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Remediation English

2010

Ninth Grade Remediation English Table of Contents Unit 1: Getting Started.................................................................................................. 1 Unit 2: Biography and Autobiography....................................................................... 10 Unit 3: Fiction/Short Stories ....................................................................................... 22 Unit 4: Nonfiction........................................................................................................ 37 Unit 5: Poetry .............................................................................................................. 56 Unit 6: Novel................................................................................................................ 67 Unit 7: Drama.............................................................................................................. 85

Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum Remediation English Course Introduction The Louisiana Department of Education issued the Comprehensive Curriculum in 2005. The curriculum was revised based on teacher feedback, an external review by a team of content experts from outside the state, and input from course writers in 2008. Remediation English was added in 2010. It is to be taken by students who scored Unsatisfactory on the 8th Grade LEAP in English language arts. This course must be completed prior to enrolling in English courses for Carnegie credit. District Implementation Guidelines Local districts are responsible for implementation and monitoring of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum and are delegated the responsibility to decide if units are to be taught in the order presented substitutions of equivalent activities are allowed GLES can be adequately addressed using fewer activities than presented permitted changes are to be made at the district, school, or teacher level Districts are requested to inform teachers of decisions made. Implementation of Activities in the Classroom Incorporation of activities into lesson plans is critical to the successful implementation of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum. Lesson plans should be designed to introduce students to one or more of the activities, to provide background information and follow-up, and to prepare students for success in mastering the Grade-Level Expectations associated with the activities. Lesson plans should address individual needs of students and should include processes for re-teaching concepts or skills for students who need additional instruction. The total time frame for the provided units is 22 weeks to allow for such re-teaching and for using the provided extension activities to further increase student understanding. Appropriate accommodations must be made for students with disabilities. Features Content Area Literacy Strategies are an integral part of approximately one-third of the activities. Strategy names are italicized. The link (view literacy strategy descriptions) opens a document containing detailed descriptions and examples of the literacy strategies. This document can also be accessed directly at http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/11056.doc. A Materials List is provided for each activity and Blackline Masters (BLMs) are included to assist in the delivery of activities or to assess student learning. A separate Blackline Master document is included in the course folder posted at http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/saa/2108.html. GLEs addressed are listed in the title line for each activity in Career Diploma Courses. Underlined GLE numbers indicate the major emphases of the activity. The Access Guide to the Comprehensive Curriculum is an online database of suggested strategies, accommodations, assistive technology, and assessment options that may provide greater access to the curriculum activities. Click on the Access Guide icon found on the first page of each unit or by going directly to the url http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/AccessGuide.

Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, 2010

Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 1: Getting Started Time Frame: Approximately three to four weeks Unit Description This unit is intended to provide a teacher introduction to the learning centers model and the course structure (see Introduction to Learning Centers and Curriculum Overview). Teachers are strongly encouraged to adapt this curriculum to meet student needs. This unit provides suggestions for preparing students for course content (see Suggested Activities). Since the learning centers model requires effective, collaborative grouping, it is essential that teachers create learning opportunities by teaching for awhile and conducting close observations of student work habits, efforts, and attitudes in order to assemble groups that can function at an optimal level prior to full implementation of centers (Unit 2). Groups may need to be adjusted throughout the course to ensure success for all students. Introduction to Learning Centers Learning Centers Model Implementing centers in classrooms promotes independence, helps students become more responsible, allows learning through self-discovery, provides teachers with time to conference with students one-on-one or in small groups to target specific academic skills, modify and enrich curriculum, and better meet the needs of individual students. Center activities allow students to practice and extend the learning during whole class instruction. Centers are not used to introduce new skills; they help develop student independence with skills they have learned. Students will be competent, independent learners if center tasks are developmentally appropriate and if clear expectations are set. Learning Area/Centers 1. Warm Up All students will participate in the warm-up activities each day. Warm up activities usually include students responding to a Learning Log prompt or completing a BLM as an introduction to the Whole Group discussion. Students will spend 5 minutes in Warm Up. 2. Whole Group Instruction Area This area is for whole-class lessons such as mini-lessons, direct instruction, shared reading/modeling, whole group discussion, student presentations, etc. Generally, activities here last 10 minutes. 3. Writing Center Here students write independently and collaboratively. The area should contain comfortable space for writing and a variety of supplies. Students will spend 15-20 minutes in the writing center.

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4. Conferencing/Flex Center Here teachers can provide feedback, conduct small-group instruction, and check for understanding. At times this center is designated as a flex center. This is to allow for peerled discussions or extended time to complete tasks from other center activities. This might be a table with the appropriate number of chairs to accommodate the largest center group and the teacher. Students will spend approximately 15-20 minutes in this center. 5. Reading Center This is a place for students to read independently. Ideally, comfortable seating, a variety of books, and a quiet, secluded atmosphere should be provided and maintained here. Students will read independently for 15-20 minute periods. 6. Technology/Vocabulary Center This space is for computer use in word processing, research, online practice activities, and creative learning games. At times this center is designated as a vocabulary center. This is to allow for more direct vocabulary study that may or may not require the use of technology. Students will be in this center for 15-20 minutes. Note: Students will rotate between Writing and Conferencing/Flex Centers one day and Reading and Technology/Vocabulary Centers the other day. Establishing Centers Take the physical features of the classroom into account when arranging for learning centers. As the year progresses, teachers may add different kinds of centers to fit the needs of the students. Use bookshelves to define areas. Provide comfortable seating. Save space by using walls for posters, display shelves, books, and supplies. Post procedures for each center where students can easily refer to them. Separate learning centers that often require discussion, such as the Conferencing/Flex centers, from areas like the Reading/Writing centers, where students need quiet. Set aside an area to meet with small groups for conferencing. Allow enough seating for 57 students. Keep computers facing away from windows to keep sunlight glare from screens. Consider setting aside an off-limits area for your records and supplies. Whole group instruction area should provide all students with an unrestricted view of the chalkboard. Small clusters of desks can double as small-group work/conferencing areas. Note: Information on establishing centers is adapted from the Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Education Place website. Multiple websites provide information on establishing centers.

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Managing Center Work Products Individual student binders are highly suggested for maintenance of course and center work products. Binder sections can be adapted or added as the course develops to meet the learning needs of students. Suggested binder sections include: 1. Homework 2. Warm Up Serves as a learning log; most warm up activities require student responses to prompts. All warm up handouts, worksheets, graphic organizers, etc. will be included here. 3. Writing All drafts of writing center assignments Handouts regarding the craft of writing Writing rubrics for assignments Flex center assignments 4. Reading Individualized Vocabulary Study Reading Record Reader Responses to Prompts 5. Technology/Vocabulary Websites Visited List Computer-based Assignments Curriculum Overview The curriculum is divided into six units that include lesson cycles (activities) that are further divided into modules (daily assignments). Student abilities will dictate unit/lesson cycle/module timeframes. For example, if students require extended time to complete a center task, a day or two may need to be added to the lesson cycle to ensure task completion. In addition, teachers may decide to add a day or two to the lesson cycle to reteach or reinforce important lesson cycle GLEs. At the conclusion of all unit lesson cycles, teachers are to determine extension activities to reinforce unit goals based on the needs of the current student population. Sample extension activities have been provided. Lesson Cycle Each topic will be introduced, modeled, practiced, and assessed in a lesson cycle. A lesson cycle is the amount of time (or number of days) it takes to complete an activity. This course is designed for lesson cycles to be completed in approximately 5 days; however, this suggested timeframe may need to be extended, depending on student needs. For this reason, the daily tasks are labeled as modules. Lesson Cycle Instructions Explanations for the Warm Up activity along with the Writing, Flex, Reading, Vocabulary, and Technology Centers are written for student understanding of tasks. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Writing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur.

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Lesson Cycle Structure Each lesson cycle includes a minimum of five modules. Each module explains in detail the student warm up, the teacher-directed whole class instruction, and the other center activities that will occur each day of the lesson cycle. The structure allows for formation of four student groups that visit (optimally) two centers per day. Groups in the writing and conferencing/flex centers will rotate and groups in the reading and technology/vocabulary centers will rotate. Once the tasks have been completed in these centers, groups will rotate through the two remaining centers. For example, groups numbered 1-4 would rotate using the following schedule: Group # 1 2 3 4 Writing 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Conferencing/ Flex 2nd 1st 4th 3rd Reading 3rd 4th 1st 2nd Technology/ Vocabulary 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

Sample Lesson Cycle Structure Lesson Cycle: Authors Purpose Module 1 Warm Up: Authors Purpose Worksheet (5 minutes) Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Definition Shared Reading Modeling Guided Practice Learning Centers (2 per day) Writing Center (15-20 minutes) (written as would be presented to the student) Write a one paragraph example of each authors purpose: persuade, inform, or entertain Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Students share the work they have done in other centers with a small group of students and teacher for feedback; also time for teacher to check for understanding. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) (written as would be presented to the student) Read self-selected novel; Reading Log Response (Consider the novel you are currently reading. What is the authors purpose? How do you know? Give examples from text.) Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Authors Purpose Interactive Lessons Online (http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/authorpur.cfm)

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Module 2 Warm Up: Learning log entry discussing the authors purpose in a shared reading. (5minutes) Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Definition Shared Reading Modeling Guided Practice Learning Centers (2 per day) Students will visit the two centers NOT visited in Module 1. Unit 1 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE # GLE Text and Benchmarks Grade 8 08a. Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and explain the significance of various genres, including fiction (e.g., mystery, novel) (ELA-6M3) 08b. Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and interpret elements of various genres, including nonfiction (e.g., essays, letters) (ELA-6M3) 08c. Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and interpret elements of various genres, including poetry (e.g., lyric, narrative) (ELA-6M3) 08d. Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and interpret elements of various genres, drama (e.g., short plays)( ELA-6-M3) 10. Explain the relationship between life experiences and texts to generate solutions to problems (ELA-7-M2) 27. Use a variety of resources (e.g., glossaries, dictionaries, thesauruses, spell check) to find correct spellings (ELA-3-M5) Grade 9 01a. Extend basic and technical vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of context clues (ELA-1-H1) 01d. Extend basic and technical vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including tracing etymology (ELA-1-H1) 26. Use a variety of resources, such as dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology, and textual features (e.g., definitional footnotes, sidebars) to verify word spellings (ELA-3-H3) Suggested Activities For this unit only, the activities are designed for the whole class to work together to establish class norms, center and course routines, and an overall sense of community. This unit will be different from the other six since it is actually laying the foundation for the development of the centers and the groups. For this reason, teachers must preview future units to emphasize important routines/tasks and to avoid addressing material that will be used in future units. The timeframe for this unit is flexible. The following lesson cycles could be completed in two weeks Remediation English Unit 1 Getting Started Page 5

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but could take as long as four weeks depending upon the needs of the students. Teachers may want/need to spend additional time reinforcing each lesson cycle. Teacher Note: Introduce the on-going vocabulary study prior to beginning Lesson Cycle 1 so students can begin to apply this activity to texts they read during the lessons. Introduction to On-going Vocabulary Study (Grade 9 GLEs: 01a, 01d, 26, 27) Following a teacher-facilitated introduction to the dictionary, students will maintain a vocabulary chart of sentences containing new words (both student- and teacher-selected) encountered during shared and independent reading. For each word, students will record the sentence in which the word was found, the text title, and suggest a synonym. Sample Vocabulary Chart Sentence in which word occurs (underline word) 1 2

Text Title

Synonym

Explain that students will verify they have suggested an appropriate synonym by locating a definition and using the word correctly in a self-generated sentence, paying special attention to the use of detailed context that provides the necessary who, what, when, where, and why most effective for the study of words. Students will, periodically, select five words, research etymology, and illustrate them on a poster or in another visual presentation. Finally, students will be required to demonstrate understanding of new words by incorporating one or more of the terms in future writing assignments. Vocabulary charts should be maintained in the vocabulary section of student binders and routinely checked by the teacher for completion and accuracy.

Lesson Cycle 1: Introduction to Genres (Grade 8 GLEs: 08a, 08b, 08c, 08d) Time Frame: Approximately 2 weeks The purpose of this activity is to have students explore a variety of genres and develop an appreciation for (and excitement about) reading and writing. Share engaging samples or excerpts of different genres, focusing on fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. Assign a variety of reader response activities, and discuss with students the defining characteristics of each new genre introduced. Provide opportunities for students to distinguish between different genres in literature.

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For each genre, select several text samples. Begin each lesson with a warm up. Initial warm up prompts provide opportunities to activate prior knowledge for students. Most warm up activities require students to record information in learning logs (view literacy strategy descriptions); therefore, an introduction to learning logs should be provided. Explain that this will be a designated section in the class binder that students maintain to record ideas, questions, reactions, and reflections, and to summarize newly learned content. Virtually any kind of content-focused writing can be recorded here. Next conduct a mini lesson. During each mini lesson, introduce a specific genre and share engaging examples. Remind students to record unfamiliar vocabulary on the charts previously introduced. Provide opportunities for students to read and respond to literature in writing (to be shared with the class) or in a whole group discussion. Help students reflect on how the text selection exemplifies the characteristics of the genre. Apply this sequence of warm up, mini lesson, text, response, and reflection to several samples of each genre. Fiction Lesson Sample Warm Up Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Tell about a time someone you know felt guilty about a bad decision. Mini lesson Allow students to share their warm up writings. Explain the distinctive characteristics of the fiction genre (e.g., theme, setting plot, characterization, etc.). Shared Reading Read aloud The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe. Reader Response (written as would be presented to the student) In the reading section of your class binder, respond to the following prompts: 1. Why does the killer confess? 2. How does Poe use images and phrases to create an atmosphere of horror? Reflection Discuss with the class how the text exemplifies the characteristics of fiction.

Teacher Note: Lesson ideas such as Genre Study: A Collaborative Approach or Comics in the Classroom as an Introduction to Genre Study are available through the readwritethink website.

Lesson Cycle 2: Introduction to On-going Independent Reading (Grade 8 GLE: 10) Time Frame: Approximately one to two weeks Since reader interest plays an important role in increasing reading comprehension, providing a balance between assigned texts and self-selected novels is important. Throughout the course, students will be expected to read novels independently both in the reading center and outside of class and to keep a record of that reading, View the article by Mark Pennington, MA Reading Specialist, entitled How to Select Books for Independent Reading for suggestions on helping

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students to select appropriate books. The goal is to match individual readers to text that has about 4-5% unknown words. In addition, students must select books that tell a story (fiction, autobiographies, or biographies). Reading a story requires students to utilize and strengthen retention and recall skills. Magazine articles, short stories, poetry anthologies, etc. can be read in one sitting and dont necessarily need to be revisited. If possible, take the class for a visit and an introduction to the school library/media center where students can select novels. Establish routines for student return/checkout procedures. Struggling readers may need to try/begin several books before finding one that fits. Encourage students to keep searching for a good book. This learning cycle is also a time for booktalks, presentations intended to convince students to read a specific book. Good teacher booktalks: make listeners care enough about the content of the book to want to read it, allow students to see the teacher modeling reading for pleasure, connect the teacher with his/her students on a more personal level, help to create a reading community within the classroom, and introduce students to books they might not discover on their own. Other booktalk presenters might be the school librarian, students, other adults on campus, or anyone who has a good book to share. Once all students have located novels, model the correct way to complete the Reading Record BLM and review the Reading Center Rubric BLM; these BLMs will be used throughout the course. Use a Reading Workshop approach for this lesson cycle. Begin each session with a mini lesson that lasts approximately 10-15 minutes. Mini lessons could be used to introduce a specific reading strategy or skill used by all proficient readers when interacting with text. Explicitly model or demonstrate the skill for the students.http://hill.troy.k12.mi.us/staff/bnewingham/myweb3/Photos/Reading
Workshop/IMG_1309.JPGhttp://hill.troy.k12.mi.us/staff/bnewingham/myweb3/Photos/Reading Workshop/P1040592.JPG Important skills include: creating visual images, using background

knowledge, asking questions, making inferences, determining importance, synthesizing information, etc. Use other reading-related mini lessons to meet student needs (e.g., explain how to choose the right books, introduce the different categories within fiction texts and have students categorize their books by fiction genre, etc.). Have students then practice applying the skill or strategy on their own while reading self-selected novels. Prompt students to record unfamiliar vocabulary on the charts previously introduced. Finally ask students to respond to the novel in writing (to be shared with the class) or in a whole group discussion. Sample response questions can be found by conducting a web search for 101 Ways to React to Books. Students should also share how they applied the reading strategy taught during the mini lesson. This sequence of mini lesson, read, respond, and reflect should be applied to several lessons. Reading Lesson Sample

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Mini lesson Share and discuss this quote: What the brain brings to the eyes is more important than what the eyes bring to the brain. (Frank Smith, Understanding Reading). Explain that successful readers participate in the reading by using their background knowledge to react to text. For example, readers sometimes disagree with the author, agree with a strong point being made, question the logic being applied, etc. based on prior knowledge and experiences. Students should be able to explain the role prior knowledge plays in the reading they do during this class period. Independent Reading Students and teacher read individual novels paying particular attention to the role prior knowledge plays in their understanding and interpretation of text. Reader Response (written as would be presented to the student) In the reading section of your class binder, respond to the following prompts: 1. How is the main character like or unlike someone you know? 2. How would knowing a real person who is like the fictional character help you to better understand the story? Reflection Engage the class in a discussion on the role prior knowledge played in student and teacher understandings and interpretations of todays readings. Model the connections made to text and solicit student responses.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 2: Biography and Autobiography

Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time for extension activities Unit Description This unit focuses on reading, comprehending, interpreting, responding, and writing nonfiction, focusing on biography, autobiography, and the personal essay. Writing and presenting an autobiography provides an opportunity for student application of the writing process. Researching biographies/autobiographies and writing reports/essays provide opportunities for students acquisition of informational, technological, and problem-solving skills. Vocabulary development and grammar instruction occur within the context of the literature and student writing. Student Understandings Nonfiction literature tells about real people, real events, real places, and real objects. Sometimes known as literary nonfiction, biographies, autobiographies, and essays read like fiction, yet provide factual information. Reading about other lives may help students make connections between the text and their own life experiences to generate solutions to problems. Guiding Questions 1. Can students identify the characteristics of a biography/an autobiography? 2. Can students apply a writing process effectively? 3. Can students develop a personal narrative composition following standard English structure and usage? 4. Can students relate a biography/an autobiography to personal experience? Unit 2 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE GLE Text and Benchmarks Grade 8 01a. Develop vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of connotative and denotative meanings (ELA-1-M1) 01b. Develop vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and word parts (ELA-1-M1) 09b Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including summarizing and paraphrasing to examine and evaluate information (ELA-7-M2) 10. Explain the relationship between life experiences and texts to generate solutions to problems (ELA-7-M2)

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GLE 15a. 15b 15c.

15d.

15e. 15f.

23. 42b. 42c.

GLE Text and Benchmarks Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with a clearly stated focus or central idea (ELA-2-M1) Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with important ideas or events stated in a selected order (ELA-2-M1) Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with organizational patterns (e.g., comparison/contrast, order of importance, chronological order) appropriate to the topic (ELA-2-M1) Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with elaboration (anecdotes, relevant facts, examples, and/or specific details) (ELA-2-M1) Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with transitional words and phrases that unify ideas and points (ELA-2-M1) Write complex, multiparagraph compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics organized with an overall structure (e.g., introduction, body/middle, and concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas and details) (ELA-2-M1) Use standard English capitalization and punctuation consistently (ELA-3-M2) Gather and select information using data-gathering strategies/tools, including interviewing (ELA-5-M3) Gather and select information using data-gathering strategies/tools, including paraphrasing (ELA-5-M3) Sample Activities

Lesson Cycle 1: Autobiographical Writing: (GLEs: 01a, 01b, 09b, 10, 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 15e, 15f, 23) Centers: Writing, Flex, Reading, Vocabulary Materials List: pen, paper, young adult novels (high interest, multi-level), brief biographies, Internet access (optional), dictionaries, list of common prefixes, brief biography of Roald Dahl, Life Road Map Planning Sheet BLM, Sample Life Road Map BLM, Autobiography Rubric BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students.

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Module 1 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Complete the Life Road Map Planning Sheet BLM (blackline master). Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Define biography and autobiography and give examples. Discuss significance. Explain that this lesson cycle will explore biographies and autobiographies by providing samples and by allowing students to apply understanding by writing their own autobiographies. The Life Road Map Planning Sheet BLM is the first step in the writing process. Brief biographies can be downloaded from websites such as The My Hero Project directory. Read a brief biography and discuss why certain events were included and why the organizational pattern (chronological order) is important. To ensure understanding of Warm Up prompt (planning sheet) and the expectations for student performance, demonstrate brainstorming (view literacy strategy descriptions). Brainstorming involves working together with students to generate ideas quickly without stopping to judge their worth. Connect the brainstormed ideas with the requirements of this assignment by making a statement such as, We now have all these interesting ideas; lets see which ones we think are most important Model creation of a Life Road Map (see Sample Life Road Map BLM) based on this shared reading and brainstorming. *Excerpts from autobiographies may be used instead: Boy: Tales of Childhood, by Roald Dahl 26 Fairmount Avenue, by Tomie dePaola Bad Boy, by Walter Dean Myers Knots in My Yo-Yo String, by Jerry Spinelli Explain that students will write a clearly focused autobiography that includes important events presented in chronological order and will use relevant facts and/or specific details. Students should pay particular attention to using standard English capitalization and punctuation consistently.

Writing Center (20 minutes) Select a brief biography to read. (Brief biographies can be downloaded from websites such as My Hero Project directory.) Use RAFT Writing (view literacy strategy descriptions) which provides opportunities to rework, apply, and extend understandings of information. Begin by reviewing the RAFT acronym and what each letter stands for: R Role (role of the writer) A Audience (to whom or what the RAFT is being written) F Form (the form the writing will take, as in letter, song, etc.) T Topic (the subject focus of the writing)

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RAFT writing allows for creativity but must accurately reflect the content just learned. This activity also serves as a means of summarizing information and making real-life connections. Complete the following RAFT assignment: R Role (Individual discovered on the My Hero Project website) A Audience (school assembly) F Form (motivational speech) T Topic (The Importance of Perseverance) Teacher Note: It may be helpful to put the RAFT acronym on a chart and post it in the center as a reminder. Since, initially, it is best to assign students to complete specific RAFTs, the RAFT assignment has been provided. Make any necessary adaptations to meet student needs.

Flex Center (20 minutes) View the Sample Life Road Map BLM. Add at least 5 more events to your Life Road Map Planning Sheet and then draw your Life Road Map, making sure to include at least ten events with pictograms Reading Center (20 minutes) Spend 15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: If you were going to construct a Life Road Map for a character in your novel, what three major life events would you include? Based on your reading, you may need to imagine these events. Draw a pictogram for each. Vocabulary Center (20 minutes) Examine the list of common prefixes (provided by teacher or downloaded from Scholastic website). Using the first ten prefixes, suggest at least one word for each prefix that is not already used as an example. You may use a dictionary.

Module 2 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Read the abbreviated biography of Roald Dahl and examine this list of things the author said about himself: o I have a passion for paintings and have collected them for many years. o I make good orange marmalade. o I breed orchids and am a keen gardener. o I eat lots of chocolate. o The only dish I have never eaten is tripe. o Beethoven is wonderful. o Pop singers are horrible. o I would like to have been a good doctor.

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o I have had eight major operations, three on the hips, five on the spine, and countless smaller ones. o Kindness is more important than piety. o I wish my dog could talk to me. o More can be learned about Roald Dahl in his autobiographical Boy: Tales of Childhood Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Make a list of at least 5 things about yourself similar to Dahls. You may want to use his sentence starters (i.e., I have a passion for, I make good, etc.). Share responses. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Allow time for students to share Warm Up responses. Explain the importance of brainstorming (view literacy strategy descriptions) in the writing process and provide examples of different types of brainstorming (i.e., notetaking, listing, clustering/webbing, free writing). Students should be able to understand that the Life Road Map Planning sheet is the first step in the writing process, prewriting. Homework: Explain to students they will need to complete their Life Road Maps for homework and will bring the completed assignment to class tomorrow.

Writing Center (20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Using your Life Road Map, write the introduction to your autobiography. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Explain the importance of effective introductions in writing and share examples. Student samples from Warm Up activity could be used as examples. Model using information from Life Road Map to write essay, making sure students understand the importance of elaborating on, rather than simply stating, events and creating a clear beginning, middle, and end. Explain the Autobiography Rubric BLM.

Writing Center (20 minutes)

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Using the events on the Life Road Map, write the first draft of your autobiography. (You are not required to include every event, only the ones you think are most important.)

Flex Center (20 minutes) Use all or part of this time to complete the first draft of your autobiography. Teacher Note: Assist students needing to begin the essay with organization; provide feedback for students who have begun the essay. Reading Center (20 minutes) Spend 15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Skim your novel, and read the opening lines/paragraph of the first few chapters. Which opening (introduction) is most effective/interesting/inviting? Copy the lines that you think are effective and explain why you chose them. Vocabulary Center (20 minutes) Examine the list of common prefixes (provided by teacher or downloaded from Scholastic website). Using the last ten prefixes, suggest at least one word for each prefix that is not already used as an example. You may use a dictionary.

Module 4 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write a reflection on your work on your autobiography. In other words, hows it going? Have you encountered any problems? Do you have writers block? How did you decide which events to use and which not to use? Have you said enough about each event to keep the reader interested? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Allow time for students to share responses to Warm Up prompt. Again explain the importance of elaboration by providing examples of rich descriptions of events. Ask students who have completed the first draft to share descriptions of events they have written. Homework: Students not completing their autobiographies by the end of Module 4 will need to complete them for homework and will bring the completed assignment to class tomorrow.

Writing Center (20 minutes) See Module 3 Flex Center (20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (20 minutes) See Module 3

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Vocabulary Center (20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessment This is an opportunity for teachers to provide time for completion of center tasks provide time for make-up work allow for completion of the writing process check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments create checklist of center deliverables Allow time for Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM (see Introductory Unit) Lesson Cycle 2: Past/Present Interview and Comparison/Contrast Composition (GLEs: 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 15e, 15f, 23, 42b, 42c) Materials List: pen, paper, young adult novels (high interest, multi-level), video or print interview, Internet access, graphic organizer, List of Interview Questions BLM, Comparison/Contrast Essay Rubric BLM, Sample Comparison/Contrast Essay BLM, Show Dont Tell Sample BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What is an interview? Describe an interview you either conducted or saw conducted. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Record approximately 5 minutes of an interview from a current talk show to share with students OR print an interview from the Academy of Achievement website: http://www.achievement.org/

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Instruct students to pay close attention to how questions are derived from previous answers. View or read the interview. Discuss what made the interview good or bad. Have students suggest other questions they would like to have asked. Explain that this lesson cycle will examine the interview process and will help them discover effective interviewing techniques. They will then interview a parent or grandparent (or significant adult) regarding that persons life when he or she was in high school. Finally, students will use a graphic organizer when they later in the learning cycle write a multi-paragraph comparison/contrast composition.

Writing Center (15 minutes) Examine the List of Interview Questions on the BLM provided. Select 10 questions you would like to use and create 5 additional questions not found on the list. Write your 15 interview questions on a separate sheet of paper leaving 3 or 4 lines between questions. Conferencing Center (15 minutes) Check for student understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle. Ensure that the student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in brainstorming interview questions for parent/grandparent. Module 1 Only: Find two students to role-play two people they know something about (i.e., someone famous or someone well known on campus) for tomorrows Warm Up/Mini Lesson.

Reading Center (15 minutes) Spend 15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Pretend you are preparing to interview the main character of your novel. First write 3 questions you would ask him/her, leaving 4 lines between each question. Next, thinking back on the characters attitude and actions, answer the questions as if you were the character. Technology Center (15 minutes) Research a person of your choosing on the Academy of Achievement website: http://www.achievement.org/. Read and/or listen to interview and pay close attention to how questions are derived from previous answers. Write a reflection on the interview by answering the following questions in complete sentences: What did you learn from this interview? What surprised you the most? What kind of questions did the interviewer ask his or her subject? What kind of connections did the interviewer make with his or her subject? Based on the interview you read, suggest other questions you would like to ask. Teacher Note: Providing a suggested list for students to research on the website may help avoid overwhelming students with too many choices (i.e., Maya Angelou, Benazir Bhutto, Ben Carson, David Ho, Peyton Manning, Sally Ride, Hilary Swank, Desmond Tutu,

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Chuck Yeager). Downloading QuickTime and providing headphones will allow students to listen to actual interviews. Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Teacher Note: Write the names of the two people that the two volunteers agreed to portray (See Module 1, Conferencing Center) on the board prior to the start of class. You will have an opportunity to interview two famous people (who will be portrayed by classmates). The names are written on the board. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write 3 questions to ask each person. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Explain that role playing is an excellent way to practice an interview. Remind students that, although they have prepared questions, better questions may come to mind during the interview process. Students should be encouraged to ask relevant questions not previously recorded. Allow students to ask the questions they generated of the two volunteers. Reflect with students on the process of interviewing. Homework: Explain that students will conduct their interviews for homework and will bring the questions and answers to class the next day.

Writing Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What was the most interesting thing you learned in your interview? Why? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Allow time for students to share responses with the class. Explain that students will use a graphic organizer and write a multiparagraph composition comparing and contrasting their lives in high school with those of the parent/grandparent they interviewed.

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Demonstrate use of a two-circle Venn diagram graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions) and how this information can be used to construct a four paragraph essay (Introduction, Comparison, Contrast, and Conclusion). Make sure students are aware of the logic behind this particular visual format. Tell students the topic they are to write about can be organized in this format, making it easier to develop an effective ending/conclusion to the paper. Model use of the graphic organizer with the whole class. The teacher may want to compare and contrast his/her high school experience with theirs. Explain how a conclusion can be drawn from the information included in the Venn diagram. Remind students that they may work with a partner, which will create opportunities for oral language development. Students will refer to their interview notes and create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting their lives in high school with those of their parent/grandparents. Review Comparison/Contrast Essay Rubric BLM to inform students of the evaluation process.

Writing Center (15 minutes) After reading the Sample Comparison/Contrast Essay BLM, write a multiparagraph, comparison/contrast composition following the Comparison/Contrast Essay Rubric BLM. Complete essay for homework if necessary. Conferencing Center (15 minutes) Check for student understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students needing to begin the essay with organization; provide feedback for students who have begun the essay. Reading Center (15 minutes) Spend 15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Choose a character from your novel and tell how he/she is like or unlike someone you know. Technology Center (15 minutes) Log on to the Digital History website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/timeline/timelineO.cfm Slide the bar at the bottom of the page so that the left side of the bar is even with the year the person you interviewed was born. Record one (1) interesting political/diplomatic event, one (1) interesting social/economic event, and one (1) interesting cultural event that occurred during the interviewed persons lifetime. Next, align the left side of the bar with your birth year and record the same data as before. Finally, evaluate both sets of information to determine which set of events had the greatest impact on the lives of the two: you and the interviewed individual.

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Module 4 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Construct a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting middle school and high school. Write one sentence stating the major similarity and one sentence stating the major difference. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Allow time for students to share responses with the class. Discuss with students comparison/contrast organizational patterns and the importance of elaboration by using anecdotes, relevant facts, examples, and/or specific details. Share Show Dont Tell Sample BLM and discuss the importance of adding dialogue and action. Homework: Complete Comparison/Contrast Essay

Writing Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15 minutes) See Module 1

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM

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Unit Extension Activities Have students create a class directory by having students interview and write about each other. Have students investigate the definition of "cultural icon" and study/write about a cultural leader in the community. Allow students to visit the Generations of Heroes website for information on the process of becoming digital storytellers. To explore reliability of sources (especially biographers), students will locate, scrutinize, and attempt to explain inconsistencies in several Edgar Allan Poe biographies. Using the online Bio-Cube tool to plan and write biographies, students will create and share childrens books with younger children.

Have students visit the Baltimore County Public Schools website for activities focused on an essential question: What life lessons can we learn from reading about the lives of others? This question is highlighted on the webpage under the section Organize.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 3: Fiction/Short Stories

Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time for extension activities Unit Description This unit focuses on reading, comprehending, interpreting, and writing short stories. There are multiple opportunities for identification, analysis, and application of literary elements. Creating and presenting an original short story provides an opportunity for student application of creative writing skills. Vocabulary development and grammar instruction occur within the context of the literature and student writing. Student Understandings Students can identify characteristics that are unique to the short story genre. They recognize that literary elements are essential to well-developed stories. They realize that reading short stories can help students make connections between the text and their own life experiences to generate solutions to problems. Guiding Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Can students identify the characteristics of a short story? Can students identify and apply literary elements? Can students relate short stories to personal experience? Can students develop a short story incorporating essential literary elements?

Unit 3 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE # Grade 8 02a. 02b. 02c. 02d. 02e. 02f. GLE Text and Benchmarks Interpret story elements, including stated and implied themes (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including development of character types (e.g., flat, round, dynamic, static) (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including effectiveness of plot sequence and/or subplots (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including the relationship of conflicts and multiple conflicts (e.g., man vs. man, nature, society, self) to plot (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including difference in third-person limited and omniscient points of view (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including how a theme is developed (ELA-1-M2)

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09d.

17a.

17b.

17c.

17d. 17e. 19.

20a. 22c. 25a. 25b. 25c.

Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including comparing and contrasting literary elements and ideas within and across texts (ELA-7-M1) (see ELA-1-M2) Develop grade-appropriate compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics that include word choices (diction) appropriate to the identified audience and/or purpose (ELA-2-M2) Develop grade-appropriate compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics that include vocabulary selected to clarify meaning, create images, and set a tone (ELA-2-M2) Develop grade-appropriate compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics that include information/ideas selected to engage the interest of the reader (ELA-2-M2) Develop grade-appropriate compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics that include clear voice (ELA-2-M2) Develop grade-appropriate compositions on student- or teacher-selected topics that include variety in sentence structure (ELA-2-M2) Develop grade-appropriate paragraphs and multiparagraph compositions using the various modes of writing (e.g., description, narration, exposition, and persuasion), emphasizing narration and exposition (ELA-2-M4) Use the various modes to write compositions, including short stories developed with literary devices (ELA-2-M4) Write for a wide variety of purposes, including text-supported interpretations of elements of grade-appropriate stories, poems, plays, and novels (ELA-2-M6) Apply knowledge of parts of speech in writing, including infinitives, participles, and gerunds, (ELA-3-M3) Apply knowledge of parts of speech in writing, including superlative and comparative degrees of adjectives (ELA-3-M4) Apply knowledge of parts of speech in writing, including adverbs (ELA-3-M4) Sample Activities

Lesson Cycle 1: Short Story Elements Identification (GLEs: 02a, 02b, 02c, 02d, 02e, 02f, 09d, 22c, 25c) Materials: pen, paper, binders, Internet access, printer, childrens books, fairytales, short stories, Literary Elements Notes BLM, Elements of Plot BLM, Literary Elements Analysis BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur.

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Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What is a short story? Brainstorm (view literacy strategy descriptions) characteristics that define a short story (i.e. word length, number of characters, time span, well-defined plot, etc.) to create an anticipatory mental set for new learning. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow students to share their ideas and assist them in formulating a working definition of the short story. Next ask students to test their definition of the short story by listening to a children's story (The Lorax, The Legend of Bluebonnet, etc.). Read aloud to class, and then ask them to activate prior knowledge and point out any elements or items that make this a short story (i.e. the title, introduction, characters, setting, plot, rising action, conflict, climax, conclusion, etc.). Distribute the Literary Elements Notes BLM. As a class read and discuss the elements of the short story and apply the elements to the story read aloud. Emphasize theme, plot, and setting. Explain to students that they will work to understand and identify the elements of a short story throughout this lesson cycle.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Create a graphic organizer web (view literacy strategy descriptions) to explore the theme of your current novel. Place the theme you suggest in the center and provide evidence from the text to support your chosen theme. Share your work with your group members.

Theme

Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Select a childrens book or short story (i.e., Thank You Mam by Langston Hughes at http://www.americanliterature.com/Hughes/SS/ThankYouMam.html) to read (or use the story shared during Whole Group Instruction). Then use the Elements of Plot BLM to describe each plot element as it occurs in the story.

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Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Refer to the Literary Elements Notes BLM and review plot and conflict. Rising action usually begins when the conflict is presented. Explain when this happened in your novel and what type of conflict is present. If you are just beginning a novel, predict the type of conflict, and tell what leads you to this prediction. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Create and print a setting map (readwritethink.org) for the novel you are currently reading or for the story read aloud during Whole Group Instruction.

Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Define in your own words theme, plot, setting, character, conflict, and point of view. You may refer to the Literary Elements Notes BLM. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Using the definitions suggested in the Warm Up activity, create class definitions for each element on chart paper to be posted in the classroom. Tell students that they will work to refine the definitions as needed. Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: If there were such a thing as a love potion, would you use it to make someone fall in love with you? Copy the prompt before writing response. Teacher Note: This is an example of SPAWN Writing (view literacy strategy descriptions). This type of writing can be used to stimulate predictive, reflective, and critical thinking about the topic or theme of a short story. SPAWN is an acronym that stands for five categories of writing prompts (Special Powers, Problem Solving, Alternative Viewpoints, What If?, and Next), which can be crafted in numerous ways. Begin by selecting a category of SPAWN that best accommodates the desired kind of thinking about the content. For the purpose of this activity, select the Special Powers

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category for use with The Chaser by John Collier. SPAWN Writing prompts can be adapted to introduce whichever short story is selected for use during Whole Group Instruction.

Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss student responses to Warm Up prompt and review the class definitions for literary elements which were previously posted. Read aloud a short story (i.e., The Chaser by John Collier at http://members.accessus.net/~bradley/thechaser.html) and work together to complete the Literary Elements Analysis BLM. Emphasize character, conflict, and point of view.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Think of a movie you know well. Review the types of characters (flat - has only one prominent trait, such as greed or cruelty; round - has many aspects to his or her personality and may be unpredictable; and static - does not change in response to events taking place). Now think about the characters in the movie, and identify at least one example of each type of character. Provide specific details from the movie to support your answer. Be sure to write one strong paragraph for each. Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Select a childrens book or short story to read (or use the story shared during Whole Group Instruction). Then review the definition of conflict on the Literary Elements Notes BLM. Discuss the conflict in the story you chose. Remember, many stories have more than one conflict. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Refer to the Literary Elements Notes BLM, and review Point of View. From which point of view is the story told? Why do you think the author made this choice? Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Review the characteristics of adverbs (http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.htm).Conduct research using Internet resources (i.e., Adverbs List) to find accurate and descriptive adverbs for the antagonist and the protagonist in your independent reading novel or in the story shared during Whole Group Instruction. Complete the following statements using adverbs from each characters point of view: o I speak ______________. o I think ______________. o I walk ______________. o I listen ______________.

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Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: How important is it to you that people follow through on their promises? Have you ever been promised something that you didnt receive? Explain your answer. Teacher Note: This prompt is for use with The Frog Prince by Brothers Grimm but should be adapted to introduce whichever short story, fairytale, or childrens book is selected for use during Whole Group Instruction in this Module. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for students to share responses with class and review the class definitions for literary elements which were previously posted. Read aloud a short story or fairytale (i.e., The Frog Prince by Brothers Grimm at http://www.short-stories.co.uk/) and work together with the class to identify the literary elements that were previously posted. Emphasize character, conflict, and point of view.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM (see Introductory unit BLMs)

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Lesson Cycle 2: Short Story Elements Application (GLEs: 02a, 02b, 02c, 02e, 02f, 09d, 17b, 17c, 22c, 25c) Materials: pen, paper, binders, childrens books, short stories, Internet access, Character Map BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Draw and label a plot diagram. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Review the elements of plot by allowing students to share diagrams created in the Warm Up. Demonstrate the creation of a story chain (view literacy strategy descriptions), paying particular interest to plot structure. Model the process with the class by writing the first line of a story on the board (e.g. I think my brother has super powers.), and then by eliciting a second line, a third line, and so on. Remind students throughout the process of the plot structure. Continue adding sentences until the story is completed. Example: I think my brother has super powers. Every time he's around strange things happen. Once he stared at a flower and it wilted. Another time he clapped his hands and the broccoli on his plate disappeared. That red cape and blue mask I found in his closet may not be so weird after all. Emphasize that the last student to contribute to the story chain must write a logical concluding sentence. Ideally, the story should be very short- 5-6 lines. To generate ideas quickly and expand possibilities for writing, brainstorm (view literacy strategy descriptions) interesting first lines of stories for use during independent practice. Examples: o We would have been fine if we hadn't stopped to help the stranger... o Something is terribly, horribly wrong! Every time I receive a text... o I think my brother has super powers. Every time he's around...

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o o o o

As soon as I got home, I could tell that something was not right... One night, when I was taking out the trash, I saw the neighbor... I decided to go for a morning run. I ran about two blocks when I felt... All of a sudden I was lost!

Explain to students that they will work to apply knowledge of elements of a short story throughout this lesson cycle. The initial focus is on theme, plot, and setting followed by character, conflict, and point of view.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Select a line from the list of interesting first lines created by the class during Whole Group Instruction, or use one of the following suggestions: o It was Christmas (or any holiday/celebration) morning, but something wasnt right. o Well, what would you do if your best friend said? I o She was quiettoo quiet. That could only mean one thing o They were in homeroom when it happened. Next, create a story chain with the members of your group. When the story makes it back to you, you are to rewrite the story making sure that it has a clear beginning, middle, and end. Groups can exchange their story chains with other groups or share them with the entire class.

Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Remember that theme is something about life that the author is trying to teach. Spend some time brainstorming a list of themes. Think about the themes of stories you have read (perhaps in this unit/class) and movies you have seen. Also, think about what lesson you would like to teach your friends if you could write a story. Add these to your list. You will refer back to this list of themes in a future writing assignment. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Log Response: Describe the setting of your book. Be sure to include the time, place, physical characteristics of the surroundings, and the atmosphere or environment in which characters live and move. How does the setting help you to better understand the main character? Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Sign up and participate in a Story Circle at Babbling Book.net. Write the story in turns, alternating between you and at least two group members. Print your online Story Circle the next time you visit the Technology Center.

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Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: List at least 3 of your favorite animated Disney movies. Remember that theme is the generalization the author communicates about life. It expresses the author's opinion or raises a question about human nature or the meaning of human experience. Suggest a theme for each of these movies. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow students to share ideas generated during Warm Up activity. Discuss theme and create a list of universal themes. Compile a class list of 4-5 Disney movies and allow students to suggest themes. Explain that often the theme is implied or suggested through other elements and that theme can be determined by looking closely at characterization, setting, plot, conflict, point of view, etc. Explore these elements and their relationships to theme in one of the movies.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Whats more important: Inner or outer beauty? Would you date someone your friends said was unattractive? Explain. Teacher Note: This prompt is for use with Appointment with Love by S. I. Kishor but should be adapted to introduce whichever short story, fairytale, or childrens book is selected for use during Whole Group Instruction in this Module. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow students to share responses generated during Warm Up activity. Read aloud a short story (i.e., Appointment with Love by S. I. Kishor at http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/downloadFile.cgi?file=4220-6-9092Appointment_With_Love.pdf&filename=Appointment_With_Love.pdf). Review the elements of a short story, emphasizing character, conflict, and point of view.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) 1. Write a paragraph about each of these topics using the point of view indicated: o A class field trip: first person o A school sporting event: third person. 2. Now write a paragraph about the following topic from one of the points of view we learned about. Exchange your writing with a partner and see if he or she can identify the point of view you used. Topic: The school loses electricity during a rare, unexpected snow storm. Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Use the Character Map BLM to analyze a character in the story shared during Whole Group Instruction. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Discuss how a character in your book is like or unlike someone you know. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Locate and print the Plot List and Conflict List graphic organizer at Scholastic.com. Use the story shared during Whole Group Instruction to complete the lists.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Tell about a time you or someone your age or younger got in trouble, and tell it from the point of view of an adult. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow students to share responses generated during Warm Up activity. Read aloud a short story, fairytale, or childrens book (i.e., True Story of the 3 Little Pigs by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith) and engage students in a discussion of point of view.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

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Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM (see Introductory unit BLMs)

Lesson Cycle 3: Short Story Writing Assignment (GLEs: 17a, 17b, 17c, 17d, 17e, 19, 20a, 25a, 25b) Materials: pen, paper, binders, childrens books, short stories, Internet access, Short Story Brainstorming BLM, Word Choice BLM, Literary Elements Pyramid BLM, Short Story Rubric BLM, Literary Elements Review BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Refer to the list of themes created previously, and select the one that stands out to you. Choose carefully. This will be the theme for your own short story. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write down the theme and then discuss why it is an important lesson to teach.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Allow students to share responses generated during Warm Up activity. Explain that students will write a short story demonstrating ability to incorporate the literary elements studied, paying particular attention to word choice, voice, and sentence variety. Review Short Story Rubric BLM.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Complete the Short Story Brainstorming BLM. Then begin writing your story. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of short story assignment. Ensure that the student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in beginning/completing Short Story Brainstorming BLM and/or short story. Address issues of grammar as they arise by conducting mini-grammar lessons that focus on students grammatical errors and/or weaknesses. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Find and record 2-3 sentences that help to establish the setting of the book. Why was it important for the author to include this information? Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Word choice can make dull, boring writing come to life. Complete the Word Choice BLM to learn the importance of selecting the best vocabulary.

Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Its often said that it is better to give than to receive. Discuss whether you agree or disagree. Teacher Note: This prompt is for use with The Gift of the Magi by O. Henry but should be adapted to introduce whichever short story, fairytale, or childrens book is selected for use during Whole Group Instruction. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Read aloud a fairytale, childrens book, or short story (i.e., The Gift of the Magi by O. Henry at http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/magi.html) and work with students to complete the Literary Elements Pyramid BLM. Homework: Students should complete the first draft of their short stories.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Think about the story you are currently writing. Reflect in writing on the process. Have you had difficulty? In what area do you need support? Basically, hows it going? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss issues presented by students during Warm Up. Reinforce the importance of word choice. Write 3 to 4 simple verbs (i.e., ran, sat, ate, etc.) on the board and have students suggest stronger verbs. Remind students they are to pay particular attention to choosing the best words for their stories. Homework: Explain to students they may need to work on their short stories at home.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Complete/revise short stories as needed following the Short Story Rubric BLM. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Provide feedback for students regarding short story writing. Identify use of infinitives, participles, and/or gerunds, and discuss how these items serve to strengthen writing. Address issues of grammar as they arise by conducting mini-grammar lessons that focus on the students grammatical errors and/or weaknesses. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Log Response: Suggest a theme for your book, and give evidence from the text to support your answer. Remember that some stories may have more than one theme and that themes are often implied, not directly stated. Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Skim your novel to find words that you would not normally use in your writing. Begin a list of words (with definitions) you could begin to incorporate in your writing. These may be words you already know but have been reluctant to use.

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Module 4 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Complete the Literary Elements Review BLM. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Conduct a whole class review of the Literary Elements Review BLM, discussing any misunderstandings. Homework: Students should complete short story if necessary.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM (see Introductory unit BLMs)

Unit Extension Activities

Students read short stories independently or as part of a literature circle and prepare responses to be shared in a culminating Short Story Fair (much like the traditional science or social studies fairs). Presentations should communicate basic information about the story and encourage others to consider reading the story. Invite other classes to attend the fair. Students research rsum writing, read a short story, and write a rsum for a welldeveloped character as if he/she is applying for a dream job. They should stay true to the details, character, and theme of the story, but the teacher may fill-in-the-blanks where necessary. Page 35

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Students explore irony in short stories by reading either independently, as part of a literature circle, or as a whole class stories such as "The Ransom of Red Chief" by O. Henry; "Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin; "The Machine that Won the War" by Isaac Asimov; "The Interlopers" by Saki; etc. Students explore point of view in short stories by reading either independently, as part of a literature circle, or as a whole class stories such as "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allen Poe (first person); "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber (third person limited); "The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst (first person); etc. Students read a short story and write a composition discussing personal connections or responses. Students read two short stories in a short story collection/anthology from the school library and compare/contrast the two stories.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 4: Nonfiction

Time Frame: Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time for extension activities Unit Description This unit focuses on reading, comprehending, interpreting, responding, and writing informational nonfiction. Nonfiction literature will be analyzed for defining characteristics and writing techniques. Researching topics and writing essays provide opportunities for students acquisition of problem solving skills. Vocabulary development and grammar instruction occur within the context of the literature and student writing. Student Understandings Nonfiction describes any prose narrative that tells about things as they actually happened or presents factual information about something. Students will recognize that nonfiction occurs often in daily business operations (e.g., newspaper/magazine articles, consumer materials, public documents, business memos) and that nonfiction cannot be manipulated by the writers imagination. Guiding Questions 1. Can students classify and explain the significance of nonfiction? 2. Can students draw conclusions and make inferences about information in nonfiction texts? 3. Can students locate and select information using organizational features of gradeappropriate resources? 4. Can students determine the credibility of a source or speaker? 5. Can students organize and deliver grade-appropriate oral presentations? Unit 4 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE GLE Text and Benchmarks Grade 8 04b. Draw conclusions and make inferences in print and nonprint responses about ideas and information in grade-appropriate texts, including consumer materials (ELA-1-M3) 04c. Draw conclusions and make inferences in print and nonprint responses about ideas and information in grade-appropriate texts, including public documents (ELA-1-M3) 05. Interpret ideas and information in a variety of texts (e.g., scientific reports, technical guidelines, business memos) and make connections to real-life situations and other texts (ELA-1-M4)

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GLE GLE Text and Benchmarks 08b. Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and explain the significance of various genres, including nonfiction (e.g., workplace documents, editorials) (ELA-6M3) 09c. Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including interpreting stated or implied main ideas (ELA-7-M1) (see ELA-1M2) 11. Use technical information and other available resources (e.g., Web sites, interviews) to solve problems (ELA-7-M2) 12. Evaluate the effectiveness of an authors purpose (ELA-7-M3) 13. Analyze an authors viewpoint by assessing appropriateness of evidence and persuasive techniques (e.g., appeal to authority, social disapproval) (ELA-7-M3) 14a. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including identifying cause-effect relationships (ELA-7-M4) 14b. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including raising questions (ELA-7-M4) 14c. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including reasoning inductively and deductively (ELA-7-M4) 14d. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including generating a theory or hypothesis (ELA-7-M4) 14e. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including skimming/scanning (ELA-7-M4) 14f. Analyze grade-appropriate print and nonprint texts using various reasoning skills, including distinguishing facts from opinions and probability (ELA-7-M4) 20b. Use the various modes to write compositions, including problem/solution essays (ELA-2M6) 22a. Write for a wide variety of purposes, including persuasive letters that include appropriate wording and tone and that state an opinion (ELA-2-M6) 22b. Write for a wide variety of purposes, including evaluations of advertisements, political cartoons, and speeches (ELA-M6) 27. Use a variety of resources (e.g., glossaries, dictionaries, thesauruses, spell-check) to find correct spellings (ELA-3-M5) 28. Adjust diction and enunciation to suit the purpose for speaking (ELA-4-M1) 29. Use standard English grammar, diction, syntax, and pronunciation when speaking (ELA4-M1) 30. Follow procedures (e.g. read, question, write a response form groups, from detailed oral instructions) (ELA-4-M2) 31. State oral directions/procedures for tasks (ELA-4-M2) 32. Adjust volume and inflection to suit the audience and purpose of presentations (ELA-4M3) 33. Organize oral presentations with a thesis, an introduction, a body/middle developed with relevant details, and a conclusion (ELA-4-M3) 34. Determine the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agenda, slanted or biased materials) (ELA-4-M4) 35. Deliver grade-appropriate persuasive presentations (ELA-4-M4) Remediation English Unit 4 Nonfiction Page 38

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GLE GLE Text and Benchmarks 36. Summarize a speakers purpose and point of view (ELA-4-M4) 37. Compare, contrast, and evaluate information found in a wide variety of text/electronic media, (e.g., microprint, public speeches, art form) (ELA-4-M5) 38a. Participate in group and panel discussions, including explaining the effectiveness and dynamics of group process (ELA-4-M6) 38b. Participate in group and panel discussions, including applying agreed upon rules for formal and informal discussions (ELA-4-M6) 38c. Participate in group and panel discussions, including assuming a variety of roles (e.g., facilitator, recorder, leader, listener) (ELA-4-M6) 39a. Locate and select information using organizational features of grade-appropriate resources, including complex reference sources (e.g., almanacs, atlases, newspapers, magazines, brochures, map legends, prefaces, appendices) (ELA-5-M1) 39b. Locate and select information using organizational features of grade-appropriate resources, including electronic storage devices (e.g., CD-ROMS, diskettes, software, drives) (ELA-5-M1) 39c. Locate and select information using organizational features of grade-appropriate resources, including frequently accessed and bookmarked Web addresses (ELA-5-M1) 39d. Locate and select information using organizational features of grade-appropriate resources, including organizational features of electronic information (e.g., Web resources including online sources and remote sites) (ELA-5-M1) 40a. Locate and integrate information from a variety of grade-appropriate resources, including multiple printed texts (e.g., encyclopedias, atlases, library catalogs, specialized dictionaries, almanacs, technical encyclopedias) (ELA-5-M2) 40b. Locate and integrate information from a variety of grade-appropriate resources, including electronic sources (e.g., Web sites, databases) (ELA-5-M2) 40c. Locate and integrate information from a variety of grade-appropriate resources, including other media sources (e.g., audio and video tapes, films, documentaries, television, radio) (ELA-5-M2) 41. Explain the usefulness and accuracy of sources by determining their validity (e.g., authority, accuracy, objectivity, publication date, coverage) (ELA-5-M2) 43a. Generate grade-appropriate research reports that include information presented in a variety of forms, including visual representations of data/information (ELA-5-M3) 43b Generate grade-appropriate research reports that include information presented in a variety of forms, including graphic organizers (e.g., outlines, timelines, charts, webs) (ELA-5-M3) 43c. Generate grade-appropriate research reports that include information presented in a variety of forms, including works cited lists and/or bibliographies (ELA-5-M3) 44. Use word processing and/or other technology to draft, revise, and publish a variety of works, including documented research reports with bibliographies (ELA-5-M4) 45a. Give credit for borrowed information following acceptable use policy, including integrating quotations and citations (ELA-5-M5) 45b. Give credit for borrowed information following acceptable use policy, including using endnotes (ELA-5-M5) 45c. Give credit for borrowed information following acceptable use policy, including creating bibliographies and/or works cited lists (ELA-5-M5) Remediation English Unit 4 Nonfiction Page 39

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GLE GLE Text and Benchmarks 46. Interpret information from a variety of graphic organizers including timelines, charts, schedules, tables, diagrams, and maps in grade-appropriate sources (ELA-5-M6)

Sample Activities Lesson Cycle 1: Introduction to Nonfiction Business Documents (GLEs: 4b, 4c, 5, 8b, 9c, 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e, 14f, 22b) Materials: pen; markers; loose-leaf and unlined paper; binders; miscellaneous magazine advertisements; Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM, New Employee Letter BLM, Money Back Guarantee BLM, Magazine Advertisement BLM, Magazine Advertisement Analysis BLM, and Earnings Statement BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Define nonfiction. How does it differ from fiction? Give at least six examples. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Discuss information formulated by students during Warm Up. Construct and post a class definition of nonfiction (e.g., prose that deals with real events and people). Be sure to include characteristics (e.g., characters, settings, and events must conform to what is true; story cannot be manipulated by the writers imagination; can be exposition, persuasion, description, or narration, etc.). Remind students that they may refine the definition throughout the unit. Explain that this lesson cycle will focus on a fictitious business, Excel Athletics, Inc., which needs to increase sales to teenagers. Students are to assume the roles of new employees in the advertising department. Read the New Employee Letter BLM and brainstorm a list of documents students might encounter in such a job. Discuss the characteristics of the documents listed, and help students to understand that they are all examples of nonfiction.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Read the Money Back Guarantee BLM and discuss the following: o What conclusion can you draw about the quality of the companys product? o What is the main idea of this document? Is it clearly stated or implied? o What would you do if you were dissatisfied with the running shoes you purchased from Excel Athletics, Inc.? Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Read the Magazine Advertisement BLM. Deductive reasoning arrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations. Inductive reasoning takes information and makes generalizations. Answer the following questions in the writing section of your binder. o Based on the generalizations presented in the advertisement, what specific conclusion can you draw about the shoes or the company? o Based on the information you read, what general statement can you make about Excel Athletics, Inc. or its shoes? Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Classify your novel as fiction or nonfiction. Provide evidence from the text to support your answer (i.e.,What characteristics of fiction/nonfiction are present in your novel?). Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Since you are to assume the role of an advertising specialist and since you will closely examine magazine advertisements in an upcoming lesson, it might help to know some relevant vocabulary. This vocabulary self-awareness (view literacy strategy descriptions) is valuable because it helps you to discover what you know, as well as what you need to learn to fully comprehend the assignment. Use the Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM and insert the following terms: advertisement, benefit, campaign, commercial, hype, jingle, launch, promote, slogan, and target. Next, rate each vocabulary word according to your level of understanding. A plus sign (+) indicates a high degree of comfort and knowledge, a check mark () indicates uncertainty, and a minus sign (-) indicates the word is brand new to you. Then, supply a synonym and definition for each word (you may need to guess for words you marked as a minus (-)). You will revisit this chart to add new information and update your growing knowledge about key vocabulary during this lesson cycle. Example of a Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart
Word advertisement benefit + Synonym Definition

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Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) View a magazine advertisement. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Describe the visual image. What are the catchy words (if any)? What is the basic message? Rate the product or service on a scale of 1 (Yawn!) to 5 (Ive got to have this!). Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for class discussion/sharing of ideas. Use the Magazine Advertisement Analysis BLM to examine various magazine ads, making sure the students understand the terms and techniques used by advertisers. This would be an opportune time to revisit the vocabulary self-awareness charts previously created in the vocabulary center.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Skim and scan (do not read the entire text) of the Excel Earnings Statement BLM for approximately one minute. Then turn the letter facedown until the read aloud during Whole Group Instruction. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What do you believe to be the main idea of this letter? What conclusion can you draw from the information presented? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss the importance of skimming and scanning, and prompt students to ask and answer their own questions about content. Allow time for students to discuss Warm Up prompt and identify main idea. To further promote purposeful reading and learning, use student questions for purposeful learning (SQPL) (view literacy strategy descriptions). With this strategy, first look over the text to be studied. Next, generate a statement related to the material that will cause students to wonder, challenge, and/or question. Apply SQPL to the Excel Earnings Statement BLM by writing this statement on the board: You would be foolish to invest in Excel Athletics, Inc.

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Based on the statement, students should work with a neighbor to generate 2-3 questions, related to the statement, they would like answered. Invite student pairs to share questions with the whole class, and write the questions on the board. Similar questions should be starred or highlighted in some way. Add any questions students have failed to ask about important information they need to be sure to learn. For example, important questions might be: What type of earnings history does the company have? or What evidence is there that this is a stable company? Next, instruct students to pay attention to information that helps answer the questions they generated, focusing especially on the questions that were starred/highlighted. The teacher should read aloud the Earnings Statement BLM, stop periodically and have students discuss with their partners which questions could be answered, then ask for volunteers to share. Have students record the questions and answers in their learning logs for later study.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Read the Earnings Statement BLM and answer the following constructed response prompts: 1. What is the cause of the decline of Excel Athletics, Inc.s net earnings? What effect does this have on the companys profits? Use evidence from the text to support your answer. 2. A theory is an expectation of what should happen, barring unforeseen circumstances. Write a logical statement (theory) that uses inductive reasoning (using available information to make a generalization) to present what might happen as a result of the Earnings Statement. Use evidence from the text to support your answer. Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Your center group must invent a product and design a magazine advertisement using 2 or 3 advertising techniques (e.g., make a metaphor, promise a benefit, solve a problem, create a character, inject dramatic conflict, use exaggeration, insert an eye catcher, create a slogan, take a position, make an offer, etc.). Record your groups ideas in the writing section of your binder. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Generate a list of questions you have about your novel. As you read your novel, try to find the answers to these questions. Record the answers as you encounter them. Vocabulary/Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Two key concepts in advertising are abbreviated U.S.P. (a declaration of what makes a product different) and A.I.D.A. (the aim of all advertising). Conduct a web search to discover the specific words associated with these abbreviations. Then explain these advertising concepts in your own words.

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Hint: If you want a web search to contain two key terms, simply place a plus sign (+) between the words when you search. For example, you might enter U.S.P.+advertising in a Google search window to find websites that deal with both terms. Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Fact 1 2 Reread the New Employee Letter BLM. Create a simple graphic organizer in which you identify at least two phrases or sentences that are fact and at least two phrases or sentences that express an opinion. Opinion

Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss the importance of facts versus opinions. Allow time for students to discuss their graphic organizer entries. Using the New Employee Letter BLM, students should work with a partner to answer the following questions: 1. If this were an actual letter you received, how would you feel about your new job? 2. What questions would you have after reading the letter? 3. What characteristics of this type of document help to identify it as nonfiction? Have student pairs share answers with class to check for understanding. Be sure to refer students back to the definition of nonfiction generated at the beginning of this lesson cycle.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

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Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM (see Introductory Unit) Lesson Cycle 2: Problem/Solution Letter and Oral Presentation (GLEs: 11, 14e, 20b, 22a, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37) Materials: pen, paper, binders, Problem and Solution Essay Prewriting BLM, Peer Review Process BLM, Earnings Statement BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Create a web graphic organizer to brainstorm steps Excel Athletics, Inc. could take to get more young people between the ages of 13 and 21 years of age to buy its athletic shoes. You will use one of these steps (solutions) for a problem and solution letter (essay). Sample web:

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Work as a whole class to brainstorm (view literacy strategy descriptions) steps Excel Athletics, Inc. could take to get more young people between the ages of 13 and 21 years of age to buy its athletic shoes. Encourage students to suggest and share generated during Warm Up activity. Record the list on chart paper to be posted for easy reference. Explain that students will be writing a problem and solution essay in the form of a business letter. A good problem-solution paper addresses a problem that is worth pursuing and can be solved practically. Students will determine and explain a problem and suggest actions that can be taken to solve it. The goal is to convince the reader to accept the proposed solution(s) and to support the author's point of view. Review parts of a letter. This essay will be scored using either a teacher-constructed rubric or the iLEAP writing rubric which can be found in the iLEAP Assessment Guide (p. 5-7) at http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/7766.pdf. The project will culminate with an oral presentation.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Complete the Problem and Solution Essay Prewriting BLM, review the essay rubric, and begin writing the first draft of the problem and solution essay. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of problem and solution essay assignment. Assist students in beginning/completing the Problem and Solution Essay Prewriting BLM and/or essay. Address issues of grammar as they arise by conducting mini-grammar lessons that focus on students grammatical errors and/or weaknesses. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Select one problem that a character in your novel is facing. Explain what you believe the best solution might be, and give reasons why your solution is best for the character. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) To be a better informed consumer and to be better prepared to formulate and support your problem and solution essay thesis, spend some time online reading/skimming the following articles: Marketing to Teens: Advertising Strategies http://www.mediaawareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/advertising_marketing/mtt_advertis ing_strategies.cfm

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Smells Like Teen Marketing http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/nov2005/id20051109_341544.htm *Read the introduction and the Girls-eye View section. Marketing to Teens Online http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Marketing/Digital_Marketing/Marketing_to_teens_o nline_1471 Coca Cola Targeting Teens with Mobile Marketing http://www.velti.com/index.cfm?page=1411&articleID=19363532 Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Remember that a thesis statement states the thesis or argument of the writer in an essay. It declares what you believe and what you intend to prove. A good thesis proposes an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree. A simple formula sometimes used to construct a thesis statement is: Specific Topic + Attitude/Argument = Thesis. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write a thesis statement for your problem and solution essay. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Define and explain the significance of a thesis statement. Share sample thesis statements: Sesame Street is the greatest childrens show in the history of television. The H1N1 (Swine Flu) contamination is not very serious. Teenage girls have body image issues because of Barbie dolls. The causes of the Gulf War were more political than economic. Ask for student volunteers to share their thesis statements created during Warm Up. To determine the strength of the thesis, ask questions such as the following: Can the thesis be realistically supported? Does the thesis lead the reader to the possible subtopics? Would this statement cause a reasonable reader to ask, "How?" or Why?" Would many readers be tempted to respond with Who cares? or "Duh!" Have you avoided general all-encompassing words such as none, every, or all? Remind students to apply these same questions to their thesis statements. Homework: Explain to students they will need to complete their first drafts of the problem and solution essay for homework and will bring the completed assignment to class tomorrow.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

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Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Read your first draft and answer the following questions: 1. What do you consider the best/strongest part of your letter? 2. What do you consider the weakest part of your letter? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for class discussion/sharing of Warm Up activity. Discuss the importance of the revision phase of the writing process. Solicit a sample student letter, or provide an example and demonstrate use of the Peer Review Process BLM. Explain that students will be expected to provide meaningful feedback.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Exchange papers within the group and complete the Peer Review Process BLM. Begin writing final draft. Use dictionaries to check spelling. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Provide assistance in revising the content of student writings. Address issues of grammar as they arise by conducting mini-grammar lessons that focus on students grammatical errors and/or weaknesses. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: If you were the author of your novel, how would you revise the plot to make it even more engaging for the reader? Technology Center (15-20 minutes) To properly format your business letter (problem and solution essay), view a sample format at http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonplans/Format.pdf. Write the heading, inside address, and salutation for your business letter. Note: The name and address of the person to whom you are writing is included on the Earnings Statement BLM.

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Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Design a rubric (scoring guide) for the oral presentation of the problem and solution letter/essay assignment. Consider what you believe are important characteristics of effective speakers. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Using ideas generated during Warm Up, work with students to design an oral presentation rubric making sure to include the following: o use of appropriate diction and enunciation to suit the purpose for speaking o well organized with a thesis, an introduction, a body/middle developed with relevant details, and a conclusion. o grade-appropriate persuasive presentation Explain to students that their tasks as listeners will be to: o determine the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agenda, slanted or biased statements) o summarize a speakers purpose and point of view o compare/contrast two of the presentations. Review problem and solution writing assignment rubric. Homework: Explain to students they will need to complete their final drafts of the problem and solution essay for homework and practice presenting the essay orally.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conference Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments Problem and Solution Assignment Presentation allow time for oral presentations of problem and solution letters/essays promote strong listening skills by requiring audience members to complete the following responses for at least two oral presentations (assigned by teacher to ensure that all presentations are peer reviewed): 1. Discuss the credibility of the speaker. Was the information believable? Why or why not? 2. Summarize the presentation

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What was the speakers purpose? What was the point of view? 3. Compare/contrast two of the presentations evaluate oral presentations using the class-designed rubric. evaluate writing assignment using teacher- or state-designed writing rubric

This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM Lesson Cycle 3: Class Forum/Research Writing (GLEs: 13, 30, 31, 35, 38a, 38b, 38c, 39a, 39b, 39c, 39d, 40a, 40b, 40c, 41, 43a, 43b, 43c, 44, 45a, 45b, 45c, 46) Materials: pen, paper, binder, Argumentative Topic Graphic Organizer BLM, Models of Bibliographic Entries BLM, Research Resources BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Select one of the following topics and write a response. Students should be required to wear school uniforms. Students should be permitted to have jobs even if their grades are poor. Teenagers should be allowed to get tattoos without parental consent. Animals should be used for scientific experiments. An extra hour should be added to the regular school day. All Americans should be required to vote.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (15 minutes) Discuss student responses to Warm Up prompts paying close attention to the topic that elicits the most interest and/or debate. Explain to students this lesson cycle will involve researching, writing, presenting, and arguing their views on a persuasive topic selected by the class. Brainstorm other possible topics and decide which topic the class would like to research and later argue in the culminating class forum. Be sure to select a topic for which strong arguments can be made on both sides of the issue and for which research is accessible. Assist students in completing the Argumentative Topic Graphic Organizer BLM.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Free-write for a few minutes on the class-selected topic. Share your writing with your center group, and work together to select a side of the issue the group would like to argue. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Discuss both sides of the topic chosen by the class with groups, and ensure that an equal number of groups support each side. Assist students in brainstorming arguments for both sides. Discuss research sources that may help to strengthen arguments. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Use the Models of Bibliographic Entries BLM to write a bibliographic entry for your novel. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Begin by transferring the reasons listed in column one of the Argumentative Topic Graphic Organizer BLM to the first column of the Research Resources BLM. Spend time online searching for sources (factual information) that would support each of the reasons presented. Complete the Research Resources BLM using the Models of Bibliographic Entries BLM to make sure to record accurate information from each website where important information is located.

Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Respond to this statement: You can trust everything you read on the Internet. In your response, be sure to ask at least 2 questions related to this statement. Teacher Note: This is an application of the student questions for purposeful learning (SQPL) (view literacy strategy descriptions) strategy used earlier in this unit.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Invite students to share responses and questions from the Warm Up activity with the whole class, and write common questions on the board. Print or display (using projector) a webpage, and review some basic questions (see below) to apply when judging validity/reliability of sources. Encourage students to find answers to questions raised during Warm Up. Sample Reliability Questions: o What does the URL (Uniform Resource Locator; web address) tell you? o Who wrote the information and does that person or organization have a reason to be biased? Do they have strong credentials? o Is the information current/updated? o Are their sources documented, and are there links to further information? Homework: Complete the Technology Center research activity for homework or in school media center outside of regular class time. Incorporate printed texts and media sources along with online research. Visual representations and/or graphic organizers that support a reason may also be included in the research.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Flex Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Which side of the issue will you argue? What is your strongest reason? What will be your opponents strongest reason? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Provide an explanation of the Class Forum process to be conducted at the conclusion of this cycle. (Ground rules will be suggested and adopted by the group in another class.) The classroom will be divided; student groups with opposing viewpoints face one another. Students articulate their positions in successive turns. The discussion begins with the affirmative side (those in favor) and concludes with the negative side (those opposed). Groups are encouraged to join forces and to strengthen their positions. When faulty reasoning, distorted facts, or sensational statistics are suspected, students should demand proof. This is where prior research (i.e. quotes, visual representations of information, etc.) will be useful. Each side is expected to refute the opponents' claims (present persuasive arguments). When all arguments are exhausted, the forum is concluded.

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Upon completion, students will be expected to reflect, first in writing and then orally, on both the content and process of the activity. Students should understand the benefits of teaming, researching, note taking, and listening.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Write a research brief that includes an introduction (that states the position on the topic), three reasons which support the position (with at least two relative, documented sources), and a conclusion. Include appropriate bibliographic entries for each cited source. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Present the writing rubric to the group. Provide assistance with completion of the Research Brief. Allow time for student writing. This writing assignment will be scored using either a teacher-constructed rubric or the iLEAP writing rubric which can be found in the iLEAP Assessment Guide (p. 5-7) at http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/7766.pdf.

Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: If you wanted to find out the truth about something that occurred, which character in your novel would be the most reliable (truthful) source? What evidence in the story causes you to trust this character? Technology Center (15-20 minutes) In preparation for the class forum, spend time online searching for additional information to support your argument. Note: If the first draft has been written, begin word processing to publish the final draft of your Research Brief. Make sure you have a means of saving your document to transfer incomplete work to a home or media center computer.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Suggest rules you believe all students should follow during the upcoming class forum. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Using the rules suggested by students in the Warm Up activity, ground rules should be suggested, adopted, and posted by the group. Rules might include things like only the speaker in front on the stool has the floor, alternate sides, etc. Be sure to include use of appropriate volume and inflection to suit the audience and purpose, and use of Standard English grammar and pronunciation when speaking.

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Homework: Students should use word processing and/or other technology to publish the research brief (with at least two bibliographic entries) begun in the Writing Center.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conference Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments Class Forum Teacher Tasks: Provide oral reminder of established ground rules; ensure rules are followed; encourage participation of all students. Student Tasks: Actively contribute; listen attentively; follow ground rules; use research to support claims. Post-forum: Students will write a reflection piece explaining the effectiveness and dynamics of the class forum activity. Reflections will be shared orally. Help students to consider the benefits of teaming, researching, note taking, and listening. This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance create checklist of center deliverables allow time for completion of Reading Center Self-Evaluation Rubric BLM

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Unit Extension Activities Class visits a local newspaper to learn about the various jobs and works cooperatively to create a class or school newsletter. Students participate in a guided inquiry by scanning informational books searching for interesting information to read. As they read, they create two lists labeled What I Learned and Questions I Have. Conduct online research to answer questions. Students create a graphic display with facts and pictures. Students conduct a study of text features of nonfiction text (articles and/or web pages) by using activities such as the Big Fox graphic organizer. Students should understand that, like exercising, reading is more difficult if you dont warm-up (engage in pre-reading) first. Students explore content area textbooks paying particular attention to text features such as these: o table of contents o headings and subheadings o bold and italicized text o information boxes o photos and illustrations o captions o diagrams, charts, and/or graphs o glossary o index Students create their own report cards including detailed comments from teachers. This nonfiction writing allows for prediction, inferences and judgments based on evidence or performance.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 5: Poetry

Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time for extension activities

Unit Description The unit focuses on reading and responding to classic and contemporary poetry, using a variety of strategies. Ample opportunities to identify, analyze, and apply literary devices are provided. Writing poetry provides an opportunity for student application of a writing process. Vocabulary development and grammar instruction occur within the context of the literature and student writing. Student Understandings Poetry is meant to be read, heard, and enjoyed. Poets create images through language that stir ones imagination, making one see the world in new and unexpected ways. Students will identify, interpret, and analyze various poetic devices. Students will develop well-supported responses to poetry and examine the meanings and effects of figurative language in poetry. Students will use a writing process to develop original poetry. Guiding Questions 1. Can students describe the defining characteristics of poetry? 2. Can students identify and analyze literary devices in poetry? 3. Can students describe how the poets word choice helps to establish mood and tone? 4. Can students develop original poetry? 5. Can students express their responses to poetry in writing? Unit 5 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE # Grade 8 01a. 03a. 03b. 03c. 03e. GLE Text and Benchmarks Develop vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of connotative and denotative meanings (ELA-1-M1) Interpret literary devices, including allusions (ELA-1-M1) Interpret literary devices, including understatement (meiosis) (ELA-1-M2) Interpret literary devices, including how word choice and images appeal to the senses and suggest mood and tone (ELA-1-M2) Interpret literary devices, including the effects of hyperbole and symbolism (ELA-1-M2)

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08c.

09g.

22c.

Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and explain the significance of various genres, including poetry (e.g., lyric, narrative) (ELA-6-M3) Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including identifying literary devices (ELA-7-M1) (see ELA-1-M2) Write for a wide variety of purposes, including text-supported interpretations of elements of grade-appropriate stories, poems, plays, and novels (ELA-2-M6) Sample Activities

Lesson Cycle 1: Introduction to Literary Devices (GLEs: 01a, 03a, 03b, 03c, 3e, 08c, 09g, 22c) Materials List: pen; paper; binders; miscellaneous poetry; Literary Devices BLM; Poetry Prompts BLM; Denotative v. Connotative Meanings BLM; Allusion BLM; copies of "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud by William Wordsworth, Dream Deferred and Dreams by Langston Hughes, and Hyla Brook, My November Guest, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, and Mowing by Robert Frost Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What is poetry? How is it different from fiction/prose? How do you feel about poetry? Do you have a favorite poem or poet? Explain. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss information presented by students during Warm Up. Construct a class definition of poetry and post. Explain to students they may refine the definition throughout the unit. Review the Literary Devices BLM allowing opportunities for students to suggest their own examples. Explain that these terms will be the focus of this unit and that students should refer to this handout as needed.

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This lesson cycle will focus on identification of literary devicesspecifically, figurative language.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Review the Poetry Prompts BLM for ideas for writing your own poem. Write a personal poem of at least 8 lines in which you include one or more literary devices from the Literary Devices BLM Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of literary devices. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in beginning/revising personal poetry (Writing Center assignment). Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Sometimes literary devices occur in novels. Review the Literary Devices BLM and identify one literary device used by the author of your book. Explain how this helps the reader gain better understanding of the authors intent. Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Remember, using the right word (word choice) can make dull, boring writing come to life. Refer to the Denotative v. Connotative Meanings BLM to explore ways to enhance vocabulary.

Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Read "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by William Wordsworth. This poem includes several examples of figurative language. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Identify two types of figurative language used in the poem and cite specific lines as examples for each. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Read two Langston Hughes poems (Dream Deferred and Dreams) to help students identify examples of literary devices. Homework: Students may need to work on their poems at home. (Refer to Writing Center, Module 1.)

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

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Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Review the meaning of understatement (meiosis). Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Use understatement in the following situation by completing the student reply: On your poetry test you receive a grade of 100 when the class average is 71. One of your classmates asks you how you did on the test and you reply, "_____." Explain how this is understatement. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Using Robert Frost poetry (Hyla Brook, My November Guest, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, and Mowing), help students to find and identify examples of hyperbole, personification, symbolism, simile, and understatement (meiosis). Hyla Brook: simile and understatement My November Guest: personification and understatement Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening: hyperbole and symbolism Mowing: personification and understatement Homework: Students may need to work on their poems at home. (Refer to Writing Center, Module 1.)

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Review the Poetry Prompts BLM or use a topic of your choice to write another poem of at least 8 lines in which you include one or more literary devices from the Literary Devices BLM Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of literary devices. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in beginning/revising personal poetry (Writing Center assignment).

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Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Mood refers to the feeling or impression the author creates with his writing and can be identified by analyzing the setting of a story and by analyzing the characters actions and dialogue. Examine closely the first few pages of your novel. What connotative words does the author use to describe the setting or character(s)? What mood do these words suggest?

Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes A writers tone is his attitude toward the material and/or readers. Tone may be playful, formal, angry, loving, serious, outraged, confused, tender, depressed, etc. Choose any two of the poems used in class thus far and identify the tone of each poem. Make a list of the word choices made by the poet that support the tone you suggested.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Martin Luther King, Jr., used an allusion (to an important document/event in U.S. history) when he started his "I Have a Dream" speech by saying, 'Five score years ago..." Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What did King want his listeners to be reminded of at the beginning of his speech? Why might he have wanted to bring up this parallel between the two historic moments? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Provide the Allusion BLM. Work with students to create allusions referencing each of the suggestions. Homework: Complete the second poem if necessary. (Refer to Writing Center, Module 3.)

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

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Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Lesson Cycle 2: Literary Devices Application and Analysis (GLEs: 03c, 03e, 09g, 22c) Materials: pen; paper; binders; newspapers; scissors; glue; miscellaneous poetry; poetry anthologies/collections; copies of Introduction to Poetry and Forgetfulness by Billy Collins, I Ask My Mother To Sing and The Gift by Li-Young Lee, How to Eat a Poem by Eve Merriam, Dream Deferred and Dreams by Langston Hughes, and maggie and milly and molly and may by e. e. cummings Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Read the poem Introduction to Poetry by Billy Collins and discuss in your own words how Collins wants his students to think about (read) poetry. Use information from the poem to support your answer. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for students to share ideas generated during Warm Up activity. Guide students towards a deeper understanding of another Collins poem Forgetfulness (or any other poem you choose) using a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA) (view literacy strategy descriptions) to make predictions, and then check their predictions during and after the reading.

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Build background knowledge for this activity by engaging in a discussion designed to elicit information the students may already have, including personal experience or prior readings, related to the title of the poem, Forgetfulness. Share biographical information on the poet. Invite students to make predictions about the poem based on the class discussion and the poems title (i.e. What do you think the theme of this poem will be? or From the title, what do you expect the author to say in this poem?). Record class predictions. Read through the poem, stop at predetermined intervals (e.g. after the first 2 stanzas) and ask students to reread the predictions they made and change them, if necessary. Ideally, this cycle gets repeated several times throughout the reading of a poem. When reading is complete, verify predictions (i.e. What did you expect the poem to be about before we began reading? and What was it actually about?). Encourage students to employ this DR-TA process on their own when reading any text. Depending on the level of competency students demonstrate with this strategy, the teacher may need to continue modeling the process before expecting independent application.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes)

A symbol is a specific object or image that represents an abstract idea (concept). Choose a person, place, or thing that is important to you and has a meaning beyond itself. For example, you may have a ring that represents love, a sick cousin who represents strength, or a favorite place that represents happiness. Using a newspaper, find and cut out words that describe your symbol. Line up the words to make lines to express how you feel about the object/symbol. Use these lines (and add some if you would like) to create your own poem. You dont have to use words like: the, an, a, is, are, etc. because they don't really add to the meaning in this type of poetry. You are trying to say something by using as few words as possible. When you are finished, glue your poem on paper.

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of literary devices. Ensure that the student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in beginning/revising personal poetry (Writing Center assignment). Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Write the definition of alliteration in your own words. Use alliteration to describe two of the characters in your book. Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Browse books of poetry in search of words and phrases used by poets that paint a vivid picture that appeals to your senses (imagery). Create a list of these words and phrases. Now create your own images using these words and lines as inspiration.

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Module 2 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Read Eve Merriams poem How to Eat a Poem and compare and/or contrast her poem to Billy Collinss Introduction to Poetry. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review Warm Up activity with students. Using the Langston Hughes poems or any easily-compared poems chosen by the teacher, model the process for comparing and/or contrasting the two poems. Homework: Complete/rewrite poem if necessary. (Refer to Writing Center, Module 1.)

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Read the title of Li-Young Lees poem, I Ask My Mother To Sing. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: As in the previous DR-TA activity, make a prediction about the theme of the poem and the content. Read the poem, stopping periodically to verify or change your prediction. Discuss, in writing, if and/or how your prediction changed after reading the poem. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review Warm Up activity with students. Read aloud Li-Young Lee poems (The Gift and I Ask My Mother To Sing) and assist students in identifying elements of comparison and/or contrast. Help students identify hyperbole in The Gift. Homework: Explain to students that they may need to work on their poems at home. (Refer to Writing Center, Module 1.)

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Review the Poetry Prompts BLM or use a topic of your choice to write another poem of at least 10 lines incorporating at least two of the literary devices studied in this unit.

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Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of literary devices. Ensure that the student binders are organized and up-to-date. Assist students in beginning/revising personal poetry (Writing Center assignment). Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Based on your reading thus far, predict what will most likely happen next in your novel. Explain what evidence leads you to this prediction. Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Record any unfamiliar words recently discovered in the study of poetry. You might browse the poetry collections for other words. Include these words on your individualized vocabulary list. Be careful not to use proper nouns.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Read maggie and milly and molly and may by e. e. cummings. After reading the poem straight through without stopping to analyze it, take a moment to think about the parts you understand (dont worry about the parts you dont immediately understand). Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write a quick first-impression of the poem: What is this poem about? Teacher Note: The DR-TA strategy may be used here instead of this prompt if students need opportunities to build competency.

Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Read maggie and milly and molly and may by e. e. cummings aloud and ask students to share their first impressions (or their predictions). Then work with students to discover what cummings might have wanted readers to learn about self through the other girls. Explain that e. e. cummings felt that self-discovery was incredibly important and that it is the only good reason for writing a poem. The poet begins "maggie and milly and molly and may" with uncomplicated writing. He then challenges the reader to discover something about self through each of the girls in the poem. For example, through the character of Maggie, cummings seems to suggest that when he is troubled, he turns to nature to find hope/consolation. The shell sings to her and in the shells song maggie (or cummings) loses the troubles of self. Have students respond (oral or written) to the following prompt: What can we discover about self through each of the other girls in the poem? Homework: Complete poem if necessary.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work allow for student presentations (See Extension Activities below.) check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Unit Extension Activities Create a checklist /rubric with students for use in selecting one or two poems per student to be published in a class collection of poems or posted in the classroom or hallway. Poems will be shared orally, and the class will decide which poems are to be published based on the rubric they developed. Challenge students to write computer/technology inspired poetry. Examples: Waka Waka Bang Splat! (Internet Special-Characters Poem at http://poetry.about.com/od/poetryplay/l/blwakawaka.htm) Suppose Edgar Allen Poe Had Used A Computer (Parody of The Raven at http://www.greaterthings.com/Humor/Poe-computer.htm) Conduct a Literary Terms Whip Around by assigning a literary term to each student. Each student will design a flier for the term that includes the term with the definition, a visual representation (picture or symbol), and an example from a piece of literature (preferably from literature familiar to the class). The whole class will then make a list of all terms, leaving room to take notes by each. Every 45 seconds, shout pass. Students will pass their paper and have 45 seconds to study each new literary terms flier and take notes. The passing continues until the fliers make it back to the original authors. This student-generated list with explanations can be used as a study guide preceding a formal assessment of knowledge of literary terms. Have students read poetry about poetry and write poems about poetry to be included in a class anthology. Examples: My Poems by Robert Currie http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/mypoems.html

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kidnap poem by Nikki Giovanni http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/kidnap.html Eating Poetry by Mark Strand http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/eating.html What's A Poem by Charles Ghigna http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/whatsa.html For Poets by Al Young http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/forpoets.html The Joy of Writing by Wislawa Szymborska http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/joy.html How Poetry Comes To Me by Gary Snyder http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/poetry/joy.html Have students create a PowerPoint Poetry Project by choosing a poem, reading and annotating the poem, dividing the poem into slides, deciding on images, selecting music, designing slide layout, and presenting.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 6: Novel

Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time for extension activities Unit Description This unit focuses on reading, comprehending, interpreting, and analyzing a longer work of fiction through a variety of comprehension strategies and writing modes. Fiction elements are identified and analyzed with a comparison/contrast of elements across texts included. Composing text-supported position essays provides an opportunity for student application of the entire writing process. Ongoing independent reading allows for the development of reading skills. Vocabulary development and grammar instruction occur within the context of the literature and student writing. Student Understandings The novel is an extended fictional work in prose, usually in the form of a story, organized under a plot or theme with a focus on character development and action. Development of wellsupported responses to texts and examination of the effects of literary elements are essential to an understanding of the novel. Finally, the writing process is a means of developing strong writing using techniques that include prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Guiding Questions 1. Can students classify and explain the significance of novels? 2. Can students draw conclusions and make inferences based on careful reading of novels? 3. Can students develop compositions applying writing processes? 4. Can students demonstrate in writing an ability to defend a stated position? Unit 6 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE # Grade 8 01a. 01b. 02a. 02b. 02c. GLE Text and Benchmarks Develop vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of connotative and denotative meanings (ELA-1-M1) Develop vocabulary using a variety of strategies, including use of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and word parts (ELA-1-M1) Interpret story elements, including stated and implied themes (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including development of character types (e.g., flat, round, dynamic, static) (ELA-1-M2) Interpret story elements, including effectiveness of plot sequence and/or subplots (ELA-1-M2)

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GLE # 02d. 04a.

06. 07. 08a.

09e.

12. 16. 18a. 18b.

18c. 18d

18e.

18f. 18g. 20c. 22c.

23. 24a.

GLE Text and Benchmarks Interpret story elements, including the relationship of conflicts and multiple conflicts (e.g., man vs. man, nature, society, self) to plot (ELA-1-M2) Draw conclusions and make inferences in print and nonprint responses about ideas and information in grade-appropriate texts, including epics (ELA-1-M3) Analyze universal themes found in a variety of world and multicultural texts in oral and written responses (ELA-6-M1) Compare and contrast elements (e.g., plot, setting, character, theme) in multiple genres (ELA-6-M2) Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify and explain the significance of various genres, including fiction (e.g., mystery, novel) (ELA-6-M3) Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including making inferences and drawing conclusions (see ELA-1-M2) Evaluate the effectiveness of an authors purpose (ELA-7-M3) Organize individual paragraphs with topic sentences, relevant elaboration, and concluding sentences (ELA-2-M1) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as selecting topic and form (ELA-2-M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as prewriting (e.g., brainstorming, researching, raising questions, generating graphic organizers) (ELA-2-M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as drafting (ELA-2-M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as conferencing (e.g., peer and teacher) (ELA-2M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as revising based on feedback and use of various tools (e.g., LEAP 21 Writers Checklist, rubrics) (ELA-2-M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as proofreading/editing (ELA-2-M3) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as publishing using technology (ELA-2-M3) Use the various modes to write compositions, including essays defending a stated position (ELA-2-M4) Write for a wide variety of purposes, including text-supported interpretations of elements of grade-appropriate stories, poems, plays, and novels (ELA-2-M6) Use standard English capitalization and punctuation consistently (ELA-3M2) Write paragraphs and compositions following standard English structure and usage, including varied sentence structures and patterns, including complex sentences (ELA-3-M3) Page 68

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GLE # 24b.

44.

GLE Text and Benchmarks Write paragraphs and compositions following standard English structure and usage, including phrases and clauses used correctly as modifiers (ELA3-M3) Use word processing and/or other technology to draft, revise, and publish a variety of works, including documented research reports with bibliographies (ELA-5-M4) Sample Activities

Lesson Cycle 1: Introduction to the Novel (GLEs: 01a, 01b, 02a, 02b, 02c,02d, 04a, 06, 07, 08a, 09e, 12, 16, 22c) Materials List: pen, paper, binders, sticky notes, chart paper, miscellaneous novels, class set of novels, Dr. Seuss books, Reading Continuum BLM, Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM from Unit 4, Jigsaw Activity BLM. Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: How does a novel differ from other genres? How does fiction text look different from nonfiction (consider graphic aids, print type, divisions of text, etc.)? How is the vocabulary different? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss information presented by students during Warm Up. Construct a class description of the novel (i.e., an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story; usually organized under a plot or theme with a focus on character development and action; etc.) and post for reference and refinement throughout the unit. Discuss with students experiences they've had with novels. Possible questions to use in the discussion include: What books have you read? How do you choose a book? Do you enjoy reading books? Why or why not?

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What was the best/last/worst book you read?

Teacher Note: This lesson cycle will focus on the study of either a whole-class/shared novel or individualized novel selections. The activities are written to be applied to a shared reading; however, they could be adapted to fit the different novels students have been reading in the Reading Centers. If teaching a whole-class novel, select a novel that matches the interests and abilities of the current student population and use the jigsaw method to maximize use of in-class time. Novels such as The Devils Arithmetic, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, The Giver, The Outsiders, And Then There Were None, or Nightjohn might be considered. Explain that this unit will involve a close examination of individual reading habits and a novel study using the jigsaw method of collaborative learning. Students will work cooperatively to read a portion of the book, record important information, and share findings to create a basic understanding of the literary elements of the whole novel. In this manner, the class can complete an entire book in a relatively short amount of time. Read aloud Chapter One of the selected text. This can be done by the teacher or by stronger readers in the class.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Examine the Reading Continuum BLM and write a learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) entry in which you identify the category/stage that best describes you as a reader. This entry should be one well-organized paragraph with a clear topic sentence, relevant elaboration, and a strong concluding sentence. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of literary elements (i.e., plot, setting, characterization, theme, etc.) through group discussion of Chapter One. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel, paying close attention to how you read. Reading Response: What do you know about yourself as a reader? What do you notice about yourself when you read? Read the information below about types of readers and discuss which description best fits you. According to J.A. O'Brien, researcher of reading instruction, there are three types of readers: 1. Motor readers move their lips or read aloud. These are slower readers as they accompany their reading with various movements. Sometimes understanding what they read is difficult because reading is work!

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2. Auditory readers "hear" the words they read. They do not actually pronounce each word aloud but only imagine the pronunciation. Their reading is more skillful and rapid than motor readers. 3. Visual readers are the fastest. Visual readers do not "hear" what they are reading. They simply see a word and understand its meaning. Visual readers read with their eyes and mind, not with their mouths or ears. Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) To assess vocabulary knowledge before reading the novel, complete the Vocabulary SelfAwareness Chart BLM (see Unit 4 BLMs). Teacher Note: Select and insert vocabulary from class novel prior to assigning chart completion. Students will rate each vocabulary word according to their levels of familiarity and understanding and provide examples/synonyms and definitions (which may be invented). Throughout the novel study, students revisit their vocabulary selfawareness charts (view literacy strategy descriptions) to add new information and update their growing knowledge about key vocabulary. The goal is to bring all students to a comfortable level with novel vocabulary. Module 2

Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) An inference is a logical guess based on evidence in the text. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What can you infer about the events in Chapter Two of the class novel? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes)
Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings.

Read the second chapter aloud. Review the elements of fiction, particularly setting, characterization, and conflict by discussing the following: Setting 1. Where does the story take place? 2. In what year and time of year does the story take place? 3. What is the mood created by the setting in the story? Character 1. Describe the most important character (protagonist) in the story. This character is usually dynamic and round. 2. Describe the character (antagonist) who works against the main character in the story. This character is usually flat and static. Conflict 1. Which of the 4 types of conflict is present? 2. Is there more than one type of conflict at work here? Assign remaining chapters to center groups.

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Explain that students will read assigned chapters and take notes using Jigsaw Activity BLM. Reading should be done at home over the next few days. They will then share findings with class, and the whole group will read the final chapter(s). Students will then write a plot summary based on what they have heard from center groups. Finally, students will reflect on the process of studying a novel using this strategy. Homework: Read assigned part(s) of the novel.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) An author always writes with a purpose, his or her reason for writing. Often they write to inform, persuade, or entertain the reader. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Identify words, phrases or sentences in the class novel that suggest the authors purpose. How effective do you think the author is in fulfilling the purpose? Explain. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Explain that knowing how to identify the author's purpose leads readers to adjust the way they read in order to better understand what they are reading. Draw a table on the board or chart paper and distribute 3 sticky notes to each student. Have students give one example for each type of writing. Post notes in columns and discuss. Example: Authors Purpose Examples To Inform
a biography

To Persuade
Newspaper editorial

To Entertain
poetry

list of class rules

Homework: Continue reading assigned novel part(s).

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Complete the following statement in your learning log ____________________ is the best novel Ive ever read. Defend your statement by giving at least three text-supported reasons. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of authors purpose through group discussion of class novel. Monitor progress of outside reading. Remind students of jigsaw process and importance of everyone contributing. Ensure that student binders are organized and upto-date. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Compare and contrast the setting of your individual novel with the class novel. What if the settings were switched? How would the stories necessarily change? Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) Complete a Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM (view literacy strategy descriptions) for the chapter you are reading in the class novel. Use a dictionary or online resource to determine the appropriate definition so you can help classmates to understand the new vocabulary in the event that the teacher chooses to share your chart with the class. Be careful not to use proper nouns.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) The theme of a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight. To figure out theme, a reader must ask what insight into life the story reveals. Often, a work of fiction implies a few ideas about the relationship of human beings to each other or to the universe. These are called universal themes. Some examples of universal themes are: o love conquers all o coming of age/growing up o search for identity o good versus evil o problems with power o triumph of adversity o redemption, revenge, or justice Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Suggest a universal theme for the class novel. Support your choice with evidence from the novel. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings.

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Explain that many of Dr. Seuss's books contain powerful messages about serious themes in American history and society. Discuss themes from Dr. Seuss books students may have read as younger children and ask about any lessons they learned from any of these childhood stories. Read aloud one of the following Dr. Seuss books and help students to identify a universal theme. Yertle the Turtle- a cautionary tale against dictators. The Lorax- a strong environmental message. The Sneetches- a plea for racial tolerance. Horton Hears a Who- a parable about the American occupation of Japan. Homework: Complete reading of assigned part of novel. The Jigsaw Activity Worksheet BLM is due at the next class..

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for the novel/jigsaw activity wrap-up. Groups will share their section summaries. The whole class will read the final chapter(s) and each student will write a brief plot summary to demonstrate listening and understanding. Finally, students will submit written reflections on the jigsaw process for teacher evaluation/reflection. If time remains, this is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Lesson Cycle 2: Defending a Position-Prewriting and Drafting (GLEs: 18a, 18b, 18c, 20c, 23, 24a) Materials: pen, paper, binders, miscellaneous novels, writing samples, Position Essay Graphic Organizer BLM, Position Essay Rubric BLM, Complex Sentences BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may

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want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. . Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) RAFT Writing (view literacy strategy descriptions) gives you the opportunity to be both creative and informative. RAFT stands for: R Role (role of the writer) A Audience (to whom or what the RAFT is being written) F Form (the form the writing will take, as in letter, song, etc.) T Topic (the subject focus of the writing) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write a brief RAFT using the following information: R Role (musician, parent, or store owner, etc.) A Audience (parents, musicians, store owners, etc.) F Form (letter, email, song, etc.) T Topic (CDs that contain music that might offend people should be labeled.) For example, you might choose to write a RAFT as o a parent (Role) writing a letter (form) to a store owner (Audience) requesting that controversial CDs be kept behind the counter (Topic), or o a musician (Role) writing a song (Form) about censorship of music (Topic) for young people (Audience). Teacher Note: RAFT writing may be put into student learning logs and graded along with other learning log entries and/or developed fully as an extension activity. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for students to share work completed during Warm Up. Make clear that a position essay is a means for writers to explain a detailed position or opinion on a topic or issue. Suggest that students select an interesting perspective from which to defend a topic. Refer to one of the RAFTs created during Warm Up activity and model for students how they would set up a position essay using a graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions) provided on the Position Essay Graphic Organizer BLM . Since this essay will emphasize all steps in the writing process (prewriting, drafting, conferencing, revising, editing, and publishing), the steps should be posted for easy

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reference. Explain that using this graphic organizer is a means of selecting a topic and structure as well as a form of prewriting.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Select a topic for a position essay and complete a Position Essay Graphic Organizer BLM. Note: Teachers may choose to make the topics novel-specific in keeping with the unit focus or may choose other issues relevant to students lives. Sample Topics o ____________________________ is the best novel I ever read. o This novel should be required reading for all 9th grade students. o The main character has changed dramatically by the end of the novel. o The author does an excellent job of making the setting vivid and real for the readers. o ____________________________ would be a better title for this novel. o Other teacher-created prompts

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Check for student understanding of the writing process. Share the Position Essay Rubric BLM. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Defend this statement: This novel should be read by other teenagers. (Be sure to give at least two strong reasons in defense.) Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Review the explanations of simple, compound and complex sentences found on one of the following websites: o http://www.northwood.org.uk/complex%20sentences.htm o http://www2.ivcc.edu/rambo/eng1001/sentences.htm Play the Sentence Sort game or take the Sentence Variety Quiz online. Print your results page as evidence of completion.

Module 2

Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Explain your position on the following issue: Prayer should be allowed in schools. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Using student examples from the Warm Up activity, demonstrate for students the importance of anticipating the reader's concerns or arguments.

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Use a writing sample (either from the Warm Up activity or from the ACT website) to help students understand that it is important to consider the oppositions strongest arguments if your essay is to be effective.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Complete the Complex Sentences BLM. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review the Warm Up activity making sure students can identify complex sentences. Explain that writing is much more sophisticated when the writer can vary sentences in a composition. Share a paragraph with only simple sentences. Example: His name is Jacoby. He's a famous professional athlete. He's a basketball player. His large house is in Los Angeles. He plays games all over the country. Help students to rewrite the paragraph using at least one complex sentence. Remind students that they must incorporate a variety of sentences in their upcoming essays and that the Position Essay Rubric specifically assesses whether complex sentences have been incorporated.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Use the information generated in the graphic organizer (prewriting activity) to write the first draft of the position essay. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Assist students in beginning/writing the first drafts of the position papers. Check for sentence variety in student essays. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-todate. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Locate and record an example of each of the sentence varieties (simple, compound, and complex). Underline the independent clause once and the dependent clause twice.

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Technology Center (15-20 minutes) An important step in the writing process is discussing/conferencing with others (teacher, peer, etc.) to strengthen your essay. Go to the read/write/think websites Peer Edit with Perfection worksheet. Scroll down to item #5. Read the paragraph and write three compliments and three suggestions for the author. This will provide experience for you in responding to your peers writing.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Think about the topic you have chosen for your position paper. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Construct a T-chart graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions) in which you list the oppositions strongest arguments and your strongest responses. Opponents Argument(s) Your Response

Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Allow time for students to share work completed during Warm Up. Remind students to continually consider opponents arguments as they write the first drafts of the position essays. Refer to the steps of the writing process posted at the beginning of this lesson cycle and remind students that they are at the drafting stage. Reinforce what students must accomplish at this stage: o Write as much as you can in this first draft. It is far better to have the luxury of eliminating information than it is to have to come up with more information. o Remember that this is a work in progress. You can rearrange, sort, and polish later. o Dont cut ideas at this stage. See where your writing takes you. Homework: Students may need to work at home to ensure completion of first draft of position essay.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

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Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments Teacher Note: Select (from each class) a completed first draft of the position essay to use in demonstrating peer response for the next lesson cycle or provide a sample to model. This draft should be projected or copied for whole class review. Make sure to remove students name from the draft if a students work is used. This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for completion of first draft of position essay allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work provide extension activities check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance

Lesson Cycle 3: Defending a Position-Conferencing, Revising, Editing, and Publishing (GLEs: 18d, 18e, 18f, 18g, 20c, 22c, 23, 44) Materials: pen, paper, binders, miscellaneous novels, writing samples, Position Essay Rubric BLM from Lesson Cycle 2 Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Exchange drafts of the position essay with a classmate who is not in your center group. Each student should write three compliments and three suggestions for the writer. Return essays with comments.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review the Warm Up activity making sure that students understand the difference between useful and vague feedback. Using the position essay draft selected prior to class, demonstrate providing effective, useful feedback.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Again exchange drafts of the position essay with a classmate but this time with a classmate who is in your center group. Each student should write three compliments and three suggestions for the author. Return essays with comments. Use the feedback from your teacher and your peers to get your text right. Pay attention to your overall argument, the logical flow of your ideas, the quality of your reasons. This is the revising stage of the writing process, which should result in a stronger second draft of your position essay.

Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Assist students in beginning/writing the revised drafts of the position papers. Remind students of the Position Essay Rubric BLM; have them review the rubric to help them understand how their essays will be assessed. Ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading self-selected novel. Reading Response: Give feedback to the author of your book. Write three compliments and three suggestions for the author. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Spend some time online searching for contact information for the author of your current novel, our recent class novel, or a favorite novel. Write an e-mail to the author providing feedback by sharing what you like most about the novel. You may not find a direct e-mail, but may need to send the message to an agent or publisher who will forward the message. Teacher Note: Check e-mail messages to ensure they are written correctly and are appropriate. This is an opportunity to engage students in discussion regarding e-mail etiquette.

Module 2

Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) If you are expected to revise your writing, but all you do is edit it, you may be in trouble! Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What is the difference between revising and editing?

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Editing is when you make specific surface changes to correct obvious mistakes. It typically involves rearranging what is already on the page. By contrast, revision calls for one to actually change what was said, rather than rearrange it. Examples of revision: o reorganizing to provide structure to a paper o supplying new evidence to clarify a position o deleting, replacing, reorganizing paragraphs Examples of editing: o deleting needless words o changing, fixing punctuation o correcting spelling or awkward phrasing Homework: Students must complete revised drafts of position essays to be prepared for tomorrows assignments.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Begin the process of editing your revised position essay by answering the following questions in a paragraph using complete sentences: Have you indented the paragraphs and used proper spacing? Do you have at least five paragraphs - an introduction, three paragraphs that each deal with a supporting point and a conclusion? Are there any errors in spelling and grammar? Have you repeated ideas in the essay? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review the Warm Up activity, making sure that students understand the editing process. Use student sample(s) to model editing process. Ask student(s) to read essay(s) aloud to locate errors in style and form.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Read your essay out loud to yourself or another person in your center group. Sometimes simply verbalizing what you have written will help you to locate errors in style and form. This is the editing stage of the writing process. Correct any errors you find so you may begin publishing (putting into final form) your essay. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Assist students in editing the revised drafts of the position essays. Address issues of grammar as they arise by conducting mini-grammar lessons that focus on students grammatical errors and/or weaknesses. Remind students of the position essay rubric. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: You have been writing a position essay in which you defend a position/statement. If the main character in your novel had this assignment, what would he/she defend? In other words, what are they passionate about? What would they be willing to argue for or against? Explain your answer using information from the text. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Visit the Power Proofreading website, enter your first name, read the instructions, and then select the highest level available. Scroll down and select Tips for Thomas or News Bulletin. Both of these passages will provide you with practice in finding and correcting a variety of mechanical and grammatical errors. You will need to print a copy of the computer screen when you have corrected all of the errors. You can print the information on the screen by pressing the Print Screen button (usually located above the numerical keyboard to the right of the alphabetical keyboard). Then open a blank Word document, right click and select paste. Your computer screen snapshot should appear in the document. Print the document.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) The word publish means to announce formally or officially; to proclaim; to make publicly or generally known. Once you have edited your essay, it is time to publish. That is, you must prepare it to be made public. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: How do you feel about other people reading your work? Why do you feel this way? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review the Warm Up activity, making sure students understand what publishing means as it relates to the writing process. Explain that there are many ways to publish (share) a final draft. For example, a writer might:

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o o o o o o o

submit it to a teacher for response read it out loud in class post it on a bulletin board submit it for publication in a magazine send it to someone publish it on the Internet include it in a collection of essays made into a book for keeping in the school library

The teacher should decide how he/she would like students to publish their final drafts or allow them to select a means of publishing (sharing). Final, published drafts should be completed using word processing skills depending on time and access. Distribute and review the Position Essay Rubric BLM. Explain that students should submit evidence of all stages of the writing process along with the rubric upon publication.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Vocabulary Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for teachers to allow time for publishing of position essay (using computer lab perhaps) allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work provide extension activities check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Unit Extension Activities Students create a series of story chains. Each student starts a sentence about his/her individual novel, and the next student adds a second line. The next, a third line, etc. until the last student writes a concluding line or solves the problem. Return story chains to the beginning writer and share them with the entire class. After novel completion, students can determine if the story chain is an accurate prediction of the novels plot. As an alternative, instead of every student starting a story chain, allow students who are embarking on a new novel to start the chain with a small group of students who are already fully immersed in a novel.

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Explain to students that a tableau is a representation of a scene by one or more persons who are usually suitably costumed and carefully posed. Begin by selecting three or four students and identify a scene from the book for modeling. Assist students in forming a frozen scene representing the event from the novel. Discuss the significance of the scene. Assign groups of four to five students who must select a group leader (for organizing the scene and communicating readiness to the teacher) and create a tableau for a specific, assigned chapter in the novel. Students are to select one significant scene from their chapter, identifying the significance of the scene, the roles each student will play, and how to form the tableau considering group members and props. Students will present their scenes to the class for feedback and check for accuracy of interpretation. (As an alternative means of presentation, take digital pictures of the scenes and create a visual timeline of the novel.) Encourage student reflection (either written or oral) by asking: 1. What did you like about this activity? 2. What went well in your group? 3. How did the activity help you to better understand the characters actions or motives? Students choose at least five Luminous Lines from the novel. These are the lines that stood out to the reader. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: List the five lines and tell why each is special/important. In other words, did they elicit a certain mood or vision while you read them? Did they create an aha moment for you as a reader? Are they good uses of figurative language? Share your lines with the class. Have students take an important scene from the class novel and write it as a play. Students will then perform the play using props, costumes, etc. The presentation can be filmed and replayed for class reflection and/or critique. Engage students in writing Poetry with a Purpose by sharing several different types of formula poetry (acrostic, diamante, list, shape, cinquain, sonnet, etc.) from which they can select to compose a poem about a character(s) in their novel or about the novel itself. These forms are suggestions; students are encouraged to find other forms of poetry with which to express themselves. Students should write and illustrate the poems to be displayed on a bulletin board, assembled into a class booklet, or shared orally. Teacher Note: Several of these extension activities will address Speaking and Listening GLEs 28, 29, and 32.

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Ninth Grade Remediation English Unit 7: Drama Time Frame: Time Frame: Approximately two to three weeks plus time extension activities Unit Description The essential goals of this unit are to interpret and to analyze aspects of dramatic works. Other critical goals are to develop well-supported responses to texts and to analyze the distinctive characteristics of the genre such as scene development and characterization. Student Understandings Drama is the literary genre of works intended for the theater. Individuals can construct their own meaning from the text of the dramatic work and gain insight into the plot, action, and significance of events and details in the drama through character analysis. Additionally, students can make real-life connections and gain a greater appreciation for society/culture through the study of drama. Guiding Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Can students sequence events in order to examine and evaluate information in a drama? Can students conduct a detailed scene analysis and explain its significance? Can students explain how the dramatist uses characterization to develop the characters? Can students identify and explain the significance of characterization and evaluate its effectiveness? for

Unit 7 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) GLE # Grade 8 08d. 09a. GLE Text and Benchmarks Use knowledge of the distinctive characteristics to classify the significance of various genres, including drama (e.g., plays) (ELA-6-M3) Demonstrate understanding of information in grade-appropriate texts using a variety of strategies, including sequencing events to examine and evaluate information (ELA-7-M1) (see ELA-1-M2) Organize individual paragraphs with topic sentences, relevant elaboration, and concluding sentences (ELA-2-M1) Develop grade-appropriate compositions by identifying and applying writing processes such as publishing using technology (ELA-2-M3) Develop writing using a variety of literary devices, including understatements and allusions (ELA-2-M5)

16. 18g. 21.

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22c.

32. 39a.

39b.

39c.

39d.

40b.

42c. 44.

45c.

Write for a wide variety of purposes, including text-supported interpretations of elements of grade-appropriate stories, poems, plays, and novels (ELA-2-M6) Adjust volume and inflection to suit the audience and purpose of presentations (ELA-4-M3) Locate and select information using organizational features of gradeappropriate resources, including complex reference sources (e.g., almanacs, atlases, newspapers, magazines, brochures, map legends, prefaces, appendices) (ELA-5-M1) Locate and select information using organizational features of gradeappropriate resources, including electronic storage devices (e.g., CDROMs, diskettes, software, drives) (ELA-5-M1) Locate and select information using organizational features of gradeappropriate resources, including frequently accessed and bookmarked Web addresses (ELA-5-M1) Locate and select information using organizational features of gradeappropriate resources, including organizational features of electronic information (e.g., Web resources including online sources and remote sites) (ELA-5-M1) Locate and integrate information from a variety of grade-appropriate resources, including electronic sources (e.g., Web sites, databases) (ELA-5M2) Gather and select information using data-gathering strategies/tools, including paraphrasing (ELA-5-M3) Use word processing and/or other technology to draft, revise, and publish a variety of works, including documented research reports with bibliographies (ELA-5-M4) Give credit for borrowed information following acceptable use policy, including creating bibliographies and/or works cited lists (ELA-5-M5) Sample Activities

Lesson Cycle 1: Introduction to Drama (GLEs: 08d, 09a, 18g, 21, 22c, 32, 39a, 39b, 39c, 39d, 40b, 42c, 44, 45c) Materials: pen; paper; binders; miscellaneous novels, play(s), Scene GIST Example BLM, Scene Interpretation Project BLM, Scene Interpretation Project Rubric BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur.

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Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What is drama? How is it different from other genres? Do you remember reading or writing a play? Do you have a favorite play? Explain. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Discuss information presented by students during Warm Up. Construct and post a class definition of drama including the distinctive characteristics of drama (e.g., highly emotional, follows the format for stories [plot, conflict, climax, etc.], organized into acts or scenes as transitional devices, uses dialogue through which the characters are revealed, and uses conventions such as stage directions, scene setting, asides, etc.). Explain to students that they may refine the definition throughout the unit. Read a synopsis of a dramatic work and then assign an Act or Scene from the original script to each center group for interpretation. Sample plays with synopsis and condensed script locations are provided below. Some links provide free, downloadable copies while other links provide purchase information. Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet Synopsis Sixty-Minute Shakespeare : Romeo and Juliet Condensed Script

The Shakespeare The Shakespeare Stealer play Stealer Synopsis adaptation by the author The Diary of Anne Frank: The Whole Story Anne Frank online play adaptation Synopsis *Any other adaptations of classical literature or favorite children's tales written to appeal to young actors could be used for this lesson cycle. The Shakespeare Stealer The Diary of Anne Frank Explain to students that this lesson cycle will involve detailed act/scene analysis and creative, technology-based interpretation. Students will closely examine assigned sections of the text (scenes) and choose from a variety of interpretation activities to present information to the class. Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Write a brief (3-5 sentences) summary of your scene. GISTing (view literacy strategy descriptions) will help you to paraphrase and summarize essential information. To begin, read the first sentence of the summary/synopsis and write a statement in 15 words or less

Gary L. Blackwood Anne Frank

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capturing the essential information of the sentence. Next, read the second sentence of the summary and, using the information from the first and second sentences, rewrite the gist statement by combining information from the first sentence with information from the second. Remember, no more than 15 words allowed. As you read each new sentence, rework your GIST statement by adding any new information but still limiting the words to 15! Share your GIST with the group and decide which GIST will be shared with the class. View the Scene GIST Example BLM for further assistance in constructing your GIST.

Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Center groups will select a technology-based interpretation project from the Scene Interpretation Project BLM. (The group may also suggest other technology-based interpretations.) Construct a rough draft/outline of the project and seek teacher approval before proceeding. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: How would the events in your novel have been affected if someone had used a certain piece of advanced high-tech equipment (e.g. mini hidden camera, key ghost [which records what you enter on a keyboard], cell phone spy [records text messages], or GPS tracking device)? Name the item and describe how and why the novel would have been different, and how it would have affected the main character(s). Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Brainstorm a list of technologies that you use, see, or know about. Think about the technology in your book bag or purse, the classroom or on campus, a workplace (yours or someone else's), your home, or a store. Now, think about how humans are involved with these technologies. No matter how efficient technology becomes, its use requires humans who can write, speak, read, listen, and understand. Unfortunately, this allows for misuse. Conduct online research regarding technology policies in schools (e.g., Internet usage on campus, cyber bullying, banning Facebook, use of cell phones, etc.) Discuss one policy that you found that you think should be adopted by your school. Include information from the website and create a bibliographic entry. This link is a good source (based on the MLA 7th edition) for writing proper bibliographic entries: http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/library/mlahcc7th.html.

Module 2

Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Understatement is a figure of speech used for emphasis. For example, in Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, his main character, Holden Caulfield states, It isnt very serious. I have this tiny tumor in my brain. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Write two examples of understatement that are in some way related to the scene you have been assigned.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Review Scene Interpretation Project Rubric BLM. Homework: Students may need to work on some aspects of scene interpretations outside of class or gather materials to bring to class for their project.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

Module 3 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) An allusion is an indirect reference that casually mentions something that is generally familiar. If youre familiar with the meaning hidden behind the words, you get it! In dramatic literature we often find allusions to mythology, the Bible, history, etc. Allusion samples: 1. The tornado swallowed him up like Jonah. (a reference to the story of Jonah and the whale who swallowed him whole) 2. I quickly realized that my best friend was Benedict Arnold! (a reference to a famous American traitor) 3. The three stooges ran around the gym frantically preparing for the dance. (a reference to a team of no-so-bright comedians) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Think about the characters in the current play and write a few sentences or a short paragraph that contain an allusion. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Students will demonstrate understanding of the plot of the current play by sequencing events presented through examining and evaluating group GISTs (view literacy strategy descriptions) created in a prior Writing Center lesson. Homework: Students may need to work on some aspects of scene interpretations outside of class or gather materials to bring to class for project.

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Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Explain why the scene you were assigned is important to the development of the play. Share your response with your group and discuss. Work on written component(s) of Scene Interpretation Project. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Review Scene Interpretation Project Rubric BLM. Work on written and/or technology component(s) of Scene Interpretation Project. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel and search for allusions. Reading Response: Record and explain any allusions located. If none were found, create two statements using allusions related to your novel. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Work on technology component of Scene Interpretation Project.

Module 4 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: What? So What? Now What?: What has your group accomplished towards completion of the scene interpretation project? So what have you learned thus far about yourself, the group or this project process? Now what do you individually and the group as a whole need to do to ensure the success of the project? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; assist students in determining next steps. Review Scene Interpretation Project Rubric BLM. Homework: Students may need to work on some aspects of scene interpretations outside of class or gather materials to bring to class for project.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

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Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessments This is an opportunity for Scene Interpretation Project presentations. Groups will share their scene interpretations for evaluation using the Scene Interpretation Project Rubric BLM. An additional day may be added to this lesson cycle for the teacher to: allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Lesson Cycle 2: Characterization in Drama (GLEs: 18g, 22c, 39a, 39b, 39c, 39d, 40b) Materials: pen, paper, binders, miscellaneous novels, play(s), several printouts of personal Web pages, Character Map BLM, Character Homepage Rubric BLM Teacher Note: Explanations for the Warm Up activity and the Writing, Flex, Reading, Technology, and Vocabulary Centers are written as directions to the student. The teacher may want to copy and paste these into a document that can be enlarged and posted in the appropriate center. Explanations for Whole Class Instruction and the Conferencing Center are written as teacher-directed instructions. Teacher notes are included where exceptions occur. Some activities include words that contain embedded hyperlinks (see words in blue). Teachers should preview these sites and determine if the materials should be copied for student use or if the links to interactive sites should be provided to the students. Teacher Note: Allot time to read a shared play (in class or as homework) prior to beginning this lesson cycle. Module 1 Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Select a major character from the play and find details about how the character looks, feels and acts. These details can help you to discover character traits. Identifying and understanding characters traits, emotions, and motives help the reader better understand the character. Examples of character traits might be persistent, pleasant, rude, trusting, sensitive, worried, trustworthy, etc. Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Select 3 traits of a character from the play and complete the Character Map BLM. Be sure to provide evidence from the text to support each trait.

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Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Explain to students that drama relies heavily on dialogue to fully develop characters. Begin a close examination of characterization through dialogue by brainstorming (view literacy strategy descriptions) answers to the following question: If you were going to introduce _______ (a minor character in the play) to someone who had never read this play, what words would you use to describe him/her? Create the word list on the board, and narrow down to three words. Have students locate a place in the text that shows that the character fits the description (for instance, bossy may be supported by the character exclaiming, because I said so!"). Call attention to the techniques that the author uses to develop characterization (e.g. description, dialogue, word choice, etc.). Assign each center group a different character and explain that this lesson cycle will focus on character analysis in dramatic literature. Later in the Lesson Cycle, students will work collaboratively to combine character analysis with technology to construct a character homepage. Note: This activity is adapted from lessons found on the www.readwritethink.org website.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) SPAWN (view literacy strategy descriptions) is an acronym that stands for five categories of writing prompts (Special Powers, Problem Solving, Alternative Viewpoints, What If?, and Next), which can be used to stimulate critical thinking. Think about the character you have been assigned, and answer the following questions: S (Special Powers): If you could give your character special powers of a superhero, what would you have him/her be able to do? Why? P (Problem Solving): There is no play without a conflict (problem). In this play, how could the problem have been avoided? N (Next): What do you think might happen to your character in the future (after the problem is resolved)? Your responses should be written in your learning logs and shared with your center group members.

Flex Center (15-20 minutes) Spend time reviewing teacher-provided personal homepages. Make a list of sections and items they have in common. Decide which of these common elements your group would like to incorporate in your character's homepage. What information do you think the character would like to publish on his/her personal Web page? Create a rough draft/sketch of the characters homepage as you envision it.

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Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel. Reading Response: Write three words to describe the main character in your novel. Find and record evidence from the text that shows that the character fits the description. Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Your center group will have to design a personal homepage for the character you were assigned. Research personal homepages online by visiting homepages of o authors (e.g. http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/; http://www.jkrowling.com/en/index.cfm, http://www.walterdeanmyers.net/) o athletes (e.g. http://www.lindseyvonn.com/; http://kb24.com/; http://www.usainbolt.com/), or o actors (e.g. http://moisesariasweb.com/; http://www.adamsandler.com/). In a well-organized paragraph (topic sentence, relevant elaboration, and concluding sentence), discuss the personal webpage you liked best. What made it the best? How was it different from the others? Be thinking about how you would design a personal homepage for your assigned character.

Module 2

Warm Up: Learning Log entry (5 Minutes) Learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions) prompt: Think about the character you were assigned. What things might this person insist on including on his or her homepage? Why? Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Review Character Homepage Rubric BLM. Emphasize that the page must include a minimum of three written items, 3 graphics, and 3 hyperlinks (links to relevant websites). Demonstrate for students the process for inserting hyperlinks. The following website provides a tutorial for adding hyperlinks to documents: http://www.internet4classrooms.com/msword_hyperlink.htm.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 1

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Module 3 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Create a graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions) with 3 columns and suggest at least 3 written items, 3 graphics, and 3 hyperlinks for your characters homepage. Example: Written Parts 1 2 3 Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; correct any misunderstandings. Explain that this information should be shared with center groups. Using the minor character in the play that was used as an example in Module 1 Whole Group Instruction, construct a chart (on the board or chart paper) like the one created during the Warm Up activity. Encourage students to add to their charts as new ideas arise. Demonstrate for students how to incorporate these elements into a homepage design. Group members should divide tasks in the interest of collaboration and time. Homework: Students may need to work on some aspects of the character homepage project outside of class or gather materials to bring to class for project.

Graphics

Hyperlinks

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) Work on written component(s) of the character homepage project. Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) Review the Character Homepage Rubric BLM. Work with students on the written and/or technology component(s) of the character homepage project. Reading Center (15-20 minutes) Spend 10-15 minutes reading a self-selected novel and search for allusions. Reading Response: Select a major character in your novel and sketch a rough draft of his/her homepage. What does this homepage say about the character? Technology Center (15-20 minutes) Work on technology component of the character homepage.

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Module 4 Warm Up (5 Minutes) Generate 3-5 questions you would ask of a character (other than your assigned character) in the play. The character you select should be one that was assigned to another center group. Whole Group Instruction (Mini lesson) (10 minutes) Review work completed by students during Warm Up; assist students in determining next steps. Professor-know-it-all (view literacy strategy descriptions) is an effective review strategy because it positions students as experts on topics to inform their peers and to be challenged and held accountable by them. A center group is called to the front of the room and invites questions from the class related to its assigned character. Audience members should ask their prepared questions first, then add others if more information is desired. If no one wrote questions for the groups character during Warm Up, ask students to generate questions orally. Sample questions could be factual and/or higher level and might include the following: How did you react when the problem was introduced?; Are you optimistic or pessimistic and why? Who is your favorite character in the play and why? What will you do now that this part of your life is over? Typically, the know-it-alls huddle after receiving a question, discuss briefly how to answer it, and then have the know-it-all spokesperson give the answer. Audience participants should think carefully about the answers received and challenge or correct any incorrect answers. Continue the process of students questioning students until all groups have participated. Homework: Students may need to work on some aspects of the character homepage project outside of class or gather materials to bring to class for their project.

Writing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Conferencing Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Reading Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3 Technology Center (15-20 minutes) See Module 3

Module 5 Lesson Cycle Wrap Up/Sample Assessment Character Homepage Allow time for Character Homepage presentations. Groups will share their homepages for evaluation using the Character Homepage Rubric BLM. As a means of lesson cycle closure and reflection, have students identify (in writing or in a class discussion) how they might approach or appreciate drama differently as a result of

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this lesson cycle. Also ask what they have learned about character analysis as a result of this lesson cycle. An additional day may be added to this lesson cycle for the teacher to: allow time for completion of center tasks allow time for make-up work check for understanding of any assignments completed during this lesson cycle ensure that student binders are organized and up-to-date administer formal/informal assessments conference/provide individual assistance Unit Extension Activities As a whole class or in small groups, have students write and perform an original play. Find inspiration, create characters, outline the plot, tell the story through dialogue, revise, publish and assess. Helpful tips can be accessed through one of the following websites: Young Playwrights Theater, Bright Hub!, or Teachers.Net. Readers Theatre introduces the element of drama into literacy learning. This is a dramatic presentation where speaking parts in a play are divided among readers who read from a script. No memorization, costumes, setting, or blocking is necessary since the focus is on reading the text with expressive voices and appropriate gestures. To begin, have student groups skim/scan anthologies, search the library, the Internet, or any other available resources for short one-act plays to perform. Previously studied or student-written plays may be used instead of searching for new material. Student groups will select a fable/folktale to be rewritten as a Reader's Theater script, including the characteristics of drama as defined at the beginning of this unit (e.g., stage directions, scene descriptions, dialogue). Groups will create play posters (like the movie posters outside of theaters) advertising their performance of the play. Plays will be performed using the Readers Theater format and evaluated using a teacher- or class-created rubric. Have students become movie critics. Students will compare the video/movie to the play version of a literary work by documenting their findings in a comparison/contrast chart, Venn diagram, or some other graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions). This presents an opportunity to enhance technology skills by using Inspiration software if available. These graphic organizers can serve as prewriting for comparison/contrast essays. To further explore characterization, engage students in an activity designed to help them not simply think about the character, but become (and react as) the character. The first student volunteer chooses a character from the whole class play but does not share the name of the character with the class. The student must think about (and may discuss with the teacher) the characters dominant traits. The teacher then narrates in second person simple events that might occur throughout a typical day in the characters life. Begin with a simple event (e.g., You wake up in the morning and realize that something is not right. You shake off the thought and go to make your breakfast.). The student volunteer follows the instructions, but he reacts in character. Slowly add some surprises (e.g., On your way to school, the school bus has a flat tire.) Continue the story, adding more and more extreme details (e.g., The ghost of your great, great grandfather floats into your classroom during 3rd period.). The scene Page 96

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stops when an appropriate ending to the day is reached. The class reflects upon the scene and character reactions in order to identify the character being portrayed. The activity can be repeated for other characters allowing other students to narrate the day for the character.

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