area Coordinators (AC). Military officers are usually appointed as AC, and a UN agency individual is appointed as the Deputy AC. The AC is responsible for coordinating the security of both the mission and the UN agencies operating within the area. This extends the control of the Designated Official to remote areas and ensures that there is good security coordination between the mission and the UN agencies operating within the area. The Area Security Management Team is formed, and all agencies are included in the Area Security Plan. Once the mission leaves the country at some point in the future, the UN agencies will assume the primary AC responsibility so that there is a seamless transition from mission responsibility for security to agency responsibility and for security within the area.

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Security Plan Every country and every mission will have a Security Plan. The Plan may be simple or elaborate, depending upon the country and the mission. Every member of a peacekeeping mission should be aware of his or her responsibilities with regard to the implementation of the Mission Security Plan. Common Sense You are responsible for your own security First of all, you must understand that the UN cannot protect you 100% of the time. A large majority of an individual's security and safety depends on the various situations the individual is involved in and his/her response to these situations. Personal Security Awareness is nothing more than common sense. While all humans have common sense, we sometimes have a problem using it! Secondly, there are many threats that face all UN staff around the world. Once you get to your mission area, make certain to identify the threats that are prevalent in your mission. Threats include, but are not limited to: sexual attacks, violent robbery, political acts, protests, and kidnapping or hostage-taking. Threats can also face you through accidents, natural disasters, such as a tsunami or earthquake, verbal harassment, and gratuitous violence.

The Head of the UN Operation in Burundi, Carolyn McAskie, visits a military camp hosting South African ONUB peacekeepers in Kabezi commune to appraise the security and humanitarian needs of the local population. (UN Photo #65712, Martine Perret, February 2005)

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7.3

Basic Principles

There are some very basic principles that, in concert with common sense, will help minimise the threats.

Always be alert and aware of your surroundings. Be aware and suspicious. Look for the unusual: loiterers, unauthorised parked cars, your car being followed, etc. Be methodical. Do not be complacent - be disciplined in establishing and maintaining your security precautions. Try to avoid routines like using the same route to go to and from work. When you go to the field, have a preparation checklist to make sure you have everything you will need. Do not be too conspicuous. Try to blend in with your new environment; try not to stand out. Thieves always look for the person who is not sure of where they are and what they are doing. Try to show confidence even if you are lost. Do not wear an excessive amount of jewellery, even costume jewellery. It may be cheap to you, but it looks valuable to a criminal. Plan for the worst. Presume that you will be a victim and be prepared to react if, unfortunately, you find yourself in any threatening situation. Simply ask yourself: If this happens, what will I do? Use common sense. We all have it but sometimes are distracted and fall victim to human nature. The best example of this is the vehicle seat belt. Everyone knows that using the seat belt can significantly reduce the risk of serious injury in an accident. Yet many UN staff drive without using their seat belt. This is a great illustration of not using common sense.

7.4

Basic Strategies, Tips, and Considerations

Many of the tips and considerations that will be mentioned in this section are very basic and will be known to you. But there are numerous staff members who report being a victim of a crime because they did not follow these same common sense suggestions. As you read through this lesson, take a moment to reflect if you follow these basic strategies. They include the following: Brief staff and employees on security procedures; Rehearse safety drills; Know how to use local phones; Carry change or a local phone card; Know emergency telephone numbers; and Carry your radio, if issued. It is important that families, staff, and employees, such as domestic staff, are briefed on security procedures. You need to take the time to do this. Each home and office should have a fire evacuation plan, which should be known by all and practiced at least once a year. If assigned a radio, you must have it with you at all times. Leaving the radio at your house or in your office in the charger does you no good in an emergency.

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Staying away from isolated areas is critical to not becoming a victim. Criminals prefer to attack when you are in an isolated area and not on a crowded street. Your risk is much higher when you travel through this type of area. Many of us have to travel as a part of our business. Tell associates and family your travel plans: where you are going; when you are leaving; when you are returning; and call them when you arrive. The majority of criminal activity directed against staff members occurs at night or during the early morning hours. While it is impossible to not go to work early and stay late, it is recommended that you do not do this routinely. If this is unavoidable, tell someone what you are doing. Employing these simple actions could save your colleagues and your family needless worry. Walking and Jogging Considerations Besides having to walk just to get around, many staff engage in these activities to stay fit and healthy. While this is encouraged, you need to be aware of your surroundings and determine if it is safe to do these activities. Be aware and alert. Only carry what you need, or in other words, only carry what you can afford to loose. Put your valuables in front pockets or under clothing, which makes it difficult for pickpockets. Doorways can be used as hiding places, so walk near the curb, away from bushes, buildings, and doorways. Do not use recreational earphones, as it can cause you to become less aware of your surroundings. If you must, keep it on low volume so you may continue to be aware of your surroundings. This is a personal decision, but it is not recommended because it does cut off one of your key protective capabilities: your ability to hear. You cannot hear if someone walks up from behind while wearing headphones! Only carry the keys you need, have a small light on the key ring, and do not place your name on the key ring. If you discover that you are being followed, get to safety the police, fire department, UN building, or other public area. Normally before a criminal strikes, there is usually a period of surveillance. If you suspect you are being followed, go into a store, cross the street, or turn down another street to see if the individual follows you. If after doing this several times he is still there, immediately get to safety and do not be afraid to ask for help. If you have a mobile telephone, call for help from a safe area. While walking or jogging, do NOT approach a vehicle to give directions. Staff have been pulled into cars and robbed or have been a victim of an express robbery in which they are driven to several ATMs and forced to withdraw cash. You should give directions a safe distance away from the vehicle. Also, do not hitchhike or accept a ride from a stranger. Do not walk alone at night or take shortcuts through isolated areas, and do not talk to strangers at night. These are all common sense.

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Hotel Considerations Many staff are required to travel as a part of their official duties. There are certain actions one should consider when travelling, whether it is between duty stations or from the capital to the deep field. Always stay in hotels with good security. Generally, cheap hotels have cheap security; you should pay a little more and be safe. Ask for a room by the elevator, especially for women travelling alone. You will get to your room faster, the area around an elevator has more people traffic, and thieves generally target rooms at the end of the hall so they are not easily seen or discovered. Ask for a room between the third and seventh floor of a hotel. In the event of an indiscriminate bombing, these floors are far enough from the ground level activity, yet not too high to get out quickly. Keep the door locked and curtains closed. Use a rubber doorstop: many staff travel with their own door stop and use it at night when they go to bed. If someone attempts to enter the room with a passkey, opening the door will create noise and could alert you to trouble. Identify fire escape routes upon checking in. Read the fire plan when you arrive in your room. Survey the hall and find the exit door. It is a good idea to count the number of doors to the exit. In a fire there may be smoke. You should drop to the floor and crawl, counting the doors, until you reach the exit. Field Travel Before departing on travel, there are specific actions that you need to take. Get a security clearance if required and an update on the security situation. The security officer or security focal point can easily provide this information. Do not depend on someone else to get this you must get it yourself. Tell the office your travel plans. Also tell your communications room your plans and when you will contact them. Prepare a checklist so you do not forget anything, and be methodical. Poor roads and lack of infrastructure make the work of UNAMSIL Military Observers a difficult task. Sector East, Sierra Leone. Make sure your communications (UNAMSIL Photo, Michael Mondeh, 2003) equipment works and that you know how to use it. Research your route: know where you are going and where you are at all times. Measure the distance, and divide the trip into legs.

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Also consider not travelling alone. The buddy system is always the best method. If possible, go in a convoy and make certain that all vehicles are prepared. Do not assume the driver has checked ask or even look yourself. If all is in order compliment the driver for having a fully prepared vehicle. Know the local emergency actions procedures, such as what you will do in the case of an accident, breakdown, ambush, or hijacking. Make periodic contact with the office. If possible, travel with a satellite or iridium telephone. Many missions have them available. Conduct radio checks and advise your location with pre-arranged code words. It is best to be accompanied by someone familiar with the area you are visiting, so take a guide or escort with you. By no means pick up a hitchhiker regardless of his/her begging or pleading. The general UN policy is: no non-UN personnel in UN vehicles. If you are in an accident and the person is hurt, you may be liable for medical cost to treat injuries or worse. Threats During Travel When making plans to travel from the capital to the field, there are actions you should consider. There are five prominent threats that all staff face when travelling to the deep field: accidents, breakdowns, checkpoints, hijackings, and kidnappings. As previously mentioned, there are common threats to all staff when travelling to the field. It is important that all are aware of local procedures for responding to these situations. These are only general guidelines. You must be briefed on specific procedure at your station. Vehicle Accidents or Breakdown Vehicle accidents are on the rise in the UN. If you are involved in an accident, it is important to remember to remain calm. Do not panic, as this only makes the situation worse. To avoid further damage or injury, move to the side of the road so that another vehicle cannot hit you or crash into your vehicle. Administer first aid to those who need it, and call for help using the radio or telephone. All UN vehicles are equipped with radios and can reach their respective team sites. Call for help using the radio or telephone to notify your office that an accident has occurred and to get their assistance. Most missions have an investigation section that will respond. Obtain police assistance, especially in receiving a police report of the accident. Your security office can provide further guidance on this. Wait for UN assistance, and remain at the scene unless otherwise directed.

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Checkpoints Checkpoints are among the most common security problems that staff encounter in the field. There are official checkpoints, which are established by the government. However, there is also a wide range of unofficial checkpoints, which result in the restriction of the freedom of movement. It is important for you to quickly identify which type of checkpoint it is, as well as determine if the people manning the checkpoint possess firearms and if they are UN peacekeepers from Nepal on a mission to check the intoxicated (alcohol or drugs). The security situation in Isale, Bujumbura Rural. (ONUB Photo, following are standard procedures Martine Perret, 22 December 2004) used for passing through a checkpoint: Reduce speed. If at night, dim headlights and turn interior dome light on so the checkpoint can see who is inside. Stop if told to do so. Roll your window down no more than one inch. Be friendly and courteous. If you yell, shout, or scream, you may have difficulty passing. Show identification if asked, but do not surrender it. Stay in the vehicle unless ordered out. If that is the case, stay by the vehicle, if possible. Observe any search of the vehicle. Staff have had possessions and equipment taken, and they have had illegal items placed in the vehicle. Protest the removal of personal or official items, but do not resist. In most cases, the individual is armed, and you should never argue with an armed person. Immediately call and report the incident, and obtain further instructions. Security problems at checkpoints vary from location to location. You should never become complacent with crossing checkpoints because they could become extremely dangerous at any time. Hijackings The purpose of a hijacking is most often to embarrass the UN, disrupt the peacekeeping mandate, or to gain popular support for a local cause. Evasive action is your judgment call. If there is no escape, then stop and do not resist. Keep your hands in view, do not make any sudden moves, and explain what you are doing. Comply and do not provoke the hijacker, and do not look at them directly.

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The Hostage Incident Card Your only job is to survive. At the time of your seizure, do not attempt to fight back. The first 15 to 45 minutes are the most dangerous. Do not play the hero; do not talk back or act tough. Be certain that you can explain everything you have on your person. Do not carry any items that may call into question your motives or status within the mission. Fear is a normal reaction. Try to relax, pause, take a deep breath and accept the situation. Keep a low profile. Try to gain your captors respect, and try to build rapport with them. An excellent topic of discussion is family and children. Emphasise that as a UN employee, you are neutral and are not involved in politics. Encourage your captors to let the authorities know your condition and whereabouts. Take care of yourself; exercise, stay well groomed, and eat/drink even if you are not hungry. Be patient and mentally prepared for isolation. Focus your mind on pleasant scenes, memories, or prayers. Do not attempt to escape unless you are certain you will be successful. If there is a rescue attempt by force, drop to the floor and keep your hands over your head. Once the situation stabilises, identify yourself. Kidnappings There are various reasons for kidnapping. Kidnapping may be motivated by money, where a ransom is expected from the UN. It may only be for publicity, where the kidnappers expect to raise interest in their cause by garnering attention through kidnapping UN representatives. If politically motivated, the purpose may be to use you as an exchange for the release of jailed comrades. There are two basic methods to kidnap a victim. The first is a static location, such as your residence, workplace, or someplace that you frequent, such as a restaurant or shop. The second is en route where you may be on foot or in a vehicle moving from one static location to another. Phases of Kidnapping En Route Once an attack site is selected, the kidnappers work to control and isolate that site. In order to control that area, they may jam phone lines, fake roadblocks, stage accidents, or establish other diversions. Remember, they know who they want to kidnap. They have run surveillance to establish patterns and timing and have been able to control and isolate the area. Blocking your vehicle is the next stage. This may be accomplished by fake traffic signs, official roadblocks, ramming or blocking your vehicle, forcing your vehicle up against the curb, or staging a roadside emergency, such as a downed bicyclist or injured child. The goal is to get you to stop your car. Once your car is blocked, they will try to neutralise UN security personnel, gain control of the victim, and leave the attack site with the victim. Always remember that it is your job to survive. Be aware of your surroundings!

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LESSON 7 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

A duty of the UN Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) is: a. Acting as the main security advisor to the Secretary-General; b. Acting as a security guard at the local hotels; c. Checking your luggage at the airport; d. Travelling between missions to consult with the Force Commanders.

2.

Every UN agency and UN organisation has a Security Focal Point. List the three primary tasks for this person.

3.

The Chief Security Officer (CSO) is responsible for accomplishing which of the following duties: a. Travelling between UNHQ and the various missions as a security consultant; b. Ensuring that locally recruited staff understand the security measures; c. Appointing local politicians to their positions; d. None of the above.

4.

There are many threats that face all UN staff around the world. List five different potential threats.

5.

Scenario. Each day you and a fellow MILOB walk from your living location to the UN Team Site. Because it is almost 2 km, you always take the shortest route and stop for coffee at the same place every day. On the way home in the evening, you stop at the same news kiosk for a pack of cigarettes. Of course, you are always in your military uniform, wearing your Blue Beret. What is wrong in this scenario? a. There is nothing wrong with this scenario, as these people are your friends; b. Because there is strength in numbers, it is a safe plan to walk the same route every day with a colleague; c. Creating a predictable pattern of travel, regardless of how many people you are with, allows criminals and terrorists the opportunity to ambush you; d. None of the above.

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6.

Scenario. You are out for your evening walk, and you are approached by a car with two people in it. From their attire, you know that they are locals, so you are not frightened to answer their questions for directions. What should you do? a. Give them directions and ask them for a ride because you are tired; b. Walk right up to the open window so you do not have to yell and give them directions; c. They seem like nice people, so make certain to invite them to your home for coffee; d. Give them directions from a safe distance away from the vehicle.

7.

Scenario. You are travelling alone and preparing to check into your hotel. The room is on the second floor at the end of the hallway by the stairs. Because you are tired, you are happy with the room location and decide to investigate the fire escape locations in the morning. It is a lovely night with a full moon, so you open the drapes and unlock the windows to sleep with the breeze. List five things wrong in this scenario.

8.

Which of the following is a standard procedure at a checkpoint? a. Drive quickly through the checkpoint so the guard cannot see you; b. Once you stop at the checkpoint, you should open you window all the way; c. Stay in the vehicle unless ordered out. If that is the case, stay by the vehicle, if possible; d. Resist if someone tries to remove articles from your car.

9.

If you are taken hostage, which of the following should you NOT attempt? a. Try to escape right away; b. Emphasise that as a United Nations employee, you are neutral and are not involved in politics; c. Keep a low profile; d. If there is a rescue attempt by force, drop to the floor and keep your hands over your head. Identify yourself once the situation stabilises.

10. What is your job if you are taken hostage? a. Tell your captors that you they cannot hurt you because you wear a Blue Beret; b. Survive the situation; c. Yell at your captors; d. All of the above.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2.

a Managing all security matters, interfacing with UNSECOORD support agency field operations, and coordinating among different elements b Sexual attacks, violent robbery, political acts, protests, kidnapping or hostage-taking c d You should: ask for a room between the 3rd and 7th floors; identify the fire escapes upon checking in; ask for a room near the elevator, as thieves usually target rooms at the end of hallways; keep your curtains closed; and keep your door and windows locked. c a b

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

LESSON 8 LANDMINE AND UXO AWARENESS


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Types of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Methods of Landmine Activation The Local Landmine and UXO Threat What to do if Caught in a Minefield In Case of Injury in a Minefield

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

This lesson discusses landmine and UXO awareness and has been developed with information from the UN Landmine and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Safety project of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). The aim of this lesson is to provide peacekeepers with an awareness of the danger of landmines and UXOs. This lesson does NOT constitute a specific pre-deployment training package for landmine and UXO specialists. This lesson only provides an overview of landmine and UXOs and is generic in nature. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

Dispel a few common misconceptions about mines, UXO, and mine action; Understand the general threat posed by landmines and UXO; Establish proper safety procedures related to mines and UXO; and Take appropriate action in emergency situations involving mine or UXO incidents and in case of accidental entry into a minefield.

INTRODUCTION

The lesson does NOT teach the student how to work with mines or UXO, survey mined areas, or find and remove mines. Proximity to mines and UXO is always dangerous and should be avoided. Only trained specialists should seek out or handle mines and UXO. In addition, this lesson does not aim to provide landmine and UXO awareness education to local inhabitants and populations. Community mine awareness should be the object of locally designed programmes adapted to local cultures and needs. This is NOT general safety training or training in first-aid and medical assistance to victims.

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8.1

Types of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

A mine is explosive or other material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or otherwise incapacitate personnel. Mines are used to cause casualties to the enemy, to hinder movement, and to provide protection to important positions. They are also used in civil conflicts to disrupt infrastructures by denying the civilian population access to agricultural land, water, roads, schools, health-care facilities, and other socio-economic targets. Anti-personnel (AP) landmines are designed to injure or kill one or more persons. AP mines can be located underground, on the ground surface, or fixed above ground level. Once triggered, they cause death or serious injury by an explosive blast and/or by airborne fragments. They are grouped according to the manner in which they inflict injury: blast effect mines and fragmentation mines. Blast effect mines are often very cheap and designed to be triggered by the pressure caused by direct personal contact with the mine. They inflict injury through an explosive blast. Most of these types of landmines have a relatively small explosive charge, often containing less than 100 grams of explosive. Fragmentation AP mines are designed to cause death or severe injury from fragments propelled by the mines explosive charge. Most of these mines have metal casings designed to shatter into fragments upon the detonation of the mine, or they are armed with ball bearings or metal fragments that are turned into lethal projectiles by the detonation of the mine. The most commonly found standard fragmentation AP mines are stake mines, which are designed to fit on wooden or metal stakes hammered into the ground until the mine is resting about 21 cm above the surface. Directional (or Claymore type) fragmentation AP mines are designed to project a dense pattern of fragments within a specified arc. Bounding fragmentation AP mines are generally triggered by pressure on tripwires and/or direct pressure. An initial charge lifts the mine up to waist height before the main charge detonates. Upon detonation, the explosion shoots out metal fragments in a 360-degree horizontal arc. Anti-tank (AT) landmines are mines that are designed to disable or destroy vehicles, including tanks. Because they need much greater power to achieve their objective, AT mines are much larger than AP mines and have a far heavier explosive charge. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) are explosive munitions that have not yet been set off. UXO may already have been fired, dropped, or launched, but it has failed to detonate as intended. UXO include grenades, rockets, mortars, artillery shells, bombs, cluster munitions, and fuses. They can function almost exactly as landmines, exploding when stepped on, moved, or touched. Some UXO also contain motion-sensitive fusing or magnetic sensors; others may have a timed self-destruct feature. Because UXO are very unstable and can be detonated easily, they are very dangerous.

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8.2

Methods of Landmine Activation

Be aware of the threat of the following methods of landmine activation: Direct pressure; Tripwires; Tilt rods (vertical rods often attached to anti-tank mines and designed to detonate once the hull of a tank has bent the rod); Command detonation; Time-delay; Disturbance; and Other (e.g., light). Mines can also be booby-trapped by using, for example, anti-handling devices to make their removal more difficult.

Anti-tank (AT) mines in Sudan. (UNMAS, 2003)

8.3

The Local Landmine and UXO Threat

During your in-processing at the mission site, ask for the country-specific leaflet that discusses local landmine and UXO threats. When available, it is necessary to contact the following for reliable information: Local Mine Action Centres (MACs) and mine action agencies; UN Security Officers; UN Military Observers or Liaison Officers; and NGOs and aid agencies working in the area. Regardless of mission, an area or route that is not marked as contaminated with mines does not mean it is safe. Typical and Local Warning Signs What types of signs are typically used to warn of a minefield? A skull and crossbones on a red triangular or rectangular background is typically used, but it is important that during your mission in-processing you ask for the specific warning signs typically found in your mission area. Once again, the country-specific leaflet will give you examples of what is found in your country. An area can be mined, whether or not it is a military area, and there are often clues that can indicate an area as potentially dangerous.

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UNMEE, near Senafe, Eritrea. This area contained one of the largest minefields of the war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. (Photo by LTC Phyllis Mihalas, July 2002)

There are three cardinal rules: When in doubt, stay out! When properly laid, landmines are almost impossible to see! Never approach or touch landmines or UXO! Be aware of the following local and typical warning signs: Positions of the military; Destroyed buildings, vehicles, or equipment; Partially visible mines/UXO or discarded packaging from their containers; Tripwires and tilt rods; Casualties, those who are injured, or dead animals; Signs of fighting; Disturbed soil or vegetation; Overgrown areas; and Local behaviour (areas and paths avoided). Be Informed and Prepared Make sure you know whom to contact for help in case of a mine or UXO emergency. Ensure that you and your team-mates have received appropriate mine and UXO awareness and first-aid training, and make sure that you are familiar with your organisations safety procedures. Carry with you at all times the UN Mine and UXO Handbook and country-specific information corresponding to your area of operations. Keep contact details of the mine action centre and agencies, UN security officers, and medical facilities on hand. Verify and update emergency contacts on a regular basis.

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Do not travel without a radio, and be sure you know how to use it. Be informed of all the alternative frequencies that you may require (e.g., mine action agencies, UN security officers). The use of a global positioning device (GPS) is also strongly recommended. Also carry a travel pack with a first-aid kit in your vehicle at all times. Regularly check the expiry date and serviceability of all items, and know how to use them. Update your mine and UXO information on a regular basis. Obtain relevant and detailed information on the mine and UXO situation prior to any movement into an area or region that may contain mines or UXO. Carry a map marked with the best available information about routes known to be free of mines. Update this information by checking with local populations as you travel, and pay attention to their warnings! In addition to contacting the mine action centre and UN security officers for reliable information, also contact local authorities, hospitals, and members of the local population for additional information. Keep in mind, however, that returning populations may not be aware of the local mine and UXO threat. If there are any doubts as to what constitutes reliable information, refer to the countryspecific leaflet for a listing of local sources of information. However, information must be checked, and perceptions of risk may be different between cultures. Thus, a path may be safe but may also be bordered heavily by mines. If in doubt, assume that the worst-case scenario applies. indicates that an area is dangerous, do not go. Even if only one source

Pass new information to your head office, the local Mine Action Centre, UN Security Officers, and mine action agencies, so that they can share it with other organisations and staff members. Be Careful Drive slowly. Speed is not a priority over safety! Do not enter known or suspected risk areas, and use only cleared and approved routes. Maintain radio contact. Whenever possible, travel with a companion, preferably one who knows the area and the route you need to use. Stick to well-travelled routes, and stay in the travelled zone of the road. On dirt roads, stay on the existing tracks. Never drive around roadblocks of former military positions. Never drive over anything on the road. A paper bag, a piece of cloth, or a wooden board can all conceal mines. Always be extremely careful driving during or after heavy rains. Mines may be moved or exposed by rain.

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Dont take risks! If you are in any doubt, turn back! When travelling on foot, allow a local guide to lead the way, and allow a distance of around 25 meters between members of the group. Never walk through overgrown areas. Instead, stick to sidewalks and well-used paths. Carry a radio and a first-aid kit at all times. Do not leave them in your vehicle. These items should be carried by a person walking in the middle of the team or towards the back, not by the lead person. Do not move obstacles they may be mined or booby-trapped. Do not enter abandoned buildings or visit deserted locations. Talk to the local population and observe local behaviour to find out about safe areas in communities. Resist offers to be shown a mine, as this is probably still in a mined area and therefore an area of extreme danger. Do not touch objects in mine-contaminated areas, especially unexploded ordnance. Do not collect war souvenirs, and do not approach abandoned military vehicles or facilities.

8.4

What to do if Caught in a Minefield

Do not rush! Exiting a minefield is a time-consuming and dangerous process. Immediately after stopping, warning others, and calling for help, you can assess the situation further: Examine the ground immediately around your feet to make sure your base is safe. Look around slowly and carefully, without moving, to see if you can spot Aerial view of Croatian demining efforts in the Western Sector of Eritrea. (UNMEE, LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, August 2002) mines, tripwires, etc. Crouch down without moving your feet, and visually scan for tripwires or signs of mines. Visually locate the nearest safe ground. This may be where you last knew you were on a safe surface, such as a hard surfaced road, well-used path, or steel structure, such as an irrigation canal or a large pipeline. It is strongly recommended to remain where you are and wait for assistance to arrive. It is better to spend two days in a minefield than getting injured or killed! When a vehicle strikes a mine, the first instinct of survivors may be to rush out. However, unless the vehicle is on fire or has ended up in a life-threatening position, stay in the vehicle. It is very likely that there will be more mines, including AP mines, in the area. If you can, render first-aid assistance to other passengers in the vehicle who require it. If absolutely necessary, leave the vehicle from the back, staying in the wheel tracks.

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Once out of the mined area, make sure that you report the threat to your office and to the mine action organisations operating in the area.

8.5

In Case of Injury in a Minefield

It is essential to resist the temptation to go into a minefield to try to extract someone. Minefield extraction is a specialist enterprise, and many people have been killed or injured unnecessarily trying to help friends or family. In case of a mine or UXO accident, you are advised to do the following: Remain calm. Do not rush to the victim, and do not attempt to rescue him/her in what may be a minefield. Note the time and exact location of the accident. Call for help. Arrange for both mine clearance assistance and MEDEVAC. Warn the mine victim not to move, and advise him/her that help is on its way. If you do not have it with you, and if you can safely do so, collect your first-aid kit from your vehicle. Once the victim is brought to safe ground by a mine clearance team, and if there are no medical personnel available, you may administer emergency first aid, if appropriate, as per your formal training:

Check the victim for breathing. If required and possible, clear the airways and give artificial respiration or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Stop the bleeding. Elevate the injured limb above the level of the heart. Use whatever bandages or material are available to make pressure dressing for the wounds. If bleeding continues through the dressings, apply more material and apply firm manual pressure. If the wounded person is unconscious, put them in the recovery or semi-prone position. Protect the victim from the wind, rain, cold, or bright sunlight. Keep him/her calm and warm, talk to him/her, and explain what you are planning to do.

Once you get the patient to a vehicle, transport him/her at once to the nearest medical facility. Use the best transport immediately available, and leave instructions for any better or faster transport to follow you when it arrives.

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LESSON 8 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

When moving in a potentially mined area, danger zones can include: a. Forks in a road and knapsacks of local guides; b. Baggage in vehicles that pass by; c. Edges of roads and natural or man-made objects that are out of place; d. The middle of the roads.

2.

In areas that may be mined or booby-trapped, hard roads or recent vehicle or foot tracks can be considered safe areas. a. True b. False

3.

Driving livestock through a field will make the field safe from mines. a. True b. False

4.

If you know a piece of land has been stepped on, you know you are safe. If a mine did not go off the first time, it will not explode later. a. True b. False

5.

There is a type of mine that will click when you step on it and then blow up only when you take your foot off. This can allow you time to find a heavy object to place on the mine as you remove your foot. a. True b. False

6.

One way to avoid injury in a dangerous area is to run or drive as fast as possible. If you run or drive very quickly, you can avoid the blast of an exploding mine. a. True b. False

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7.

Luckily landmines do not last very long, and after a few years in the ground, they tend to rust and will not work. a. True b. False

8.

Unexploded bombs pose less of a threat because you can see them and then simply move them out of your way. a. True b. False

9.

Burning an area may clear some mines but not all of them. a. True b. False

10. What should you do if you are caught in a minefield?

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

c a b b b b b b a MINED: Movement stops Inform and warn. Tell them not to move, contact base, and indicate location. Note area, examine ground, look for tripwires/mines, identify safe ground. Evaluate situation, take control. Do not move from your location, wait for assistance.

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LESSON 9 MEDICAL ISSUES


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 HIV/AIDS Malaria Basic Life Support Basic Hygiene

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide MILOBS and peacekeepers with the basic facts and information about HIV/AIDS and malaria. This lesson will also provide peacekeepers with the steps of basic life support and how to apply these to a casualty in a mission. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

Demonstrate detailed understanding of the basic facts, spread, and prevention of HIV/AIDS; Understand the various policies, resolutions, and preventive measures that interplay and interrelate in the fights against the spread of HIV/AIDS worldwide; Understand the importance of malaria prevention; Identify the typical symptoms of malaria and how to react to them; Understand the importance of basic life support; List the steps of basic life support and execute the basic life support techniques; and Explain the importance of maintaining ones personal hygiene while at a mission.

INTRODUCTION

MILOBS and peacekeepers in the field can find themselves in hazardous situations both during and after conflicts. While many of these dangers originate from violence inflicted amongst people, others occur as a result of various medical issues. Therefore, it is imperative that peacekeepers arm themselves with knowledge of diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria. The maintenance of ones personal hygiene will also help prevent the spread of disease. In addition, peacekeepers should familiarise themselves with basic life support techniques, which could save someones life in the event of injury in the field.

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9.1

HIV/AIDS

It is essential that peacekeepers and MILOBS of all nations both uniformed and civilian, understand the significance of HIV/AIDS prior to taking on peacekeeping duties anywhere in the world. Revelation in recent years shows that peacekeeping operations may be playing a role in the spread of HIV/AIDS between high prevalence areas and low prevalence areas. This is a situation involving the individual peacekeepers, the troop-contributing countries (TCC), the host country, UN DPKO, and the medical fraternity at large, including the World Health Organisation (WHO). Failure to conform to existing prevention and prophylactic measures in curbing this menace has far-reaching consequences to UNPKOs. HIV is a deadly virus! HIV infection is preventable! You may find the HIV virus everywhere!

Sexual Relationships in Missions Peacekeepers are strongly discouraged from entering into a sexual relationship with any member of the host population, as these relationships are normally unbalanced in favour of the peacekeeper. If, however, they have sexual relations, it is expected that they behave responsibly and protect themselves, as well as their partner, from the spread of HIV or other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). The UN strongly advises that MILOBS and peacekeepers do not engage in penetrative sex while in the mission. As it is, however, a fact that many peacekeepers do, the mission makes condoms available to all MILOBS and peacekeepers. Condoms are the only relative protection against the spread of HIV when engaging in penetrative sex with a person who may carry the HIV virus. Condoms are the only protection available to prevent spread. Condoms are freely available in all missions. Any mission member should feel free to use them. This does not constitute an acceptance by the United Nations for entering into a sexual relationship. It is an acknowledgement of the fact that some do enter into sexual relationships and have a need for protection. Condoms must be used whenever penetration is a part of the sexual act, whether it is between man and woman or between men. They are equally important as protection in oral, anal, or vaginal sexual intercourse. UN Engagement The pandemic of HIV/AIDS is a global concern as it influences every aspect of life. In varying degrees, all nations are affected. In most societies, the disease is stigmatising, and people known or suspected to be HIV-positive are often socially excluded. Children are born with HIV, and parents die from AIDS. The productive population is decimated, and those left are not able to maintain production and support their relatives. In many areas, there is a lack of teachers, medical personnel, and uniformed security forces. Medical services are congested, and treatable diseases are often neglected.

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SC Resolution 1308 (2000). In 2000, the Security Council passed a resolution describing the pandemic as affecting human security as it affects the stability in nations and regions. SC Resolution 1325 (2000). As women are especially vulnerable in societies in conflict, the Security Council emphasises that we are all responsible for developing our societies with due respect for the rights of women and children. UNGASS. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in June 2001 emphasised the way HIV/AIDS affects all areas of life, with a special emphasis on the human and financial impact to the poorest nations. The Global Fund. The UN Secretary-General is creating a global fund to combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, diseases that kill millions each year, predominantly in poor nations. These diseases must be addressed in the name of humanity. Global Numbers As of 2005, approximately 40 million people carry the HIV virus. Fifteen million are between 15 and 24 years old. At least 15,000 new people are infected daily. The chances of HIV-positive pregnant women passing on the virus to their child are 1 in 3. Over 20 million people have already died from AIDS worldwide. On average, at least 12,000 will die each day in the next 10 years. The Effect of HIV/AIDS on your Body The virus enters the specialised cells that protect the body against infections. The virus multiplies and renders the cell useless. After a period of time, there are no longer enough cells to protect the individual from infection, and the patient suffers more and more often from infections. How does it enter the cells? The HIV virus is concentrated in bodily fluids. The highest concentration is in blood, sexual fluids, and breast milk. The virus is passed to others through the exchange of fluids or through sharp objects infected by these fluids. When in the body, the virus seeks out and enters the so-called T-cells, cells that protect the body from infections. How does it multiply? Inside the T-cell, the virus multiplies and makes the cell unable to fight infections. The new viruses are released into the bloodstream and enter new T-cells. How does this affect your body? The body has a big reserve, so that in the early stages of HIV infection there are still enough healthy T-cells to fight infection. However, eventually the ability to fight infection decreases, and the patient suffers from more and more ordinary infections and symptoms of ill health. Can you see who is infected? Until the end stages of AIDS, one cannot see if a person is infected or not. What are the end stages? In the late stages of AIDS, even infections that rarely affect humans will affect the patient. Eventually the patient dies from an infection.

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How Does HIV Spread? All spread of the HIV virus is avoidable and preventable! Sexual spread. In more than 80% of cases, the virus spreads through unprotected sexual intercourse as sexual fluids, where the virus concentration is high, are exchanged. The changes of spread increase where one or both have a sore or bleeding. The spread is facilitated by unprotected sex, such as intercourse, anal intercourse, oral sex, or any other form of sex without a properly-worn prophylactic. Spread through infected needles and utensils. The next largest group are infected through the use of infected medical utensils, such as those used in ritual scarring and circumcision. The spread will also occur through improperly cleaned medical equipment or through the sharing of needles in drug abuse. Mother-to-child. An infected mother may pass the virus to her baby in pregnancy, during birth, or by breast-feeding.

A woman bottle-feeds an infant at a home for women and children in Ethiopia. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the most significant sources of HIV infection in children below the age of 10 years. (UNAIDS, Gubb)

Blood transfusions. The use of improperly tested blood or blood products may lead to the spread of infection. How HIV Does Not Spread Those who are HIV-positive can live a normal, responsible life. Normal parent/child activities. All normal activities between parents and children are safe. They can share a bed, a bath, or a meal, and they may play, share love, emotions, and interact like everybody else. Normal boyfriend/girlfriend activities. The normal, non-sexual, exchange of love like hugs, kisses, and touch do not spread the HIV virus between people. Sexual activities that do not include direct contact with another persons sexual fluids are safe. Unprotected penetration, i.e., without a condom, is the only dangerous sexual activity. Caring for the sick. Caring for the sick is not dangerous as long as one takes normal hygiene precautions, even if the patient suffers from an HIV-related disease.

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Sharing food or drink. Drinking from the same bottle or sharing food with someone who is HIV-positive is normally safe. Insects. Insects, such as mosquitoes, do not lead to significant exchange of blood, and therefore, do not lead to the spread of HIV. First aid and resuscitation. No HIV infection has been observed resulting from mouth to mouth resuscitation. In normal first aid, one should use rubber gloves when possible. If no gloves are available, a thorough wash with soap and water is sufficient. If the first-aid helper him/herself is bleeding, the bleeding area should be covered before performing first aid to avoid blood-to-blood contact. Treatment for HIV/AIDS There is no vaccine to protect against AIDS, and none are close to being used in humans. When a vaccine is produced, it will not influence the health of people already infected with HIV. In addition, no drug treatment can cure a patient with HIV. It may prolong their life, but the treatment has great cost financially, as well as in life-quality. By adopting a healthy lifestyle with a regular life and optimal nutrition, an HIV-infected person can influence his/her lifequality and the progress of the disease. Factors Influencing the Spread Population on the move. In refugee situations, women and children may find themselves in situations where sex is exchanged for security, food, water, or drugs. Poverty. The chances of getting infected are influenced by the status of the immune system when challenged by the HIV virus. Poverty influences living conditions as well as nutrition, thus influencing the changes of getting infected. Poverty also may be part of a woman becoming a commercial sex worker.

Training session on HIV prevention for a group of students in Botswana. (UNAIDS, Pirozzi)

STIs. Sexually Transmitted Infections enhance the chance of getting infected. This is due to the increased discharge and the vulnerability of the sexual surfaces. Promiscuity. A frequent change of sex partners or the use of commercial sex workers greatly increases the chance of getting infected or infecting others. All unprotected sex can be an opportunity for transmission of HIV.

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Commercial sex. Engaging in commercial sex means sharing infections from all previous sexual encounters of both partners. Commercial sex workers as a group may have up to a 90% HIV infection rate in some areas. The United Nations does not accept that MILOBS or peacekeepers engage in commercial sex. Violent sex. Violent sex increases the chances of bleeding and, therefore, the chances for getting infected. Circumcision in women. Women who are ritually circumcised often bleed during intercourse, and sex rarely gives the normal lubrication that protects the female sexual surfaces. Dry sex. In some cultures, potions to make the surfaces dry are used. This brings the partners to the same situation as above. Men having sex with men. Sex between men is more likely to provoke microscopic bleeding and, therefore, facilitate the spread of HIV. Different Cultures May Interpret the Same Signal Oppositely The MILOB or peacekeeper is the guest, and it is his/her responsibility to protect and relate to the local culture. This does not mean that the peacekeeper has to adopt the culture; it is important to remain true to your own culture while respecting the culture in the host country. Between the two cultures, a safe rule of thumb is to behave according to the culture with the most restrictive rules for human relationships. Understanding the local culture. As guests, peacekeepers must understand and respect the local culture. Believing that the host community should adhere to the culture or the standards that peacekeepers bring along is cultural imperialism. Peacekeepers are there to respect and protect the culture, not to challenge it. If your own culture sets higher standards for behaviour than what you experience in the mission, retain your respect for your own cultural values. Seeking contact. Some cultures and religious creeds discourage direct contacts and indirect contacts, such as eye contact and smiles, between women and men that do not belong to their closest family. In other cultures, a friendly look or a smile is a natural sign of friendliness and welcome. The latter should never be interpreted by a peacekeeper as an invitation or encouragement for a relationship. Some cultures and religious creeds encourage women to cover their hair or de-emphasise their bodily features through dress. The peacekeeper must respect this and not openly challenge it. The practice in itself does not signal a specific view on womens positions or repression, neither does challenging it. Touch. Some cultures and religious creeds discourage bodily contact between men and women unless closely related. It normally does not constitute impoliteness if a member of the opposite sex chooses not to shake hands with you. All cultures accept touching the area of your heart with your right hand as a polite greeting. Nudity and breast-feeding. Some cultures do not discourage upper-body nudeness or breast-feeding in public. This is not a statement of availability, an invitation, or a proof of promiscuity, and a peacekeeper must never see it as such.

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Respect for women. MILOBS and peacekeepers should protect women and children. Treat all women as you want others to treat the significant women in your life. You will never go wrong if you treat women the way you want and expect others to treat your mother, your wife, or your daughter. A woman has the right to choose if she wants to get into a relationship. If you see the relationship she invites you to join as improper according to your and/or her culture, refrain from entering into the relationship. A person has the right to choose whether or not to enter into a relationship with another person, and it is improper to seek to coerce or force another person into any relationship they resist or should resist according to their culture. Sex with children is criminal. International conventions normally set 18 years as the age where a man may enter regular military service. All peacekeepers are expected to be above 18. The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states the age of maturity to be 18 and that younger persons should be respected as children. Whatever is the age of consent in the home country of the peacekeeper or in the host country of the mission, the peacekeeper must abide by the strictest interpretation of the convention. Entering into a sexual relationship with a person that has not reached legal maturity is unacceptable for a peacekeeper. A balanced relationship. A relationship must be built on a balance between the partners: Balance in security. A woman or man seeking the security offered by peacekeepers cannot enter into a balanced relationship with a peacekeeper. Balance in physical situation. A person who does not have shelter or food cannot enter into a balanced relationship with a peacekeeper. Balance in emotional needs. Remember that sex may be for sale whereas love is never! Remember that you can never buy a person to satisfy and reciprocate your emotional needs. No material bonds. A relationship where one person exchanges material values for emotional or physical services is never balanced. Shared wish to engage. The relationship is balanced only if both parties share the wish to engage emotionally or physically. The Role of the Military and the Police Uniformed security forces defend the nation against any enemy. A higher goal is the protection of the weak and vulnerable against evil. Today, the biggest enemy to all mankind is HIV/AIDS, and it is natural that every soldier takes part in protecting the most vulnerable in the mission area, as well as their own nation, against this disease. Most uniformed personnel are between 15 and 45 years, which is the age where men and women are most active sexually. In many societies, uniformed personnel are part of a highly respected group, which influences the behaviour and lifestyle of others. In most military or police organisations, the majority of the members are males. There may be a tradition to encourage showing a male behaviour where conflict should have a winner and where the strongest and most assertive is the leader of the pack. The peer pressure to conform to the behaviour decided by the group as acceptable is great. This may include being coerced into active sexual acts or behaviour, at times under group pressure. As in many male groups, women are the focus of interest and fantasies.

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The peacekeeper is quite often seen as bringing peace. The population normally has high expectations of peacekeepers. They bring about stability and security, but they are also expected by some to bring about prosperity. The facilities of peacekeepers are normally of high standard and signal that the peacekeepers have money. The standards of the peacekeepers, materially and socially, may influence local standards. The peacekeeper must be aware of this, so as not to accidentally abuse or be abused by the people. While on mission, the unit and the officers offer the only social control. The control mechanisms of family, friends, and culture are not there, and this may influence a peacekeeper to let go of the normal taboos and inhibitions. Loneliness and the lack of privacy also at times reduce the adherence to cultural values. Alcohol and Drugs The use of alcohol for relaxation and in social contexts influences behaviour in a negative way. It reduces the normal social control, and it may lead to actions and behaviour that is not seen as acceptable, even to the individuals themselves. In areas of conflict, recreational drugs like marijuana, kat, cocaine, and pharmaceuticals are often readily available, as are drugs for intravenous use. All these drugs influence behaviour and reduce inhibitions. With intravenous drugs, there is an additional risk of spreading HIV through the sharing of needles. Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing The UN advocates everybodys right to Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing. Mandatory testing is not supported, but it is accepted if it is a national decision to perform mandatory testing. The HIV status of MILOBS and peacekeepers should be confidential, and the United Nations does not request to know this status of their peacekeepers. The UN does, however, insist that a MILOB or peacekeeper should not have a medical history or a medical examination suggesting any stage of AIDS.

Testing for HIV/AIDS in a Ministry of Health laboratory in Amman, Jordan. (UNAIDS, Pirozzi)

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Psychologists show that the important side of a test is the possibility to change the behaviour according to the test result. Behavioural change is more consistent if following a voluntary testing procedure. As a persons HIV status may affect his/her standing and acceptance in the community, the status should only be known by those he/she chooses to share the results with. The result of a test is only important if you know how to cope with the knowledge and are supported in finding how to adjust your life to whatever the test might show. It is, therefore, not acceptable to test a person without offering the support of counselling. Testing may be done as a rapid screening test. This test is intended to avoid false negative tests and may produce false positive tests. More specific tests should be used for verification to avoid the inclusion of false positive tests. The Advantage of Knowing your Status Protect yourself and others. Knowing you are HIV negative and discussing it with the counsellor may help you choose a lifestyle that helps you remain HIV negative. Knowing you are HIV-positive and discussing it with the counsellor may help you choose a lifestyle that helps you not infect others. Lifestyle. As the progress of disease is influenced by lifestyle, a person knowing that he/she is HIV-positive may adjust his/her lifestyle to be more optimal for protecting health. This will influence nutrition, the use of tobacco, alcohol or recreational drugs, rest, sleep, and the planning of future activities. Medical considerations. A person knowing that he/she is HIV-positive will have been told by the counsellor of the medical signs of HIV-related diseases, which may influence the course of the disease through addressing these diseases early. There are also a number of cheap regimes that influence the frequency of chest infections and tuberculosis. Treatment. If you, your family, or your society can get you treatment, it is important to know your status at the earliest possible time. The Window Period When infected by the HIV virus, it takes time before the virus concentration is high enough to convert your test from negative to positive. The time before this happens is called the window period. The window period may last up to 6 weeks. In this time, you may be infected and have the ability to transmit the disease, even though the test may be negative. Testing after risky behaviour should take place immediately after the incident and then again after six to twelve weeks.

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9.2

Malaria

It is essential that MILOBS and peacekeepers of all nations, both uniformed and civilian, understand the importance of malaria prior to taking on peacekeeping duties anywhere in the world. Statistics indicate that malaria is one of the leading causes of death of peacekeepers, together with traffic accidents. Many peacekeeping missions require deployments in areas of high prevalence of malaria. However, malaria may be prevented with very simple measures to be undertaken by the individuals and the units in the field. It is, thus, critical that all peacekeepers be informed and trained on how to avoid being sick and how to identify and react immediately to the symptoms. UN Engagement Why is the United Nations concerned about malaria? There are more than 200 million cases of malaria each year worldwide. This has a major influence on productivity and security. Malaria kills more than one million people every year, of which 75% are children. The course of malaria is worse in immuno-compromised patients. This leads to malaria becoming more deadly in the present HIV/AIDS pandemic. How Malaria Attacks the Body Malaria is a significant cause of death in peacekeeping missions on the African continent. Approximately ten peacekeepers die from malaria every year. Nearly all of these deaths are avoidable! Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity in peacekeeping missions. In some contingents, one-third of the soldiers have clinical malaria every month. This is avoidable! Malaria is a disease that spreads from person to person through the Anopheles mosquito. A disease that spreads through an animal or insect is called vector borne. The mosquito breeds in water and a hot climate, and it bites only at night. The parasite that causes the disease multiplies in the body and spreads from the infected person to non-infected people through the mosquito. Reducing the number of vectors can influence the spread of vector-borne diseases. Protecting against vectors can influence whether the individual gets the disease or not. A person gets infected through the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. The bite injects parasites that infect the liver. After having multiplied for approximately ten to twenty days in the liver, the parasites are released into the bloodstream and enter the red blood cells. This causes the clinical disease of malaria. The ten to twenty days are called the incubation period, and it is part of the disease as the number of parasites is increasing in this period even if the patient has no symptoms. When the parasite enters the red blood cells, the cells eventually burst. Often so many cells may burst that the patient becomes anaemic. The products of the burst cells may cause jaundice, and they may also cause the liver and spleen to grow as they are performing the task of clearing the blood from the products of the burst cells. Other products may cause other cells in the blood to stick together in small clots that may close the tiny blood vessels.

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When more and more red cells burst, the patient becomes anaemic. This leads to a feeling of heaviness and reduced ability to perform physical activities. The products of the burst cells may lead to a slight jaundice, where the skin gets a slight tan and the white in the eyes becomes yellowish. In cleaning the blood, the liver and spleen grow. As an enlarged liver or spleen is quite brittle, the patient may suffer internal bleeding following minor trauma to the abdomen. Symptoms of Acute Malaria The first symptoms are similar to those associated with the flu. The patient does not feel well and experiences headache, muscle and joint pain, and a slight fever. After a while, the patient typically experiences a feeling of being cold and shivers while the temperature rises to a spike of high fever. The fever goes down while the patient is normally sweating profusely. After this, the patient feels relatively well until the fever comes back at irregular intervals. After about a week, the fever spikes become regular with an interval of 48 to 72 hours. A MILOB and peacekeeper must understand and relate to the symptoms of malaria: Bouts of fever that come and go until after 7-10 days, when it becomes rhythmic with 4872 hours between bouts. Fever comes with pains in muscles and joints, and it may simulate influenza. Enlarged spleen or liver and jaundice may be later symptoms. If you suspect malaria you should always seek medical attendance. Always react to fever, unusual fatigue, and the flu. As the early symptoms have a lot in common with the symptoms of influenza, it is easy to mistake them for a normal flu. You should always remember that you might have malaria if you suddenly get flu symptoms. If you feel unusually tired and worn out after a two-day flu, suspect malaria. If you have an irregular high fever, you should suspect malaria. Only patients having had malaria repeatedly should be treated as outpatients. All other patients should be observed as inpatients. In cases of anaemia, jaundice, or circulatory problems, the patient should always be seen in a hospital. MEDEVAC is vital in any case of mental confusion or convulsion, as well as with reduced production of urine. Death from Malaria Why do people die from malaria? The products of burst cells may make other cells sticky and facilitate them in forming small blood clots. Small clots may get stuck in the thin vessels of vital organs and cause malfunction. Parasites may steal vital nutrients and oxygen from normal cells. This may result in vital organs breaking down after first having functioned badly. Death follows this breakdown. Who dies from malaria? In endemic countries, 75% of those dying from malaria are young children. In peacekeeping missions, most of those severely affected come from nonendemic countries and have never had malaria prior to being deployed to a mission. Individuals with an immune system affected by other disease or drugs become more severely affected. This is an important cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients.

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How to Prevent Malaria Malaria is, to a large extent, a preventable disease. Active physical and pharmaceutical prophylaxis significantly reduces the chance of being infected by malaria. Is there such a thing as immunity? People from areas with a high rate of malaria are considered semi-immune. This does not prevent them from getting malaria, but it generally seems to lead to a milder form of the disease, with less complications. Some do, however, become severely ill. Influencing the environment to prevent the disease: Vector control: By controlling the environment, it is possible to reduce the number of mosquitoes: Drain pools of stagnant water, as mosquitoes breed there. Cut grass and brush short. Cut low hanging branches. Use spray or fog to kill mosquitoes. Repellent: Dip uniforms, tents, and mosquito nets in chemicals that repel mosquitoes (such as Peremetrine). Nets: Cover doors and windows with nets to avoid letting mosquitoes into buildings. Cover your bed with a mosquito net. Action taken by the individual to prevent infection: Attire: The Anopheles mosquito only bites at night. The individual should therefore dress in a way covering as much skin as possible to prevent mosquito bites. Repellent: Skin not covered by dress should be treated with repellent. Less than 30% DEET is recommended for this. Drug Prophylaxis: Prophylaxis does not stop you from being infected, but is nearly always protects you from developing malaria. The United Nations expects every peacekeeper to use prophylaxis, and it reimburses all contributing countries for providing prophylaxis to their peacekeepers. The United Nations follows the advice of the World Health Organisation in recommending a weekly dose of Mefloquine (Lariam) as prophylaxis which reduces clinical infections hundredfold. Prophylaxis does not lead to significant side effects, and any biochemical change is reversible.

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9.3

Basic Life Support

It is essential that MILOBS and peacekeepers of all nations, both uniformed and civilian, be prepared to provide basic life support to other peacekeepers or any casualty in cases where they may be the first responders. Most incidents will happen in places where there is no immediate medical support. Statistics also indicate that the first two hours are critical for survival and recovery. It is in this moment that a few simple actions taken decisively by the first responders may decide the fate of the injured persons. The intention of this section is to present a basic understanding of the vital functions of the human body. This knowledge should be used in applying effective, basic life support measures as first responders in accidents and as a result of hostile action. Remember the basics: Airways Bleeding Circulation Head Spinal Cord Fracture Standards You are encouraged to use your own national guidelines to train your personnel. The important issue is that each and every peacekeeper will deploy to the field prepared to provide first aid or basic life support anytime, anywhere. Basic life support should be fast and decisive. However, speed must never take preference over care, knowledge, or security! Evaluate the MONUC Moroccan contingent medical staff treat refugees in Che, Ituri, security situation before after they fled their homes due to violent militia fighting. (MONUC Photo, you approach the patient. Christophe Boulierac, February 2005) You must always regard your own personal safety. You are of no help to a patient if you behave in a way that may potentially injure you as well. You must also evaluate whether the patients security situation (fire, chemicals) should take preference over treatment.

Open airways and functional exchange of air No significant bleeding reduces the circulating volume Pumping action from heart Be aware of signs of head injury Avoid movement of the neck and the spinal column Fractures and suspected fractures should be immobilised

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Mechanism of Injury Always try to understand the mechanism of injury before you begin first aid.

Spinal Injury As a practical precaution, always treat a patient as if he/she has a spinal injury that may get worse until you feel reasonably sure that this is not the case. Head Injury While preparing for applying first aid, try to get an impression of the mental status of the patient. A = Airways Secure open airways. B = Bleeding Apply pressure at points of major bleeding. A clean bandage is better than a dirty bandage; a dirty bandage is better than no bandage. C = Circulation Check for adequate circulation, and position the patient to facilitate optimal circulation. A2 = Respiration If there is no spontaneous respiration, prepare for mouth-to-mouth respiration. Very few people are experienced in this. But, a good try is never wrong and may save a life. C2 = Circulation If there is no pump action, start cardiac compressions. Few are experienced in this as well, but a good try is never wrong and may save a life.

If and when the patient has spontaneous respiration and circulation, continue to the following.

Report Report your findings and treatment in a short, exact message to medical personnel to facilitate the correct priority being given for MEDEVAC. B2 = Bleeding Apply pressure and bandages on minor bleeding. Fractures Immobilise fractures. Evacuation With due concern for the injuries, the patient should be evacuated to a medical facility according to the priority given by medical personnel.

The Importance of Oxygen All cells need oxygen to maintain normal function. With insufficient oxygen supply, cells become dysfunctional; without oxygen, cells die. Brain cells die if they are without oxygen for three to five minutes; muscle and skin cells can repair after over an hour, but they may have lost some of their function. Basic life support is aimed at maintaining the circulation of oxygen in the body to facilitate optimal function and prevent cell death. Oxygen for the cells is absorbed in the lungs when we breathe. When you inhale, the protein haemoglobin in the blood cells passing through the lung tissue absorbs oxygen from the air. When the heart contracts regularly, it creates pressure so that the blood cells can be circulated in the body to give oxygen to all cells. The basis for life is that oxygen reaches the lungs in order to be absorbed by the blood cells passing through the lung tissue. For this to happen, there are three important considerations, all relating to the basic facts above:

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There must be free passage between the outside air and the lungs! The chest must expand (inhalation) for the area inside to get bigger and the pressure lower for oxygen-rich air to flow from the outside to the lungs and turn oxygen-poor blood cells into oxygen-rich cells. The chest must deflate (exhalation) for the area inside to get smaller and the pressure higher so that oxygen-poor air will flow from the lungs to the outside.

The first commandment of first aid is OPEN AIRWAYS.

Empty the mouth from liquids and all things that are not normal parts of the anatomy. This includes: water (drowning), vomit, dentures, and food. Emptying the mouth may be unpleasant, but it is necessary! Tilt the head carefully backwards to make the airways more like a straight tube from the mouth to the neck. Lift the jaw upwards to ensure that the tongue does not close the tube.

Next, CHECK BREATHING. If the patient does not breathe (expand and deflate the chest), oxygen-rich air does not reach the blood cells passing through the lung tissue.

If the patient is breathing, maintain open airways. Position the patient to facilitate the airways to remain open and restrict the possibility of blocking through vomit or foreign bodies. If the patient is not breathing, the pressure in the chest of a patient who is not breathing is the same as the pressure in the air surrounding the patient. You can get oxygen-rich air into the lungs of the patient by blowing air into them (creating a higher pressure). The elasticity of the chest wall of the patient creates higher pressure in the chest by making the chest cavity smaller and oxygen-poor air flows out.

Bleeding and Circulation CHECK FOR BLEEDING. A cut, a burst, or a wound creates a point of low resistance, and blood flows from the higher pressure of the circulation to the lower pressure of areas not contained in the circulatory system.

If the patient is not visibly bleeding, remember that a patient may bleed significantly without blood being seen. If the patient is visibly bleeding, bleeding is a flow of liquid caused by differences in pressure. You can counter the pressure from the circulation by applying pressure to the bleeding area. Treat by applying sufficient pressure for the bleeding to stop. Pressure is more efficient if you apply it to the whole area around the bleeding. Be careful when applying pressure to the neck so you do not impair breathing!

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CHECK CIRCULATION. For blood cells to reach the lung tissue and get oxygen from oxygenrich air, and for the oxygen-rich blood cells to reach the body cells, there must be a functional circulation. For functional circulation, you need sufficient circulating volume (blood) and an active pump (the heart).

If there is adequate circulation, support the circulation through positioning the patient by lying them down. This decreases the resistance by gravity against pumping blood to the head and facilitates circulation. If there is inadequate circulation, or a weak or no peripheral pulse, support as above. Also raise the legs; gravity lets blood flow from the mass of muscle and skin in the legs, which can maintain function longer without oxygen, to the important and vulnerable organs more centrally-located in the body. If there is no circulation or no central pulse, apply Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) to produce pumping action.

The Next Step After having checked and maintained the basic functions of ABC (airways, bleeding, and circulation), you may start considering the most important factors for the present and future function of the body. Mental Status

Awake. The patient probably does not have major trauma to the head. Offer the patient a partnership in support of him. Confused or semi-conscious. The patient may have a head injury or be affected by reduced circulation, and therefore is a higher priority patient. Observe closely and support the patient. Unconscious or comatose. The patient probably has a head injury and is a high priority patient. Observe closely and start ABC if required.

Motor Status It is vital that motor status is observed, and all precaution is taken to avoid spinal injury. Injury to the spinal cord. The ability to move arms and legs, and feel heat, cold, vibration, and pain in the arms and legs, depends on contact between the brain and the periphery through the spinal cord. If the spinal cord is cut, all areas of the body supported by areas below the cut will no longer move or sense. Protection of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is protected by the spinal column and may suffer injury if the spinal column is stretched, compressed, twisted, or broken. Avoiding further damage to the spinal cord. If you suspect or find it difficult to exclude spinal injury, the patient should be treated as if he/she has an injury that may get worse if not handled carefully. Moving a patient that may have spinal injury. Try to keep the spinal column straight in all dimensions when moving the patient. Preferably, use a vacuum mattress or a backboard when moving the patient. If that is not available, roll the patient carefully onto

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a stretcher. Maintain a slight pull on the head to keep the neck straight when moving the patient, and apply a stiff neck collar. Testing spinal function. Ask the patient to carefully move his/her hands and feet, and ask if the patient feels gentle touch of the skin on the hands and feet. Remember that function does not exclude injury that may get worse if the patient is not properly handled.

Fractures in Arms and Legs If the patient shows any sign of fractures, the extremity should be kept immobile with a splint. The splint should include the nearest joint on both sides of the fracture. How do you diagnose a fracture? The history of the trauma may suggest the possibility of a fracture. The extremity may show an angle that is not on the other extremity, or there may be a swelling or bleeding to the skin, suggesting that something has happened on the inside. When in doubt, immobilise the possible fracture.

People come from miles to this clinic in Maiani, Eritrea, for the chance to have medical care for the first time in years. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, July 2002)

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9.4

Basic Hygiene

Most of the diseases that affect humans may be avoided with a few simple steps. Until a few decades ago, most military casualties in all conflicts were the result of the sum of harsh conditions in the field plus bad hygiene. Even today, grave diseases may occur just due to unhygienic conditions. This is increased by the fact that most peacekeeping missions are in areas were there is very little infrastructure and were climates conspire against hygiene. It is the duty of every UN MILOB and peacekeeper to care about his/her personal hygiene and the hygiene of the living quarters and work areas in to avoid disease in the mission. Personal Hygiene Personal hygiene describes how you can influence the effect that physical factors in the environment (outside your own body) can have on your health and physical well-being. Personal hygiene is your own contribution to preventing disease, as well as your contribution to preventing disease that may affect others. The United Nations Cares Why is the United Nations concerned about hygiene? The United Nations has pledged to combat communicable diseases, and it cares about the health and well-being of MILOBS and peacekeepers. The state of hygiene of a unit influences operational readiness. The sum of individual and general hygiene influences the lives of many! Important Points for Maintaining your Individual Hygiene

When washing, use clean water to avoid infecting any breaks in your skin. Eat healthy and varied food, and exercise regularly to maintain strength, stamina, and the normal balance of your body. Keep your hair short and wash it regularly. Wash your skin daily with soap and water. Protect yourself against insects and animals that may spread disease. Cover and use repellent against mosquitoes after sunset. Avoid touching birds nests and animal droppings. Inspect yourself for bite marks. Keep bite marks clean and covered. Brush your teeth regularly to avoid oral infections. Clean your hands before eating, after toilet use, etc. Wash your feet regularly. Inspect them for sores, skin breaks, or signs of infection, and keep them without socks and shoes for some time every day. Air and dry boots regularly to avoid that they become breeding grounds for bacteria. Change underwear and socks regularly and wash properly. If possible, iron all clothes regularly to kill bugs, insects, and bacteria. Be prudent in the use of alcohol and refrain from using recreational drugs. Abstain from unprotected sex to avoid Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDS.

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Food and Drink When food and drink are concerned, always remember: peel it, boil it, cook it, or forget it! Also, always know what you eat and drink. Drink water only if bottled or from containers marked as drinking water. If no such water is available, boil water for at least ten minutes or use water purification tablets, allowing enough time for the tablets to work. Never keep opened bottles of drink for more than six hours. Meat must be cooked or fried through (Sorry, no medium or rare!). Eggs must be fully coagulated before eating. Precautions should also be taken in the mess area. Store only chocolate, candies, dry food, soft drinks, or tinned food outside the unit storage area. If you store food, keep it in tightly closed containers. Eat only food produced in controlled and approved facilities. Never store food that has been heated, and never eat reheated food. To keep the number of rodents down, only eat at designated eating areas. Keep your Personal Space Clean

Use insect nets to cover doors and windows at all times. Keep all surfaces (tables, floors, walls, and ceilings) clean by regularly washing them. Avoid food on and around beds so as not to attract rodents. In malaria areas, always cover your bed with a mosquito net. Ventilate your quarters every day. Regularly ventilate bedding in direct sunlight, as this kills bugs and bacteria. Change and wash your bedding regularly.

Maintain Hygiene in Ablution Facilities


Use only designated ablution facilities for urination and defecation. Keep ablutions clean and neat. Flush and clean the toilet bowl after use. Do not wash or dry clothes in facilities meant for personal hygiene. Do not leave soap unless in special containers. Old soap may become breeding grounds for bacteria. Clean, clean, and clean again!

Maintain the Mess and Communal Areas


Keep all rooms clean, ventilated, and protected against rodents and insects. Keep facilities and communal areas clean and tidy at all times. Ensure proper disposal of leftover food. Keep eating utensils clean by washing them in detergent and hot water after use.

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Do Not Attract Animals and Insects that May Spread Disease


Keep the environment in and around your base tidy (ensure waste control). Do not create breeding areas for disease-carrying rodents or insects. Avoid creating pools of stagnant water and drain puddles after rain. Ensure proper disposal of liquid and solid waste. Do not litter.

Remember the following important points:


Protect your health, and treat you body with respect. Respect the health of others, and do your best to protect it. Treat the environment with respect. Follow rules and given requirements. Be aware of hazards and other threats in your environment. Attempt to recognise health and safety threats in the area of operations.

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LESSON 9 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

A witness to the accident of a UN person should assess whether: a. The person can breathe properly, whether he is conscious or bleeding, and whether he has a pulse; b. The accident is minor or serious enough for a written report; c. The person is conscious and would like to be helped; d. The person was responsible for the accident.

2.

In giving help to an unconscious person, you should: a. Give the patient fluids; b. Turn the patient on the uninjured side and clear their air passages; c. Put the patient into an upright position with ice on their head; d. Avoid unnecessary movement of the patient and keep people at a distance.

3.

To treat a head injury: a. While preparing for applying first aid, try to get an impression of the mental status of the patient; b. Place an ice pack on the patients head; c. Clean the area with cold water and sit the patient upright; d. Give them an aspirin.

4.

What are the ABCs for Basic Life Support? a. Attitude, Behaviour, and Consciousness; b. Attitude, Bleeding, and Circulation; c. Airways, Bleeding, and Consciousness; d. Airways, Bleeding, and Circulation.

5.

Why is malaria a concern in peacekeeping? a. As long as you take your malaria medicine, it really is not a concern; b. Medicines are expensive, and it is hard to provide medicine for every MILOB and peacekeeper; c. Malaria is unavoidable; d. Malaria is a significant cause of death in peacekeeping missions on the African continent.

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6.

What are the symptoms of acute malaria? a. Fever, red skin rash, thirst, and a tendency to fall asleep; b. Lower than average temperature, red skin rash, and disorientation of the patient; c. The patient does not feel well and has a headache, muscle and joint pain, and a slight fever; d. Fever, cough, and headache.

7.

What factors influence the spread of HIV/AIDS? a. Commercial sex, poverty, promiscuity, and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs); b. Commercial sex, STIs, and touching a person with HIV/AIDS; c. An HIV/AIDS positive person on medication is not a threat to spread HIV/AIDS; d. Middle and upper-class people do not get AIDS. Only those who are poverty stricken, homosexuals, or prostitutes get HIV/AIDS.

8.

Entering into a sexual relationship in a mission is: a. Encouraged because being away from home is hard and companionship is important; b. Strongly discouraged, as these relationships are normally unbalanced in favour of the UN personnel; c. Acceptable, as long as your spouse or significant other at your home station does not find out; d. Acceptable, as long as you use protection, such as condoms.

9.

In countries with very different food habits than yours: a. You should eat everything that is offered to you; b. Eating raw or rare cooked foods is normally safe, though common sense must prevail; c. Do not worry about washing the fruits and vegetables because they normally come directly from the fields; d. Peel it, boil it, cook it, or forget it.

10. How should you maintain your personal space? a. In malaria areas, always cover your bed with a mosquito net; b. You can store food items in opened containers and bags; c. Wash and dry your clothes in the same facilities as used for personal hygiene; d. Poached or half-cooked food is common place and should be eaten that way so you do not offend your hosts.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a b a d d c a b d a

LESSON 10 HUMAN RIGHTS


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 The Nature of Todays Conflicts What are Human Rights? The Legal Basis for Human Rights Human Rights and Host Countries International Humanitarian Law (IHL) Examples of Human Rights Violations Applying Human Rights in a Peacekeeping Environment

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

This lesson contains an introduction to human rights norms and the role of MILOBS and peacekeepers in promoting and protecting human rights. The aim of this lesson is to introduce the students to human rights concepts and principles in order to enable them to perform their duties more effectively. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

Understand how human rights apply to their work in a UN peacekeeping operation; List some examples and characteristics of human rights; Explain how their work can affect human rights, positively and negatively; Explain the standards on the use of force and firearms; and Explain what they can do with regard to human rights violations.

INTRODUCTION

There is an obvious link between human rights violations and conflict. Where violations occur, conflict is more likely to arise. As recent history shows, post-Cold War conflicts have often been rooted in gross violations of human rights. Therefore, addressing human rights problems is an essential aspect of finding solutions to conflicts. When conflict is ongoing, ensuring respect for human rights by the parties is an important confidence-building measure and can act towards the de-escalation of hostilities. The just resolution of disputes based on respect for human rights is also an essential element of effective conflict-prevention. UN peacekeeping missions usually include in their mandate human rights aspects. Increasingly, peace settlements incorporate explicit obligations for the concerned states to comply with international human rights norms. Thus, it is important for peacekeepers to be able to perform their tasks effectively to have a general awareness and understanding of human rights concepts, as well as their relevance to the mission in which they operate.

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10.1

The Nature of Todays Conflicts

The post-Cold War era has witnessed a new pattern of armed conflicts. While conflicts continue to occur in many parts of the world and have increased in the last decade, they have mainly been of an internal nature, involving states and non-state actors, which include irregular forces, private militia, and guerrillas. They have often been rooted in ethnic tensions, fights for the control of natural resources, the peoples struggle to achieve freedom from oppression, social justice, and a democratic government. In several situations, conflicts have resulted in the phenomenon of failed states, where the government structure, authority, legal, and political systems have collapsed, rendering the protection of human rights more difficult. The victims of todays armed conflicts are disproportionately civilians. A recent UN study noted that during the 1990s civilians accounted for up to 90% of casualties, a sharp contrast to the First World War, where only 5% of all casualties were civilian. Civilians are deliberate targets of violence. Mass population displacement, the use of child soldiers, violence against ethnic and religious groups, gender-based and sexual violence, deliberate destruction of property and crops, and mutilations are some of the human rights violations that accompany contemporary conflicts. Thus, human rights violations are, at the same time, the cause and consequence of conflicts.

Secretary-General Kofi Annan meets with victims of sexual violence. (UNMIS Photo, Evan Schneider, May 2005)

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10.2

What are Human Rights?

Human rights are entitlements that every person possesses by virtue of being human. These rights are universal and are guaranteed to all, irrespective of their race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status. While the term human rights is relatively modern, the principle on which it is based is as old as humanity: that certain rights and freedoms are fundamental to human existence. Respect for human dignity, which is at the heart of human rights, is a value common to the worlds cultures and religions. Initially, claims to human rights were considered to be only moral. However, as history progressed, human rights were formally recognised and came to be protected by international law, national constitutions, and domestic laws. That is why we say that they are legal entitlements. Characteristics of Human Rights Human rights can be characterised as follows: Universal: Every human being, with no distinction, is entitled to human rights. Internationally guaranteed: Human rights are established in international law, including treaties and other documents. Legally protected: They are guaranteed by constitutions and domestic legislation. Protect individuals and groups: Some human rights protect individuals (e.g., freedom of movement, right to vote, right to education), and others protect groups as such (e.g., rights of minorities, rights of indigenous people). Cannot be taken away: Nobody can deprive a person of his/her rights. Human rights can be violated, as they often are, but this does not mean that they are taken away from the person concerned. Equal and indivisible: All human rights are equally important. The realisation of one human right is linked to the realisation of the others. For example, in order to be able to express their genuine political opinion through a vote, citizens must be able to receive adequate information. Oblige states and state actors: States and state actors have the responsibility to abide by international human rights instruments. Violations can be punished through the individual prosecution of the concerned persons, as well as through punishment of the state by the international community in the form of embargos, sanctions, and other measures.

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10.3

The Legal Basis for Human Rights

With the creation of the United Nations in 1945, in the wake of the atrocities of the Second World War, human rights became a matter of international concern. The international community recognised the need to develop commonly-agreed minimum standards for the treatment of persons by governments and agreed to take measures to safeguard human rights. The UN Charter, an international treaty that is legally binding to all Member States, contains important provisions on human rights. The Charter recognises international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights for all as one of the purposes of the organisation (Article 1). The Charter states that the UN shall promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion (Article 55). By joining the United Nations, Member States pledge to take action in cooperation with the UN to achieve respect for human rights (Article 56). In the framework of the United Nations, the international community has engaged in an extensive process of setting standards with the objective of creating a legal framework for the effective promotion and protection of human rights. This has led to the development of numerous treaties, declarations, guidelines, and other instruments that detail the contents of human rights, the obligations of states, and the mechanisms to protect them and monitor their implementation. Treaties, conventions, and covenants are legally binding documents. This means that if a state is party to a treaty, it has an obligation to take measures to protect and promote the rights contained therein. International Bill of Rights (http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html) Among the many instruments developed by the international community, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights form what is known as the International Bill of Rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948, represents the first comprehensive agreement among nations as to the specific rights and freedoms of all human beings (the UN Charter did not contain a definition of human rights). These include civil and political rights, such as the rights to life, not to be subjected to torture, to liberty, to equality before the law, to a fair trial, to freedom of movement, to assembly, to asylum, to freedom of thought, conscience, religion, opinion and expression, and others. They also include economic, social and cultural rights, such as the rights to food, clothing, housing and medical care, to social security, to work, to equal pay for equal work, to form trade unions, to education, and others.

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The Declaration is not, by itself, a legally binding document (unlike the UN Charter and other international treaties). Encompassing as it does legal, moral, and philosophical beliefs held true by all peoples, it has a very strong moral and political authority. However, some of its provisions (for example, the right to life, the prohibition of torture, and others) are considered to be part of customary international law and hence are legally binding for all states. The two International Covenants are treaties and, therefore, set legal obligations on states parties. Most UN Member States have ratified the two Covenants, thus committing to take action to ensure that the rights guaranteed by these treaties are effectively implemented and enjoyed by people under their jurisdiction. There are also regional human rights treaties that are treaties developed within a specific region and are open for ratification only to the states belonging to that region. So far, there are human rights treaties for Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Other Human Rights Treaties (http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf) In addition to the International Bill of Rights, a number of human rights treaties were also developed within the United Nations to address specific human rights issues. These include the: International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965); Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979); Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984); Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989); and International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990).

UN human rights team from Bujumbura and Ngozi regional office monitoring the situation of Batwas people in Kirundo province. Batwas people represent roughly 1% of the population in the country. (ONUB Photo, Martine Perret, March 2005)

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10.4

Human Rights and Host Countries

The state hosting a peace operation is bound to protect and promote basic human rights based on general international law. It is often party to one or more international human rights treaties and has, therefore, undertaken the obligation to protect and promote the rights contained in these treaties. Peace agreements also increasingly incorporate obligations for the parties to comply with international human rights treaties and standards. As an example, the Dayton Peace Agreement, which put an end to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995, sets an obligation for the parties to secure human rights and to comply with a comprehensive list of human rights treaties, both regional and international (Annex 6 on human rights, Article 1). Thus, human rights are part of the legal framework within which peacekeepers operate. Some Examples of Human Rights Human rights touch upon all aspects of human existence. These examples are nonderogable rights; that is, they must be respected in all circumstances without exception. Right to life: No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of life. No person or entity is allowed to take the life of an individual, even in extreme circumstances, without due process of law. Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment: It is important to explain that the prohibition covers torture as well as other forms of less extreme illtreatment. The prohibition is absolute. Torture is illegal under ALL circumstances, including in conflict situations or the fight against terrorism. Torture under the orders of superior officers is also illegal and does not provide any protection from prosecution. Right not to be held in slavery: This also covers modern forms of slavery-like practices, such as human trafficking. Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion: No one can be coerced to change or alter religion or denied the practice of their individual choice of religion. Other examples of human rights include: Fair trial: Every individual is entitled to a fair and public hearing by competent, independent, and impartial tribunals established by law, in the determination of any criminal charges against him/her or of his/her rights and obligations in a suit at law. Right to liberty: Deprivation of individual liberty is an extreme measure and can be justified only when it is both lawful and necessary and is done in accordance with internationally accepted standards. Arbitrary arrest and detention are prohibited. Freedom of movement: Freedom of movement in pursuit of an individuals needs is one of the fundamental rights of the individual. In certain cases, this right can be limited by the state,

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but only within very strict parameters. Restrictions must be clearly specified in the law, and they must be necessary to protect national security, public order, public health or morals, or the rights and freedoms of others. It is advisable to explain this by referring to checkpoints and roadblocks. Military and police often create roadblocks and checkpoints that may amount to unlawful restrictions on peoples free movement if not fulfilling the above conditions. Right to privacy: Military and law enforcement officials need to pay particular attention to this right in the performance of their security functions, such as during searches at checkpoints or while gathering intelligence. Right to adequate housing: It is the right of every human being to live somewhere in peace, security, and dignity. It includes the protection from forced evictions, that is, the removal of individuals, families, and communities from their homes, land, or neighbourhoods, against their will. Freedom of expression: This includes the right of every individual to seek, receive, and impart information of any kind, only with the restrictions specified by the law and necessary to protect the rights and reputation of others, or to protect national security, public order or health, or morals. Right to education: This includes the right of everyone without discrimination of any kind to have access to and benefit from education that is relevant, culturally appropriate, and of good quality. Girls, the poor, and children from marginalised communities are particularly vulnerable to exclusion. Right to peaceful assembly and association: Certain limitations may be administered to protect the normal life and security of the citizens. These restrictions may be, for example, in the form of administrative measures limiting the date, time, and the modalities of the gathering and demonstration. However, the same conditions as above must be respected. Limitations Under certain specific conditions established in international human rights treaties, states can impose some limitations on the exercise of some human rights. Limitations on rights are the exception, not the rule. When some rights can be limited, the permissible limitations are specified in the text of the treaties. In general, these limitations are only those that are determined by law and are necessary in a democratic society to ensure respect for the rights and freedoms of others, or to protect public safety, order, health, and morals. The effects of the limitations cannot be disproportionate to their objectives. Limitations outside these conditions are illegal. It is not up to the individual police, military, or public official to determine when and how rights can be limited. Cases and procedures for limitations must be written in the law of a country, and they must respect the conditions set by international law. It should be recalled, however, that non-derogable rights could never be limited or suspended.

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Derogations Derogations or temporary suspension of some human rights are only allowed in instances of public emergency that threatens the life of the nation. The emergency must be officially declared and made known to the population. Derogations must be strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, and they must not cause discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion, and social origin. The UN must be informed of the derogations effected by a state. Derogations must be enforced for the shortest possible time. Any derogation from rights that does not respect the above conditions is illegal. Non-derogable rights may never be suspended and may continue to apply also in situations of emergency. Some of these rights are the right to life; the freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment; the right not to be held in slavery; and the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. A public emergency might be declared in a conflict situation, and as a result, certain rights might have temporarily been suspended.

10.5

International Humanitarian Law (IHL)

Another body of international law that is relevant to peacekeepers is International Humanitarian Law (IHL). IHL is applicable in cases of armed conflict, both international and internal. It includes: standards for the protection of victims of conflict and non-combatants (including wounded, sick, shipwrecked, prisoners and civilians); the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and two Protocols of 1977; and rules regulating means and methods of combat, also known as the Hague Law. It can be held that International Humanitarian Law is designed to safeguard and maintain the fundamental rights of civilians, victims, and non-combatants in the event of armed conflict. It is important to notice that, even in times of conflict, human rights law continues to apply. However, since an armed conflict situation would typically qualify as a public emergency, it is possible and likely that some restrictions and derogations to some rights may be introduced by states. Therefore, the highest level of protection to individuals should be provided by international humanitarian law. International Humanitarian Law does not allow for derogations. UN peacekeepers must make sure that International Humanitarian Law is fully observed if they are forced to use military force. The United Nations Secretary-General issued a Bulletin in 1999 establishing that UN forces must apply International Humanitarian Law in the conduct of their operations. The Rules of Engagement (ROE) of a peacekeeping force incorporate fundamental rules of international humanitarian law. If any confrontation occurs, they must be recorded and reported. The rights of prisoners, civilians, children, and all non-combatants need to be preserved.

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There are some general rules that are common to the four Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols. They are the following:

Humanitarian law applies in all situations of armed conflict; Principles of humanity must be safeguarded in all situations; Non-combatants, prisoners, civilians and those who are wounded, sick, or shipwrecked must be respected and protected; Persons suffering from the effects of war must be aided and cared for without discrimination; The following acts are prohibited in all circumstances: Murder; Torture; Corporal punishment; Mutilation; Outrages upon personal dignity; Hostage-taking; Collective punishment; Executions without regular trial; and Cruel and degrading treatment. Reprisals against the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, medical personnel and services, prisoners of war, civilians, civilian and cultural objects, the natural environment, and works containing dangerous forces are prohibited; and Protected persons must at all times have access to a protecting power (a neutral state safeguarding their interests) or to the ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) or any other impartial humanitarian organisation.

10.6

Examples of Human Rights Violations

Some of the human rights violations that are frequently encountered in a conflict and post-conflict context and to which peacekeepers should be alerted include the following: Summary executions: Summary executions are a grave violation of the right to life, involving killings carried out by government agents or with their complicity or acquiescence. This may include death through the use of excessive force by the military, police, or security forces. Torture: Torture is defined as severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or person acting in an official capacity, for such purposes as: obtaining from the person on whom it is inflicted or a third person information or a confession; punishing that person for an act which he/she or a third person has committed or is suspected to have committed; intimidating or coercing him/her or a third person; or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind. It is prohibited in all circumstances.

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Arbitrary arrest and detention: This involves deprivation of liberty by a public official, such as a member of the military or police, or any other person acting in an official capacity or with official instigation, consent, or acquiescence, without a valid and legal reason, by confining a person in a prison or other detention facility. Discrimination: This can be based on race, sex, national or social origin, political opinion, colour, religion, language, birth, property, or other grounds. Violence against women: It includes all forms of physical, sexual, and psychological violence whether occurring in the community, in the family (domestic violence), or committed by public officials.

A disabled woman working in the carpentry shop of a school in Myanmar. People with disabilities experience discrimination, a human rights violation. (UN Photo #146044C)

Genocide: Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, including: Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about their physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the groups; and Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. War crimes: War crimes are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions. They are prohibited acts committed against persons and property protected by the Conventions, including wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, illegal detention, hostage-taking, the arbitrary and unlawful destruction and appropriation of property, and others. Crimes against humanity: These are serious human rights violations. They include the following acts when they are committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population with knowledge of the attack. These acts are absolutely prohibited under international law: Murder; Extermination; Enslavement; Torture; Deportation or the forcible transfer of the population;

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Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty; Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution or sterilisation, and forced pregnancy; Persecution against any political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious or gender group; Enforced disappearance; and Apartheid.

Deportation and forcible transfer of populations: This includes situations when the inhabitants are forcibly evicted from their place of domicile and deported to an alien land on any pretext. This has been frequently observed during ethnic conflicts. Rape and sexual exploitation: Recent conflicts have seen the use of rape as a weapon or a form of reprisal, especially in ethnic conflicts with the intent to intimidate, humiliate, and degrade the opposing ethnic community. The International Criminal Tribunal on the Former Yugoslavia has ruled that rape at the instigation of a public official in situations of armed conflict is torture. Vulnerable Groups In a peacekeeping environment, there are groups of the population that are particularly vulnerable to human rights violations and to the effects of conflict. It is important for peacekeepers to be alerted to them and their needs. Some of these groups are: Women: Women and girls are especially affected by conflict. Their gender and their position in society, even prior to the conflict, make them particularly vulnerable to violence and abuses. Gender-based and sexual violence and exploitation have increasingly become weapons of warfare and have sadly become typical of modern conflicts. Rape, trafficking, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, economic exploitation, and lack of access to medical care are some of the violations that more often take place in conflict and post-conflict situations. Women are entitled without discrimination to all the protections established by human rights instruments and international humanitarian law. In addition, they enjoy additional protections because of their vulnerability. For example, they must be protected against rape, enforced prostitution, and any form of indecent assault. Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution are also prohibited. Women are also to be protected against discrimination in all fields of civil, political, social, economic, and cultural life. Peacekeepers must be particularly alerted to the risks of violations against and exploitation of women. The international presence that follows conflict has been linked to an increasing demand for prostitution and trafficking of women and girls. Peacekeepers must absolutely refrain from any form of sexual or economic exploitation. These constitute crimes and human rights violations, which are punished under national and international law. Children: The special rights of children and their most frequent needs in a peacekeeping context were addressed in Lesson 6 of this course.

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The elderly: Elderly citizens are often overlooked when looking at conflict or post-conflict situations. Unable to effectively withstand the pressure of war, they are easy prey for humiliation and physical abuse. Minorities: Minorities are groups of residents within a state who are smaller in number, have a non-dominant position, and have common ethnic, religious, or linguistic characteristics different from the rest of the population. They are entitled to all human rights without discrimination, and they are entitled to enjoy their distinctive culture, profess their religion, and use their language. Conflicts in the modern era are often rooted in ethnic or religious tensions. Refugees: Refugees are protected under international law and have the right to seek and enjoy asylum from prosecution. A refugee is defined as a person: Who, owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or Who, not having a nationality and being outside the residence, is unable or unwilling to return to it.

A resident of Awsard Refugee camp. (MINURSO, Evan Schneider, June 2003)

country of his former habitual

Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs): These are people who have fled their homes or places of residence suddenly or unexpectedly as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, systematic violations of human rights, or natural or man-made disasters but have not crossed an internationally-recognised border. Large-scale internal displacement is typical of many conflicts. IDPs are entitled to enjoy human rights without discrimination.

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10.7

Applying Human Rights in a Peacekeeping Environment

In a peacekeeping operation, military, police, and civilian personnel from many different countries find themselves working together to fulfil the missions mandate. They have different cultural, legal, and national backgrounds. Human rights standards developed as they were in the context of the United Nations and with their universal character provide a common standard of achievement and conduct for all people serving in a peace operation. Peacekeeping must be conducted with respect to the principles, norms, and spirit of the international human rights conventions and other instruments relevant to the conduct of military, police, and civilian personnel. It may be useful to refer again to the Code of Conduct for peacekeepers. Both UN personnel and the host government must respect human rights principles and norms. As mentioned previously, by its Charter, the UN is bound to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights for all without discrimination. When serving in a peace operation, all UN personnel are equally bound to promote, protect, and respect human rights.

SGT Betty Soi, CIMIC Team Senafe and LTC Mihalas, Chief G5 for UNMEE at an IDP Camp to the south of Senafe, Eritrea. The camp was established following the fighting between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 2002. (UNMEE, LTC Phyllis Mihalas, July 2002)

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Who Works on Human Rights in a Peace Operation? Multi-dimensional peace operations almost always include human rights as part of their mandate and structure. Since human rights violations are at the origin of many modern conflicts, addressing human rights issues is essential to finding solutions. Therefore, they are also essential to the success of peace operations. Most current peace operations include a human rights unit or component. Human rights components have the lead role in implementing the human rights mandate of a mission. Their work may include: Monitoring and investigating human rights violations; Reporting on human rights violations; Assisting the host government in developing laws complying with international human rights norms, creating institutions able to protect and promote human rights, as well as train military, police, and other government officials; Working with local non-governmental organisations to strengthen their capacity to report, analyse, and develop programmes for the advancement of human rights; and Dealing with problems related to specific groups, such as women, IDPs, and children. MILOBS and peacekeepers can also play an important human rights role. They are usually much more numerous in a mission area than human rights workers. For example, Sierra Leone in 2005, there were 23 human rights officers, 250 MILOBS, and 17,500 military personnel. MILOBS and peacekeepers are also deployed more extensively over the territory, and they are in close contact with military and other armed forces in the host country. CIVPOL also have a crucial role in protecting human rights, through their monitoring, assistance, or law enforcement functions. It is important for MILOBS and peacekeepers to be aware of the work of human rights components, as well as how they can assist the human rights components. Human Rights Roles for MILOBS and Peacekeepers MILOBS and military peacekeepers can contribute in several ways to fulfilling the human rights mandate of the mission. They have the advantage of being much more numerous than other components and of having a wide operational presence. Therefore, they are in a position to observe and monitor the actions of the armed forces but also the civilian population. They can gather important information about the human rights situation and monitor violations or risks of violations. They must report this information to other components of the mission so that an appropriate analysis may be made and necessary action taken. Their physical presence can act as an important deterrent of human rights violations. Large numbers and means for mobilisation give an additional advantage for the peacekeepers in dealing with situations of abuse. Any action should be taken in consultation with the human rights component. Through their conduct, they can provide to the local armed forces a positive example of law-abiding military, respectful of the human rights of the population they are to protect. By taking action for or contributing to the protection of human rights and the prevention of violations, as well as through their proper conduct, MILOBS and peacekeepers will contribute to maintaining the credibility of the peace operation in the eyes of the host population and of the international community. Reports of violations of human rights by peacekeepers have seriously undermined the credibility of the UN.

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If Human Rights Violations are Observed If human rights violations are observed by a MILOB or peacekeeper, they should: At the very least, take note of the facts and prepare a report based on the procedures in place within the mission; If the situation and mandate allow, decide appropriate intervention with the relevant authorities to stop the abuse. It is important to coordinate action with the human rights component of the mission. Human rights work is very complex, and the utmost care must be taken to avoid that ill-devised interventions harm, rather than help, victims of violations; Promptly report the information within the military structure and to the human rights component; and Continue to follow the situation, such as through repeat patrolling and observation. The exercise at the end of this lesson illustrates an example of the importance for military personnel to be alert to possible human rights violations and to transmit information to human rights workers. Common Tasks Performed by Military which May Affect Human Rights In the performance of their regular peacekeeping tasks, MILOBS and peacekeepers must pay particular attention not to negatively affect the rights of the host country population. Checkpoint duties: Checkpoints are often set up to prevent the entry of hostile elements and to enforce restrictions on the infiltration of explosives, arms, and ammunitions. However, they may impinge on the fundamental right to the freedom of movement. It is important that the personnel manning the checkpoint maintain a thoroughly professional behaviour to ensure that the general public feels comfortable and does not develop hostility towards the peacekeepers. Searches: While undertaking searches of vehicles or individuals, military personnel must ensure that the search is conducted professionally, without harassment or in a way that is unduly intrusive or affects the dignity of the person being searched. Respect for local culture and traditions are essential in this situation. Patrolling: Patrolling may be a very useful tool to show the peacekeepers presence and deter human rights violations. Military patrolling must be alert and interactive with the local population, which can be a tremendous source of information in peacekeeping missions. Crowd control: In situations of crowd control, peacekeepers behaviour must be strictly guided by international standards guaranteeing the rights to assembly, expression, security of the person and life, and those regulating the use of force by law enforcement officials.

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Use of Force The use of force by peacekeepers is a very important subject. It is relevant to both military and civilian police personnel of peace operations. The use of force may impinge on fundamental rights, including the rights to life and security and the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. International human rights standards regulate in detail the use of force and firearms. Peacekeepers must strictly adhere to these rules when they are in situations in which they might use force, such as arrests or crowd control. The principles of proportionality and necessity are paramount in regulating the use of force. Non-violent means must always be attempted as the first option to deal with the situation at hand. Force can only be used when strictly necessary, as well as in a way that is proportional to the objectives pursued and the threat faced. As a rule, the minimum level of force required under the circumstances should be applied. When using force, peacekeepers must exercise restraint and minimise damage and injury to persons and property. Immediate medical assistance must be provided to any injured person. Firearms Firearms involve a very high level of force. Therefore, the rules regulating their use are even stricter. The use of firearms is only allowed in extreme circumstances, when less extreme measures are insufficient and all other means have failed. In addition, their use is only intended for self-defence or defence of other persons against an imminent threat of death or serious injury. The intentional lethal use of force and firearms shall be permitted only when it is strictly unavoidable in order to protect human life. Under normal circumstances, MILOBS are unarmed. Military peacekeepers and CIVPOL, however, may be armed.

The duty of MILOBS and peacekeepers is to be visibly present on the ground with the attitude and determination to deter potential human rights violations.

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EXERCISE ON THE USE OF FORCE AND FIREARMS

(From: United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Training materials on human rights for military peacekeepers) This exercise aims at facilitating the application of some of the human rights principles and norms taught through the module to a hypothetical peace operations scenario. It focuses on the use of force and firearms by peacekeepers in a situation in which they deal with local civilians. Scenario 1. A man, long unemployed and desperate for money, has broken into a UN storehouse and stolen a portable computer and a radio set. The stolen articles in one hand, and a large knife in the other, he runs from the compound as the alarm sounds, and he threatens several bystanders who attempt to block his escape. Breaking through the crowd, he spots two peacekeepers approaching in response to the alarm. He turns and runs to an open field, dropping the knife as he clutches the loot in flight. Aware that the computer contains sensitive security files, one of the peacekeepers draws his weapon and shoots the thief in the back, killing him instantly. As rumors of the incident circulate, an angry crowd begins to gather at the UN compound. 2. Some 200 people start protesting angrily against the UN in front of the compound. The crowd is made up of men, women, and children. Some 15 armed peacekeepers stand in formation, with their backs to the high fence surrounding the compound, facing the protesters. 3. A muscular young male protester picks up a bottle and throws it at the peacekeepers. Three of the peacekeepers break from formation and chase the protester, catching him against the fence. The protester resists arrest, throwing punches and kicks. Responding with blows from their rifle butts, the peacekeepers knock the man to the ground and handcuff him. The protester, face down and handcuffed on the pavement, squirms about, refusing to hold still. The peacekeepers respond by continuing to kick, punch, and hit him with the butts of their rifles. They deliver some 20 blows to the mans head and body, continuing in rage even after he lies motionless on the ground. The commander of the unit then orders them to carry the man into a UN vehicle. They do so, leaving him in the parked and locked car, and then return to formation. 4. By this point, the crowd, having witnessed the incident, has turned violent. Heavy reinforcements arrive and completely surround the protesters. Rocks and bottles begin to fly toward the peacekeepers, who stand with their guns aimed at the protesters. Some of the protesters fall to the ground, clutching children and friends and screaming in a general panic. Others rush forward toward the peacekeepers. As the violence increases, the peacekeepers open fire, with several protesters falling as they are hit with rounds of live ammunition.

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Questions 1. Referring to the international standards on the use of force and firearms, determine what went wrong with regard to: a. The use of firearms on the thief in the first paragraph; b. The deployment, formation, and equipment of the original 15 peacekeepers in the second paragraph; c. The use of force on the male protester in the third paragraph; d. The deployment and formation of the reinforcements in the fourth paragraph. What should be done in the immediate post-incident period to see that all involved persons are granted fair redress for any violations of their rights; to ensure that long-term damage to the mission is minimised; to improve procedures for enhanced security and respect for human rights; and to restore the confidence of the local community?

2.

Guidance for Review of Answers Question 1: a. The use of force by the peacekeepers was not necessary; the peacekeepers failed to apply non-violent means before resorting to the use of force and firearms; the force applied by the peacekeepers was not proportional to the seriousness of the threat; the peacekeepers failed to exercise restraint in the use of force and to minimise injury; the use of firearms was not justified, as the thief posed no imminent threat to the life of the peacekeepers or other persons; no warning was given by the peacekeepers before firearms were used. b. The 15 peacekeepers were equipped and positioned so as to increase, rather than reduce, the risk of escalation of violence, and of resort to force. Their deployment, with their back to the fence, provided no possibility of escape or protection for the peacekeepers, and it was provocative for the crowd. Their equipment was inadequate to allow for differentiated means in the application of force, as well as proportionality to the threat. International standards call for a graduated response, which takes appropriate training and equipment. Deployment behind the fence, for example, would have resulted in increased security for the peacekeepers, and thus a lesser risk of having to resort to force to deal with the situation in the scenario. Other required course of action by the peacekeepers included calling for intervention by the local authorities, which remain responsible for the maintenance of law and order (except in the less frequent case of UN missions with executive authority). This should be done in close coordination with CIVPOL. In general, this would be the preferred course of action, as military peacekeepers are less likely to be both equipped and trained to deal with situations such as that described in the scenario.

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c. The use of force was disproportionate to the threat represented by the protester. Once the man was handcuffed, the use of further force was unnecessary and unlawful, as it did not respond to the need to achieve a legitimate law enforcement purpose. In addition, the injured prisoner should have been given medical assistance, not abandoned in the vehicle. From a practical perspective, one can question the judgment of chasing the man in the first place, considering that his action did not represent a significant threat to the safety of the peacekeepers. The considerations made under (b) on the need to adopt tactics to diffuse, rather than escalate, violence, apply here as well. d. The deployment of the soldiers did not allow the crowd to move or disperse. Violent confrontation became inevitable. The deployment and formation of the peacekeepers resulted in provocation to the crowd and escalation of violence. The use of force by the peacekeepers, including the use of firearms with live ammunitions, was not proportional.

Question 2: The following actions would be appropriate:


Preparation of a report of the incident; Investigation of the incident, by independent authorities if appropriate; Peacekeepers suspected of violations of national or international law brought to justice and, if necessary, repatriated first; Local community and victims informed of proceedings; Restitution made to victims, if appropriate; Insistence that local offenders be brought to justice; Usage of incident to sit down with local officials and community leaders to discuss how to encourage better relations; and Review of internal procedures to ensure better handling of similar situations.

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LESSON 10 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

An international treaty that is legally binding on all Member States and contains important provisions on human rights is: a. The UN Charter; b. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; c. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; d. The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.

2.

The state hosting a peace operation is bound to protect and promote basic human rights based on: a. Local statutes; b. State ordinances; c. International law; d. Its own discretion.

3.

Examples of human rights include all of the following EXCEPT: a. Right to adequate housing; b. Right to privacy; c. Right to education; d. Right to torture prisoners in times of war.

4.

Who determines when and how rights can be limited? a. The individual police force; b. The individual military; c. The individual public official; d. Limitations must be written in the laws of a country and not determined by any individual.

5.

Derogations of some human rights: a. Are allowed at any time when deemed necessary; b. Are allowed for only brief periods of time; c. Are only allowed in times of public emergency; d. Are never allowed, regardless of the circumstance.

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6.

International Humanitarian Law includes: a. Standards for the protection of victims of conflict and non-combatants; b. The Geneva Conventions of 1949; c. The Hague Law; d. All of the above.

7.

Does International Humanitarian Law allow for derogations? a. Yes, without any restrictions; b. Yes, but only immediately following a conflict; c. No, except during times of war; d. No, without any exceptions.

8.

If human rights violations are observed by a MILOB or peacekeeper, they should NOT: a. Take note of the facts and prepare a report based on established procedures; b. Ignore following up the situation through repeat patrolling and observation; c. Promptly report the information within the military structure and to the human rights component; d. Coordinate action with the human rights component of the mission.

9.

The use of firearms is: a. Permitted under extreme circumstances; b. Permitted when all other means have failed; c. Intended for the self-defence or defence of other persons; d. All of the above.

10. Non-violent means must: a. Be attempted as the first option to deal with the situation at hand; b. Be attempted after the use of force to deal with the situation at hand; c. Be attempted as a last resort; d. Never be attempted.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a c d d c d d b d a

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LESSON 11 COMMUNICATION AND NEGOTIATION


11.1 11.2 11.3 Understanding Communication and Negotiation Negotiation in UN Peace Operations Working with Interpreters

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to provide the student with the basic guidelines for communication and negotiation in the peace operation environment. After completing this lesson, the student should have an understanding of the importance of communication and negotiation in the peace operation context and be familiar with some basic tools and techniques that can be used for this purpose. The student should also be able to explain:

The role of communication and negotiation in the context of peace operations; The basics of cross-cultural communication; How to plan and conduct a negotiation; and How to use interpreters.

INTRODUCTION

As a representative of the United Nations in a peacekeeping mission, our primary task is to manage conflict so that it does not escalate into violence. Where it has escalated into violence, our task is to contain and de-escalate the situation until it returns to a non-violent state. At the peacekeeping mission level, a variety of techniques are used whenever tension arises to de-escalate the potential for violent conflict, as well as to facilitate and support the peace process among the parties to the conflict and other stakeholders. These techniques include a complex combination of operational and structural conflict prevention and conflict management techniques. At the management and command level, this implies communication, negotiation, and mediation with both parties to the conflict and any other stakeholders. At the individual level, every civilian, police, or military peacekeeper will eventually find themselves in a situation where he/she will be interacting with others with the objective of reaching an agreement between them. It does not matter if the person is somebody involved in the mission or from the host nation. The communication environment in a peacekeeping mission is much more complex than one is used to under normal circumstances. The peacekeeper will typically be communicating with somebody from another culture, without a common language, often under threatening or tense situations in a context where people are stressed and easily irritable. Apart from having to deal with each other, every civilian, police, and military peacekeeper will find themselves in situations where they interact with the local population. This will range from friendly social interaction to shopping for food or other commodities to work-related official communication. The individual peacekeeper would also have to manage conflict among friends and colleagues that are stressed by the situation; between civilian, police,

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and military peacekeepers with different cultures, religions and languages and often with very different working styles, approaches and techniques; between international and local staff in the mission; and between peacekeepers and other internationals and people from the host country. Because of the nature of the work, people will often approach the UN personnel with complaints, criticisms, or demands. These situations can quickly and easily deteriorate into disputes and even violence if not correctly managed. The normal cultural guidelines that help one to manage these situations among people of a common culture and language are typically absent in the peacekeeping context. People misunderstand each other because of their cultural and language differences. This situation is further aggravated by an already tense political and social context often characterised by mistrust, rumours, and preconceived negative stereotypes of each other. In this environment, every individual needs more communication and negotiation skills than they would have needed if they were carrying out the same duties in their own country or under peaceful circumstances. The secret to more successful communication and negotiation in the peace operation context is awareness and preparation. Every minute spent on learning, planning, and preparation will influence the outcome of the next negotiation. An individuals ability to communicate and negotiate will improve with experience and practise. This lesson serves as an introduction to communication and negotiation. It creates awareness for the type of situations the peacekeeper will have to deal with and suggests some tools and techniques for understanding the conflicts that one is dealing with and preparing to undertake, as well as conducting negotiations and working with interpreters.

Overview of this Lesson This lesson is divided into three parts. The first part, Understanding Communication and Negotiation, explains why communication and negotiation are necessary in peace operations; what negotiation is and is not; the principles of successful negotiation; and the need for cross-cultural communication skills. The second part, Negotiation in UN Peace Operations, will focus on negotiations in the peace operations context and will explain the three stages of negotiation: the opening stage, the discussion stage, and the closing stage. The third part of this lesson deals with Working with Interpreters. Because of the multi-national nature of peace operations, most peacekeepers will not be able to communicate directly with the local people of the host country in their own languages. The United Nations will typically employ local people as language assistants to assist the peacekeepers with translation and interpretation. This part provides some guidance on how to work with interpreters and how to make use of an interpreter in a negotiation.

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11.1

Understanding Communication and Negotiation

This section will cover the following topics: Why are communication and negotiation skills necessary? What is negotiation? Principles of successful negotiation Cross-cultural communication Why are Communication and Negotiation Skills Necessary? The following points are aimed at soldiers, and they explain how the peacekeeping context is different from war (which is the primary role all soldiers are trained for). In war, you are one of the warring parties. In peacekeeping, you are the neutral third party. You are not part of the conflict you stand above it. In war, your aim is victory, which implies defeat to the enemy. In peacekeeping, your aim is to assist the parties to achieve peace. You have no enemies or opponents in peacekeeping. You work with the warring parties to achieve peace. In war, you want to surprise the enemy; hence, you wear camouflage and try to conceal your presence, strength, and movements from the enemy. In peacekeeping, your visible presence emphasises your role as the neutral third party and helps to instil confidence in the peace process among the parties and local people. Typically, you want the parties to know your strength, and you will inform them of your movements. Your presence is, thus, transparent. There is no secrecy or stealth; your visibility is your strength. That is why you wear blue helmets and have white-painted vehicles. In war, you achieve victory by defeating your opponent through combat. In peacekeeping, you achieve peace through managing the conflict, by containing it at manageable levels. By keeping the conflict from becoming violent, you provide your political and humanitarian colleagues with the stable and secure environment they need to facilitate the peace and to provide humanitarian assistance. The primary tools you will use to manage the conflict are communication and negotiation. What is Negotiation? Negotiation is not capitulation. Some people, especially soldiers, associate negotiation with capitulation, giving-up, or giving-in to the other sides demands. This is a misperception. Negotiation describes a process, not an outcome. Negotiation is communication with the aim of reaching an agreement. It includes any communication with the aim of reaching an agreement. Every time two or more people communicate with the aim of reaching an agreement, it is a negotiation.

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Mediation is the intervention into a dispute by an acceptable, impartial, and neutral third party who has no authoritative decision-making power. This person assists parties to voluntarily reach their own mutually-acceptable agreement. If the peacekeeper is called upon to assist two parties to reach an agreement, he/she is mediating between the two parties. In arbitration, the arbitrator has some enforcement capability, but in mediation, the enforcement capability is absent. Purpose of Negotiation UN peace operations take place after two parties have signed a cease-fire or peace agreement. The role of the UN peace mission is to assist the parties to the conflict to implement the cease-fire or peace agreement. This means that the UN is there to assist the parties to change their behaviour from the previous state they were in a state of violent conflict to a new state of positive peace. Positive peace goes beyond peace and is defined as the absence of violence to include the presence of justice, fairness, and the rule of law. The peacekeepers assist the parties to implement the cease-fire or peace agreement by monitoring the cease-fire and by helping them to avoid a return to violent conflict. Experience has shown that if we use force to suppress violent conflict, it will remain under control only for as long as that force continues to be applied. That is why we need to use negotiation, so that we can obtain the voluntary cooperation of the parties and, thus, have a much higher probability of achieving a sustainable peace over time. Negotiation in the UN Peace Operations Context Whenever peacekeepers negotiate with other parties in a peacekeeping context, the subject of the negotiation is likely to fall into one of the following categories: Negotiate freedom of movement of peacekeepers, NGO, or population through an area controlled by one of the parties, such as a roadblock; Discuss the relationship and roles between peacekeepers and the parties or local authorities, such as a patrol moving through a village; Peacekeepers seek to prevent escalation or reoccurrence of conflict by parties agreeing to certain behaviour, such as a patrol coming across fighting between two villages; Peacekeepers resolve disputes with or between parties or between local people, villages, communities (depending on the mandate); and Peacekeepers meet among themselves, or with parties, the local authorities, and/or community leaders to coordinate a specific event, such as a marriage or other traditional ceremony in a sensitive area, making arrangements for a vaccination campaign, coordinating the return of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) or refugees, or coordinating humanitarian relief distribution.

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Principles of Negotiation Successful communication and negotiation depends on your understanding of the following three principles: 1. Understand the mandate and role of the UN in the conflict (in other words, your interests). You need to have a clear understanding of your own interests, such as what you want to gain from the negotiations. In the peacekeeping context, your interests will derive from the missions mandate, the policies of your unit, and the instructions you have received. For instance, if you are manning a checkpoint, the instructions you have received will be about who should and should not be allowed to move through the checkpoint. 2. Understand the interest(s) of the other party or parties. You need to anticipate and understand what the other parties interests are and what it is that they want to gain from the negotiations. You can do so to a large degree by studying their previous statements and actions in order to detect any changes in policy. Your focus should be on identifying their real underlying interests, not their stated positions. 3. Understand the cultural and historical context within which you operate. By being sensitive to the cultural and historical context you operate in, you can avoid critical cultural mistakes and improve your credibility and acceptability. Preparing for Negotiations Preparations are crucial to a successful negotiation. The more prepared you are, the better your chances of successfully calming and managing a potentially violent situation. However, you may often find yourself forced to respond to an impromptu situation where there is no time for preparation. For instance, you may come across a village dispute on a patrol, or you may be forced to deal with a situation at a checkpoint or at your post, or you may come across a roadblock while on convoy escort duty. However, by being generally well prepared, you will be armed with the knowledge to deal with most impromptu situations.

Make sure you have knowledge of the history, culture, and conflict; Be well briefed on your own mandate and orders (e.g., convoy protocols); and Use the start of the negotiations to gather information about the specific problem you are facing.

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Cross-Cultural Communication Cultures are different when it comes to culture, there is no right or wrong. Crosscultural understanding, tolerance, and sensitivity start within the mission, among the various cultures present in the mission. Multi-nationality is a key strength and principle of peacekeeping. It shows that the world is working collectively for peace, and it contributes to impartiality. The parties are more likely to view peacekeepers from one nation as partial or merely seeking to advance their own national interests; thus, the presence of many different nationalities are a critical factor in the UNs ability to project impartiality and neutrality. Peacekeepers need cross-cultural communication skills in dealing with culture(s) of the host country. Most countries have more than one indigenous culture. Show respect, and do nothing to offend them. The foundation of cross-cultural communication is respect. The golden rule is to do nothing that will offend the other culture. If you are professional, humble, friendly, and respectful, your chances of not offending anybody are very good. Take note that every culture has developed customs and tradition to regulate formal communications like negotiations and mediations. Find out what the cultural expectations are, and try to shape the way in which the negotiation is conducted according to local custom and tradition. You should maintain UN standards and guidelines. If these are in conflict with local culture and tradition, follow UN standards and guidelines, and explain why this is being done. Basic Communication Techniques The following basic communication techniques are useful in most communication and negotiation situations:

Actively listening to the other party is an important communication technique. (UN Photo #99349)

Emphatic listening: Listen actively with understanding, even if you do not agree with what is being said. Be alert and focused on the person speaking. Do not speak to your colleagues when the other person is speaking, even if you are waiting for interpretation.

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Paraphrasing: Listen and restate in your own words what another person is saying. For instance: So, what you are saying is. . . Communicating openness: Be open to hearing the perceptions and needs of others, even if you disagree with what they are saying. For instance: How would that work if. . . Reframing: Shifting the focus from positions to interests, encouraging flexibility expressing something in a different way. For instance: In other words, what you want is Non-verbal communication: Non-verbal acknowledgement that you are listening (eye contact when culturally appropriate, body focused on the person); paying attention (not looking away, etc.); hearing what is being said (nodding); and being genuinely interested in solving the problem. Non-verbal communication is culture specific. Make sure you know what your non-verbal communications mean in the local context, and avoid taboos.

Summary of this Section The three most important messages in this section are: The fact that communication and negotiation are the primary tools peacekeepers will use to achieve sustainable peace; The principle factors that will influence successful negotiations, which are your knowledge of: your own mandate, the interests of the other party(s), and the cultural and historic context within which the negotiations are taking place; and The importance of cross-cultural sensitivity, summarised as Respect others, and do no harm.

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11.2

Negotiation in UN Peace Operations

This section deals with actual negotiations. You will recall from the first section that negotiation is communication with the aim of reaching an agreement. The structure of this lesson follows the three stages of negotiations: the introduction (start), the substance (discussion), and the conclusion (end). Any actual negotiation event or session will always have these three stages, regardless of whether the session was planned in advance or is an impromptu session. Stage I: Introduction (The Start) When you are the host or the facilitator of the meeting, it will be your role to welcome the other parties to the meeting and to start by introducing your delegation. Once you have introduced your delegation, you should give the other party or parties the opportunity to do the same. Be sure to follow the appropriate local customs and protocol. You should only deviate if you feel that the local traditions are incompatible with United Nations policy and international standards and norms, such as including female members in your delegation in a culture where only men will normally participate in this kind of formal meeting. In this kind of situation, explain why you are not following local custom by providing them with information on the relevant UN policies and international standards and norms. If there is any chance that your behaviour may cause insult, inform the other party beforehand so that there is an opportunity to discuss and resolve the issue outside the formal negotiations. There should be no surprises to either party in the introduction stage. After the welcoming and introductions, you should explain the purpose of the meeting and present the agenda. If there was no time to prepare an agenda beforehand, ask the participants at the meeting to identify the points that need to be discussed, and agree on the order in which you will deal with them. Lastly, take the time to discuss the rules of procedure according to which the meeting will be run. The parties should voluntary agree to these rule and, in the case of mediation, agree to the role the facilitator will have in enforcing these rules. Rules of procedure typically include such issues as the role of the chair or facilitator in the case of a mediation and not allowing any interruptions. Others include the maximum time allowed for any one speaker, how decisions will be taken, who is responsible for taking notes, where formal minutes are kept and how they will approved, and joint statements to the media. In some cases, these may be very basic, in others more elaborate. Use your own judgement. Once you and the other party are comfortable that you have a common understanding of the process and the rules of procedure, you may move on to the substantial discussions.

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Stage II: Substance (The Discussion) Substantive sessions will normally start with an opening statement by each party. This is typically a statement that sets out the overall position and main arguments of the party. Allow the other party to start. Listen attentively, and show through your non-verbal language that you are listening. If, as is likely at some point in the peacekeeping context, your opening statement is conveying a complaint, make sure your compliant is very clear, detailed, and factual. In most cases, it will be a good idea to put your complaint in writing and to give the other party a copy. If the UN is being criticised, which is often the case in a peacekeeping context, listen attentively and do not show displeasure and/or disagreement through your non-verbal communication. Do not take it personally; it is not about you. When responding, do not respond to allegations, or emotions. Correct factual data if it is presented incorrectly by the other party. If UN action resulted in deaths, injuries, or destruction of property that may be subject to a claim and/or investigation, be careful not to pre-empt the outcome of such an investigation or commit the UN to the payment of claims. Instead, explain the procedure for making claims and how they are processed, and explain the investigative process. As facilitator, host, or as one of the parties, you can summarise what was said by listing the items that each party stated was important for them to achieve. Such a list can serve as a basis for further discussion. The facilitator, host, or chair can then use this summary or list of issues to suggest a process, the priority or order in which these issues could be discussed, and the purpose for discussing them. In general, such discussions should lead to generating different options, such as a list of things that can be done to avoid the recurrence of an incident in the future. The next step is the reduction of the list to a list of options the parties can agree on that will achieve the desired effect and that can be implemented. When you feel all parties have reached a common position, the proposed agreement can be summarised and presented for formal agreement. The agreement should include, or be followed by, further discussion on the steps that need to be taken to implement the agreement. The substantive discussions should close with a summary of all the agreements reached during the meeting, and these should preferably be put in writing in the form of minutes, confirmatory notes, and/or a joint declaration, statement, or communiqu. The parties should also consider how and when they want to release the news of the agreement to the public and the media, as well as how much information should be released. If the agreement is of such a nature that the media would be interested, it is always a good idea to rather have an agreed-upon statement or communiqu. You want to avoid continuing the negotiation in the media.

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Stage III: Conclusion (The End) Once the representatives have concluded the drafting process and the parties have informally agreed to the text, the facilitator, chair, or host can call the meeting to order and present an equal part of the final agreement. However, it should be noted that they also have the option of asking one of the other parties to present if they so desire. Sometimes, some further negotiations on the wording of the agreement may develop but should be kept to a minimum to avoid the whole agreement from unravelling. Once all parties agree, the formal agreement should be recorded, and/or all parties can sign copies of the agreement. Each party should leave the meeting with signed original copies in all the languages agreed upon during the introductory phase. The last item on the agenda is agreement on the date, time, and place of the next meeting, and/or an agreement on when any working groups, sub-committees, or verification mechanisms established through the agreement will start their work. As per the introduction and throughout the rest of the meeting, it is important to follow the proper custom and protocol during the closure of the meeting according to the local culture and tradition. Reporting on Negotiations Negotiation and mediation always take place among a small group of representatives of the parties. The agreements reached need to be implemented by a much larger group. Thus, the follow-up and information-sharing with these wider constituencies are of vital importance. In the peacekeeping context, you should prepare a short report (commonly referred to as a Situation Report - SITREP) for immediate release to higher headquarters and other elements. This could be a verbal radio message or a short written flash report. It should contain the essential information that higher HQs or other elements need to know until a more detailed report arrives. A short summary of what was agreed upon for release to the media and wider community (use Public Information specialists where available), if appropriate, should be agreed to during the negotiation and mediation. A detailed report should be prepared, filed, and sent to the appropriate higher HQs and all relevant departments. Partners from other organisations and/or colleagues from other departments at your level should be briefed. The report should include copies of all the documents, your assessment of the situation, and your analysis of the future. It should include an analysis of the negotiation and mediation and should be detailed enough to serve as a thorough briefing for your replacement, should this problem re-occur during his/her tour of duty. If it was agreed as part of the process, formal minutes or confirmatory notes need to be prepared so that they can be considered for approval at the next meeting.

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11.3

Working with Interpreters

The third section of this lesson deals with working with interpreters. Because of the multi-national nature of peace operations, most peacekeepers will not be able to communicate with the local people of the host country in their own languages. The United Nations will typically employ local people as language assistants to assist the peacekeepers with translation and interpretation. This section provides some guidance on how to work with interpreters and how to make use of an interpreter in a negotiation. This section is divided into two parts. The first deals with the difficulties of negotiating or communicating through an interpreter in another language. The second deals with some specific tools and techniques for the use of interpreters during negotiations. Negotiating in another Language Our languages are extensions of our cultures. It requires great cultural sensitivity and knowledge of both cultures and languages to be able to correctly translate not only the words but also the content, emotion, and meaning of the words when interpreting a conversation between two people with different languages and cultures. Most interpreters in peacekeeping operations are not professionally trained interpreters. They are people with some knowledge of the mission language, such as English, and the local languages. They have been hired by the UN as Language Assistants. Very few Language Assistants would have received any formal training in interpretation. This does not mean that they are not dedicated; this only means that they are not professional interpreters. Thus, one should have that understanding when working with them. It is, thus, likely that most of what you are saying to the other party is not being conveyed and understood in the same way as you said it or meant it. Likewise, it is likely that most of what you are told is not very accurate, particularly what is said about the other party. You need to assume that there are many opportunities for misunderstanding and misinterpretation. If something sounds out of context or does not make sense, double-check it for accuracy by paraphrasing or repeating the point. Plan to devote twice the amount of time when conducting a meeting, negotiation, or mediation with interpretation, as each statement will need to be repeated. If you want to avoid miscommunication, you should make the work of the interpreter as easy as possible by:

Using short sentences and encouraging others to do the same; Refraining from using technical terms or abbreviations. In cases where this is unavoidable, discuss it with the interpreter beforehand so that they can look up the terms in a dictionary or prepare an appropriate word/phrase in the local language; and Refraining from using culturally-specific idioms or jokes.

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Negotiating with an Interpreter As mentioned in the previous section, it is unlikely that the Language Assistant assigned to your section would have received any formal training as an interpreter. Therefore, it will be helpful if you tell the interpreter what you want him/her to do and how you want them to act. Do not show disrespect in front of your interpreter towards the country, religion, people, culture, food, leaders, or one of the parties in a conflict situation. Think of the interpreters and other local staff as your ambassadors to the local community. Interpreters are normally influential in their communities because they are more educated than most others. Interpreters and other local staff stay within their own communities. Therefore, one can expect that they be asked by family and friends about their experience of working with the UN. One should also take this situation into account in terms of their personal safety and not to expose them to situations that may result in reprisals against the interpreter. Brief the interpreter of the physical position you want them to take, e.g., half a foot behind you on your right when standing and talking, or seated to your left when sitting down. Look at the person you are speaking to, not the interpreter. Even if you do not understand their actual words, keep eye contact or show that you are focused on them in whatever way may be culturally appropriate under the circumstances. Brief the interpreter to repeat what is being said, not to give you a summary or evaluation. Also, brief the interpreter not to analyse, value-judge, or edit what is being said. What the interpreter can do is to explain the culture or context, where necessary to you, in addition to interpretation and while making a clear distinction between the interpretation and the contextualisation.

With the help of an interpreter, Mrs. Nane Annan talks with one of the mothers at a child feeding centre in Zinder, Niger. (UN Photo #85803)

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LESSON 11 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

During negotiations, the MILOB or peacekeeper may have to: a. Accept all restrictions and limitations that have been locally imposed, so that he does not alienate negotiators; b. Ignore restrictions and limitations that have been locally imposed, in order to be able to complete his mission; c. Negotiate concessions to restrictions that have been locally imposed, in order to be able to complete his mission; d. Do whatever is necessary to complete the mission.

2.

During any negotiation meeting, the negotiator should take note of the following social requirements: a. Maintain dignity and politeness, show respect, and pay military and social compliments to hosts and representatives; b. Maintain dignity and politeness, show respect, but not pay compliments to anyone, in order to avoid being accused of favouritism; c. Respect all participants and show everyone politeness, but give the major leaders the most amount of speaking time and attention in order to enhance their importance and speed up negotiations; d. Because you are a UN MILOB or peacekeeper, your attitude really does not matter, since the Blue Beret speaks for itself.

3.

In presenting opening remarks at a negotiation meeting between the parties in conflict, the negotiator should: a. Give the necessary salutations, and then begin the meeting in order to allow the maximum amount of time for negotiations; b. Greet everyone, and ask each member of the UN team to give their perspective as a way to begin the negotiations; c. Give the customary salutations, and then take the time to assess the mood and give everyone a chance to get used to the language in use; d. Let someone else volunteer to lead the meeting while you take notes.

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4.

If incorrect information is given at any point during a negotiation, the negotiator should: a. State the actual facts and the evidence that supports them, without arguing; b. Let it pass until an advantageous time arises to speak the true facts; c. Correct the person on the spot; d. State the actual facts and evidence that supports them, assert the correct version firmly, and, if necessary, argue the facts.

5.

As a negotiation meeting is ending, the negotiator should: a. Ask each person to repeat what they believe has been agreed upon and appoint someone to summarise the points of view; b. Have everyone orally repeat what was said; c. Summarise each persons point of view and ask each one to rethink their position before the next meeting; d. Summarise what has been agreed upon and make sure that it is in writing.

6.

If a mediation session results in no agreements, the negotiator may suggest that: a. Each party summarise in writing their position on the main issues and list the areas in which they are willing to make concessions; b. They at least agree to meet again; c. The negotiator acts as an arbitrator to make the tie-breaking decisions required to reach an agreement; d. They agree to not meet again.

7.

Negotiation is: a. Giving in to someone else taking over and being in charge of the situation; b. Any communication with the aim of reaching an agreement; c. Giving up your rights to state your point of view; d. The same as arbitration and mediation.

8.

Successful communication and negotiation depends on your understanding of three principles. Name the three principles.

9.

Emphatic listening, paraphrasing, communicating openness, reframing, and non-verbal communications are: a. Unnecessary during negotiations, arbitration, and mediation; b. Nice to be familiar with, but they are not vital to the success of a negotiation; c. Not useful in most communication and negotiation situations; d. Are useful in most communication and negotiation situations.

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10. Main topics likely to be discussed during a negotiation headed by a UN MILOB are: a. Definition of cease-fire lines, refugees, areas of limitation, and help to be given by the superpowers to rebuild war-torn areas; b. Exchange of prisoners, cease-fire lines, refugees, and separation of the parties in conflict (territory or otherwise); c. Exchange of prisoners, cease-fire lines, refugees, and the type of government that would be set up after a peaceful settlement; d. Exchange of prisoners, cease-fire lines, restructuring of the peacekeeping forces, and donor support from the various UN Member States.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

c a a a d c b Understand the mandate and role of the UN in the conflict (your interests); understand the interests of the other parties; and understand the cultural and historical context within which you operate d b

9. 10.

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LESSON 12 UN CIVIL-MILITARY COORDINATION (CIMIC)


12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 The Need for Civil-Military Coordination Definition of UN Civil-Military Coordination Principles of CIMIC CIMIC in Practice Confidence-Building Role of the Peacekeeper

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LESSON OBJECTIVES

This lesson provides information on United Nations Civil-Military Coordination. It addresses how civilian and military peacekeepers coordinate their efforts and work together to achieve the peace operations mandate and goals. After completing this lesson, the student should be able to:

Explain what Civil-Military Coordination is; Explain the principles of Civil-Military Coordination; Explain how Civil-Military Coordination is practised; and Given a scenario, explain the role and relevance of Civil-Military Coordination to the peacekeeper.

INTRODUCTION

The large number of multi-dimensional actors present in today's complex peace operations, in addition to the broad range of issues they deal with, have made coordination among the various multi-functional actors a crucial element in the success of these missions. Coordination is needed among the various components of a United Nations peace operation; between the UN mission and other international, bilateral, and NGO components; and between the UN mission, the local government or administration, and the parties to the conflict. International and local multi-dimensional actors include the humanitarian relief community, the peacebuilding and development community, military peacekeepers, civilian police, and others involved in the criminal justice system, human rights organisations, election specialists and observers, and those responsible for conflict prevention and peacemaking.

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12.1

The Need for Civil-Military Coordination

Most modern peacekeeping operations are deployed in response to complex emergencies. Complex emergencies usually imply intra-nation conflicts, food shortages, refugees, and/or Internally Displaced People (IDPs).

UNMEE, an IDP camp outside Senafe, Eritrea. Most of these IDPs came from Ethiopia and await return to their village. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, July 2002)

Peacekeeping operations that respond to complex emergencies require a multidimensional structure. This is commonly referred to as a complex peacekeeping mission. Complex peacekeeping missions typically consist of the following components: The Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) is responsible for conflict prevention, peacemaking, and the overall management of the peacekeeping operation; The Peacekeeping Force (PKF) is responsible for establishing a safe and secure environment; The Humanitarian Coordinator (HC) is responsible for coordinating the humanitarian relief effort of the various UN humanitarian agencies, international organisations (IOs), and non-governmental organisations (NGOs); The Civilian Police (CIVPOL) is responsible for monitoring the local police force or, in some missions, for ensuring law and order, depending on the mandate; A Human Rights Unit (HR) is responsible for monitoring human rights and for human rights education and advice; and The United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) is responsible for leading the long-term recovery and reconstruction efforts. In order to ensure that all of these different components work together as one integrated mission, we need to use Civil-Military Coordination mechanisms and structures to facilitate coordination, support, joint-planning, and the constant exchange of information among them.

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12.2

Definition of UN Civil-Military Coordination

United Nations Civil-Military Coordination (UN CIMIC) refers to the coordination mechanisms and procedures used by the UN System, for example, in UN peacekeeping missions and by UN humanitarian and development agencies. NOTE: CIMIC is known by other names or acronyms in different countries and organisations. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and some nations, mostly those in Europe and North America, use other concepts with approximately the same intent as CIMIC, such as CivilMilitary Cooperation (CIMIC) or Civil Military Operations (CMO). UN Civil-Military Coordination refers to all of the actions taken to ensure that there is a continuous process of coordination and feedback among all the components of the UN mission and others in the mission area in order to achieve an integrated peace operation. The definition adopted by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in its Civil-Military Coordination policy document of 25 September 2002 is as follows: UN Civil-Military Coordination is the system of interaction, involving exchange of information, negotiation, de-confliction, mutual support, and planning at all levels between military elements and humanitarian organisations, development organisations, or the local civilian population, to achieve respective objectives. Note that for the purposes of DPKO policy, the term Civil-Military Coordination includes civilian police.

12.3

Principles of CIMIC

The following three principles lie at the core of all Civil-Military Coordination: Interdependence: Interdependence is the realisation that each components success is dependent on the success of the other. For instance, the electoral component cannot successfully organise an election if others such as CIVPOL and the Peacekeeping Force do not help to create a safe and secure environment within which elections can take place. If so, coordination, mutual support, joint-planning, and the continuous exchange of information on progress and setback become a critically important aspect of the missions overall success. Duplication: In the absence of meaningful coordination, you will experience overlap, duplication, and an overall uneconomic and inefficient application of resources. Different components will use time and resources to collect the same information. Many components will focus on the same high-profile cases while neglecting the less-high-profile, often more inaccessible cases. The more meaningful the coordination, the more efficient the overall effort will be. For instance, if the medical units of a Peacekeeping Force Battalion, a local clinic, and medical non-governmental organisations do not coordinate efforts, they may all cover the same area and perhaps neglect others. However, if they coordinate their efforts, they can spread out and cover a much wider area, with each providing a service according to their resources and capabilities.

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Combined effort: By combining effort through mutual support and by coordinating different initiatives to coincide over the same time period, one can achieve the power of leverage, such as achieving more together than each component would have been able to achieve on its own. Through the exchange of information, joint-planning, mutual support, and ongoing coordination and feedback, the mission will achieve a holistic effort. For instance, through coordination, the various components involved in a Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration (DDR) campaign including the Peacekeeping Force, Military Observers, Civilian Police, UN agencies, international and local NGOs, local authorities, conflicting parties, the local community, and former combatants and their families will mutually enforce each others efforts and, in so doing, develop a positive momentum around the DDR campaign that will help each component overcome the obstacles it faces in its own area of specialisation.

12.4

CIMIC in Practice

CIMIC activities include information-sharing, joint planning and evaluation, negotiation, coordination, mutual support and cooperation, and confidence-building. The exchange of information is at the core of all coordination. It can take place through meetings, through exchanging written and/or electronic information, and through joint operations centres. The success of the CIMIC effort is directly linked to the quality and quantity of information shared. Joint planning and evaluation is the most advanced form of coordination and the most difficult to achieve but, when applied, is also the most effective. Coordination is when initiatives, campaigns, and programmes are synchronised and linked so that they compliment one another. Mutual support and cooperation is when one component assists the other to achieve an objective, such as when the PKF provides a security escort for a humanitarian relief convoy. Confidence-building is those efforts aimed at improving the confidence that the local government, parties, and population have in the peacekeeping operation and the peace process. Coordination Coordination should take place at all levels (headquarters, sector/region/district, and local) and in all areas (security, humanitarian relief, reconstruction, human rights, electoral, etc.) where more than one component are working together. At the headquarters or mission-wide level, a Joint Operations Centre (JOC) or similar body, where all the mission components are represented, is a crucial management tool for the SRSG to ensure overall coordination. The Peacekeeping Force (PKF) typically uses a Civil-Military Operations Centre (CMOC) to ensure coordination in their area of operations at the sector and/or battalion level. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) or the Humanitarian Coordinator or lead agency will be responsible for coordinating humanitarian relief. They typically establish a UN Humanitarian Operations Centre (UNHOC) and/or a Joint Logistics Operations Centre (JLOC) for this purpose. In Transitional Administration missions, such as UNTAET in East Timor, CIVPOL may be the lead component for security, law and order, and disaster-management coordination.

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CIMIC in UNMEE The Civil Military Centre (CIMIC) in the UN mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea is a good example of Civil-Military Coordination in a mission. Depending upon the circumstances of the UN mandate for a particular mission, CIMIC personnel may vary from several peacekeepers or MILOBS who identify worthwhile projects for assistance to a fully manned CIMIC (G5) staff. UNMEE is a mission that has a robust commitment to CIMIC Kindergarten with bathroom being constructed in and the humanitarian projects to assist those Barentu, Eritrea. (UNMEE, LTC Phyllis Mihalas, adversely affected by the war between Ethiopia G5, November 2002) and Eritrea. There have been 14 officers and senior enlisted personnel from about 11 countries specifically assigned to the mission as CIMIC (G5) personnel. Three UNMEE CIMIC teams live amongst the local populace one team per Sector. The G5, the primary CIMIC staff officer for the Force Commander, and a small administrative staff serve at the Mission Headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea, where projects are managed and monitored. UNMEE is the recipient of a Country Donor Programme, whereby several donor countries, such as Ireland, the Netherlands, and Norway (as of 2003), donated hundreds of thousands of U.S. dollars for specific humanitarian projects. These projects, referred to as QIPs (Quick Impact Projects), can be initiated by anyone who has a worthy idea to help people adversely affected by the war. Projects range from education (building schools and providing books), medical (providing doctors and building and resourcing clinics), and public health and sanitation (building water points and providing electricity), to programmes to take war widows off the street and teach them a viable trade. QIPs have a limit of $15,000 US Dollars. Although a special focus may be necessary at different points in a missions life cycle, such as during the preparation for elections, all components of the mission need to be coordinated all the time. In many instances, it is very useful to appoint specific persons to be responsible for coordination. Many components and organisations appoint Liaison Officers and place them with another organisation to improve coordination. The Force Commander may, for instance, place a Liaison Officer with the UN High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) in a situation where the PKF is working closely with the UNHCR to assist them in the repatriation of refugees.

UNMEE CIMIC Officer, CPT Renato Scudicio of the Italian Army, cuts the ribbon on a new water project in Rama, Ethiopia. This was a successful CIMIC project. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, July 2002)

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Note that some NGOs have different cultures and, therefore, participate in UN CIMIC coordination efforts with different perspectives. In some circumstances, these organisations do not want to participate in coordination activities in order to protect their independent identity and mandates. The UN respects their independence, and, when necessary, both parties can informally exchange information to avoid duplication and to ensure the safety and security of civilian personnel. Coordination in the UN Context Coordination

Cooperation

Competition

Coexistence

Conflict

Cooperation and mutual support can take place in many ways and between most components. For example, the Peacekeeping Force (PKF) can support others in the following ways: The PKF will normally not use 100% of its own transport capability because it would have been deployed with some excess capacity in anticipation of any unforeseen developments. It can provide other organisations with this unused capacity or access to cargo space on its aircraft, ships, and/or vehicles. This is one of the most used and useful support activities that takes place within a UN mission. The PKF usually also has an engineering capability with some capacity factored in for the same reasons. Again, this capacity can be used under certain conditions to assist with the emergency provision or maintenance of roads, water, and electricity or construction services. Although PKF medical units are deployed in support of the PKF, medical personnel often find it possible to assist the local population with some basic medical care or with education and assessments. The PKF will have its own independent means of communication, and it can provide communication services to others in an emergency when their normal telecommunications systems are inoperative. The PKF is also often the only institution with the capacity to provide specialty services, such as weather forecasting and air traffic control.

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12.5

Confidence-Building

Confidence-building campaigns, aimed at strengthening the confidence of the local population in the PKF, the UN operation, and the peace process in general, is usually an important element of any peacekeeping operation. Most UN peacekeeping operations will deploy with a Public Information component, and in most cases the PKF will also have a small public information capacity. The PKF will undertake its confidence-building campaigns through: CIMIC Patrols that specifically include in their objectives the gathering of information for humanitarian purposes (through the use of a pre-developed questionnaire), and the establishing of good relations with local populations through disseminating information about the UN mission; and Organising cultural and social activities. For example, in East Timor, various PKF battalions respectively organised sporting events, beach clean-up, and other environmental events, and they trained local farmers in agricultural techniques, such as how to better utilise their water buffalos for preparing rice paddies.

Adwa, Ethiopia (UNMEE). Adwa Kids Fun Run was initiated by a Canadian MILOB and coordinated by the G5 and Central Sector CIMIC Team. This was the first community event since the war and was designed as an educational awareness program. Over 600 children from ages 1018 participated, and the cooperation from 10 different countries PKF and MILOBS made this day a success. Every entrant won a prize, in addition to learning about HIV/AIDS awareness. This is another example of a CIMIC success. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, Adwa, Ethiopia, October 2002)

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12.6

Role of the Peacekeeper

Civilian, military, and police peacekeepers can support each other and the local community in many ways. For instance, some of the most common ways in which a soldier may expect to become involved in support to humanitarian efforts are by: Providing security: Guarding relief supplies, securing roads, and guarding refugee camps; Gathering information: Gathering humanitarian information during CIMIC Patrols and other contacts with local communities; Escorting convoys: Providing security escorts for humanitarian convoys; Transport: Providing access space for humanitarian goods on ships, flights, and trucks; Construction: Pitching tents or rebuilding schools, hospitals, etc.; Water: Providing potable water or helping to purify water and fix pumps and pipes; and Manpower: Providing manpower to off-load equipment, pitch tents, etc. In most cases, however, the UN will make use of the skills available within the local population. This provides them the opportunity to earn money, learn new skills, and identify with whatever project it may be.

Mai Aini, Eritrea (UNMEE). Under watchful eye of Italian Caribineri, this young girl carries her brother to a clinic for medical assistance. The clinic had been closed for over two years due to lack of medical personnel. The CIMIC project coordinated for Italian physicians to travel to Mai Aini twice a week. (LTC Phyllis Mihalas, G5, July 2002)

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LESSON 12 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

CIMIC projects can only be initiated by: a. CIMIC personnel; b. MILOBS or peacekeepers; c. NGOs, IOs, or PVOs; d. The Mission Force Commander.

2.

Who is responsible for leading long-term recovery and reconstruction efforts? a. The United Nations Development Fund; b. The Civilian Police; c. The Humanitarian Coordinator; d. The Peacekeeping Force.

3.

CMOCs, JLOCs, and UNHOCs are all examples of: a. CIMIC Coordination Centres; b. Offices that are used to register local school-aged children; c. Areas where PKF are in-processed; d. Organisations at UNHQ that help in the field.

4.

During a daily patrol, you encounter an administrator from a local village. He insists that the UN can build a new school for his village. What can you do? a. Do nothing. You are only there to protect and maintain the peace according to the UN mandate; b. Promise him that you will take up his cause, but you know that you will do nothing because you will never see him again; c. Tell him that you are not there to help; d. Take down the basic information and forward it back to the CIMIC or G5 office at your headquarters.

5.

From the following, select the example(s) of cooperation and support to the local populace: a. Restoration or enhancement of water service and purification facilities; b. Provision of public sanitation; c. Acquisition of basic medical equipment and medical supplies; d. All of these.

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6.

CIMIC projects can include: a. Building new barracks for the local military; b. Building a new house for the local regional administrator; c. Building a new school to replace the one destroyed during conflict; d. Financing a new project for the countrys senior politician.

7.

List five ways that Peacekeeping Forces (PKF) can support CIMIC projects. Describe at least three of them.

8.

Which of the following is NOT a role of a MILOB or peacekeeper? a. Gathering humanitarian information during CIMIC patrols and other contacts with local communities; b. Providing potable water or helping to purify water and fix pumps and pipes; c. Guarding relief supplies, securing roads, and guarding refugee camps; d. Acting as a personal bodyguard for the local political administrator.

9.

List some of the ways that PKF can help the local populace.

10. There are three main principles in CIMIC. They are: a. Dependence, Duplication, and Combined Effort; b. Overlapping Efforts, Cooperation, and Dependence; c. Interdependence, Duplication, and Combined Effort; d. Coordination, Limited Assistance, and Duplication.

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

d a a d d c

The PKF will normally not use 100% of its own transport capability because it would have been deployed with some excess capacity in anticipation of any unforeseen developments. It can provide this unused capacity or access to cargo space to others on its aircraft, ships, and/or vehicles. This is one of the most used and useful support activities that takes place within a UN mission. The PKF usually also has an engineering capability with some capacity factored in for the same reasons. Again, this capacity can be used under certain conditions to assist with the emergency provision or maintenance of roads, water, and electricity or construction services. Although PKF medical units are deployed in support of the PKF, medical personnel often find it possible to assist the local population with some basic medical care or with education and assessments. The PKF will have its own independent means of communication, and it can provide communication services to others in an emergency when their normal telecommunications systems are inoperative. The PKF is also often the only institution with the capacity to provide specialty services, such as weather forecasting and air traffic control. d Communication; Specialty Services; Confidence Campaigns; CIMIC Patrols; Cultural and Social Activities; Engineering Capabilities; Transport; Medical Services c

8. 9.

10.

LESSON 13 MEDIA RELATIONS


13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 The Importance of Media Relations Peacekeepers Actions and the Media The Public Information Office (PIO) Speaking to the Media

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LESSON OBJECTIVES The aim of this lesson is to provide the student with basic information on media relations and how to participate in an interview. It will familiarise the student with the importance and effect of the media in the success of peacekeeping operation. After completing the lesson, the student should be able to:

State how the UN Public Information System promotes peacekeeping through use of media; State how the behaviour of an individual may affect the mission; State the UNs media guidelines; and State the dos and donts of an interview.

INTRODUCTION All peacekeeping operations attract media attention, but not all media reports on peacekeeping missions are consistent in the same way. Some local media tend to be biased. The tendency of taking sides is very likely. Furthermore, the local media tend to be less informed than international media and operate at a different level. International media, on the other hand, tends to be more interested in a peacekeeping operation when the level of conflict is high, particularly when problems are encountered or failures occur. They become less interested as the peace process moves forward. Peacekeepers have to communicate with the local population through both the local and international media, broadcasting in that area and with the international community through regional and international media. The ability to disseminate truthful, credible, and impartial information within the region, and beyond, is consequently an essential requirement of every peacekeeping mission. Information generated by peacekeepers or others that is inaccurate, unclear, or untimely can be harmful to the mission. Negative behaviour by peacekeepers can do great harm, especially if reported in the media. Information that is distorted by the media can also be damaging. While it is the job of the public information officers in the mission to ensure that the media receives accurate and reliable information, all peacekeepers are permitted to respond to questions from the media, if they choose to do so, about their specific activities or areas of responsibility. Therefore, all MILOBS and peacekeepers within the mission must understand the impact of their responses to the media on peacekeeping operations. They must understand that any irresponsible act on their part can have very negative consequences for their national contingent and the United Nations, especially if the media reports on it. MILOBS and peacekeepers also need to know how to participate in media-relation activities during their tour of duty.

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13.1

The Importance of Media Relations

MILOBS and peacekeepers need to understand that the media can play a significant role in a peacekeeping operation. If the media is provided with accurate and timely information, they will use it to carry the UNs messages. If the media is not given information about UN operations, they will find other, perhaps less reliable sources, or they will speculate about outcomes, often negatively. Peacekeepers need to know how the Public Information Office (PIO) is structured and how the Military Public Information Office (MPIO), if present, and the military spokesperson work with the PIO and the mission spokesperson. They should feel confident that the information structures within the mission would be able to deal effectively with any media situation. At the same time, they should also understand that they might be required to play a role at some point in dealing with the media. If such an occasion arises, they will need to know how to react, without being manipulated by the media. The media is interested in conflicts because conflicts are the basis of news. This interest is neither good nor bad but a professional activity which requires a professional response. Most international journalists are very professional and usually quite sympathetic to the United Nations and what it stands for. Local journalists may or may not be as professional and can often be controlled by one of the sides in the conflict. The UN needs to convey information about the mandate and the peace process to the local population, which may be the target of false information or hostile propaganda by parties to the conflict. The UN must provide accurate, reliable, and impartial information. This helps the peace process. It does this through its own information structures, as well as through the media. The UN must also inform the international community about its work, and it also does this through the media. The media plays a very important role by informing the world about UN peacekeeping. UN Public Information can deal with the media at all levels and is equipped to handle most situations. However, one of the most difficult situations to deal with is an irresponsible act by UN MILOBS and peacekeepers.

UNMIS spokesperson Radhia Achouri being interviewed. (UNMIS Photo, John Charles, April 2005)

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13.2

Peacekeepers Actions and the Media

Nothing damages the reputation of the UN or a national contingent more than the irresponsible acts committed by UN peacekeepers. This can take the form of sexual abuse, inappropriate sexual activities, alcohol or substance abuse, lack of respect or denigration of the local population, and smuggling. Once the media learns of the reports of such incidents, the effect is devastating for the national contingent, the mission, and the UN. The local population loses trust in the international community, which is seen as a negative rather than a positive force. The reputation of the UN is damaged, and the values of the organisation are diminished. MILOBS and peacekeepers must understand that any misbehaviour can have far-reaching consequences and that prevention of misconduct is always the best option. They should behave honourably and correctly at all times, showing respect for their uniforms and national flag, as well as the flag of the United Nations and the blue shoulder patch they all wear. The United Nations will not cover up or in any way be a party to behaviour that undermines the values of the organisation. All MILOBS and peacekeepers must understand that they are a potential source of information for the media and that certain rules apply when talking to the media. The SecretaryGeneral encourages transparency and openness with the media. For uniformed peacekeepers, this means they may talk about their own work or area of responsibility in a factual manner. With minimal training, peacekeepers will be able to do this. Local media is always present, but their reliability to report accurately varies. They may be partisan or under the control of one side. They may lack professional training. Local media must be dealt with patiently and carefully. International media will maintain a presence in the region, often through a local correspondent who will have been trained or an international correspondent if the peacekeeping operation is becoming interesting. This could occur either because the conflict is warming up or because the peace process is reaching a critical stage. Peacekeepers must get used to the idea of doing their jobs while the media watches. This means they must be careful to project the right image at all times. Positive behaviour reinforces the ability of the UN to help move the peace process forward and creates bonds of trust with the local population. Positive behaviour means respecting the Code of Conduct. It can also take the form of helping the local community with simple projects for example, repairing a school, interacting with the local community, or playing sports. Such actions create good rapport and win respect for the national contingent and the UN. Negative behaviour, however, undermines the reputation of the national community and the UN, and it weakens the peace process. Parties to the conflict can exploit negative behaviour and use it to delay the peace process. The local communitys expectations about the UN presence in their country are undermined, and respect for the Blue Helmets is diminished.

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The media works 24 hours a day, and news of an event or incident can be disseminated around the world before the mission has time to verify the facts, report to HQ, and prepare a response. The print media, including magazines and newspapers, is expensive and requires time to be produced and distributed. However, radio and television have an immediate and global impact. The availability of satellite communications and portable audio-video equipment allows the media to transmit their reports directly from anywhere in the world. A reporter will always be there, whenever and wherever the news occurs. Because the media works so rapidly, information about an incident or an event can be on television or radio around the world before the peacekeeping mission has had the time to verify the facts and react officially. MILOBS and peacekeepers should be careful to ensure that they do not distribute any information to the media about any incident or event that will be investigated by other structures within the mission. Any questions that they are asked by the media about such incidents or events must be referred to the UN Public Information Office in the mission. Traffic accidents can occur between UN vehicles and local vehicles in a peacekeeping mission; if local casualties result, the incident can quickly become serious. The UN must investigate all accidents, but this takes time. Meanwhile, the local media may use the incident to discredit the UN, irrespective of who is at fault. The family of the victim(s) may try and make excessive claims against the UN. Because insurance liabilities are involved, any comment, however well intentioned, can be misconstrued or used against the UN. This sort of incident requires handling by the UN Public Information Office. Peacekeepers have been known to engage in wrongdoing while on mission. Although only a small minority do break the rules about behaviour and violate the Code of Conduct, the effects of this minority can be far-reaching. Typically, sexual misbehaviour by a few can damage the reputation of a whole contingent. Commercial sex workers, many of whom may be below the age of 18, will try and attract the attention of peacekeepers. Peacekeeping missions in Bosnia, Kosovo, East Timor, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have all had incidents of sexual misbehaviour reported by the international media. The damage to the reputation of the national contingents involved and the UN has been considerable. The best practice is to avoid any behaviour in violation of the Code of Conduct. If this is accomplished, then the media has nothing to report. One of the best ways to create a bond between the local population and the peacekeeping contingent is by helping the local community with small-scale projects, such as repairing utilities or public buildings, providing medical assistance, or just engaging in sporting or cultural events with local people. The costs are normally small and the benefits large, especially when reported by the media, which the UN Public Information Office can help arrange. The reputation of the national contingent can be enhanced around the world.

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13.3

The Public Information Office (PIO)

Each mission has a Public Information Office (PIO). The PIO:


Will develop and manage the communications strategy, assist the media, and ensure that the local population is informed about the mandate and the peace process; May operate its own radio station or broadcast on local stations, produce video material for television, and publish informational brochures, posters, and pamphlets, all in a number of local languages; Employs local staff, usually journalists, who have good knowledge and understanding of local customs and traditions; Will accredit journalists to have access to the UN and will issue ID cards to reporters that can be checked by contingents in the field; Works closely with the military public information structures - the military spokesman and the military public information officers attached to contingents, implementing the communications strategy; and Is a resource that MILOBS and peacekeepers can draw on for all sorts of useful information about the mandate, the peace process, and the mission. The PIO can help contingents manage their media relations, and promote the positive image of contingents that engage in activities that assist the local community.

Contingents should not hesitate to ask the PIO for information or assistance.

13.4

Speaking to the Media

Nobody is obliged to speak to reporters if they do not want to. MILOBS and peacekeepers may decline, politely, if they wish. However, past experience shows that peacekeeping troops that talk to the media about their work can be very effective in conveying positive messages. When talking about their jobs, MILOBS and peacekeepers should convey a public information officer hands out MONUC magazines as sense of pride in what they do MONUC part of an outreach campaign in Butembo, DRC. (MONUC, Daniel because they are working for Wangisha, November 2004) the UN. They should be positive about their role. They should always be factual and impartial in the way they convey information and should always speak respectfully about the local population, which often lives in

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conditions of extreme poverty and hardship. They should try and empathise with the situation of the local people and avoid remarks that may sound condescending or patronising. MILOBS and peacekeepers must remember that they are ambassadors for their own countries and the UN and should, therefore, present themselves appropriately. It may happen that a reporter interviews you in the field. When speaking with the reporter, remember his or her name, as well as the media organisation they represent. If you do speak to a reporter about your work, please let the UN Public Information Office know about it. Contact the military public information officer attached to your contingent or your superior officer so they can pass on the information. Remember what you are allowed to talk about and what you cannot say. Do:

Always refer reporters to UN information personnel if they ask you any questions that you are not authorised to answer. It is always better to refer to an authorised person than to give a wrong answer; Always be polite with the media, even if they appear rude or unfriendly. They may be under pressure to get the news; you should keep your professionalism and maintain an educated and polite attitude; Stick to facts, as they cannot be refuted; and Be brief and precise. Time is the main limitation of the modern media, as only so much news and images can be conveyed each minute. If you speak too much or are unclear, the positive image you want to present will be lost.

Do not: Offer your personal opinion about the peace process or about UN activities. Any answer you provide may be regarded as an official opinion or, if negative, may reflect badly on the mission and the organisation; Answer questions that are speculative, such as what will happen if.? Speculations are just that. You may be providing wrong information that may affect the mission; Give any information about UN security plans or procedures. The UN is an open organisation and has no secrets. However, security may be affected; Discuss the state or activities of local or other combatant forces; and Do not appear to support or favour one side over the other. Remember at all times that you are impartial. Remember that you do not have to talk to the media if you do not want to. Politely but firmly decline an invitation to speak. The mandate of a UN peacekeeping mission is your main mission. All that you have been tasked to accomplish is designed to support the mandate. The mandate of a peacekeeping operation is contained in a Security Council Resolution. This document constitutes the legal authority under which the UN mission is operating. The mandate will describe the aim of the peacekeeping mission, and it will be periodically updated by the Security Council as circumstances change. While MILOBS and peacekeepers are not expected to remember all of

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the details of a mandate, they should be familiar with the main points. These may include reference to the disarmament and demobilisation of illegal forces, transitional power sharing arrangements, eventual elections, the restoration of the rule of law, and so on. You may ask the UN Public Information Office in the mission for a summary of the mandate. It is useful to have this information, both for your own understanding of the countrys participation in the UN peacekeeping operation and also when talking to journalists. You will then be able to place your work in the context of the mandate. The media needs to reach the public. In most countries, people like human-stories. High-ranking officers are normally associated more with large and impersonal organisations. However, soldiers are perceived as the true peacekeepers. Their messages and stories reach the public in an informal and refreshing way. Thus, public opinion will prefer to see an interview with a soldier than with a high-ranking officer. How to Handle an Interview The basic rules for handling an interview are few and simple. The camera or the reporter should not intimidate you. You are a professional, and you are executing your mission in a highly professional manner.

Always look at the reporter, never at the camera. Looking at the camera will give viewers the impression that you are not behaving naturally. To avoid making mistakes or loosing face with a wrong answer, listen carefully to each question. If needed, ask the reporter to repeat it to you. Gain time to compose your answer and then stick to what you know and can say. Speak naturally and with facts, avoiding exaggerated movements with your hands and face.

If you speak and say no comment, the reporter and the public will have the impression that you are trying to hide something. It is much better to answer with I do not know or to refer to a qualified officer. Answering with yes or no will give basically the same impression. Instead, use small sentences. For example, do not answer the question Do you like your work? with simply yes. Instead, state, I enjoy my work with the UN or a similar short and clear answer. The expression off the record may suggest that what you say is only for the reporter and will not be published or transmitted. However, this is professional terminology, and it applies basically to professionals of the media. If you say something of interest, the reporter may decide to use it. It is better to decline to answer. You represent the UN 24 hours a day and seven days a week. Whatever you say may be received as the opinion of the organisation. Provide information as authorised. If you do not have complete guidelines, remember not to compromise the security of the organisation, its mission, and its people.

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LESSON 13 END-OF-LESSON QUIZ

1.

In giving media interviews, MILOBS and peacekeepers should: a. Discuss only factual matters in their own area of responsibility and divulge only misleading information about local forces; b. Discuss only factual matters in their own area of responsibility while not providing information about local forces which might be of use to opponents; c. Say as little as possible about any subject; d. Talk as much as possible to make sure that your opinion is heard. The UN Public Information Office: a. Does not inform the public about the mandate since it is public information; b. Looks to the Force Commander or Chief of Staff to explain developments in the peace process; c. Only works for the Regional Administrator; d. Supports the mission leadership and keeps the mission personnel informed. As a MILOB or peacekeeper, when you are approached by the media or journalists, you should do which of the following? a. You do not have to talk if you do not want to; b. This is the time to complain about the problems in the mission; c. Dont worry about respecting the local people -- they know that the UN is superior; d. Give your opinions regardless of what the local customs and cultures may be.

2.

3.

Provide an answer for the following frequently asked questions: 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Do you like being here? How long will it take to bring peace? There is still fighting going on. What do you think will happen? Arent you afraid that things are going to get worse? What do you think about the alleged sexual exploitation by UN personnel of the local girls? Are you in favour of changing the mandate of the mission?

10. What is your mission?

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ANSWER KEY

1. 2. 3. 4.

b d a Acceptable answer: I miss my friends and family, but I am pleased I can help make things better here. It is a good experience, even if the conditions are difficult. Acceptable answer: I do not know the answer to that. It depends on many things. You should ask the UN Public Information Office. Acceptable answer: I cannot answer that question. Information Office can help you with that. The UN Public

5.

6.

7.

Acceptable answer: I am a [soldier, police officer, MILOB, or UN peacekeeper]. I have been trained to do this, and I am confident that the UN is doing everything possible to advance the peace process. Acceptable answer: I cannot answer that question. Information Office can help you with that. The UN Public

8.

9.

Acceptable answer: The mandate of the UN peacekeeping mission is my mission, which I will support. The UN Public Information Office can help you with further information. Acceptable answer: As a UN peacekeeper/MILOB, my mission is to support the mission mandate.

10.

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APPENDIX A: TABLE OF ACRONYMS


Acronym AC AIDS AP CA CAO CIMIC CIS CISS CIVPOL CMO CMOC COE CRC CSO CTO DDR DPKO ECOSOC EOD FC GA GPS HC HIV HOM ICC ICJ ICRC IDP IHL IRC ITS JLOC JOC LOAC Meaning Area Coordinator Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Anti Personnel (Mines) Civil Affairs Chief Administrative Officer Civil-Military Coordination Critical Incident Stress Chief of Integrated Support Services Civilian Police Chief Military Observer Civil-Military Operations Centre Contingent-Owned Equipment Convention on the Rights of Children Chief Security Officer Compensatory Time Off Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration Department of Peacekeeping Operations Economic and Social Council Explosive Ordnance Devices Force Commander General Assembly Global Positioning System Humanitarian Coordinator Human Immunodeficiency Virus Head of Mission International Criminal Court International Court of Justice International Committee of the Red Cross Internally Displaced Persons International Humanitarian Law International Red Cross Integrated Training Service Joint Logistics Operations Centre Joint Operations Centre Law of Armed Conflict

Appendix A / Table of Acronyms

218 Meaning Mine Action Centre Medical Evacuation (UN) Military Observers United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Memorandum of Understanding Military Public Information Officer Meal and Subsistence Allowance North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Non-Governmental Organisation Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Public Information Office(r) Peacekeeping Forces Peacekeeping Operation Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Post Exchange Quick Impact Project Rules of Engagement Security Council Senior Management Team Status of Forces Agreement Status of Mission Agreement Standard Operating Procedures Special Representative to the Secretary-General Sexually Transmitted Infections Troop-Contributing Country Tour of Duty United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children United Nations Country Team UN Disengagement Observers Force United Nations Development Programme United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations UN Emergency Force I UN Emergency Force II United Nations General Assembly Special Session United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Humanitarian Operations Centre United Nations Childrens Fund

Acronym MAC MEDEVAC MILOBS MONUC MOU MPIO MSA NATO NGO OCHA PIO PKF PKO PTSD PX QIP ROE SC SMT SOFA SOMA SOP SRSG STI TCC TOD UNCRC UNCT UNDOF UNDP UNDPKO UNEF I UNEF II UNGASS UNHCR UNHOC UNICEF

Appendix A / Table of Acronyms

219 Meaning UN Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Logistics Base United Nations Mine Action Service United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea United Nations Military Observers UN Military Observers Group in India and Pakistan United Nations Owned Equipment UN Observation Group in Lebanon United Nations Peacekeeping Operations United Nations Standby Arrangement System United Nations Security Council Resolution UN Security Force in New Guinea United Nations Security Coordinator United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor UN Truce Supervision Organisation Unexploded Ordnance World Health Organisation

Acronym UNIFIL UNLB UNMAS UNMEE UNMO UNMOGIP UNOE UNOGIL UNPKO UNSAS UNSCR UNSF UNSECOORD UNTAET UNTSO UXO WHO

Appendix B / Communication and Voice Procedure

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APPENDIX B: COMMUNICATION AND VOICE PROCEDURE


Preparation before deployment regarding radio communications skills is a vital aspect for any MILOB. UN personnel at the unit level will normally operate radio communications in their mother tongue, using national voice procedures. At a minimum, personnel should be familiar with:

Equipment; UN call sign system; Net orders; and Basic UN communications.

However, you may be required to communicate in the mission language, and you must also know:

The phonetic alphabet; Basic radio communication procedures; The use of procedural words, such as wait out, read back I read back, correction, speak slower, etc.; and Plain procedure, such as long message, roger so far roger send over, etc.

Preparing the Radio Set for Operation


Make sure that there is a sufficient power source, and ensure that there is a correct connection to the radio set. Check the antenna and all cable assemblies, ensuring tight and correct connection to the set. Connect the audio accessories and check proper operation of function switches.

General Instructions for Transmitting


Decide what you are going to say, making certain that it will be clear and brief. Make sure no one else is speaking on the net when you start. Remember to divide your message into sensible phrases, make pauses, and maintain a rhythm to your speech. Avoid excessive calling and unofficial transmissions. Use standard pronunciation. Keep a distance of about 5 cm between the microphone and your lips. Shield the microphone from background noises.

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Phonetics and Numbers The following INTERNATIONAL phonetic alphabet shall be used. A B C D E F G ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF H I J K L M N HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER O P Q R S T U OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM V W X Y Z VICTOR WHISKEY XRAY YANKEE ZULU

In general, numbers are transmitted digit by digit, except that multiples of hundreds and thousands are spoken as shown in the examples below. 0 ZERO 5 FI-YIV 1 6 WUN SIX 2 7 TOO SEVEN Examples: 12 TWELVE 44 FO-WER FO-WER 90 NINER ZERO 136 WUN THUH-REE SIX 500 FI-YIV HUNDRED 7000 SEVEN THOUSAND 16000 WUN SIX THOUSAND 1478 WUN FO-WER SEVEN ATE 3 8 THU-RRE ATE 4 FO-WER 9 NINER

Procedure Words The following list contains the most common prowords (except precedence prowords) to be used in radio communication and their meanings.

PROWORD ACKNOWLEDGE! AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE ALL AFTER.. ALL BEFORE..

CORRECT (THAT IS CORRECT)

MEANING Confirm that you have received my message and will comply (WILCO). Yes/ Correct No/Incorrect Everything that you (I) transmitted after.(Keyword) Everything that you (I) transmitted before.(Keyword) What you have transmitted is correct, you are correct

Appendix B / Communication and Voice Procedure

222 MEANING An error has been made in this transmission. It will continue with the last word (group) correctly transmitted. An error has been made in this transmission. The correct version is That which follows is a corrected version in answer to your request for verification. Your last transmission was incorrect. The correct version is.. This transmission is an error. Disregard it (This proword shall not be used to cancel any message that has been already completely transmitted and for which receipt or acknowledgement has been received). Station(s) called are not to answer this call, acknowledge this message, or otherwise to transmit in connection with this transmission. Cease all transmissions on this net immediately. Will be maintained until lifted. Silence is lifted. The net is free for traffic. This concludes the message just transmitted (and the message instructions pertaining to a formal message). The textual part of a formal message ends. Stand by for the message instructions immediately following. I wish to speak on the radio to that person (appointment title). Requested person is now using the radio by himself. I have received your message, understand it, and will comply (to be used only by the addressee) ROGER and WILCO are never used together. Have you received this part of my message satisfactorily? I have received your last transmission satisfactorily. The identify of the station calling or with whom I am attempting to establish communication is unknown.

PROWORD CORRECTION

WRONG DISREGARD THIS TRANSMISSIONOUT

DO NOT ANSWER OUT

SILENCE-SILENCE-SILENCE

SILENCE LIFTED END OF MESSAGE OVER (OUT)

END OF TEXT FETCH.!

.SPEAKING ROGER

ROGER SO FAR? WILCO UNKNOWN STATION

Appendix B / Communication and Voice Procedure

223 MEANING Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator and send correct version. To be used only at discretion of or by the addressee to which the questioned message was directed. I must pause for a few seconds. I am in contact with the station you are calling. I can act as a relay station. I must pause longer than some seconds, and I will call you again when ready. The word of the message to which I have reference is that which follows.. The word of the message to which I have reference is that which precedes.. Communication is difficult. Transmit(ting) each phrase (group) twice. This proword can be used as an order, request or as information.

PROWORD

VERIFY

WAIT OUT VERIFY WAIT (WAIT-WAIT) WAIT-WAIT WORD AFTER WORD BEFORE.. WORDS TWICE

Report of Reception The following phrases are to be used when initiating and answering queries concerning signal strength and readability.

RADIO CHECK What is my signal strength and readability, how do you read me? YOU ARE Your signal strength and readability is as (I READ YOU) follows. . .

Reports of Signal Strength


LOUD Your signal is strong. GOOD Your signal is good. WEAK I can hear you only with difficulty. VERY WEAK I can hear you only with great difficulty. NOTHING HEARD I cannot hear you at all.

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Reports of Signal Readability


CLEAR Excellent quality. READABLE Good quality. No difficulties in reading you. DISTORTED I have troubles in reading you. WITH I have troubles in reading you due to. . . INTERFERENCE Interference. NOT READABLE I can hear that you transmit but I cannot read you at all.

Examples:

52 THIS IS 11 RADIO CHECK OVER THIS IS 52 YOU ARE LOUG AND CLEAR OVER THIS IS 11 YOU ARE LOUG AND CLEAR AS WELL OUT

Appendix C / Daily Routine and Observing Techniques

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APPENDIX C: DAILY ROUTINE AND OBSERVING TECHNIQUES


The duties of a United Nations Military Observer are to:

Observe Verify Report

Contents of Reports (typical significant incidents):


Movements; Shooting, hostile acts, or threats; Any improvement of defense positions; Over flight of cease-fire lines or lines of the Area of Operation; and Violations of armistice or cease-fire agreements.

Daily Routine:

Maintain log; Carry out patrols and investigations for further observation, as ordered; Maintain line and radio communications to the next highest headquarters; and Maintain specified minimum strength.

A Day in the Life of an UNMEE MILOBS


0600 Wake-up and go for a run. It is still early so most of the children may not be up yet. This is the only time of day when you will not be overwhelmed with kids chasing you and screaming, "You, you gimme gimme... 0700 Shower and get some breakfast, maybe a banana and a roll. If you can find jam and butter, then life is good. Hope you brought some coffee or tea from home! This is the only meal each day that you have to get on your own, though, so that's good. Most team sites hire a local woman to clean and cook for them. Normally, they only cook lunch and dinner. 0800 Go to the office and get ready for your patrol. Maybe it's by helicopter today... no, you will be the patrol leader going by 4-Runner to a small militia post on the outskirts of your Area of Responsibility (AOR). You make sure the patrol driver has prepared the car; you grab the map, GPS, and patrol binder and head out. The language assistant has the day off today, so you anticipate a long drive followed by a short interview with the militia since they don't speak English and you only know how to say "hello," "peace," and "thank you."

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0930 You reach the militia post after crossing some "roads" that you are sure a donkey would have trouble with. You find the militia men, and they welcome you to sit down and have some tea. They are being generous and you know good manners require you to accept their invitation for tea, even if it is not prepared to the standards you would require at home. You take a seat on the log bench in their home. It's a chilly morning, so they have a small fire going in the middle of the dirt-floored living room. It's pretty smoky but the kids and chickens don't seem to mind. They bring out some bread that you find to be pretty tasty, not like the sourtasting ingera. You drink some sweet mint tea and have a little bread and attempt to communicate. They are interested in you because you are an outsider, and they are friendly with you to share their meager rations, but you still get the sense that they are guarded. After about an hour, you are ready to go. You thank them and say good-bye. Now you get to brave the roads back to the team site. 1200 You arrive back to the team site and write up the report for your patrol. Not much to report this time around, so it only takes you a few minutes. You check the schedule and notice that you will be the duty officer tomorrow. No need to stick around now except to check your email or call home. You will be in the office all day tomorrow and will have plenty of time to do it then. You head back to the accommodations for lunch. While you were gone, the cooking lady prepared the food that you are about to consume. It looks strikingly similar to what you had yesterday and the day before and the day before. Maybe this explains your lack of appetite and weight loss. 1400 Time for a nap... and why not? You don't have anything to do until 1700 when you have your daily meeting. Maybe you can catch up on some reading or do a little studying of the various UN training manuals. Did you bring a portable DVD player? Sure would be nice to watch a movie right now. 1700 You walk back to the office for your daily meeting. You talk about what you saw today and what everyone will be doing the next day. It's a little hard to understand everyone since you are the only native English speaker, but the longer you are here, the easier it gets. Plus, these guys are hilarious, so there are always a lot of laughs. 1830 The dinner bell is ringing, and although you are not excited to eat again, you know you need to. You have some dinner and joke around with your teammates. What's on the satellite TV tonight? Anyone up for a movie? No... you are tired and want to read a little before you go to bed. It will be nice tomorrow to catch up on your emails back home and to call your family. Its all in the day in the life of a MILOB.

Appendix D / Reports

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APPENDIX D: REPORTS
Principles of Reports:

Only accurate and checked statements of facts should be reported; Unclear observations should be cross-checked; Make sure the contents are clear and concise, avoiding ambiguity; and Include a count (such as of planes, vehicles, and the number of people).

Types of Reports: The type of reports vary; however, they will be based on Mission Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs):

Activity forecasts, vehicle movement; Warning reports; Situation reports (SITREP) on: o Ground incursion; o Shooting; o Firing close to Observation Post (OP); o Position report; and o Air activity report.

Types of Requests:

MEDEVAC/CASEVAC requests; and Supply requests.

Contents of Reports: At a minimum, all reports should include:

What report was sent, name, and logging report: Date Time Type Number

Originator and relation of report: Reference/Previous Reports

Name of Observation Post, Position, Command Post, Patrol

Time of incident (when): Beginning End Progress

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Identification and description of incident (who and what): Numbers Objects

Originator of Incident

Location and action (where was what observed): Grid/Map Reference Observation of Incident

Action taken by United Nations: Investigation Reinforcement Information to Others

Additional information consisting of anything that might be helpful for further assessments.

OPERATIONAL REPORTS All peacekeeping missions are required to provide UN headquarters with daily Situation Reports (SITREP). SITREPs are not intended to replace the normal, detailed communications between the missions and headquarters on specific matters. The daily SITREP should cover the period from midnight to midnight local-time. Before you start working refer to the Mission Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

HIGHLIGHTS The Highlights cover the major events or trends of the reporting period. This should include any new political, military, or humanitarian developments and any major casualties, plus any significant developments that could impact the safety and security of UN personnel. Further details would be provided in topic paragraphs (below). Note: The HIGHLIGHT paragraph is not the same as the GENERAL SITUATION.

POLITICAL Any governmental or political events directly affecting the mission or the missions mandate. Meetings: In-country, international. Proposed, actual, dates, attendance, decisions and outcome.

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Elections: Proposed, actual, dates, attendance, decisions and outcome. Negotiations: Proposed, actual, dates, attendance, decisions and outcome. Internal political parties: Formation, alliances, change of leadership, change of direction. Setting up of councils, local government. Any political decisions which affect the mission.

MILITARY Any military events of significance during the reporting period: Cease-fire agreements, military action (both by UN and factional forces), aid to the civil powers, use of new weapons, escalation of violence, changes in operating procedures, new alliances. UN Forces: Significant troop movements. Formation of new sector or regional commands and units. Changes to mission deployment or withdrawal of national contingents. Relocation of national contingents. Factional Forces: Significant troop movement or redeployment. New commanders. Changes to weapons or formations. Military assessments.

RESTRICTION ON UN MOVEMENT Status of routes which routes are open or closed. Blocking, either natural or man-made roadblocks, and who is responsible for the block.

HUMANITARIAN Significant developments. Problems encountered in provision and support of aid distribution: road, rail, air, sea. Refugees: Numbers, locations, movement, housing, feeding, or health problems. Infrastructure: Hospitals, roads, power and water supplies, schools. UN aid in providing or repairing infrastructure.

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CIVILIAN AFFAIRS Important developments affecting electoral activity, Civilian Police operations, mine-clearing, or UN agencies in areas of responsibility (could include NGOs if applicable), where they impact on mission activities, if not covered elsewhere. Coverage of other organisations activities, when applicable, to enhance the ability of managers at headquarters to liaise at this level on behalf of the mission concerned (not to include wider governmental or political activities which will go into the political section of the report).

SECURITY AND SAFETY OF PERSONNEL Any information noted or activity observed that affects, or could affect, the safety of UN personnel. Targeting or threats against UN personnel, kidnapping, extortion, murder.

CASUALTIES Death and injuries. Separate military, civilian police, and civilian, and classify as to whether it was from hostile action, accident, natural causes, i.e., heart attack, etc.

LOGISTICS Major logistic activities or problems affecting operations: equipment, accommodation, transport (both strategic and tactical), food, power, fuel, money.

COMMENTS Comments by the person in charge (Special Representative to the Secretary-General, Force Commander, Military Observers, or Sector Commander).

Appendix E / Report Writing Style Guide

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APPENDIX E: REPORT WRITING STYLE GUIDE


This guide is intended to aid Staff Officers and Duty Officers in the writing and editing of reports. Reference: UN Editorial Manual, ST/DCS/2. UN Correspondence Manual, ST7DCS/4/Rev1. The Oxford English Dictionary.

Abbreviations Unusual abbreviations or acronyms should be spelled out fully the first time that they are used in a document. Use USA, not US, as an adjective describing the United States. This is because reports are sometimes telexed in uppercase and the noun us can be confused with the adjective US in uppercase. Abbreviations for reports should be in uppercase, i.e., NOTICAS, SITREP, SINCREP. Should you come across any abbreviations which are unknown, check back with the originator and follow the rule mentioned above when you report.

Capitalisation Capitalisation of words in English is never easy. Proper names are almost always capitalised, along with titles when they are attached to names. Example: President C The titles of organisations are also capitalised. Example: .the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. But a generic description of something is rarely capitalised. Example: The presidents of the parties will meet tomorrow. Note that when a title is used to signify a specific individual, it should be capitalised. Example: President Jis visiting the UN. The President will speak on 22 March. Government is almost always capitalised, even when used generally.

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Dates Dates should follow the format: Day, Month, Year. Example: 22 March 2005. To avoid confusion, do not use today or yesterday, use dates instead. All dates should be written in full, i.e., 02 November. When in doubt, begin the report statement with the date of the event. Example: On 13 December.. One need not insert the year unless the event is related to other years. Example: All USA soldiers will depart by 31 March 2007.

Format Reports may carry a header and footer with a UN Classification. Maps or diagrams used to illustrate a particular point are to be included in the report, if technical means for the layout and the communication of the report are available. When writing the reports, take care to leave the correct spaces after punctuation marks to make the document easier to read: After a full stop (.) or colon (:) leave two spaces. After a comma (,) or semi colon (;) leave one space.

Grammar Two equal phrases in one sentence require a semi colon (;). Example: They fired; we fired back. The three-word rule: Any prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence with three or more words in it, i.e., In the winter must have a comma after it. Adverbs, such as reportedly or recently, should come close to the verb to which they relate. They should rarely begin a sentence. Media is a plural noun and is, therefore, followed by the plural form of a verb when it is used as a subject. Example: The media report that.. When describing armed forces, avoid using just the title of the forces or unit. Write: The NPFL attacked a village or NPFL forces attacked a village.

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Media Media reports should be accredited at the end of the sentence or paragraph with the source in parentheses, i.e., (AFP), (ITN) or (REUTER), etc. When using media reports, always indicated the source, i.e., The media report that If it is not clear how reliable the media report may be, use phrases such as UNITAR-controlled media courses claim that.

Names and Places Always use the persons title or Mr. or Ms. Example: Mr. Cle., Secretary-General .. etc. As a general rule, the United Nations says the Government of Canada. (Note the capitalisation.) This avoids confusion since there can be many governments at various levels in a country. If you are in doubt whether a particular government is recognised by the United Nations, check the list of Permanent Mission to the United Nations. Only recognised governments can have representatives or observers at the UN. If a place or region is not internationally recognised, put the name in quotation marks when describing it. Example: ABKHAZIA or the ABKHAZIAN defence minister. All place names should be typed in capital letters, i.e., UTZLA, ADWA, etc. When a geographical expression is part of a name, it should be capitalised. Examples: Sector East, State of California, New York City. When referring to a place name that is not on the map, indicate its distance and direction from a marked place name.

Numbers The numbers from one to ten are usually spelled out in full, i.e., seven. Those above ten are usually expressed as figures, i.e., 42. But there are exceptions, i.e., between seven and eleven, or the 4th Brigade, or 07 November. Avoid having a number which is expressed as a figure as the first word in a sentence. Example: Eight soldiers were observed.

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Sequencing If incidents are referred to by date, ensure that they are put down in the correct sequence, i.e., On 21 December, a meeting took place between..On 23 December, three vehicles.

Spelling Be aware that the UN uses International English (British spelling as described in the Concise Oxford Dictionary). Common spelling problems: The words cease-fire and machine-gun are always hyphenated when used as a noun. Middle East is not hyphenated. The expression small arms is always plural and consists of two words. The word logistics as a noun is always plural. The word battalion has two ts and one l in English. Its is an abbreviation in English for it is. The possessive its has no apostrophe. Secretary-General is always hyphenated and written in full.

Style Refer to the UN Correspondence Manual and the UN Editorial Manual when in doubt as to matters of style, abbreviation or format.

OTHER REPORTS The number of different reports the operational MILOBS need to be familiar with depends to a great extent on the mandate of the mission and the situation on the ground. The formats needed are in the computers of the mission. But when MILOBS are working in areas where electricity is not always 100% available, some handwritten documents may also be needed. The below-mentioned examples should not be considered a comprehensive selection of report forms. You may also find minor deviations in the content of the reports depending on the mission in question. Therefore, review the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the actual mission before you start reporting.

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Warning Report (WARNREP) The purpose of a Warning Report is to warn other UN units, patrols, and Observation Posts (OP) to give them time to take appropriate action. It is used when a serious or potentially serious violation of a cease-fire agreement is occurring, is about to occur, or has occurred. A Warning Report should be followed up as soon as possible by the appropriate operational report. Although there is no formal format for a Warning Report, the following information on the incident/activity should be included: To (call sign) From (call sign) WHEN it started (time group) if known WHAT is happening WHERE it takes place WHO are involved (if they cannot be identified, state: unidentified) WHAT ACTION is being taken by the reporting individual [The appropriate incident/activity] report to follow in .minutes.

Situation Report (SITREP) / Special Incident Report (SINCREP) The purpose of a SITREP/SINCREP is to report any incident/activity which could lead to a breach of a cease-fire agreement or any other incident/activity which is not covered by any other report.

Aircraft Activity Report (AIRREP) The purpose of the AIRREP is to report the flying and/or the attack by one or several aircraft. A WARNREP has to be sent first to ensure that everyones attention is drawn to the sky.

Shooting Report (SHOOTREP) The purpose of a SHOOTREP is to report any firing of weapons which could be considered a violation of a cease-fire agreement, or to report on warring factions activities. All such firing, with any type of ammunition (including flares, illumination and smoke) that is seen and heard, heard only, or if the origin of the fire and the impact area of the direction to the impact area could be determined, should be reported. NOTE: The basis for a SHOOTREP is that at least two of the following facts are known: Origin, Direction, or Impact Area. Do not give any damage assessment of the impact area.

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Firing Close to OP Report (FIREREP) The purpose of a Firing Close to Observation Post (OP) Report is to report all firing of weapons or detonation of any device which: Passes within 10 metres of UN personnel, vehicles, or equipment; Impacts within a UN compound; Causes casualties to UN personnel; Causes damage within a UN compound; or Otherwise endangers the safety of UN personnel. A Warning Report should be sent first. The report has the same format at the SHOOTREP and the same information, but the following should also be included: Use map references at the closest point at which the round passed UN personnel; State the point of the OP/Compound at which the rounds/fragments impacted; Description of the action taken by the OP/Position/Patrol, such as Investigation, Ready Reaction Group requested, Liaison Officer informed, Medical Section informed (CASEVAC); and Any information of casualties including damage caused which may be helpful in the evaluation of the report.

DO NOT SHOW ANY WRITTEN OPERATIONAL REPORT TO NON-UN PERSONNEL, AND MAKE SURE YOUR OPERATIONAL REPORT HAS A LIMITED DISTRIBUTION

Appendix F / Personnel Issues

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APPENDIX F: PERSONNEL ISSUES


Peacekeepers and MILOBS are individuals. The mandate unites them in their purpose and mission. Each MILOB and peacekeeper is subject to certain regulations that come with being a member of a United Nations peacekeeping operation. It is important that each individual clearly knows what the organisation expects from him/her, as well as what he/she may expect from the UN regarding personnel issues and policies. This appendix aims to prepare the peacekeeper to understand and abide by the United Nations regulations regarding personnel issues and policies.

UN Stand-By Arrangement System (UNSAS) In 1993, the UN Secretary-General established the United Nations Stand-By Forces Planning Team. This group developed the UN Stand-By Arrangement System (UNSAS). The system was devised to increase the speed at which the United Nations could react to immediate crises and to better run on-going peacekeeping operations. UNSAS is used to maintain a database of personnel, equipment, and resources, which countries maintain at home for possible deployment as a whole or in parts anywhere in the world. After asking each Member State to list resources that could be provided in the initial stages of a peacekeeping operation, the information is entered into a database system. There are four Levels of Commitment by Member States to UNSAS:

Provision of a list of capabilities describing what kind of resources may be made available. This includes what kind of capabilities (tasks that can be performed), number of personnel, response time, and restrictions, if any. Provision of more detailed information on contributions by completing Planning Data Sheet(s). The Planning Data Sheet is a detailed list describing the contribution, including a list of major equipment, the level of self-sufficiency, transportation data, the organisation of the units, and data on individuals. Provision of the Planning Data Sheet is a key level in the Secretariat's ability to plan. A general Memorandum of Understanding on Stand-By Arrangements with the United Nations. An MOU specifies resources provided, response times, and conditions for employment. Also attached to the MOUs are technical data or requirements regarding contributions. MOUs are the formal documents agreed by the United Nations. A specific MOU that contains agreement on contingent-owned equipment. This will not change significantly when the contribution is called out. This level can only be completed after detailed negotiations with the Member State.

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Possible Roles To provide a UN presence in the crisis area immediately after the Security Council has decided it should be involved. To prevent violence from escalating. To assist, monitor, and otherwise facilitate a cease-fire. To provide the emergency framework for UN efforts to resolve the conflict and commence negotiations. To secure a base, communications, and airfield for a subsequent UN force. To provide safe areas for persons and groups whose lives are threatened by the conflict. To secure humanitarian relief operations. To assess the situation and provide first-hand information for the Security Council so that an informed decision can be made on the utility and feasibility of further UN involvement.

Selection Criteria for UN Peacekeepers: Military Observers Nationality. The United Nations Military Observer must be a citizen of the Member State he/she is representing. Professional Status. The United Nations Military Observer must be a serving member of the Member States defence forces. This excludes retired military/defence officers. A military officer nominated as a United Nations Military Observer should be currently working on a fulltime military duty with a minimum of five years of regular military service as an officer. Rank. Should be in the rank of Captain and/or Major. However, depending upon the nature of the task, at times, senior officers such as Lieutenant Colonels and Colonels may also be assigned as United Nations Military Observers. The Chief Military Observer is generally a Brigadier or Major General. If an officer arrives in the mission area with a higher rank than requested, or is promoted during his tour of duty, the United Nations will not be obliged to take the higher rank into consideration in determining the officer's assignments. Age. Member States must not deploy United Nations Military Observers who are less than 25 years of age. As a rule, a United Nations Military Observer should not be over 50 years old. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations, if necessitated by special requirements of the mission, will indicate any change to the above-mentioned restrictions. Mental and Physical Health. Should be in excellent physical condition and must meet the established United Nations medical criteria outlined in the Medical Support Manual for United Nations Field Operations. They may have to live and work in conditions of hardship and physical danger.

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Professional Competencies and Experience. The desired professional competencies and expertise of United Nations Military Observers are mentioned in mission-specific guidelines or in the request initiated by United Nations Headquarters. However, the officers must have essential competencies and expertise, which will enhance their performance on the ground and reduce the requirement of additional training in the mission area. The Integrated Training Service (TES) of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations has issued separate training guidelines for United Nations Military Observers. Some necessary professional competencies that considered essential for United Nations Military Observers are mentioned below: Previous field/troop unit experience in his/her national armed forces; Knowledge of infantry organisations (force structure, equipment, and capabilities) and operations at company and battalion level; Experience or training in light and medium weapons, support equipment, and common weapon, vehicle, aircraft, helicopter, and ship identification; Proficiency in map reading, land navigation (both ground and vehicle), and use of global positioning systems; Use of tactical and basic commercial communications equipment and approved UN radio procedure; Knowledge of basic skills in dismount and vehicle patrolling; Knowledge of basic negotiation, mediation and conflict resolution skills, and basic interviewing techniques; Knowledge of basic first aid and stress management techniques; Ability to speak, read, and write the working language of the specific United Nations Peacekeeping Operation and other languages, if specifically described. Officers are required to write or type their own reports and to communicate on voice radio sets; and Being experienced vehicle drivers, capable of supervising the daily maintenance of light military vehicles and trained in employing self-recovery techniques. United Nations Military Observers should have at least two years of recent experience in driving and be in possession of a national, military, or international driving license. Many of the duties will involve driving four-wheel drive vehicles over rough terrain. Additional Qualifications. The following qualifications are desirable: combat-experience or combat troop-training experience, in order to properly evaluate or analyse situations that may confront United Nations Military Observers in the cause of carrying out their duties and staff training or staff experience; and troop-experience, operations, map reading, operation of materiel, communications, patrolling, negotiation, first aid, stress management, language, and driving.

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Selection Criteria for UN Peacekeepers: Civilian Police Nationality. Citizen of the country he/she represents. Professional Status. The Civilian Police officer must be a serving member of his/her national police. In special cases, authorised by the General Assembly, retired members may participate as Civilian Police in UNPKOs. Personal Qualities. The observer must realise that he will be performing his duties in an environment foreign to that of his home nation, usually encumbered by difficult living conditions, in high stress situations, and often in a language that is not necessarily his mother tongue. As representatives of the UN and his home country, the individual nominated as an observer must be carefully selected to ensure that he is capable of performing the tasks required of him, and that his actions and overall presentation will reflect favourably upon the UN and his home nation. Accordingly, the policemen selected must be physically fit, of sound mental character, mature in attitude and outlook, and possess the appropriate career qualifications for the mission. Physical Fitness. Observers must operate at peak efficiency for prolonged periods; accordingly, policemen selected for observer duties are to be in as good health and physical condition as possible. The Civilian Police observer's duties will often be to patrol on foot, or by four-wheel drive vehicle, sometimes for several days, during which time he will be dependent upon the local infrastructure for support (food, accommodation, medical services, etc.). Therefore, he must be able to cope with the numerous physical demands this type of life-style imposes. It is imperative that that the policeman selected: Is in excellent health and physical condition; Has a high level of physical endurance and stamina; and Does not suffer from any allergies or other medical conditions which may be difficult to treat in areas with limited medical facilities. Mental Fitness. Mental fitness is equally as important as physical fitness. The policeman selected to be an observer must possess a strong character, be of a well-balanced personality, and be of good mental health. He must be free of neurotic or other psychological problems, and it is imperative that he is able to operate in conditions of extreme stress and physical danger. In many circumstances his actions and words will mean the difference between success and failure. Thus, he must be scrupulously honest, loyal, brave, and professional. The effective observer will display the following personality traits: Good judgment, supported by a common-sense approach to problem-solving; Possess an objective attitude, displaying tact and impartiality; Possess a polite demeanour, combined with a firm but flexible and honest approach; Demonstrate considerable self-discipline and patience; Posses a friendly, open approach to other nationalities, and have a ready sense of humour; Possess an ability to influence others, engendered in imaginativeness and persuasiveness; and Demonstrate credibility in leadership.

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Maturity. The individual selected for observer duty should be well-trained and experienced, and accordingly, be of the highest professional calibre. He would preferably be of the equivalent rank to a Captain or Major and would satisfy the following selection criteria: Be representative of his national background; Be competent in the mission language (usually English, although French and Spanish are common); Be comfortable in operational and social environments both of the contributing countries' policeman and the parties in conflict; Have the appropriate operational skills necessary to perform the duties of the appointment for which he is selected; Have the mental capability to enable him to understand the organisation and functional arrangements of the parties in conflict; and Be capable of conducting analytical investigations into alleged incidents, and of compiling and submitting factual and impartial recommendations.

Selection Criteria for UN Peacekeepers: Military Contingents National military contingents are selected by their national authorities to deliver the capabilities required by the UN. Any number of capabilities, and so units, could be required, including most often infantry, engineers, aviation, logistic and medical units. The agreed troop figure will be set out in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Troop-Contributing Country (TCC) and the UN. This MOU will also set out the agreed equipment arrangements whether it is national or UN-provided equipment and the logistic sustainment arrangements (for fuel, rations, etc). Although members of national contingents are not subject to the same initial selection scrutiny as are MILOBS and CIVPOL, they are subject to the same Code of Conduct requiring exemplary behaviour throughout their tours.

Conditions of Service Tour of Duty (TOD). Military Observers in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations have a TOD of one year or up to the end of the mission's mandate, whichever is earlier. Repatriation on completion of this tour of duty will be at the United Nations expense. Any rotation undertaken during an authorised 12-month mandate period will be at the contributing country's expense. However, assignments may be extended, subject to the recommendation by the Head of Mission and the approval of the Secretary-General and the governments concerned. Any exception to this rule will be mentioned in the United Nations request to the Member States. The same basic concepts are applied for the Civilian Police; the extension may be granted by the Civilian Police Commissioner. The Military Units normally rotate every six months. Some specialists remain in the mission for up to one year. For military units, the rotation policy is a national responsibility coordinated with the UN.

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Leave and Compensatory Time Off (CTO). In addition to the normal 2.5 days that each member of the United Nations is granted, compensatory time off is granted to United Nations Military Observers and CIVPOL to provide them with the opportunities for rest after a particularly demanding period of continuous service. Compensatory time off shall be authorised by the Force Commander or the Chief Military Observer and is subject to operational requirements and exigencies of the service. Compensatory time off would normally apply only in those missions and those locations and functions in which a continuous and active duty for military observers and civilian police is an essential requirement, i.e., in isolated locations, patrol duties, observation posts, law enforcement etc., which do not allow for a regular workweek with scheduled days off. It is granted on a pro-rata basis: for every five days of continuous duty/service, one compensatory time-off day is earned. For periods of less than five days, compensatory time off is earned in fractions (x 0.2), which can be accumulated to make a whole day. A maximum of 56 compensatory time-off days may be granted in a one-year period, and no more than 12 compensatory time-off days may be taken at any one time. Compensatory time off can only be granted and taken when the exigencies of the service so permit.

Jurisdiction The matter of jurisdiction is provided for in the UN Charter and the Status of Forces Agreement - SOFA (Chapter VI, - Para. 24, 27, and 40-50). In addition to the above provisions, jurisdiction of UN personnel in the mission areas will be decided by the HOM in liaison with, if necessary, the local authorities in the host country. For acts of misconduct that are considered to be outside official UN duties, the respective nation of the military person will apply the host countrys civil jurisdiction process only for the purpose of investigation and implementation of appropriate judicial action back in the home country. Criminal or serious misconduct cases, however, will be dealt with by the host countrys judicial system as appropriate and cocoordinated with the respective nation on the matter of repatriation and eventual conclusion of the matter. Procedures. For the disciplinary action taken to be fair, all activities including reporting, investigation, and disciplinary action must be expeditious, just, and consistent in its application, regardless of rank or nationality. It is also implicit in the SOFA that all disciplinary action deemed serious enough to warrant repatriation is to be undertaken by the Member State. In order to retain its own impartiality and credibility, UN Headquarters retains the right to know the results of such action (i.e., punishment awarded or how the case was concluded by the Member State). Pre-induction Briefings. Upon assignment to a mission area and prior to deployment to a duty location, all uniformed peacekeepers will receive a briefing. It will include, as a minimum, notification of the types of misconduct prohibited; an outline of the investigation process; and a warning of the liability for repatriation should the missions investigation, endorsed by DPKO, so decide. Particular attention is made to all personnel to be aware of any local sensitivities, such as local religious laws and customs, and the United Nations standards of conduct, which may differ from those allowed in the host nation and which should not be compromised.

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Immediate Follow-up to a Disciplinary Incident. Once the Force Commander or Chief Military Observer becomes aware of an allegation of serious misconduct, he/she will immediately suspend the person or persons involved from his/their daily duties until an initial informal investigation can be completed. This initial investigation is to be carried out expeditiously by the Military or Civilian Police in the mission area in conjunction with the individuals National Contingent Commander as stipulated in the SOPs.

Repatriation The SRSG must initiate the authorisation upon the request of the Force Commander or Civilian Police Commissioner. The repatriation must be approved by DPKO. Early Repatriation. If a Military Observer is repatriated for either failure to meet the necessary requirements or for disciplinary reasons, all costs associated with his travel home and arrival of his replacement to complete the tour of duty will be at the expense of the Military Observers government. Compassionate Repatriation. When a Military Observer has compassionate reasons to return home either temporarily or permanently, the United Nations will pay for the travel. However, it will be the responsibility of the Military Observer's government to pay for his replacement's return/arrival to the mission area. The only exception is when the replacement of a Military Observer will complete the repatriated Military Observer's time of duty and serve a full year of service of his own. In this case, the United Nations will cover the replacement Observer's travel costs. Medical Repatriation. When a Military Observer is repatriated for medical reasons, the United Nations will cover all travel costs, both for him/her and his/her replacement. Before a decision is made, the United Nations Medical Service will determine whether the condition was preexisting.

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APPENDIX G: UNITED NATIONS LOGISTICS


This appendix discusses the logistics support in United Nations peacekeeping operations. It will provide basic information on the UN's logistics policies and procedures and the support that peacekeepers will receive in accordance with the components that they belong to when deployed in the field. This appendix will explain how the responsibility may be shared between the TCC and the UN, as well as what each peacekeeper may expect and request from the UN Logistics system.

Logistics in the Home Country For the future MILOBS and peacekeepers working in his/her national environment in his/her mother country, logistics seldom create problems. He/she gets daily food in the mess hall or in the field; the water from the tap is potable; maintenance and fuel supply is routine; when a uniform is worn out he/she gets a new one; he/she has his/her bed in a proper accommodation; and if he/she gets sick, the base hospital has a medical doctor and dentist. Extra supplies are stored at depots close to the barracks and can quickly be brought forward. If items are needed and are not in the military stock, the Chief Logistics Officer may be authorised to buy directly from the civilian economy. Similar conditions generally apply for the Civil Police. They will be fed and provided uniforms in their own organisations, or they will receive an amount of money for food and clothing.

Logistics in UN Peacekeeping Missions Serving in a UN mission may not be very different. However, if the peacekeepers deploy to a mission just being established, they may face some hardships. All the facilities mentioned in his/her own country have to be established in the mission area, which is normally a shared responsibility between the UN and the Troop-Contributing Country (TCC). UN operations are rather complex with respect to logistical support. No two missions are the same, since the support to the UN from host nations, TCCs, and contractors differs.

Basic Logistics Concepts Many definitions of logistics may be found, and each organisation may have its own variation. A MILOB or peacekeeper should know that the supplies and services needed in the field will be provided on time and to the proper place by a complex support system. These include a human beings basic needs, which are water, food, clothing, and shelter. Organised societies also provide a higher level of safety and care to its members. Medical support is always expected to be present, and other needs include transport, fuel, tools, spares, recreation items, and other materials. Consumption of certain supplies is limited, but

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each individual requires an important volume of food and water, just as each machine or vehicle requires large quantities of fuel. These items are to be brought where the persons are, and they are to be stored and distributed, as well as maintained and managed. Thus, the logistics system includes not only the material and supplies, but also the procedures for the management of the system, including the transport activities and materials. Medical support includes the facilities, the evacuation system, the specialists at all levels, the pharmacy supplies, special instruments, and many others aspects. Logistics is one of the most difficult activities for the human societies. This difficulty is highlighted in areas of conflict or humanitarian crises where peacekeepers are deployed. Also, armed forces require special supplies that individuals may not need. Logistical support is not only the provision of supplies needed for the human being to survive and move, but also the people, procedures, and organisations and services needed to ensure the requisition, transport, and distribution of supplies.

UN Logistics Concepts and Systems The Office of Mission Support of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the United Nations is responsible for logistic and administrative support to the field missions.

Logistics Services Division, O MS OM


Aviation Safety Unit P4

Logistics Services Division D2


Com m unications & IT Service P5

UNLB Brindisi D1

Operational S upport Service D1

Specialist Support Section D1

Programme Support Unit Contracts Management Unit Property Management Unit Logistics O perations Section

Supply Section Systems Section Surface T ransport Section

Information Technology Section

Comm unications Section

Engineering Section

Air T ransport Section

SDS and Rapid Deployment Unit Medical Support Section

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Logistics areas defined by the DPKO include: Supply; Transport; Air Operations; Movement Control; Medical; Communications and Information Technology; and Engineering. Special Considerations for Peacekeeping Logistics In peacekeeping, special considerations have to be taken due to deployment in areas where there are no roads, bridges, and communications due to their destruction by war or grave crisis. Planning prior to the deployment of the peacekeepers is a must and should be very detailed. The Brahimi Report included many lessons learned from the field, which have resulted in a revised UN Logistic concept. All UN peacekeeping operations include contingent from many different troopcontributing countries. Small missions may have only a few Military Observers and some civilian staff for support. Complex operations may include tens of thousands of troops supported by hundreds of military observers and a large civilian staff. The logistics demands are common for the basic needs: food, water, fuel, and medical support. But complexity grows for the support of spare material and transport. Due to this complexity, the United Nations has developed a unique approach for the support of its peacekeepers. Individuals receive a specific amount of money to buy their basic needs in the mission area. Medical support is fully provided due to the very sensitive and technical requirements of health care. Memorandum of Understanding For each peacekeeping mission, a logistics support methodology will be agreed upon between the troop-contributing country and the UN. Depending on the special conditions in the mission area, the characteristic of the contribution, and other logistic, financial, and legal factors an agreement (Memorandum of Understanding) will be signed. In the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the UN will state which logistics support and equipment will be provided by the United Nations (UN-Owned Equipment, or UNOE) and which must be brought from the home country (Contingent-Owned Equipment, or COE) and paid for by the UN. Who can spend UN logistics money? It must be stressed that only certain UN officials have the authority to commit UN financial resources for any purpose. Depending on the lease contract signed, requests may have to be forwarded to the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) via the Chief of the Integrated Support Service (CISS). Therefore, in the UN, the CAO may be considered as the boss. Neither the Force Commander nor the highest UN civilian chief (Special Representative of the Secretary-General) can spend money without the principal permission of the CAO. This is, of course, a big difference, as in many troop-contributing countries money is more easily accessible.

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However, under the new COE methodology, if a TCC is providing major equipment or self-sustainment via a MOU, that country is responsible for providing all minor equipment and consumables, as well as a re-supply of the consumables. Self-Sustainability for the First 30 to 90 Days In a formed unit, if you deploy to an established mission, logistics support has been coordinated and established. That means the UN, through contractors, delivers rations to your religious, dietary, or national preference. Reserves of rations will be stored in menu types requested by contingents, such as Western-style, Halal, beef-free, or pork-free menus. Commercial contract for the supply of diesel for generators and vehicles is in place. However, being the first contingent in a mission is different. The UN may not have had time to establish its logistics system. Therefore, contingents must deploy self-sufficiency according to the agreement with the UN (MOU). Thus the unit will generally bring the following levels of stock to the mission area: 30-90 days supply of rations and drinking water; 30-90 days of canteen supplies; 30-90 days of repair parts; and 30-90 days of diesel consumption. Teams that go to a newly-established mission must expect hardships. In established missions, camps will be prepared and UN contractors deliver fresh raw-materials for your kitchens, water, and diesel for vehicles and generators. If deployed as an individual, the support received will not only depend on the status of the mission but also on the status one may have. Wet-Dry Lease One of the major difficulties for multi-national military operations is the standardisation of the equipment. If achieved, the standardisation allows for easy and simplified logistic support. If there is only one type of vehicle, then there will be only one line of supply and maintenance. The UN does not posses the resources to provide all peacekeepers with the required standardised equipment. As a policy, MILOBS and CIVPOL are provided with UNproperty vehicles and other materials; however, formed units participate with their national material. The solution to the logistic problem of providing supplies to all has been the establishment of the Wet-Dry lease system. When a country provides any material system to the UN, an agreement will be signed stating in which logistic condition it will be leased to the peacekeeping mission. Wet-lease means that the UN will pay a larger amount for each item, but the country assumes complete responsibility in providing the logistic support for the sustainment of the system, except fuel. Dry-lease means that the UN will assume full logistic support responsibility, but the country will be subject to a significant reduction in the amount paid for the material.

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The UN has a set of basic reimbursement guidelines, which clearly establish the fair market value of each item of equipment. This document is the starting point for negotiation on the lease reimbursements with the UN. Sources of Supplies The main sources of supplies for peacekeeping are: Troop-Contributing Country. The TCC, depending on the type of Agreement (Memorandum of Understanding) signed with the United Nations, will provide the material and the logistic flow of supplies to ensure the operational condition of the material. The clothing and ammunition are also normally provided by the TCC. UN Logistics Base (Brindisi). A certain amount of UN property items (vehicles, communications sets, computers, medical stores, tentage, etc) is stored at the UNLB in Brindisi, Italy. These supplies are ready for distribution and use and are normally employed as a start kit for new peacekeeping operations. This allows for a reduction in the time required for the deployment of new peacekeeping operations. Contractors. Either in the area of the mission or from outside it, the UN will contract the support needed to civilian businesses. This allows the United Nations to obtain the needed supplies in a relatively short time, saving a large amount of money in storage and maintenance. The main supplies provided by the UN to the mission are normally basic items (food, water, fuel, medical, and computers) that are largely available in the civilian market. The UN will try to have the contractor deliver the supplies as close to the peacekeeper as possible. It may be routine to receive food and water directly from a civilian contractor, even in isolated positions. Other TCCs in the Mission Area. Many small TCCs do not posses the logistic capability to support their contingents far away from their home base. An agreement may be made with another TCC present in the mission area, who posses extra logistic capability, to provide the requested support. The logistic support is thus coordinated among three parties: the supported TCC, the supporting TCC, and the United Nations. In this case, part of the leasing reimbursement is paid to the supporting TCC. Reimbursement to Governments The UN does not expect to get the support of formed units for free. It is paid for by the UN member countries, which all pay their part. In a popular fashion, one may say that the UN leases the military contingents. The UN, in an agreement with governments, leases individuals for a task during a certain period of time. There is a special rate for this, which is paid to the national government of the TroopContributing Country. This reimbursement does not constitute an individual entitlement or salary. It is a reimbursement to the government for raising, training, and sustaining each peacekeeper. Reimbursements are of logistic aspects, not for personnel entitlements. Any allowance that a country pays to their peacekeepers is based on sovereign decisions on national conditions of service.

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How does the UN make sure that it gets what it pays for? Reimbursements are approved by a verification procedure that may include inspections: Arrival and Inspection Report Periodic Verification Report Operational Readiness Inspection Report Repatriation Inspection Report The reimbursement procedure has been improved since the beginning of the reorganisation of the DPKO. However, the costs involved in the deployment and sustainment of a peacekeeping force are very important for troop-contributing countries.

Logistics Support to Different Components Logistics to Individuals. UN Military Observers (UNMOs or MILOBS) and Civilian Police Monitors (CIVPOL) join UN peacekeeping operations as individuals. Their deployment, even when travelling in a group, is based on individual names and ranks. In the field they are deployed in small teams, normally away from the main centres of support. Thus, logistic support for MILOBS and CIVPOL is different from Formed Military or Police Units. Meal and Subsistence Allowance (MSA). To compensate the lack of a full logistic support in certain supplies, the UN provides a certain amount of money to each MILOB and CIVPOL. This amount is called MSA, and it is designed to allow them to buy food and pay for lodging. The amount paid depends, among other factors, on the average cost of living in each mission area, as well as the availability of local or UN sources of supply for these items. As a general guide, the less sources of local or UN supply, the higher the MSA. In certain mission areas, due to special conditions (i.e., desert in MINURSO), the MILOBS are fed and lodged by the UN Logistic System. In this case, the MSA is considerably lower than in other mission areas were they are expected to obtain their own supply. UN Limited Support. To support their mission, main and expensive articles are provided in a standardised form by the UN logistic system. Transport, vehicles, communication equipment, and generators are the most visible items of UN-Owned Equipment supplied to MILOBS and CIVPOL. Support from Formed Units. Formed units will always support MILOBS and CIVPOL. However, when mandated or needed, formed units may have to employ their logistic capabilities to support individuals deployed in the field. Examples are the provision supplies (rations, water, and fuel), or services support (communications, transport, and maintenance). Formed Units. Logistic support in formed units remains very similar to the support in their home country. For the individual peacekeeper, this means that he/she will have the same installations and persons in his support, as if he/she was at home base. For the unit logisticians, support from the UN Logistics System will depend on the level of self-sufficiency of the unit. This level will have been planned and agreed upon with the UN before deployment.

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The type of wet/dry lease agreement between the TCC and the UN will also influence greatly the support to be received from the UN system. Basic supplies that will normally be provided by the UN are food and fuel. These are supplies easily available everywhere. The fuel and oils, with the exception of special lubricants, are also items available in the open market at low cost. The large volume of these supplies result in the convenience of local or regional acquisition through civilian contractors.

Medical Support in the Field In every UN mission, a medical support system will be established. Depending on the size of the mission, the conditions of the area of operations, and the probabilities of casualties, the system may include different elements and capabilities. As a rule, MILOBS and peacekeepers will be supported by medical support at least to the standards in their own country. Training Preventive medicine will prepare and support peacekeepers to be in the best physical condition possible. This will decrease the possibilities of getting sick or injured, as a healthy and alert peacekeeper is much less prone to suffer accidents. Regardless of rank, position, or component, it is possible that incidents and accidents will happen far away from medical facilities. A peacekeeper will either have to be evacuated to a medical facility or the medical support will have to reach him/her. This will imply time; thus, the peacekeepers best immediate medical support is his/her own training. The UN and host country will provide the best medical support possible. Casualties first medical support is:

Level I: Level II: Level III: Level IV:

Medical Clinics Field Hospitals Field Hospitals Hospitals

In formed Units Special units Major capabilities Definitive care

Level I Medical Clinics Every formed unit is requested to deploy with a Level I Medical Clinic. These facilities include a team of doctors, nurses, and medics. They are to be able to provide resuscitation and stabilisation of casualties. For this, they are trained and equipped to perform minor surgery and emergency procedures. In large mission areas, they are part of an Air Ambulance system, normally based on MEDEVAC Helicopters. Level II Field Hospitals Surgical expertise is available in Level II Field Hospitals. In the mission area, it is normally known as the field hospital and also normally organised in a formed unit of a national or multi-national contingent.

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Level III Field Hospitals Rarely deployed, Level III Field Hospitals combine the capabilities of Level I and II, with the additional capability of providing specialised treatment and surgery, as well as extensive diagnostic services. Normally the UN obtains this class of support from a civilian hospital in the mission area or a neighbouring country. Level IV Hospitals They are normally contracted in the host country, neighbouring countries, or the troopcontributing country. They provide definitive medical treatment unavailable or impractical to the mission area, such as treatments of long duration.

Frequently Asked Questions Will the UN provide me with uniforms? No, your country is paid 73 USD monthly by the UN to provide you with clothing and equipment. However, the UN will provide you with a few clothing items to distinguish you as a UN peacekeeper. These are: One blue beret; One blue field cap; One metal hat badge; Six cloth shoulder patches; Two olive drab armlets; and Two UN blue scarves. How about my welfare? Normally, welfare is a national responsibility. A full-time welfare person is then included in each contingent. Canteen stores are also a national responsibility. However, everything depends on the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between your nation and the UN. How do I send letters back to my family? The UN will normally provide you with the possibility to send up to five letters per week at no cost to you. How much equipment or luggage may I bring on the deployment flight/rotation flight? The max total weight including your personal military gear is normally 45 kilos. However, details will be issued in the Guidelines How about the medical service in the mission area? It is the aim of UN medical support to provide a standard of medical care in peacekeeping operations that approaches that prevailing in the times of peace.

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End-of-Course Examination

The End-of-Course Examination is provided as a separate component of this course.

The examination questions cover the material in all the lessons of this UNITAR course.

Read each question carefully and Follow the provided instructions to submit your exam for scoring.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING OUT THE ANSWER SHEET

The End-of-Course Examination Answer Sheet is designed to: 1. Formally record your answers to the questions of the Final Examination; and 2. Provide instructions for answer submission.

Format of Questions There are 50 questions. The answer sheet has numbered blocks and each block corresponds to a similarly numbered question on the End-of-Course Examination. First, read a question through carefully. Then, mark your answer on the answer sheet with the number corresponding to the number of each question. Throughout the examination, check that the question number and answer sheet number is the same. Exam questions generally give you a choice of answers, marked as A, B, C, or D. Choose only one response and mark only one choice on your answer sheet. If you mark more than one answer for a question, it will be graded as incorrect. Use a Dark Pencil Mark your response on the Answer Sheet using a dark lead pencil. Time Limit to Complete the End-of-Course Examination Because your enrolment in the course is valid for one year only, the examination must be submitted before your enrolment expires. Passing Grade A score of 75% is the minimum score required for a passing grade. If you pass, you will be awarded a letter indicating your score along with your signed Certificate-of-Completion. If your score is less than 75%, you will receive a letter indicating that you have received a failing grade. At that time, you will be provided with an alternate version of the End-of-Course Examination, which you may complete when you feel you are ready. If you pass the second version of the examination, a grade report and a Certificate-of-Completion will be sent to you. If you fail the second time, you will be informed and dis-enrolled from the course.

AFTER COMPLETING THE EXAMINATION, PLEASE IMMEDIATELY SUBMIT YOUR ANSWER SHEET.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Dr. Phyllis J. Mihalas enlisted into the United States Army Reserve in July 1979. Commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Civil Affairs branch in 1982, she eventually went on to branch transfer into Military Intelligence and become a Counterintelligence Officer. Throughout the years, her assignments have included various positions in the Training and Operations arena, as well as two Psychological Operations Commands and one Joint Command as the Senior Military Observer (MILOB) for the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE). Prior to going from Reserve to Active duty (1992), Dr. Mihalas had 20 years as a Teacher and Administrator in the Baltimore City Public Schools, with a specialty in the Administration of Special Education programmes. In June 2002, Lieutenant Colonel Mihalas deployed to UNMEE as the Senior American MILOB and G5 (Civil Military Officer) for the Force Commander. As the G5, she managed a staff of 14 international officers and non-commissioned officers from 11 different countries in the development and execution of over 200 Quick Impact Projects (QIPs). The QIPs were located throughout the vicinity of the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) between Ethiopia and Eritrea and stretched from the Sudan in the west to Djibouti to the east. Projects such as water delivery, medical services, educational programmes, HIV/AIDS awareness, economic development, road improvements, and others were accomplished during the six-month tenure. LTC Mihalas is a graduate of Duquesne University (BS History/Education), Loyola College (MA Special Education), Morgan State University (MS Educational Administration), Defense Intelligence College (MS Strategic Intelligence), and Walden University (PhD, Education). Currently, she is a student at the Army War College studying Strategic Studies. She serves as an Instructor for the Advanced Joint Professional Military Education course at the Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia.

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