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UPENDRA NEPALI

Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Wines
%* +e !no+ t at" +ine* are t e ,aluable and mo*t *t&li* drin!* in t e be,erage indu*trie* e,er *ince" it-* di*co,erie*. (t i* t e mo*t un.at omable *ub*tance* in t e i*tor& o. t e be,erage in com$ari*on to an& ot er be,erage indu*trie*. %ll o. u* li!e to a,e t e ta*te o. t e +ine* at an occa*ional or t e almo*t all t e time o. t eir li.e* .t i* i* t e be*t indu*trie* e,er gro+n u$. )e*t o. t e bu*ine** mig t a,e come or .ace t e cri*i* in t e $a*t" $re*ent and +ill .ace .inanceial meltdo+nne**"$er a$* not t i* indu*trie*/ nobod& e0$ect* to a$$ened or +ill a$$ened in t e near .uture*.1e +ill di*cu** e,er& *im$le matter or t e i**ue* in t e*e to$ic* regarding t e +ine*. Fermentations: .ermentation* i* t e $roce** o. adding +ine &ea*t to .e* gra$e* 2uice* to con,ert t e natural *ugar in t e gra$e* to E3456 %678486. (n t i* met od co29carbon dio0ide i* *imultaneou*l& relea*ed ma!ing .ermentation* ,iolent at 1*t and *lo+. 3 e &ea*t added in t e gra$e* 2uice* i* : to 5 ; or more t an t e $ercentage mention* becau*e t e more t e &ea*t could ma!e alco olic ; greater and .abulou* ta*te. 3 i* $roce** ta!e* about 2 da&* and during t i* $roce** t e tem$erature i* maintained bet+een <4 degree to 77 degree .orin ig t. 3 ere are 2 t&$e* o. &ea*t in .ermentation* t e& are =acc arom&ce* cere,i*iae > =acc arom&ce*" re.er* to ?*acc aro %not er met od i* t at t e +ort i* cooled and t en $a**ed in to ,e**el* + ere it i* .ermented b& t e &ea*t + ic attract* t e *ugar and con,ert* in to crude alco ol. 3 e re*ult i* a *ort o. beer-t en +a* ed and +it t e alco olic *trengt increa*e* u$.(n .ermentation* *ugar in .ruit* or grain de,elo$ed b& germination* and malting i* con,erted in to alco ol b& t e action* o. t e bacteria. 3 e degree o. .ermentation* can be controlled .co2 8) carbon dio0ide i* a b& $roduct* and can be retained a* in t e ca*e o. o. beer* and c am$agne*.1 at can be .ermented@ 6i!e gra$e*" .ruit*" =election* o. t e +ine* b& t e name* o. t e gra$e* +ill al+a&* *ati*.& our Aue*t to !no+ t e ta*te and t e color o. t e +ine* and t at i* an& +ine*.3 o*e t ing* + ic can be .ermented can-t be di*tilled and di*tilled can-t be .ermented. Distillations: % di*tillation i* t e $roce** o. $roducing t e alco ol. B& eating t e com$onent* i* *e$arated or ma* ed and a* t e ,a$ori'ation* ta!e* $lace* t e ,a$or* are cooled *o t e& conden*e in to #EB3)%6 *$irit* +it little color*" aroma.t e di*tiller t en di*til* or blend* neutral *$irit* +it ot er alco ol and lea,e it to maturit& or ma& or ma& not lea,e it .or t e maturated "until t e de*ired aroma*" i* ac ie,ed be.ore t e bottling*.brand&"gra$$a"armagnac",od!a"gin"+ i*!&*"and man& more. Ci*tillation* in + ic alco ol ,a$or i* $a**ed t roug t e .la,ouring agent* and cooled.it * o+* t at *$irit* a,e ab*orbed t e .la,or*.Ci*tillation* i* t e $roce** o. increa*ing t e concertration* o. alco ol in t e be,erage. 3 ere are 2 t&$e* o. =3(66 POT STILL: (t-* ba*ed on alc emi*t alembic. (t i* a**ociated +it t e *e$eration* "*lo+"lo+ tem$erature*"di*tillation*"a* a re*ult* $roduct* contain*" good $ro$artion* o. congener*"in t e .la,iour*.t e $ot *till $ro,ide* t e eac *$irit* it-* c aracter*" and a$$eal. %ll ea,e& *$irit* li!e brand& "malt"+ i*!&"dar! rum"teAuila"cal,ado* are t e $ot *till. 3 e*e are t e earlie*t di*tillation de,ice* 9al*o u*ed in t e $roduction o. Brand& and =cotc D. % ba*ic $ot *till con*i*t* o. t ree $art*: t e !ettle" + ere t e liAuid mi0ture i* boiled" t e conden*er" + ic cool* do+n t e ,a$or* coming .rom t e !ettle" and t e goo*enec!" + ic connect* t e !ettle to t e conden*er. 3 e liAuid obtained .rom t i* t&$e o. di*tillation i* al*o !no+n a* ?*ingle di*tillate"E *ince it i* $roce**ed t roug t e *till onl& once. 3&$icall& t i* liAuid i* $roce**ed a *econd time" t u* $roducing a ?double di*tillateE + ic i* cleaner and *tronger t an t e *ingle di*tillate. =e,eral di*tillerie* a,e ta!en t i* a *te$ .urt er b& running t e di*tillate a t ird" e,en a .ourt time t roug t e *till" obtaining a cleaner" *tronger" more recti.ied *$irit at t e end o. eac run. Becau*e t e amount o. liAuid t at can be di*tilled at one time 1 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

+it a $ot *till i* limited to t e *i'e o. t e !ettle" di*tiller* em$lo&ing t i* met od mu*t $er.orm t eir +or! batc b& batc " + ic i* a ,er& labor inten*i,e $roce** 9t e !ettle mu*t be cleaned in bet+een batc e*D. 1ine* don-t get com$leted +it out t e .ermentation* and di*tillation*.$er a$* t i* t e $roce** o. ma!ing t e +ine*. Column STILL: it is the continuous distillations Column Still: The continuous distillation system was created in an attempt to make the distillation process more consistent. It also reduced the amount of work required to process each batch, thus allowing for higher volumes of alcohol to be produced. distillation column is constructed much like a vertical ma!e, made up of a number of hori!ontal trays placed at different levels throughout the column. "ere the fermented liquid mi#ture is introduced into the column at its highest level while steam is introduced at its lowest level. s the liquid makes its way down the column, it is heated by the surrounding steam, and the alcohol in the mi# is vapori!ed. $nce it reaches the bottom of the column, the %wash& contains no alcohol and is removed through a release valve. The saturated steam is collected from the top of the column and is then cooled down, allowing it to condense. 'epending on the type of alcohol desired, column still operators will employ several columns, each one feeding the ne#t, each one producing a cleaner, stronger, more (rectified( spirit There are 4 types of distillations, they are %tmo*$ eric $re**ure* di*tillation* Fractional di*tillation* Gacuum di*tillation*" =tem di*tillation* DECA TATIO S! Cecantation-* *im$l& mean* cleaning o. t e .oreign $article* +it in t e bottle* and letting t e +ine* o. t e *$irit* be cleaned. DEF"CATIO S: i* t e $roce** o. cleaning* o. bot t e redH+ ite +ine* b& boiling *teaming met od. Dire#t defe#ations: i* t e $roce** o. di*tilling o. t e be,erage +it t e el$ o. t e *team. SPI$ITES: *$irit* i* a $otable alco olic be,erage obtained .rom t e di*tillitation* o. an alco ol containing liAuid.in di*tilation* all t e alco ol can be *e$arated +it t e $re*ent* o. met &lalc ol and et &l alco ol + ic i* 724:84HE%34586 .rom t e liAuid. 6i!e ,od!a" gin" gra$$a" 2> b" *ambuca ALCO%OL: %lco ol i* a ,olatile mobile .luid* obtained b& .ermenting a liAuid containing *ugar" in + ic t e *trengt o. + ic can be .urt er be increa*ed b& di*tillation* $roce**.met &lalc ol and et &l alco ol + ic i* 724:84HE%34586 i* t e .ormula. %lco ol a* 100 calorie* in a *ingle unite*. =E6E73(8#= 8F I)%JE=: 14(3E 1(#E I)%JE= ta*te 7abernet *au,ignon blac! current 7 ardoanna& ri$e lemon"$inea$$le 7 enin blanc a$$le* Ieu+r'raminer tro$ical .ruit* l&c ee* Merlot $lum*"dam*on #ebbiolo $rune* Jinot noir *tra+berie* c erie*"$lum* )ie*ling a$ricot*"$eac * =au,gnon blanc goo*eberie* =&ra ra*$berrie* %lbarino Jinot blanc a$$le"$ear*"l&c ee* 7 einin blanc melon"lime" 2 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Ieu,ir'tramine* Ierner ,etttinge Mar*ame Mu*cat Jinot grigio* )ie*ling )o*u**ane =au,gnon blanc =emillion*

l&c ee*"mango coriander lemon"a$$le*"$ear* a$$le"$eac "a$$ricot *$ice*"*a..orn

RED I!ES "RA#ES Kin.andel blac! berrie*"bramble *$ice* %licante bou*c et *a..orn"t &me Barbera ? ?E 7abernet .ranc blac! berrie*> all berrie* 7abernet *au,ignon 7arignanc all c errie*"blac! berrie* 7armenere c err&"*tra+berrie* 7in*ault *tra+berrie* Curi.. Iama& noir c err&"*tra+berrie* Irenc e ru*tic".le* &"*+eet* du*t& Frignolino Malbec Merlot $lum*"a$$le*"a$ricot* Mi**ion all berrie* Mour,edre t &me"clo,e"cinnoman"blac! $e$$er* 1erbbiolo blac! berrie*"c err& Jetit *ira ninou*"blac! .ruit* and blac! berrie* Jinot meanier Jinot noir c err&"*tra+berrie*"blac! berrie*"red berrie*"a$$le"lemon Jrimatino all berrie* =angione*e ??? =&ra blac! current 3em$ranillo all .ruit* Galdigui*e Kin.andle all berrie* Jintoage Classi# $ed Wine &rapes 1 at ( con*ider to be t e *i0 cla**ic red gra$e* are detailed ere" toget er +it .urt er detail* on a number o. ot er ,arietie* at t e .oot o. t e $age. =ome o. t e gra$e ,arietie* mentioned ere" *uc a* 7abernet =au,ignon and = ira'" +ill be .amiliar to e,en t e no,ice +ine drin!er. 8t er*" o+e,er" *uc a* =angio,e*e and #ebbiolo" +ill be muc le** .amiliar" a* out*ide o. t e region* o. nort ern (tal& + ere t e*e gra$e* a,e t eir ome t e& are not" a* &et" e0ten*i,el& $lanted. Eac $ro.ile contain* in.ormation on: : A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Spirit'al home: t e 8ld 1orld location* + ere t e gra$e a* it* ome. Mo*t gra$e ,arietie* a,e 2u*t one or t+o location* in t e 8ld 1orld + ere t e& are traditionall& culti,ated. 3 i* *ection tell* &ou + ere. &ro(n else(here: *ome gra$e* a,e .ound a nic e in t e #e+ 1orld" and ma& a,e gained con*iderable .ame a* a re*ult" *uc a* =au,ignon Blanc in #e+ Kealand. 8t er* are almo*t ubiAuitou*" + erea* *ome a,e tra,elled little. 3 i* *ection gi,e* &ou a brie. one-liner a* to + ere t e ,ariet& i* .ound". )ey(ords: t i* *ection gi,e* 2u*t one or t+o +ord* t at gi,e *ome idea a* to t e intrin*ic .la,our o. t e gra$e. (t i* merel& a Auic! note to L ang &our at onL" *o to *$ea!" and i* b& no mean* com$re en*i,e.. Profile: % guide to t e gro+ing reAuirement* or $re.erence*" ta*te and aroma" abilit& to age and *o on. Ca*ernet Sa'+i,non Spirit'al home: Bordeau0. &ro(n else(here: 1idel& culti,ated t roug out t e +orld. )ey fla+o'r: Blac!currant*. Profile: )eno+ned .or t e +ine* it $roduce* on t e +ell-drained" gra,ell& *oil* on t e le.t ban! o. t e Iironde in Bordeau0" cabernet =au,ignon a* been a natural c oice .or #e+ 1orld +inema!er* +i* ing to emulate t e .ine +ine t at i* claret. (t i* a robu*t gra$e t at a* tra,elled +ell" and i* no+ culti,ated in %u*tralia" =out %.rica" #ort %merica and =out %merica" but a* al*o been $ut to u*e in (tal&" =$ain and Ea*tern Euro$e. (t a* *mall" blue-blac! berrie* + ic a,e t ic! *!in*" $ro,iding nece**ar& tannin" colour and .la,our. 7 aracteri*tic* aroma* and .la,our* are blac!currant*" cedar" old .urniture and cabinet*" co..ee" tobacco" cigar*" cigar bo0e*" ,iolet*" mineral*" green $e$$er 9e*$eciall& i. gra$e* are *ome+ at under-ri$eD" c ocolate and *o on. 5oung +ine* *tart o.. inten*el& .ruit&" + il*t t e more com$le0 aroma* +ill de,elo$ +it age. -erlot =$iritual ome: Bordeau0. Iro+n el*e+ ere: (m$ortant in (tal& and 7ali.ornia. Me& .la,our*: 7 ocolate" .ruitca!e. Profile: 1 erea* 7abernet =au,ignon a* it* *$iritual ome in t e le.t ban! commune* o. Bordeau0" Merlot i* mo*t .amou* .or t e +ine* .rom t e rig t ban!" e*$eciall& .rom Jomerol and =t Emilion. %lt oug *ome+ at le** +idel& tra,elled + en com$ared to 7abernet" t i* t in-*!inned" large-berried ,ariet& a* .ound a ne+ ome in 7ali.ornia. (t i* al*o im$ortant in *ome o. t e to$ +ine* o. (tal&" and can al*o be .ound in %u*tralia and Ea*tern Euro$e. =$ic& .ruitca!e" 7 ri*tma* ca!e and c ocolate c aracteri*tic* +ill o.ten gi,e Merlot a+a&" alt oug it ma& al*o di*$la& blac!currant" blac! c err& and $lum*. (t i* le** tannic t an 7abernet =au,ignon" and i* o.ten u*ed in claret* + en t e& need to be L.le* ed outL in +ea!er ,intage*. Pinot oir Spirit'al home: Burgund&" im$ortant in 7 am$agne. &ro(n else(here: =ucce** in #e+ Kealand" 7ali.ornia" %u*tralia. )ey(ords: =ummer berr& .ruit* 9$rimar& c aracteri*tic*D. Profile: 1it out doubt" alt oug man& +inema!er* o. t e #e+ 1orld a,e tried t eir and at culti,ating t i* ,ariet&" none a,e come clo*e to emulating t e .ine +ine t at can be $roduced in Burgund&. #e,ert ele**" t e +ine* o. #e+ Kealand a,e recei,ed critical acclaim in recent &ear*" and t ere are al*o e0tremel& good e0am$le* .rom 7ali.ornia" %u*tralia and =out %.rica to be .ound" alt oug all are made in a ric l& .ruit& *t&le Auite di*tinct .rom Burgund&. 3 i* ,ariet& i* t in *!inned" gro+* in *mall bunc e*" and i* $rone to $roblem* +it &ield*. %cce$ted +i*dom *tate* t at con*i*tentl& lo+ &ield* are nece**ar& to maintain Aualit&" and alt oug ig -&ield clone* a,e been de,elo$ed 9t ere are man& di..erent clone* o. Jinot #oir" all o. + ic a,e di..erent .la,our" &ield" di*ea*e re*i*tance and *o onD t e .inal $roduct lac!* t e nece**ar& Aualit&. 1 en di*cu**ing Jinot #oir" it i* al*o +ort remembering t at it $la&* a ,ital role 4 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

a* one o. t e t ree gra$e* +idel& $lanted in 7 am$agne. Jrimar& aroma* and .la,our* 9t o*e $re*ent + en &oungD are redcurrant*" cranberrie*" *tra+berrie*" blac!berrie* and c ocolate. 3 e *econdar& aroma* 9t o*e t at de,elo$ +it ageD include or*e air and animal .ur" .arm&ard aroma*" manure and com$o*t. 6o,el&N Syrah.Shira/ Spirit'al home: ) One Galle&" $articularl& t e nort . &ro(n else(here: %u*tralia" but man& ot er countrie* al*o. )ey(ords: Blac! .ruit* > blac! $e$$er. Profile: =&ra i* t e gra$e be ind .ine +ine* o. t e #ort ern ) One" not onl& 7Ote )Otie 9Proa*ted *lo$ePD and 4ermitage" but al*o 7orna* and 7ro'e*-4ermitage. #e,ert ele**" mo*t +ine drin!er* are .amiliar +it it a* = ira'" t e name b& + ic it i* !no+n in %u*tralia" + ere it i* re*$on*ible .or ric l& .ruit& +ine*" ranging .rom ine0$en*i,e e,er&da& bottle* rig t u$ to %u*traliaL* .ir*t gro+t " Penfolds Irange 9once !no+n a* Irange L4ermitageLD. 3 i* t ic!-*!inned gra$e ma& $roduce $otentiall& tannic and long-li,ed +ine*. (t i* al*o late-ri$ening" e0$laining + & it a* gra,itated to+ard* +arm region* *uc a* t e ) One and %u*tralia" alt oug it i* al*o $roducing good +ine* in =out %.rica" 7 ile and 7ali.ornia. 3&$ical de*cri$tor* include blac! .ruit* and blac! $e$$er" but more intriguingl& ra*$berrie*" *$ice" erb*" grilled meat*" c arcoal" *mo!e and tar ma& be .ound. 1 en aged it ma& de,elo$ rubber& aroma*" $articularl& + en .rom t e #ort ern ) One. San,io+ese Spirit'al home: 7 ianti. &ro(n else(here: #ot e0ten*i,el&. )ey(ords: Blac! c errie*. Profile: 3 i* ,ariet& en2o&* a +arm climate" and i* ca$able o. $roducing great +ine* in *uc condition*. % cooler en,ironment ma& re*ult in e0ce**i,e acidit&. Ce*$ite t i*" =angio,e*e a* not been t e .ocu* o. t e attention o. ne+ 1orld +inema!er* in t e *ame +a& a* 7abernet or Jinot. 3 i* ma& relate to 7 iantiL* image $roblem" a* .or too long it a* been regarded b& man& a* a 2ug +ine" de*$ite t e e..ort* o. to$ $roducer* *uc a* Felsina" Fonterutoli and Fontodi. =angio,e*e i* al*o t e gra$e be ind ot er cla**ic +ine* o. #ort ern (tal&" *uc a* Brunello di Montalcino 9Brunello being an (talian *&non&m .or t i* gra$eD and Gino #obile di Monte$ulciano. (n t e #e+ 1orld" t ere are *ome *mall $lanting* in 7ali.ornia and %u*tralia" a* +ell a* %rgentina. 3&$ical c aracteri*tic* include *lig tl& bitter" mout +atering *our c err& and blac! c err& aroma*" +it *$ice*" erb* and tobacco. e**iolo Spirit'al home: Barolo. &ro(n else(here: #ot e0ten*i,el&. )ey(ords: Blac! c errie*. Profile: 6i!e =angio,e*e" #ebbiolo i* anot er o. #ort ern (tal&L* cla**ic gra$e* + ic " de*$ite great $otential" and being re*$on*ible .or *ome o. (tal&L* .ine*t +ine*" a* not been +idel& $lanted in t e #e+ 1orld. (tL* ome i* not 2u*t in Barolo" but al*o nearb& Barbare*co" + ere .ine +ine* are al*o $roduced. (t +ould *eem ideall& *uited to $lanting in +armer clime*" a* t i* t ic!-*!inned ,ariet& i* late ri$ening. (ndeed" t e name #ebbiolo ma& be deri,ed .rom nebbia" a .og + ic ang* o,er t e ,ine&ard* during t e %utumn ar,e*t. 3 ere are *mall $lanting*" o+e,er" in 7ali.ornia" %u*tralia and %rgentina. 3&$ical ad2ecti,e* u*ed to de*cribe t e +ine* o. t e #ebbiolo gra$e include blac! c errie*" liAuorice" tar" ung game and c ocolate. 8t er )ed Ira$e* 3 ere are ten* o. t ou*and* o. gra$e* *uitable .or ,iticulture" alt oug onl& a .e+ are ca$able o. ma!ing great +ine. 4ere are a .e+ o. t e ot er im$ortant red gra$e*.

5 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Irenac e: (m$ortant in t e =out ern ) One" + ere it dominate*. #e,ert ele**" in almo*t all ca*e* in i* blended +it ot er ,arietie* *uc a* =&ra and Mour,Qdre" + ic i* *tandard $ractice in t i* region. (t ma& al*o be .ound in =$ain and %u*tralia. 7 aracteri*tic*: ra*$berrie*" + ite $e$$er. Mour,Qdre: %l*o im$ortant in t e =out ern ) One" but al*o Bandol in Jro,ence + ere it $roduce* *ome cla**ic +ine*. %l*o !no+n a* Mona*trell or Mataro" and ma& be .ound in =$ain and 7ali.ornia. 7 aracteri*tic*: tannic" long ageing +ine*. Blac! .ruit*. 7abernet Franc: Cominant gra$e in t e 6oire Galle&" but al*o e0tremel& im$ortant in Bordeau0 + ere it i* general u*ed a* a minor com$onent o. t e blend b& mo*t c Rteau0" alt oug b& it*el. it i* t e gra$e be ind t e +ine .rom one o. t e region* to$ e*tate*" 7 e,al Blanc. 7 aracteri*tic*: blac!currant*" blac!currant lea,e*" greenHbell $e$$er*" *mo!e" *$ice. 3em$ranillo: 3 e gra$e o. )io2a. Man& o. t e c aracteri*tic* o. )io2a are deri,ed .rom t e long oa!ageing. 7 aracteri*tic*: ,ini.ied +it out oa!" &ou mig t .ind *tra+berrie* and *o.t *$ice*. Malbec: 6i!e 7abernet Franc" t i* i* u*ed a* $art o. t e blend b& *ome Bordeau0 e*tate*. (t i* al*o t e gra$e be ind 7a or*" a *out ern Frenc a$$ellation. (t i* becoming more +idel& !no+n" o+e,er" .or t e *teadil& im$ro,ing +ine* it i* $roducing in %rgentina. 7 aracteri*tic*: inten*e *ummer .ruit*" *$ice. Kin.andel: 3 e gra$e t e B=% a* made it* o+n" +it +ide $lanting* in 7ali.ornia e*$eciall&. (t i* al*o gro+n in *out ern (tal& + ere it i* !no+n a* Jrimiti,o. 7 aracteri*tic*: red and blac! .ruit*" blac! $e$$er. Jinotage: 3 i* gra$e belong* in =out %.rica. (t i* a cro**ed ,ariet&" t e $arent* being Jinot #oir and 7in*ault" + ic +a* once !no+n a* 4ermitage. 7 aracteri*tic*: *ummer .ruit*" .ruitca!e" tar" leat er" *mo!e. Iama&: 3 e gra$e o. Beau2olai*. 6i!e 3em$ranillo" man& o. t e .la,our* a**ociated +it t i* gra$e are not .rom t e gra$e it*el.. (n Beau2olai*" t e +inema!ing tec niAue carbonic maceration i* more t e cul$rit. 7ertain &ea*t *train* a,e al*o been im$licated a* being re*$on*ible .or *ome .la,our*" $articularl& banana. 7 aracteri*tic*: red .ruit*" banana*" bubblegum. 1 ite +ine* E0am$el* : $inot grigio attem* "c ardonna& re*er,a"monragn& $remier cru"albarino ria* bai0a*"rie*ling art *erie*"c ardonna&"*emillon loui*"*au,ignon blan",iognier t e ,irgiliu*"c abli* bougri* grand cru" )EC 1(#E= e0am$el* :7abernet *au,ignon &ello+ label"bardolino *u$eriore"$inot noir"c ateau mu*ar"merlot"le* terra**e* $riorat"* ira' mount edel*tone"tignanello"c ateau $almer 1997"c ateau c e,al blanc 198<" 1ine*: +ine i* an alco olic be,erage obtained .rom t e .ermentation* o. t e gra$e* %istory of ma0in, a (ines: The history of making wine *$an* t ou*and* o. &ear* and i* clo*el& intert+ined +it t e i*tor& o. agriculture" cui*ine" ci,ili'ation and man im*el.. %rc aeological e,idence *ugge*t* t at t e earlie*t +ine $roduction came .rom *ite* in Ieorgia and (ran" dating .rom <000 to 5000 B7. 3 e arc aeological e,idence become* clearer and $oint* to dome*tication o. gra$e,ine in Earl& Bron'e %ge *ite* o. t e #ear Ea*t" =umer and Eg&$t .rom around t e t ird millennium B7. E,idence o. t e earlie*t Euro$ean +ine $roduction a* been unco,ered at arc aeological *ite* in Macedonia" dated to <"500 &ear* ago. 3 e*e *ame *ite* al*o contain remnant* o. t e +orldL* earlie*t e,idence o. cru* ed gra$e*. (n Eg&$t" +ine became a $art o. recorded i*tor&" $la&ing an im$ortant role in ancient ceremonial li.e. 3race* o. +ild +ine dating .rom t e *econd and .ir*t millennium B7 a,e al*o been .ound in 7 ina. 1ine +a* common in cla**ical Ireece and )ome and man& o. t e ma2or +ine $roducing region* o. 1e*tern Euro$e toda& +ere e*tabli* ed +it J oenician and later )oman $lantation*. 1ine ma!ing tec nolog&" *uc a* t e +ine $re**" im$ro,ed con*iderabl& during t e time o. t e )oman Em$ire/ man& gra$e ,arietie* and culti,ation tec niAue* +ere !no+n and barrel* +ere de,elo$ed .or *toring and * i$$ing +ine. (n medie,al Euro$e" .ollo+ing t e decline o. )ome and t ere.ore o. +ide*$read +ine $roduction" t e 7 ri*tian 7 urc +a* a *taunc *u$$orter o. t e +ine nece**ar& .or celebration o. t e 7at olic Ma**. < A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

1 erea* +ine +a* al*o .orbidden in medie,al (*lamic culture*" Ieber and ot er Mu*lim c emi*t* $ioneered t e di*tillation o. +ine .or medicinal $ur$o*e* and it* u*e in 7 ri*tian libation +a* +idel& tolerated. 1ine $roduction graduall& increa*ed and it* con*um$tion became $o$ulari'ed .rom t e 15t centur& on+ard*" *ur,i,ing t e de,a*tating J &llo0era lou*e o. t e 1870* and e,entuall& e*tabli* ing gro+ing region* t roug out t e +orld. (n (ran 9Jer*iaD" mei 9t e Jer*ian +ineD a* been a central t eme o. $oetr& .or more t an a t ou*and &ear*" alt oug alco ol i* *trictl& .orbidden in (*lam. 6ittle i* actuall& !no+n o. t e $re i*tor& o. +ine. (t i* $lau*ible t at earl& .orager* and .armer* made alco olic be,erage* .rom +ild .ruit*" including +ild gra$e* 9Giti* *il,e*tri*D. 3 i* +ould a,e become ea*ier .ollo+ing t e de,elo$ment o. $otter& ,e**el* in t e later #eolit ic o. t e #ear Ea*t" about 9000 &ear* ago. 4o+e,er" +ild gra$e* are *mall and *our" and relati,el& rare at arc aeological *ite*. (t i* unli!el& t e& could a,e been t e ba*i* o. a +ine indu*tr&. Come*ticated gra$e* +ere abundant in t e #ear Ea*t .rom t e beginning o. t e Earl& Bron'e %ge" *tarting in :200 B7. 3 ere i* al*o increa*ingl& abundant e,idence .or +ine ma!ing in =umer and Eg&$t in t e t ird millennium B7. 3 e ancient 7 ine*e made +ine .rom nati,e +ild Pmountain gra$e*P li!e Giti* t unbergii .or a time" until t e& im$orted dome*ticated gra$e *eed* .rom 7entral %*ia in t e *econd centur&. Ira$e* +ere" o. cour*e" al*o an im$ortant .ood. E0actl& + ere +ine +a* .ir*t made i* *till unclear. (t could a,e been an&+ ere in t e ,a*t region" *tretc ing .rom #ort %.rica to 7entralH=out %*ia" + ere +ild gra$e* gro+. 4o+e,er" t e .ir*t large*cale $roduction o. +ine mu*t a,e been in t e region + ere gra$e* +ere .ir*t dome*ticated" =out ern 7auca*u* and t e #ear Ea*t. 1ild gra$e* gro+ in Ieorgia" nort ern 6e,ant" coa*tal and *out ea*tern 3ur!e&" nort ern (ran or %rmenia. #one o. t e*e area* can" a* &et" be de.initi,el& *ingled out" de*$ite $er*i*tent *ugge*tion* t at Ieorgia i* t e birt $lace o. +ine. (n Eg&$t" +ine $la&ed an im$ortant role in ancient ceremonial li.e. % t ri,ing ro&al +inema!ing indu*tr& +a* e*tabli* ed in t e #ile Celta .ollo+ing t e introduction o. gra$e culti,ation .rom t e 6e,ant to Eg&$t c. :000 B7. 3 e indu*tr& +a* mo*t li!el& t e re*ult o. trade bet+een Eg&$t and 7anaan during t e Earl& Bron'e %ge" commencing .rom at lea*t t e 3 ird C&na*t& 92<50-2575 B7D" t e beginning o. t e 8ld Mingdom $eriod 92<50-2152 B7D. 1inema!ing *cene* on tomb +all*" and t e o..ering li*t* t at accom$anied t em" included +ine t at +a* de.initel& $roduced at t e deltaic ,ine&ard*. B& t e end o. t e 8ld Mingdom" .i,e +ine*" all $robabl& $roduced in t e Celta" con*titute a canonical *et o. $ro,i*ion*" or .i0ed Pmenu"P .or t e a.terli.e. 3 e )oman Em$ire ad an immen*e im$act on t e de,elo$ment o. ,iticulture and oenolog&. 1ine +a* an integral $art o. t e )oman diet and +ine ma!ing became a $reci*e bu*ine**. %* t e )oman Em$ire e0$anded" +ine $roduction in t e $ro,ince* gre+ to t e $oint + ere t e $ro,ince* +ere com$eting +it )oman +ine*. Girtuall& all o. t e ma2or +ine $roducing region* o. 1e*tern Euro$e toda& +ere e*tabli* ed b& t e )oman*. 1ine ma!ing tec nolog& im$ro,ed con*iderabl& during t e time o. t e )oman Em$ire. Man& gra$e ,arietie* and culti,ation tec niAue* +ere de,elo$ed and barrel* and bottle* began to be u*ed .or *toring and * i$$ing +ine and bottle*. Follo+ing t e Iree! in,ention o. t e *cre+" +ine $re**e* became common on )oman manor*. 3 e )oman* al*o created an earl& .orm o. a$$ellation *&*tem" a* certain region* gained re$utation* .or t eir .ine +ine*. 1ine" $er a$* mi0ed +it erb* and mineral*" +a* a**umed to *er,e medicinal $ur$o*e*. Curing )oman time* it +a* not uncommon to di**ol,e $earl* in +ine .or better ealt . 7leo$atra created er o+n legend b& $romi*ing Marc %nt on& * e +ould Pdrin! t e ,alue o. a $ro,inceP in one cu$ o. +ine" a.ter + ic * e dran! an e0$en*i,e $earl +it a cu$ o. +ine. 1 en t e )oman Em$ire .ell around 500 %C" Euro$e +ent into a $eriod !no+n a* t e Car! %ge*. 3 i* +a* a $eriod o. in,a*ion* and *ocial turmoil. 3 e onl& *table *ocial *tructure +a* t e 7at olic 7 urc . 3 roug t e 7 urc " gra$e gro+ing and +ine ma!ing tec nolog& +a* $re*er,ed during t i* $eriod. 7 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

(n t e Middle %ge*" +ine +a* t e common drin! o. all *ocial cla**e* in t e *out " + ere gra$e* +ere culti,ated. (n t e nort and ea*t" + ere little or no gra$e* +ere gro+n" beer and ale +ere t e common drin! o. bot commoner* and nobilit&. 1ine +a* im$orted to t e nort ern region*" but +a* e0$en*i,e" and t u* *eldom con*umed b& t e lo+er cla**e*. 1ine +a* nece**ar& .or t e celebration o. t e 7at olic ma**" and *o a**uring a *u$$l& +a* crucial. 3 e Benedictine mon!* became one o. t e large*t $roducer* o. +ine in France and Ierman&" .ollo+ed clo*el& b& t e 7i*tercian*. 8t er order*" *uc a* t e 7art u*ian*" t e 3em$lar*" and t e 7armelite*" are al*o notable bot i*toricall& and in modern time* a* +ine $roducer*. 3 e Benedictine* o+ned ,ine&ard* in 7 am$agne 9Com Jerignon +a* a Benedictine mon!D" Burgund&" and Bordeau0 in France and in t e ) eingau and Franconia in Ierman&. (n 14:5 7ount So n (G. o. Mat'enelnbogen" a ,er& ric member o. t e ol& roman ig nobilit& near Fran!.urt" +a* t e .ir*t to $lant )ie*ling" t e mo*t im$ortant gra$e o. Ierman&. #earb& t e +inema!ing mon!* made it into an indu*tr&" $roducing enoug +ine to * i$ it all o,er Euro$e .or *ecular u*e. (n Jortugal" a countr& +it one o. t e olde*t +ine tradition*" t e .ir*t a$$ellation *&*tem in t e +orld +a* created. % ou*e+i.e o. t e merc ant cla** or a *er,ant in a noble ou*e old +ould a,e *er,ed +ine at e,er& meal" and ad a *election o. red* and + ite* ali!e. 4ome reci$e* .or mead* .rom t i* $eriod are *till in e0i*tence" along +it reci$e* .or *$icing and ma*!ing .la,or* in +ine*" including t e *im$le act o. adding a *mall amount o. one& to t e +ine. %* +ine* +ere !e$t in barrel*" t e& +ere not e0ten*i,el& aged" and t ere.ore +ere drun! Auite &oung. 3o o..*et t e e..ect* o. ea,& con*um$tion o. alco ol" +ine +a* .reAuentl& +atered do+n at a ratio o. .our or .i,e $art* +ater to one o. +ine. 8ne medie,al a$$lication o. +ine +a* t e u*e o. *na!e-*tone* 9banded %gate re*embling t e .igural ring* on a *na!eD di**ol,ed in +ine again*t *na!e bite*" + ic * o+* an earl& under*tanding o. t e e..ect* o. alco ol on t e central ner,ou* *&*tem in *uc *ituation*. (n t e late 1800* t e J &llo0era lou*e broug t de,a*tation to ,ine* and +ine $roduction in Euro$e. (t broug t cata*tro$ e .or all t o*e + o*e li,e* de$ended on +ine. 3 e re$ercu**ion* +ere +ide*$read" including t e lo** o. man& indigenou* ,arietie*. 8n t e $o*iti,e *ide" it led to t e tran*.ormation o. Euro$eL* ,ine&ard*. 8nl& t e .itte*t *ur,i,ed. Bad ,ine&ard* +ere u$rooted and better u*e* +ere .ound .or t e land. =ome o. FranceL* be*t butter and c ee*e" .or e0am$le" i* no+ made .rom co+* t at gra'e on 7 arentai* *oil + ic +a* $re,iou*l& co,ered +it ,ine*. P7ur,Te*P +ere al*o *tandardi*ed. 3 i* +a* $articularl& im$ortant in creating certain +ine* a* +e no+ !no+ t em toda& - 7 am$agne and Bordeau0 .inall& ac ie,ed t e gra$e mi0 + ic de.ine* t em toda&. (n t e Bal!an* + ere $ &llo0era did not it" t e local ,arietie* *ur,i,ed but along +it 8ttoman occu$ation t e tran*.ormation o. ,ine&ard* a* been *lo+. (t i* onl& no+ t at local ,arietie* are getting to be !no+n be&ond t e Pma**P +ine* li!e )et*ina. Ira$e* and + eat +ere .ir*t broug t to + at i* no+ 6atin %merica b& t e .ir*t =$ani* conAui*tadore* to $ro,ide t e nece**itie* o. t e 7at olic 4ol& Euc ari*t. Jlanted at =$ani* mi**ion*" one ,ariet& came to be !no+n a* t e Mi**ion gra$e* and i* *till $lanted toda& in *mall amount*. =ucceeding +a,e* o. immigrant* im$orted Frenc " (talian and Ierman gra$e*" alt oug +ine .rom gra$e* nati,e to t e %merica* i* al*o $roduced 9t oug o.ten deemed an acAuired ta*te" *ince t e .la,or* can be ,er& di..erentD. 1ine in t e %merica* i* mo*t clo*el& a**ociated +it %rgentina" 7ali.ornia and 7 ile" all o. + ic $roduce a +ide ,ariet& o. +ine* .rom ine0$en*i,e 2ug +ine* to ig -Aualit& ,arietie* and $ro$rietar& blend*. 1 ile mo*t o. t e +ine $roduction in t e %merica* i* ba*ed on 8ld 1orld ,arietie*" t e +ine gro+ing region* o. t e %merica* o.ten a,e Pado$tedP gra$e* t at are $articularl& clo*el& identi.ied +it t em" *uc a* 7ali.orniaL* Kin.andel 9.rom 7roatiaD" %rgentinaL* Malbec" and 7 ileL* 7armenQre 9bot .rom FranceD. Bntil t e latter al. o. t e 20t centur&" %merican +ine +a* generall& loo!ed u$on a* in.erior to Euro$ean $roduct/ it +a* not until t e *ur$ri*ing %merican * o+ing at t e Jari* 1ine ta*ting o. 197< t at #e+ 1orld +ine began to gain re*$ect in t e land* o. +ineL* origin*. For +ine $ur$o*e*" %u*tralia" #e+ Kealand" =out %.rica" and ot er countrie* +it out a +ine tradition are al*o con*idered #e+ 1orld. Bntil Auite late in t e 20t centur&" t e $roduct o. t e*e countrie* +a* not 8 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

+ell !no+n out*ide t eir *mall e0$ort mar!et* 9%u*tralia e0$orted largel& to t e Bnited Mingdom" #e+ Kealand !e$t mo*t o. it* +ine internall&" =out %.rica +a* clo*ed o.. to muc o. t e +orld mar!et becau*e o. a$art eidD. 4o+e,er" +it t e increa*e in mec ani'ation and *cienti.ic +inema!ing" t e*e countrie* became !no+n .or ig Aualit& +ine. Classifi#ations of the (ines:t e cla**i.ication* o. t e +ine* are on t e ba*i* o. t e gra$e* .ermentation* and not di*tiled.t e +ine* can be cla**i.ied on t e ba*i* o. t e name* a* +ell.red +ine* and + ite +ine* and t e *$ar!ling +ine* and t e .orti.ied +ine*.it e,en de$end* on t e ba*i* o. t e ,olume o. t e alco ol $re*ent in it. (n toda&-* +orld t e +ine* are being cla**i.ied on t e continental* a* +ell. 3 o*e $lace* or t e countrie* + ic $roduce* t e +ine* .rom 5t B.7 or 9t b.c on +ard* are called old +orld.and a.ter t e 19-20 t centur& it i* called t e ne+ +orld. OLD WO$LD: t e& a,e been $roducing t e +ine* + ic i* branded and +it t e name* o. t e gra$e*. F)%#7E" (3%65"c ill&"*$ain" EW WO$LD: =J%(#" 4B#I%)5" S%J%#" #EJ%6" J8)3BI%6" (#C(%" %ME)(7%" IE)M%#5 (n #e$al red barrier* +ine a,e been introduced 4(#1% 1ine* are to be $urc a*ed b& t e name* o. t e gra$e* onl&" becau*e t e t&$e* o. t e gra$e* and t e culti,ated $lace* +ill *imultaneou*l& tell* u* it* c aracter*-" nature*" ta*te* "and o,er all t e maturit& $eriod*. Ba*icall& t e #E1 18)6C a,e mi**ed to mention* t e name o. t e branded gra$e*" and it-* c aracter*-" li!e don %uriol" t oug it-* .rom %u*tralia "*till t e& don-t +irte t e name* o. t e gra$e*. =ome o. t e e0am$le* o. t e +ine* are t at 7 ardonna& terret 7 ardonna& eagle a+! Jinot gregio = ira' cabernet" merlot Irenac e" Merlot 7 ianti" bourdou0 "bardoline "barbera" *oa,e" or,ieta" *t.emillion"2.$ cenet 1O" & WI ES: t o*e gra$e* + ic are u*ed to ma!e t e +ine* +it in &ear o. maturit& and not $ro$er&l& agedH,intage are called t e &oung +ine*. *ome +ine* are made to be aged 9*ome Frenc Bordeau0D + ile ot er* are meant to be drun! &oung 9.re* " cri*$ + ite* *uc a* a #e+ Kealand =au,ignon BlancD. Furt ermore" e,en red +ine* t at 7%# be aged" don-t nece**aril& 4%GE to be. =ome $eo$le $re.er a &oung +ine" + ile ot er* ma& $re.er an aged +ine. 1 ile Bordeau0 *it* ato$ t e t rone o. +ine 9along*ide it* more elegant Uueen V Burgund&D + at trouble* me about man& o. t e to$ Bordeau0 i* it* need to be aged be.ore it i* e,en a$$roac able. =ome &oung Bordeu0 9a red +ine blend generall& containing 7abernet =au,ignon" Merlot and u$ to : ot er ?Bordeau0 ,arietal*ED can be *o acidic > tannic t at one reall& need* to +ait a* man& a* 10 &ear* or more be.ore it *o.ten* enoug to be $alatable. Iood Bordeau0 ma& t en be *o.t" lu*ciou* and com$le0 .or man& &ear* be.ore beginning it* ine,itable decline. %t + ic $oint t e +ine +ill be de,oid o. .ruit .la,or* and +ill li!el& *mellHta*te more li!e driedH*te+ed .ruit" leat er" eart " etc. 7abernet ba*ed +ine* 9%M% Bordeau0 blend*D .rom all o,er t e +orld are more about $re.erence. 1ine* *uc a* t e*e made in +armer climate* o.ten allo+ t e .ruit o. t e +ine to * ine t roug at a &ounger age ma!ing t em a$$roac able u$on relea*e. BB3" t e*e +ine* o.ten lac! t e acidit&H*tructure to age .or ,er& long $eriod*. 1 erea* a good Bordeau0 can age .or :0" 40" 50 &ear* and more" Ju* ing &our 7ali.ornia 7ab $a*t 20 &ear* or %u*tralian = ira' $a*t 10 mig t be a bit o. a gamble. 8n t e ot er and" 3 at *aid" man& Bordeau0" #a$a 7ab* or ot er 7abHMerlotH=&ra 9%M% = ira'D +ine* are made in a more *im$le *t&le and a* *uc are #83 meant to be aged" rat er t e& are intended to be drun! &oung. %nd tr&ing to age *uc a +ine +ill li!el& re*ult in a dead +ine b& t e time &ou o$en it. 9 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

%* to + ite +ine*" beginning +it 7 ardonna& or ot er + ite* .ermented and aged in oa! barrel*" t e*e are muc t e *ame *tor& a* 7abernet. 3 e be*t o. t e*e can age .or man& &ear* and gain com$le0it& > balance a* t e& age. 1 ite* t at are #83 agedH.ermented in oa! and are made in a more cri*$H.re* *t&le * ould #83 be aged. 3 e*e +ine* +ill lo*e t eir .re* .ruitine** and t eir cri*$ne** and +ill 2u*t ta*te dull a.ter onl& :-4 &ear* 9and in a* .e+ a* 2 &ear*D. Crin! t e*e +ine* BJ and c ec! t e ,intage date be.ore bu&ing *uc +ine a* &ou +ant to ma!e *ure &ou are getting one t at i* &oung. EW WI ES. 3 e +ine* + ic u*e-* t e late*t gra$e* o. one &ear time* i* called ne+ +ine*. 3 ere are ba*icall& 4 cla**i.ication* o. t e +ine*. 3 e& are table +ine*"*$ar!ling +ine* and t e .orti.ied +ine*. TA2LE WI ES O$ STILL WI ES: t e*e include* red +ine*" + ite +ine*" ro*e +ine* and t e *till +ine*"and t e *till +ine* lac! t e carbonatin*.again t e*e +ine* are cla**i.ied b& t e ta*te dr&"*emi dr&"*+eet*" and t e alco olic $re*ent* in t e*e +ine* are 14 -1<; 1 ite* +ine* are de*igned to be *er,ed c illed and t e red +ine* are *er,ed at room tem$erature*.Cr& + ite +ine* are be*t *er,ed bet+een 45degree* .a ren eit to 50 degree* .a ren eit > *+eet* + ite +ine* at 40degree* .a ren eit to 50 degree* .a ren eit)ed +ine* .ull bodied +ine* > matured red +ine* are *er,ed at <0 to <5 degree* .a ren eit and t e &oung red +ine* are *er,ed at 55 to <0 degree* .a ren eit White (ines: + ite +ine* are to be *er,ed at t e ratio* o.18cl or 180 ml(t a* to be *er,ed b& t e c illed gla** and t e c illed +ine* too. 7 ardonna& terret "7 ardonna& eagle a+!"Jinot gregio $ED WI ES: red +ine* are too *er,ed atlea*t21cl or 7 o' or 210ml = ira' cabernet" merlot Irenac e" Merlot 7 ianti"bourdou0"bardoline"barbera"*oa,e"or,ieta"*t.emillion" SPA$)LI & WI ES: +ine* + ic a,e carbon dio0ide to ma!e it .i''& i* called *$arling +ine*. c am$agne i* t e be*t e0am$le.%lco olic ,olume* i* le** t an 14;.it i* u*uall& drun! on t e .e*ti,e*"+inning o. t e matc . =ome o. t e name* o. t e c am$agne are: #icola* .euillatte brut 2000 Boilinger grande annee 1998 So*e$ $errier *o*e$ ine 1995 Mrug 1995 Mrug 1998 Gintage 1997 6oui* roderer brut* 198< Jommer& ?$o$ brutE 6oui* )oederer brut 6an*on ?blac! lableE So*e$ $errier ?cu,ee ro&alE Moet > c andon ?brut im$erialE Geu,e clicAuout brut Io**et brut e0cellence Bollinger *$ecial cu,ee Io**et grand re*er,e Mrug grand cu,ee Bollinger grand annee 1997 So*e$ $errier 2o*e$ ine 1990 10 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Com $erignon cu,ee 199< 6oui* roederer cri*tial 1997 6oui* roederer brut 198: Mrug cu,ee 1988 Com $erignon enot eAue* 1990 3aittinger brut 6aurent $errier brut 6aurent $errier grand *iecle Mrug clo* du me*nil 1992 Jommer& $in! $o$ Champa,ne rose Jommer& $in! $o$ 6an*on ro*e So*e$ $errier ro*e Moet> c andon im$erial ro*e Geu,e cliAuot ro*e 6aurent $errior ro*e 6aurent $errier grand *iecle ro*e Com $erignon 1995 Mrug ro*e 6oui* roederer cri*tal ro*e 1998"1992"1985 Billecart *almon ro*e 6aurent $errier ro*e 6oui* roederer ro*e 1982 Champagne Grape Varieties 3 e gra$e* o. 7 am$agne are $rimaril& blac!. %bout t+o-t ird* o. t e ,ine&ard* gro+ blac! gra$e*. 4o+e,er" alt oug t e *!in* are blac!" t e 2uice i* + ite. 3 e c ie. gra$e i* Jinot #oir" + ic ma!e all t e .ine*t red Burgundie*. (t a* di..icult& ri$ening in Burgund&" an& .urt er nort in 7 am$agne it almo*t ne,er attain* an& great de$t and *trengt o. color or alco ol. 3 i* i* .air becau*e +it t e e0ce$tion o. $in! 7 am$agne" or t e rare" non *$ar!ling 7oteau0 7 am$enoi*" t e idea i* to $roduce a + ite *$ar!ling +ine. Ger& care.ul $re**ing o. t e gra$e* in enormou* *Auare ,ertical $re**e* i* t e be*t +a& to dra+ o. t e 2uice a* $ale a* $o**ible. E,en *o" t e blac! gra$e 2uice doe* a,e a .airl& big .eel to it" and a 7 am$agne rel&ing largel& on blac! gra$e* i* certain to be ea,ier and ta!e longer to mature. E0am$le o. t e Jinot #oir Ira$e Gariet& 3 e ot er blac! gra$e i* Jinot Meunier" + ic ma!e* a *o.ter" .ruitier *t&le" im$ortant in $roducing ea*&" .or+ard +ine*. E0am$le o. t e Jinot Meunier Ira$e Gariet& 3 e + ite gra$e i* 7 ardonna& o. + ite Burgund& .ame. 3 i* $roduce* a lig ter" .re* er 2uice" and t e re*ulting 7 am$agne* are certainl& t e mo*t $er.umed and one&ed. 3 e& a,e been critici'ed a* lac!ing de$t and ageing $otential. #ot true good Blanc de Blanc a* a *u$erb" e0citing .la,or + ic i* onl& im$ro,ed b& ageing. 3 ree gra$e* $ermitted are: J(#83 #8() 9B6%7MD J(#83 MEB#(E) 9B6%7MD 74%)C8##%59+ iteD

11 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Pinota,e: 3 i* gra$e belong* in =out %.rica. (t i* a cro**ed ,ariet&" t e $arent* being Jinot #oir and 7in*ault" + ic +a* once !no+n a* 4ermitage. 7 aracteri*tic*: *ummer .ruit*" .ruitca!e" tar" leat er" *mo!e. Champa,ne #o#0tails are ! )o&al galler& Mir ro&al 6emon mimo*a Mango bellini FO$TIFIED WI ES:Forti.ied +ine* are being .orti.ied b& t e addition* o. t e alco ol eit er during or a.ter t e .ermentaiton* + ic enable* t e alco olic ; increa*e* .rom 15 t to 21; .(t +a* created at t e beginning o. t e 18t centur& in t e C8B)8 ,all& in Jortugal. *ome o. t e e0am$le* o. t e +ine* are * err&"$ort"madira"mar*ala")ub& $ort"3a+n& $ort"cru*ted $ort"+ ite $ort and ,intage $ort "malaga tarragona . $OSE WI ES Rose wines" o.ten re.erred to a* Blush wines or +ritten Ros " are wines + ic are not trul& red" but a,e enoug o. a reddi* tinge to ma!e t em a**uredl& not + ite. 3 e actual color ,arie* de$ending on t e gra$e* in,ol,ed" and o.ten ma& *eem to be more orange t an $in! or $ur$le. Rose wines ma& be $roduced in a number o. di..erent +a&*" de$ending on t e de*ired re*ult*. Mo*t Rose wines are t e re*ult o. cru* ing t e red gra$e* u*ed rat er earl& on" *o t at t e& are not able to im$art t eir color V or muc tannin V to t e .inal +ine. 3 e*e wines are in mo*t re*$ect* + ite in c aracter and .la,or" +it onl& t e tinge o. red and *ome *ubtle ta*te di..erence* bel&ing t e di..erence. (n t e $a*t" it +a* .airl& common to ma!e Rose wines b& *im$l& ta!ing a + ite +ine and adding a bit o. red wine to it. =ome +inema!er* t oug t t i* could $roduce intere*ting wines t at $o**e**ed *ome o. t e eart& c aracter o. a red +ine + ile retaining t e cri*$ne** o. man& + ite*. 3 i* $ractice a* .allen out o. ,ogue" e,en in Champagne + ere it +a* once Auite re*$ected. Rose wines are generall& *neered at b& +ine connoi**eur*" but man& $eo$le .ind t eir cri*$ne** and lig tne** ,er& re.re* ing in ot +eat er" leading to t em being o.ten re.erred to a* *ummer wines. =t&le* ,ar& +idel&" but in general" a Rose +ine i* muc *im$ler t an a true ea,&+eig t + ite or red +ine V e,en i. made .rom t e *ame gra$e*. Euro$ean Rose wines are generall& dr&" + ile Rose wines .rom t e Bnited =tate* are generall& *+eet. =ometime*" t i* di*tinction i* ig lig ted b& re.erring to *+eet Rose wines a* Blu* . 8ne o. t e mo*t $o$ular Rose wines in recent &ear* i* t e 1 ite Zinfandel so $o$ular in 7ali.ornia. )at er t an being made b& blending red and + ite +ine" or b& cru* ing gra$e* be.ore t e color a* time to leec into t e +ine" 1 ite Kin.andel i* t e re*ult o. a $ractice in t e $roduction o. Kin.andel !no+n a* bleeding. 1 en bleeding a red Kin.andel" +inema!er* o.ten ta!e a+a& an am$le Auantit& o. liAuid *o t at t e re*ulting +ine i* *tronger and more concentrated V t i* lig ter" le** tannic remainder i* t en $ac!aged and *old a* a +ine in it* o+n rig t: 1 ite Kin.andel. %.ter a lengt & $eriod o. declining $o$ularit&" it *eem* t at Rose wines ma& again be on t e ri*e around t e +orld. Joc!et* o. enduring $o$ularit& in region* o. France and =$ain a,e en*ured t e *ur,i,al o. *ome Aualit& ma!er* o. Rose +ine" and no+ t at t e *ocial $ro ibition again*t Rose i* dimini* ing" man& con*umer* in England and t e Bnited =tate* are turning once again to t i* *ummertime .a,orite. %n2ou 3a,el Bin :5 =ierra 'in. =un*et = erra lorr& What Is Fortified Wine3 12 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Forti.ied +ine i* a +ine to + ic a neutral gra$e *$irit 9brand&D a* been added during .ermentation. Bnli!e ot er +ine* to + ic not ing i* added" t e*e +ine* are P.orti.iedP b& t i* addition o. *trong alco ol" increa*ing t e .inal alco ol content and alting t e .ermentation. 3 ere are man& .orti.ied e0am$le* o. +ine .rom around t e +orld but t ree are mo*t $rominent b& .ar. Jort +ine" $roduced in JortugalL* Couro Galle&" i* a .orti.ied red +ine 9generall&D. Madeira" .rom t e i*land o. Madeira in t e %tlantic" and = err&" .rom *out ern =$ain" are t+o ot er .amou* .orti.ied +ine*" bot o. + ic are $roduced .rom + ite gra$e*. Ce$ending on + en t e gra$e *$irit i* added during .ermentation" an&+ ere .rom a dr& to *+eet +ine can be $roduced. 1 ile mo*t Jort are Auite *+eet" Madeira and = err& can bot ,ar& .rom dr& to ,er& *+eet. Becau*e alco ol i* added" t e re*ulting +ine i* generall& ig er in alco ol t an t&$ical table +ine*" generall& in t e 17 to 20; range. 3 e .orti.ication +it alco ol generall& $roduce* a more *table +ine t at i* ca$able o. ,er& long aging" e,en into t e undred* o. &ear* in *ome ca*e*N 8t er +ine* t at are $roduced in t i* *t&le +it .orti.ication include Ban&ul* and Maur& .rom t e =out o. France" Mar*ala .rom (tal& and $ort-*t&led +ine* .rom 7ali.ornia and %u*tralia. %o( Are They -ade3 #ormall& +ine* are made .rom gra$e* + ic are .ermented until t e &ea*t *to$* .ermenting" con,erting t e *ugar in t e gra$e* into alco ol. 3 i* generall& occur* becau*e t e &ea*t run out o. *ugar and a dr& +ine i* t e re*ult. 4o+e,er" in t e $roduction o. .orti.ied +ine" t e neutral gra$e *$irit i* added at *ome time during .ermentation. 3 e *udden large increa*e in alco ol content *tun* t e &ea*t and t e& *to$ .ermenting 9mo*t &ea*t canLt tolerate ,er& ig alco ol le,el*D. 3 i* alt* t e .ermentation $roce** at + ate,er $oint it +a* + en t e alco ol +a* added. 3 e +ine t en goe* on to be aged and bottled in ,ariou* +a&* de$ending on t e *t&le o. +ine being $roduced. B& *to$$ing .ermentation" + ate,er *ugar +a* le.t in t e +ine at t at $oint i* le.t in t e .inal +ine. =o i. t e +ine i* .orti.ied earl& in t e .ermentation t en t e re*ulting +ine +ill be Auite *+eet 9*ince a lot o. *ugar i* le.t in t e +ineD. (. t e .orti.ication occur* later" near t e end o. .ermentation" t en t e +ine +ill be more dr&. %.ter .ermentation" mo*t .orti.ied +ine* are aged in barrel .or *ome $eriod o. time be.ore bottling. 3 i* can ,ar& .rom 2u*t a cou$le &ear* to literall& decade*N 3 i* de$end* on t e *t&le o. +ine being $roduced. What Do They Taste Li0e and What Foods Do 1o' Eat (ith Them3 3 e *t&le* o. t e*e +ine* ,ar&. Mo*t Jort i* Auite *+eet and i* .irml& in t e de**ert +ine range o. *+eetne**. 3 e& are dar!" ric " ead& +ine* made in *e,eral *t&le* de$ending on o+ t e& are aged $rior to bottling. 3 e& can be +onder.ul alone a.ter dinner or accom$an&ing man& c ee*e* and dried nut*. Madeira and = err& are bot generall& aged in barrel a long time and de,elo$ *ome+ at uniAue aroma* and .la,or* due to o0idation t at occur* during t i* $roce**. Madeira* can range .rom almo*t dr& 9*uc a* a =ercialD to ,er& *+eet 9Malm*e&D. = errie* al*o ,ar& in *+eetne**. 6ig t Fino and Man'anilla = errie* are dr& + erea* 8loro**o" %montillado and $articularl& 7ream = errie* can a,e *ome *+eetne** to t em. 3 e*e +ine*" $articularl& &oung Jort and Madeira" o.ten bene.it .rom decanting and aeration $rior to drin!ing. Cecanting e,en .or man& our* or o,ernig t o.ten el$ t e +ine o$en u$. %gain" all o. t e*e +ine* are generall& ,er& long li,ed and +ill al*o la*t in bottle a.ter being o$ened longer t an regular table +ine*. 4o+e,er" +e *till recommend drin!ing t em u$ +it in a .e+ da&* .or t eir .re* e*t .la,or and mo*t com$le0it&. 1ant to learn more about $airing *$eci.ic +ine* +it .ood@ Be *ure to c ec! out our Port Wine Jort - t e 1orldL* Mo*t Famou* Forti.ied 1ine. 1: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Jort +ine t oug t&$icall& a**ociated +it Jortugal" reall& o+e* at lea*t $art o. it* in,ention to England a* a direct b&-$roduct o. battling France. Ba*icall&" t e Engli* bo&cotted Frenc +ine in t e late 17t centur& a* a re*ult o. +ar and began bu&ing t eir +ine .rom Jortugal. 3 e Brit* *tarted adding a +ee bit o. brand& to t e *till +ine to el$ *u*tain it during t e ,o&age bac! to England. 3 i* brand& addition" *er,ed to gi,e t e *till +ine t e .ortitude to ma!e t e long tri$ on a roc!ing boat" but it al*o made t e +ine con*iderabl& *+eeter to boot. Jort* a,e a re$utation .or being ig er in alco ol" noticeabl& *+eeter" +it more bod& and $alate den*it& t an ot er *till +ine*. (. &ou are a .an o. de**ert*" t en Jort ma& be &our ne+ $airing $artner" a* t e& accommodate a number o. de**ert o$tion* +it ea*e and added ,er*atilit&. What is Port JortugalL* Couro Galle& i* t e !e& ,iticultural region .or gro+ing t e more t an 50 di..erent local red and + ite gra$e* u*ed .or ma!ing Jort. 1 ile t e ma2orit& o. Jort i* made .rom red wine gra$e* t ere i* a categor&" !no+n a* P1 ite Jort"P t at a* t e name im$lie*" i* made .rom white wine gra$e*. B& de.inition" Jort i* made b& ta!ing a *till +ine and adding brand& to it. 3 e name ?JortE i* deri,ed .rom t e coa*tal cit& o. Jorto" Jortugal-* *econd large*t cit&" and t e !e& cit& .ound on t e mout o. t e Couro ri,er. Jort i* no+ being made in *e,eral countrie*" but to e0$erience + at aut entic Jort deli,er*" &ou mig t +ant to o$t .or t e true blue Jortugal Jort" de*ignated a* ?JortoE on t e bottle-* label. Types of Port: (n broad term*" Jort can be *$lit into t+o di*tinct categorie*: 1ood %ged or Bottle %ged. 3 e onl& true bottle aged $ort i* a Gintage Jort" + ile t e ot er Jort* are all 1ood %ged to *ome e0tent. (n general" Jort *tart* li.e a* a red +ine 9unle** o. cour*e it i* a ?+ ite JortED and t en itL* t&$icall& aged in +ood ca*!* or in t e bottle 9i. it-* a Gintage JortD. $'*y Port )ub& Jort*" *o named .or t eir di*tinct rub& color" are t e economical" entr&-le,el Jort*" made .rom a mi0 o. bot gra$e* and ,intage* and ?agedE .or a total o. : &ear*. 8ne &ear o. aging doe* actuall& occur in an oa! ca*! and t e ot er t+o &ear* o. ?agingE i* *u$$o*ed to occur in t e bottle/ o+e,er" )ub& Jort doe* not tec nicall& continue to age in t e bottle becau*e it i* t&$icall& alread& o0idi'ed. )ub& Jort* are de*igned to be con*umed &oung. $oods to #air wit% a Rub& #ort' Blue c ee*e" mil! c ocolate and berr&-ba*ed de**ert*. Ta(ny Port % 3a+n& Jort i* lig ter in bot color and bod& + en com$ared to a )ub& Jort and t&$icall& lie* on t e *lig tl& *+eeter *ide o. t e *$ectrum. %* a ta+n& Jort *$end* more time in oa!" it-* color *tart to .ade .rom rub& red to more rub&-orange" 3ec nicall& Pbric! redP and *ometime* increa*ing to an almo*t ma ogan& color. (t-* ta*te* become nuttier and t e .la,or* begin to de,elo$ t e ric .la,or* o. carameli'ed .ig*" date* and $rune* com$ared to t e )ub& Jort. 8n t e label" t e age i* mo*t commonl& de*ignated a* 10" 20" or :0 &ear*. 3 e*e &ear de*ignation* are t e a,erage com$ilation o. ,ariou* ,intage* u*ed in t e 3a+n& Jort blend. 3a+n& Jort* come in t ree di..erent *t&le*: 7ol eita" 7ru*ted or (ndicated %ge. % Colheita Jort i* con*idered a 3a+n& $ort t at i* made .rom gra$e* t at all * are t e *ame ,intage &ear. 1 ile a Cr'sted Port i* an un.iltered ta+n& t at de,elo$* ,i*ible *ediment" ?cru*t"E and need* decanting be.ore *er,ing. 3a+n& $ort* t at are made .rom gra$e blend* t at are older in a,erage age are re.erred to a* Indi#ated A,e ta+n& Jort. $oods to #air wit% a Tawn& #ort' %ged c eddar c ee*e" caramel a$$le* or a$$le $ie" dried .ruit" mil! or dar! c ocolate" c ee*eca!e" tirami*u" $um$!in or $ecan $ie. 4inta,e Port % Gintage Jort i* a Jort t at i* made o. blended gra$e*" u*uall& .rom ,ariou* ,ine&ard*" + ic are all .rom t e *ame ,intage &ear" ence t e name. Gintage Jort t&$icall& *$end* about < mont * in oa! and t en goe* un.iltered and uno0idi'ed into a bottle .or .urt er aging. 3 i* .urt er aging i* t&$icall& to t e tune o. anot er 20 &ear*N %* a direct re*ult o. t i* long-term aging" &ou can e0$ect a $rett& ea,& la&er o. *ediment t at reAuire* decanting and a good bit o. aeration to ta!e $lace $rior to con*um$tion. (. )ub& 14 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Jort* are t e entr&-le,el Jort" t en Gintage Jort* re$re*ent t e u$$er ec elon bot in *t&le and co*t. % cla**i.ication t at i* common to to mi*ta!e +it t e PGintage JortP de*ignation i* t e 5Late 2ottled 4inta,e5 Port 6L247. 3 i* $articular *t&le o. Jort i* made +it gra$e* .rom a *ingle ,intage" but it a* onl& aged 4-< &ear* in oa! be.ore it i* bottled and relea*ed. $oods to #air wit% a (intage #ort' Blue and =tilton c ee*e" almond* and +alnut*" c ocolate and c ocolate-ba*ed de**ert* and $u..ed-$a*trie*. White Port %* t e name im$lie*" i* deri,ed .rom + ite gra$e ,arietal* and can be made in bot t e ,er& dr& to *emi*+eet *t&le*. 1 ite Jort i* t&$icall& .ruitier on t e $alate and a bit .uller-bodied t an ot er .orti.ied + ite +ine*. 8.ten *er,ed a* an a$eriti." t i* $articular Jort a* .ound .a,or a* a ?ginE re$lacement + en *er,ed a* a ?Jort and 3onicE on t e roc!*. Storin, and Ser+in, Port Gintage Jort* * ould be stored on t eir *ide*" in a dar!" cool en,ironment li!e t eir *till +ine counter$art*. )ub& and 3a+n& Jort* are read& to drin! once relea*ed and can eit er be *tored u$rig t or on t eir *ide*. 8nce o$ened Jort* can la*t .rom a da& 9Gintage JortD to *e,eral +ee!* .or )ub& Jort* and *e,eral mont * .or 3a+n& Jort*. For o$ened Jort* t e determining .actor .or + et er it +ill la*t a da& or +ee!* i* t e amount o. time it a* *$ent o0idi'ed and in oa!. 1 en *er,ing Jort * oot .or !ee$ing t e serving temperature rig t around <5 degree*. A$O-ATISED WI ES: t e*e +ine* are $re$ared +it t e addition* o. t e brand& or neutral *$irit* and .la,ored +it t e erb*" root*" bar!*" .e0am$le li!e ,ermout " bitter*" )ndangered Species: romatised *ines Co &ou drin! ,ermout @ (. *o" let me e0tend m& $er*onal congratulation*" and urge &ou not to *to$. (. t e drin! +orld a* a $&gm& i$$o" an angel * ar! or a =iberian tiger" t e& are mo*tl& con*tituted b& t e e0otic .lora and .auna o. aromati*ed +ine*. =ingular and e0Aui*ite" t e*e drin!* +ere once .amiliar alt* on t e drin!ing land*ca$e. #o+" ala*" t e&-re *ome+ ere bet+een ,ulnerable and endangered. Fla,ouring* a,e been added to +ine .or a* long a* +ine a* been made. 8riginall&" t i* +a* .or a ig l& $ractical $ur$o*e: to *to$ +ine *ouring. =i$$ing +ine .la,oured +it erb*" *$ice*" re*in" *ugar or one& +a* more .un t an gul$ing ,inegar. 8ur medie,al ance*tor* .la,oured +ine a* a matter o. routine: t e drin! +a* called 4i$$ocra* 9*ince t e *$ice* +ere *trained t roug a bag called a manicum i$$ocraticum or W*lee,e o. 4i$$ocrate*-D. % *i0teent -centur& reci$e in t e Briti* 6ibrar& call* .or *ugar 9a $ound .or e,er& gallon o. +ineD" cinnamon" ginger" nutmeg" clo,e* and grain* o. $aradi*e. 3 ere are undred* o. ,ariant*. Jrogre**" t oug " broug t u* bottle* and cor!*" and t e .orti.ication o. gra$e 2uice or $art-.ermented +ine +it ig -*trengt *$irit. B& u*ing .orti.ication" or b& bottling a +ine and + ac!ing in a cor!" t e *ouring o. +ine could be a,erted. 7or!* 2oined bottle* .rom t e mid-*e,enteent centur&/ .orti.ication became common$lace .rom t e mid-eig teent . %nd .rom t em on" t e .la,ouring o. +ine became a more *ubtle a..air. (t no longer reAuired toot -rotting * o,el.ul* o. *ugar. 4ealt con*ideration*" al+a&* a *ale* $itc + en erb* or *$ice* +ere in,ol,ed" became $aramount. 1orm+ood 9Artemisia absinthum D ad long been con*idered tonic .or t e tumm&/ W,ermout - i* deri,ed .rom W+orm+ood +ine- 9Je$&* dran! and called it 2u*t t atD ,ia an %nglici'ation o. t e Ierman eAui,alent Wermut . 3ec nicall&" ,ermout i* no+ 2u*t a .orti.ied" .la,ored +ine .rom + ic +orm+ood a* been c a*ed. 3 oug not" a* it a$$en*" entirel& X ( once ,i*ited" blit el& enoug " t e #oill& Jrat .actor& do+n near =Qte in t e .ar *out o. France" e0$ecting to *ee a ,at or t+o o. +ine +it a .e+ *$rig* o. erb* .loating around in t em. =uc innocence. #oill& Jrat 9t e original WFrenc ,ermout - $re*cribed b& $uri*t* .or aut entic dr& MartiniD ma!e* t e reci$e .or Melton Mo+bra& $or! $ie loo! no more c allenging t an boiling an egg. #oill& Jrat begin* li.e a* a $air o. local + ite +ine*: t+o-t ird* o. t e inci*i,e Jic$oul and one-t ird o. *o.ter 7lairette. Bot are 15 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

.orti.ied to 1< $er cent alco ol b& ,olume 9ab,D" and *tored in big ca*!* underground .or a &ear. 3 e& are t en tran*.erred to *maller ca*!*" lea,ing an air*$ace in eac " and le.t out*ide .or a &ear. 3 e rain ammer* do+n in +inter" and t e *un ba!e* t em in *ummer. (n *$ring and autumn" a + ite &ea*t mould *imilar to t e .lor + ic gro+* on .ino and man'anilla * err& de,elo$* on t e *ur.ace o. t e +ine*. But it all get* *tranger *till. Co &ou reali*e #oill& Jrat i* $art-Iree!@ 5e*" t e reci$e reAuire* Mu*cat .rom t e Iree! i*land o. =amo* to be added a.ter o$en-air ageing" toget er +it one $er cent o. an alco olic in.u*ion o. red .ruit* 9c ie.l& ra*$berrie*D and citru* $eel*. More alco ol t en get* ti$$ed in" to ta!e t e drin! u$ to 18 $er cent" and t en a !ilogram o. mi0ed erb*" .lo+er* and root* i* added .or eac t ou*and litre* o. +ine. 7 amomile i* ,er& im$ortant 9#oill& Jrat ab*orb* o,er al. France-* annual $roductionD" but elder.lo+er" oregano" lemon balm" *a..ron" nutmeg and iri* root* are al*o Auxerrois: %l*o !no+n a* +albec or Cot" %u0erroi* create* a neutral +ine" .ruit& and *o.t. (t i* mainl& gro+n in 6u0embourg and 7anada. (n %l*ace it i* o.ted blended +it t e Pinot Blanc gra$e. Barbera: Barbera i* a lo+-tannin gra$e !no+n .or it* tarr& .la,or. (t i* ,er& +idel& $lanted - in 7ali.ornia itL* about eAual +it Merlot grape ,ine*" + ile in it* ome in (tal& it a* more acerage t an Sangiovese and e!!iolo. Jiedmont i* e*$eciall& +ell !no+n .or t i* gra$e. Cabernet Franc: % P$arentP o. t e Cabernet Sauvignon grape8 7abernet Franc i* u*ed in Bordeau0 added in *mall amount* .or .la,or. (t i* al*o u*ed in t e 6oire Galle&" + ere it i* called ,reton. 8t er name* include ,ouchy" ,ouchet" -ros ,ouchet and .eron. 7abernet Franc i* mo*tl& u*ed a* an additi,e to blend +it ot er gra$e*. Cabernet Sauvignon" 7abernet =au,ignon +ine* are made .rom t e*e gra$e* - on t e ,ine t e& are red" *mall" and toug . 3 e +ine* tend to ta*te li!e blac!berrie* and cedar. Bordeau0 u*e* t e 7abernet =au,ignon gra$e" u*uall& mi0ed in +it Merlot. 3 e*e gra$e* are al*o gro+n +idel& in 7ali.ornia and %u*tralia. 3 e gra$e contain* a lot o. tannin" + ic lead* to a good red +ine + en $ro$erl& aged. Chardonnay" 3 i* i* a .re* " .ruit& gra$e gro+n in Burgund&" 7 am$agne" 7ali.ornia" %u*tralia" and =out %.rica. 7 ardonna& +ine tend* to ta*te li!e .ruit* - melon" $eac " etc. - and al*o man& a,e an oa!& .la,or. (t i* one o. t e mo*t $o$ular and ea*ie*t to gro+ + ite gra$e* - it bud* earl&" gro+* ea*il& and a* ig ri$ene** le,el*. Chenin Blanc" 3 i* gra$e ma!e* a lig t" .ruit& +ine. (t i* $lanted $rimaril& in t e B= and in t e 6oire ,alle& o. France 9+ell !no+n in Gou,ra& +ineD. (n =out %.rica t i* gra$e i* re.erred to a* Steen. %l*o !no+n a* *hite /inot 0/inot ,lanco1" 7 enin Blanc i* able to age ten &ear* or more. Cinsaut: %l*o !no+n 9incorrectl&D a* "ermitage" t i* gra$e i* mo*tl& u*ed .or blending +it ot er" *tronger ,arietie*. 7in*aut i* t e P$arentP o. pinotage. (t i* gro+n in =out ern France" 6ebanon" %u*tralia and =out %.rica. Colombard: 3 e*e gra$e* end u$ ma!ing a +ine +it Ptro$ical .ruitP o,ertone*" a lig t +ine to go +it *ea.ood. (t i* u*ed in =out %.rica and ot er countrie*. =out %.rica al*o u*e* 7olombard to ma!e brand&. Cortese: 3 e $rimar& gra$e .or Ia,i +ine" t i* gra$e ri$en* earl& and ma!e* a neutral + ite +ine. (t i* gro+n $rimaril& in Jiedmont" (tal&. Ehrenfelser: 7reated b& cro**ing t e #ohannis!erg Riesling grape and a S$lvaner grape clone" E ren.el*er i* e0tremel& .ro*t re*i*tant. 3 e +ine it create* ta*te* a great deal li!e )ie*ling +ine. E ren.el*er i* gro+n $rimaril& in 7anada. Gamay" 3 i* i* t e gra$e .amou* u*ed in Beau2olai* #ou,eau +ine" .rom France. (t i* o.ten drun! &oung in a* in t e*e lig t .ruit& red*. ,ariou* t&$e* o. gama& are u*ed in t e B= o.ten in Bland*. Gewurztraminer" 3 e .ir*t $art o. t e name literall& mean* P*$ice&P in Ierman. (t a* a .loral ta*te +it nutt& tone*. Ie+ur'traminer i* al*o gro+n in (tal&" 7ali.ornia" 7anada and %u*tralia. Grande idure: %l*o !no+n a* t e 7armenTre gra$e" t i* gra$e +a* be*t !no+n .or it* u*e in Medoc +ine*. 1 ile *ome t oug t t i* gra$e ad been de*tro&ed b& $ &llo0era" cutting* +ere ta!en to 7 ile in 1< A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

t e mid-nineteent centur&" + ere $ &llo0era a* not arri,ed &et. 3 e gra$e i* !no+n .or $roblem* +it coloure and oidium" and $roduce* lo+ &ield*. Grenache" Irenac e i* mo*t o.ten u*ed .or ro*e +ine" and i* +idel& $lanted in France" =$ain and 7ali.ornia. (t i* t e *econd mo*t $lanted gra$e in t e +orld. 1ine* made +it grenac e tend to be *+eet and .ruit&" +it little tannin. PIrenac eP re.er* to Irenac e #oir" t e red ,ariet&" but t ere i* al*o a Irenac e Blanc. !erner: % Ierman cro** o. t e Riesling grape and Blac! 4amburg 93rollingerD" Merner i* re*i*tant to .ro*t and doe* +ell in cooler climate*. (t a* a *+eet ta*te" muc li!e a )ie*ling +ine. 3 e gra$e doe* +ell in cooler area* li!e Mic igan" B=. "emberger: %l*o !no+n a* ,laufrankish and 2imberger. 6emberger i* a $o$ular %u*trian +ine t at i* al*o $lanted ea,il& in 1a* ington" B=. #ar$chal Foch: Earl& ri$ening" t i* gra$e a* ,er& *mall berrie* in *mall clu*ter*. 3 e ,ine* are ard&" t oug " and ma!e a good range o. red +ine*. #erlot" 3 i* i* an earl& ri$ening gra$e" +it gentle .la,or* o. c err&" one&" and *ometime* mint. (t a* le** tannin t an *ome o. it* red cou*in*. Merlot +ine i* a ma2or blending com$onent o. mo*t Bordeau0 +ine*. (tL* gro+n in France" (tal&" %u*tralia" and in t e *tate* - 7ali.ornia" 1a* ington" and 6ong (*land" #5. #uller%&hurgau: 3 e gra$e mo*t +idel& $lanted in Ierman&" Muller-3 urgau come* a* a mi0 o. riesling and s$lvaner. 3 i* i* al*o gro+n in %u*tria" #e+ Kealand" and t e nort +e*t *ection o. t e B=. (t a* a .loral aroma. #uscadet" Jart o. t e con.u*ing-Mu*c-*erie*" Mu*cadet or Mu*cade!!e i* one o. t e + ite gra$e* gro+n in Bordeau0. (t i* not related to t e Mu*cat gra$e" and doe* a,e a gra$e&-ta*ting .la,or. 3 i* gra$e i* +ell !no+n .or it* u*e in t e 3o!a& +ine o. %u*tralia. #uscadine: 3 i* i* a +uscadinia gra$e + ic i* a *e$arate branc .rom normal vinifera gra$e* t at mo*t $eo$le !no+ o.. Iro+n almo*t $rimaril& in *out ea*tern B= and in Me0ico" t e Mu*cadine i* a large gra$e +it a t ic! *!in. =cu$$ernong i* a t&$e o. mu*cadine gra$e. 3 e& are ,er& eart& and gro+ in $lace* t at ot er gra$e* mig t not. #uscat" 3 i* i* a ,er& gra$e&-ta*ting gra$e t at doe*nLt ri$en ea*il&. 3 ere are ,ariou* ,arietie* o. Mu*cat - +uscat ,lanc" +oscato 9(tal&D" +uscat of le#andria" and Mu*cadel. Mo*cato i* t e gra$e u*ed .or sti Spumanti" t e *$ar!ling +ine .rom (tal&. Muskat Krymskii: 3 i* aromatic + ite +ine i* u*ed in Bulgaria" t e B!raine and ot er ea*tern Euro$ean countrie*. 8t er name* include mu*!atel" mi*!et or mi* !et. 3 e +ine tend* to be + eat colored" and a,e a clean .ruit& bouAuet. 'ebbiolo" 3 i* i* a late ri$ening gra$e t atL* !no+n .or being tannic" $run&" tarr& and c ocolat&. (t i* notoriou*l& di..icult to gro+. #ebbiolo i* gro+n in t e Jiedmont area o. (tal& 9+ ere it ma!e* Barolo +ineD" =+it'erland" 7ali.ornia and %u*tralia. (ptima: % Ierman ,ariet& u*ed to add *ugar to ot er +ine*" t i* +ine i* not ,er& $alatable on it* o+n. Ortega: % cro** bet+een Muller 3 urgau" Madeleine %nge,ine and Gewurt%traminer. 3 i* i* ,er& .la,or.ul and a* a mangoe& ta*te to it. (t i* gro+n in 7anada. )etite Sirah: 3 i* i* a dar!" tannic" .ruit& gra$e. (t *ometime* a* *mo!& or c ocolat& tone* to it. (t * ould not be con.u*ed +it Sirah&Shira% grape" + ic i* a com$letel& di..erent gra$e. (t i* $o$ular in 7ali.ornia + ere it o.ten goe* into P2ug +ine*P. )inot Blanc: 3 i* gra$e a* a .la,our ,er& muc li!e 7 ardonna& +ine. (t i* gro+n in %l*ace" (tal&" and %u*tria 9+ ere itL* !no+n a* 1ei**burgunderD. (t i* a mutation o. t e Pinot Gris grape. (tL* u*ed in man& 7ali.ornian *$ar!ling +ine*. )inot Gris or Pinot grigio" 3 i* i* a clone o. Pinot oir" gro+n in France" Ierman&" %u*tria and along t e +e*t coa*t o. t e B=. (tL* al*o !no+n a* )ulander or Irauer Burgunder. (t can be u*ed to create bot .ine + ite* and ro*e*. 17 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

)inot 'oir" 3 e*e gra$e* are *o.ter and earlier ri$ening t an Ca!ernet grapes" and are ,er& *en*iti,e to condition*. B*ed o.ten in red +ine*" t e& are al*o u*ed 9+it out *!in*D a* a + ite ingredient in 7 am$agne. Jinot #oir +ine i* made in Burgund&" and al*o %u*tralia" 7ali.ornia" 8regon" (tal& and Ierman&. )inot age" Ce,elo$ed in t e earl& 1900* and u*ed $rimarl& b& =out %.rica" Jinotage i* a mi0 bet+een pinot noir and cinsaut. 3 e gra$e ma!e* a +ine t at i* eart&" +it a .ruit& and *$ice ta*te. *iesling" #ot 2u*t a de**ert +ine-gra$e" )ie*ling can $roduce dr& cri*$ and .ruit& +ine a* +ell one&ed" mu*!& .la,or* in +armer climate or + en le.t longer on t e ,ine. )ie*ling +ine i* nati,e to Ierman&" and i* al*o u*ed in France" %u*tralia" 7ali.ornia" and man& ot er countrie*. 3 e Finger 6a!e* region o. #e+ 5or! i* +ell !no+n .or t eir )ie*ling*. )ie*ling i* al*o u*ed in t e creation o. (ce 1ine* Sauvignon Blanc" 3 i* gra$e i* gro+n $rimaril& in 7ali.ornia and France. (t a* a gra**& .la,or and ma!e* a cri*$" lig t +ine. Scheurebe: 3 i* i* a mi0 bet+een S$lvaner and #ohannis!erg Riesling. (t i* mo*tl& $lanted in Ierman& and i* u*ed .or aromatic + ite +ine*. Semillon" 3 i* t in-*!inned gra$e ri$en* earl&" and i* u*ed mo*tl& in Bordeau0" France. (t a* a gra**&" P.igg&P .la,or. (t i* al*o gro+n in %u*tralia and 7ali.ornia" and i* o.ten blended +it Sauvignon Blanc. Seyval: =e&,al i* an PEa*t 7oa*t B=P +ine" and i* one o. t e mo*t +idel& $lanted gra$e* ea*t o. t e )oc!& Mountain* in t e B=. 3 e& a,e melon& .la,or*" a* +ell a* gra**&H a& o,ertone*. Sylvaner: =&l,aner +a* once t e mo*t +idel& $lanted gra$e o. %l*ace" France" but no+ onl& account* .or 15; 9and dro$$ingD. (t i* al*o gro+n in Ierman& and 7entral Euro$e. 3 e gra$e $roduce* a $lea*ant" but bland" + ite +ine. Fla,or* include lig t *$ice and .loral one*. Syrah+Shiraz" 3 i* gra$e i* gro+n in France and 7ali.ornia a* =&ra +ine" and in %u*tralia a* = ira'. (n France" it i* a**ociated +it t e ) one Galle& and "ermitage red +ine*. =&ra tend* to+ard* a minerall&" blueberr&" or *ometime* *$ic& and $e$$er& t&$e o. .la,or. Petite Sirah i* an entirel& di..erent gra$e. Siegerrebe: =iegerrebe i* a cro** be+teen Gewurt%traminer and a normal table gra$e. (t ri$en* ,er& earl&" and a* a ig *ugar content. 1ine* made +it =iegerrebe a,e ta*te* o. $eac and one&. &empranillo" Tempranillo: 3 e gra$e o. )io2a. Man& o. t e c aracteri*tic* o. )io2a are deri,ed .rom t e long oa!-ageing. 7 aracteri*tic*: ,ini.ied +it out oa!" &ou mig t .ind *tra+berrie* and *o.t *$ice*. &rebbiano, iognier" 3 i* rare ,arietal originated in 7ondrieu" on t e nort ern ) One. (t i* $redominantl& .ound in t e ) One ,alle& and 7ali.ornia" noted .or *$ice" .loral" citru*" a$ricot" a$$le and $eac .la,or*. (t t&$icall& $roduce* medium bodied +ine* +it relati,el& ig acid* and .ruit. Giogner can $roduce .airl& com$le0 +ine*. idal Blanc: Gidal i* mo*tl& gro+n in t e nort ea*t B=" and i* ,er& eart&. (t doe* +ell in late ar,e*t *+eet +ine*" a* +ell a* in ice+ine*. -infandel" Mo*t Kin.andel gra$e* are gro+n in 7ali.ornia" alt oug t e& are t oug t to a,e originated in =out ern (tal&. 3 e +ine* can be .ruit& or *$ic&" de$ending on age. 3 e Kin.andel gra$e ma!e* bot )ed Kin.andel 9i. t e *!in* are le.t onD and 1 ite Kin.andel 9i. t e *!in* are SE$4ICE: )EC 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 34E )EC ME%3 14(3E 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 14(3E ME%3= )8=E 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 %#5 F88C %JJE3(KE) 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 =8BJ= CE=E)3= 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 CE==E)3= 8) 78FFEE =%J)M6(#I 1(#E=: I8E= 1(34 %#5 ME%6= ME=B)EME#3= 8F 34E %67846(7 BEGE)%IE 18 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

1M6Y1M6 176Y10M6 1o'Y:0ml Gital mea*urement* + ic a bartenderH. > b *er,ice *ta.. mu*t !no+ WI ES T$ADE: Gintage +ine*: +ine* made in ,intage &ear* Gine: %ging: maturation* o. +ine* in +ood or bottle %roma: ta*te in t e mout BouAuet: aroma or $er.ume or *mell in t e gla**Hbottle* Brut: dr& +ine* T%E F"T"$ES OF T%E WI ES: t e +ine $roduction* +ill go ig and demand +ill al*o be ig er t an t e $re*ent-* da&. =lo+l& t e gra$e* +ill be reduced and controlled .or t e medical u*e* and o. cour*e t ere +ill be *till ig $roduction* o. t e +ine*. Ci..erent t&$e* o. gra$e* +ill be u*ed to ma!e a *ingle bottle +ine* and t e .ermentation*Hdi*tillation* $roce** met od +ill be ,ani* ed. 8ne o. m& .a,orite globali'ation boo!* i* The Box: How the Shi ing !ontainer Ma"e the World Smaller and the World 'conom$ Bigger b& Marc 6e,in*on. (t i* t e *tor& o. o+ t e in,ention o. t e *tandard * i$$ing container 9t o*e 20-.oot *teel bo0e* &ou *ee on * i$*" rail car* and truc! bed*D made international trade muc c ea$er" more e..icient and more *ecure. #o+ it loo!* li!e anot er !ind o. bo0 i* about to * a!e u$ t e +ine +orld. Cheap and 'asty:(-m tal!ing about bo0 +ine* or bag-in-bo0 9B(BD +ine* 9t e %u*tralian* call t em ca*! +ine*D t at .eature an airtig t +ine-.illed $la*tic bladder in*ide a cardboard bo0. 5ou u*e a built-in *$igot to get to t e +ine. 3 e& can be .ound on t e bottom * el. o. t e +ine +all and be ind t e bar and out o. *ig t at &our local re*taurant. 3 e& come in *e,eral *i'e* Z : liter and 5 liter container* are t e mo*t common. Bo0 +ine* a,e a bad re$utation. 3 e& .ir*t a$$eared in t e 1970* and +ere .illed +it generic bul! +ine*. 3 e& +ere one *te$ do+n .rom t e $o$ular 1.5 liter ?magnumE bottle* o. ?Burgund&"E ?7 abil*E and t e notoriou* ?) ineE +ine. Bo0 +ine +a* c ea$" na*t& *tu.. t at acAuired a .reAuentl& de*er,ed bad re$utation. (t-* time to recon*ider bo0 +ine. =cre+ ca$* ad a bad re$utation" too" until Auite recentl&. 1e a**ociated t em +it lo+ grade *+ill until .ine +ine* a$$eared under *cre+ ca$ 9t e #e+ Kealand $roducer* +ere in t e ,anguardD and +e began to a$$reciate t at t at *cre+ ca$* a,e man& ad,antage*. #o+ *cre+ ca$* are actuall& a**ociated +it #ua$ity .or *ome t&$e* o. +ine" e*$eciall& &out .ul + ite*" and no one e0$ect* to $a& le** or get le** becau*e o. t e *cre+-to$ clo*ure. 3 e tec nolog& o. bo0 +ine i* ,er& *olid. 3 e airtig t bladder i* a neutral container t at i* +ell *uited to olding +ine .or relati,el& * ort $eriod* o. time. 9Con-t cellar bo0 +ine Z con*ume +it in a &ear o. $roduction Z c ec! out t e ?drin! b&E date on t e bo0.D 3 e bladder and *$igot do in .act $rotect t e +ine .rom o0&gen in t e * ort run" *o it +ill la*t longer once o$ened 9e*$eciall& i. t e bo0 i* *tored in t e .ridgeD t an *imilar le.to,er +ine in bottle*. Bladder* are *o good at t e $articular t ing t at t e& do t at t e& a,e become an indu*tr& *tandard tec nolog& .or bul! im$orted +ine*" + ic are * i$$ed in huge !ladders inside steel shipping containers 9big bag in big bo0D and t en bottled in t e im$ort mar!et. =o &ou ma& alread& be drin!ing bo0 +ine and not !no+ it. &he box wines sales risings 19 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

3 e mo*t recent #iel*en retail +ine *ale* .igure* 9re$orted in t e 8ctober 2009 i**ue* o. Wine Business Month$y D *ugge*t t at bo0 +ine *ale* are gro+ing. 1ine *old in :" 4 and 5 liter container* 9mo*t o. it i* bo0 +ine" ( t in!D account* .or 2u*t under 10 $ercent o. B= *u$ermar!et +ine *ale*" according to t e #iel*en data 9com$ared to <5; .or *tandard bottle* +it t e remainder in 1.5 liter and ot er .ormat*D. =ale* are ri*ing in t i* categor&" +it : liter $ac!age* u$ 8.7; in t e la*t &ear on a dollar ba*i*" .or e0am$le" and 5 liter $ac!age* are u$ 9.:; b& ,alue. 3 e total mar!et .or bo0 +ine* ri*e* i. +e include on-$remi*e* *ale*. )ecent data 9*ee $re,iou* $o*t*D indicate t at bo0 +ine* 9*er,ed to cu*tomer* in cara.e* and b& t e gla**D are *trong *eller* in ca*ual dining e*tabli* ment*. 3 e ri*e o. bo0 +ine i* $art o. t e trading do+n e..ect" clearl&" *ince mo*t bo0 +ine* .all into t e t+o $rice categorie* t at are e0$eriencing t e ig e*t gro+t . =ale* o. +ine* t at are le** t an [: $er 750ml bottle eAui,alent a,e ri*en 7.1 $ercent according to #iel*en and b& 10; .or +ine* bet+een [: and [5.99. =u$ermar!et *ale* o. [20+ +ine*" on t e ot er and" a,e fa$$en b& :.4;. 'asty. Brutish and Short//Coe* t i* mean t at %merican* a,e traded do+n all t e +a& to t e bottom" bac! to t e na*t& bo0 +ine* o. t e 1970*@ 3 e an*+er" incredibl&" i* no. 8r at lea*t not nece**aril&" according to t e 8ctober 15 i**ue o. Wine S e%tator . 5ou can-t mi** t i* i**ue on t e ne+**tand Z it .eature* a co,er *tor& on ?500 Galue* .or [20 or 6e**E and include* a *et o. bo0 +ine re,ie+* t at ma!e intere*ting reading. Wine S e%tator $urc a*ed :9 bo0 +ine* in $ac!age* t at ranged .rom 1 liter to 5 liter*. 3+ent& *e,en +ine* +ere rated a* ?goodE 9a *core o. 80-84D and ten ?,er& goodE 985-89D. 3 e name* o. t e 2 +ine* t at *cored belo+ 80 +ere not re$orted. 3 e to$ bo0 +ine" going b& t e rating number*" i* a + ite: 1ine 7ube 7ali.ornia 7 ardonna&" + ic *ell* in 3arget =tore* .or [17 $er : liter bo0" + ic i* [4.25 $er *tandard bottle eAui,alent. (t earned a ,er& re*$ectable 88 $oint*. 1ine 7ube i* a $artner* i$ bet+een 3arget and (rinchero" t e ma!er o. a +ide range o. +ine* including =utter 4ome. 3 e be*t red +ine 9at 87 $oint*D i* t e Blac! Bo0 7abernet =au,ignon Ja*o )oble* 200<" + ic co*t* [20 .or : liter* or [5 $er *tandard bottle eAui,alent. Blac! Bo0 i* a +idel& di*tributed 7on*tellation Brand* $roduct. Good and Cheap/ =ome bo0 +ine" a$$arentl&" i* bot $rett& good and $rett& c ea$. Jer a$* 2u*t to * o+ t at t e& reall& do rate +ine* blind" Wine S e%tator ga,e a $rett& good 84-$oint *core to a non-,intage 7arlo )o**i 7abernet =au,ignon 7ali.ornia ?)e*er,eE +ine. Fi,e liter* .or [1:" in ca*e &ou are intere*ted" 3 at-* [1.97 $er *tandard bottle eAui,alent. 4o+ can decent +ine be t i* c ea$@ 8ne an*+er" o. cour*e" i* t at &ou can c oo*e to ma!e t e +ine it*el. le** e0$en*i,e b& economi'ing in t e cellar in man& +a&* 9le** oa! or none at all .or red +ine*" .or e0am$leD. But to a con*iderable degree t e bo0 it*el. i* re*$on*ible .or t e *a,ing*. 3 e bag in bo0 container co*t* le** t an [1" according to t e Wine S e%tator article" + ic automaticall& *a,e* [4 to [8 com$ared +it a *imilar Auantit& o. +ine in *tandard gla** bottle* and t e bo0 t e& come in. = i$$ing co*t* are al*o le** *ince t e bo0e* +eig muc le** t an gla** bottle* .or t e *ame Auantit& o. +ine and are le** li!el& to be damaged in tran*it. 3 ere are en,ironmental bene.it* too" e*$eciall& in area* + ere gla** bottle rec&cling i* $roblematic becau*e t e *our econom& a* undermined t e mar!et .or rec&cled gla**. (* bo0 +ine t e .uture o. +ine@ #o. 3 e +ine mar!et i* too com$le0 to be dominated b& an& *ingle trend. But +it better +ine in better bo0e* 9and +it con*umer* embracing a more rela0ed idea o. +ineD bo0 +ine de*er,e* to $la& a bigger role in t e .uture o. +ine. %not er trium$ .or 3 e Bo0 1ine Future* Wine F't'res :to bu&ing +ine a.ter it i* made" but be.ore it i* bottled. 7a*! *am$le* o. +ine* are made a,ailable .or ta*ting to +ine 2ournali*t* and large + ole*ale bu&er* in t e *$ring .ollo+ing t e ,intage. 20 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

3 e bro!er* and merc ant* *ell t e +ine on to t eir cu*tomer*. (t i* generall& bottled and * i$$ed around t+o &ear* later. (n good ,intage*" +ine .uture* can o..er t e in,e*tor t e greate*t return/ t e initial relea*e $rice* are u*uall& t e lo+e*t at + ic t e +ine* +ill e,er be *old. 4o+e,er" + en bu&ing +ine .uture* it i* *trongl& recommended t at &ou deal onl& +it e*tabli* ed and re$utable retailer* and im$orter*. 2ordea'9 F't'res 7ommonl&" t e +ine* are relea*ed in a number o. Ltranc e*L +it eac relea*e $riced at a di..erent le,el de$ending on o+ t e $re,iou* one *old. 1997 Bordeau0 i* an e0am$le o. a $oor ,intage + ere t e initial relea*e +a* $riced too ig . 3 e 1997* declined in $rice o,er t e .ollo+ing &ear*. 3 e Bordeau0 2000 ,intage +a* Auite t e re,er*e/ a ,intage in great demand" it +a* initiall& $riced too lo+. 3 e .ir*t tranc e $rice* did not a$$ear on 1ine-=earc er a* t e +ine merc ant* re*er,ed t eir allocation* .or t eir be*t cu*tomer*. E,en t o*e + o boug t at t e *econd or t ird tranc e $rice* *a+ t e ,alue o. t eir +ine* ri*e Auic!l&.

)EERS
2eer i* one o. t e +orldL* olde*t be,erage*" +it t e history of *eer dating bac! to t e 0th millennium BC" and being recorded in t e +ritten i*tor& o. )ncient *ra+. 3 e earlie*t Sumerian +riting* contain re.erence* to beer. % $ra&er to t e godde** in,asi !no+n a* P3 e 4&mn to #in!a*iP *er,e* a* bot a $ra&er a* +ell a* a met od o. remembering t e reci$e .or beer in a culture +it .e+ literate $eo$le. %* almo*t an& *ub*tance containing car!oh$drates" mainl& *ugar or starch" can naturall& undergo fermentation" it i* li!el& t at beer-li!e be,erage* +ere inde$endentl& in,ented among ,ariou* culture* t roug out t e +orld. 3 e in,ention o. bread and beer a* been argued to be re*$on*ible .or umanit&L* abilit& to de,elo$ tec nolog& and build ci,ili'ation. 3 e earlie*t c emicall& con.irmed barle& beer to date +a* di*co,ered at Iodin 3e$e in t e central Kagro* Mountain* o. (ran" ca. :400-:000 B.7. Beer ma& a,e been !no+n in eolithic 'urope a* .ar bac! a* :000 B7" and +a* mainl& bre+ed on a dome*tic *cale.\12] Beer $roduced be.ore t e *ndustrial Revolution continued to be made and *old on a dome*tic *cale" alt oug b& t e 7t centur& %C beer +a* al*o being $roduced and *old b& Euro$ean monasteries. Curing t e (ndu*trial )e,olution" t e $roduction o. beer mo,ed .rom artisanal manu.acture to industrial manufacture" and dome*tic manu.acture cea*ed to be *igni.icant b& t e end o. t e 19t centur&. \1:] 3 e de,elo$ment o. h$drometers and thermometers c anged bre+ing b& allo+ing t e bre+er more control o. t e $roce**" and greater !no+ledge o. t e re*ult*. 3oda&" t e bre+ing indu*tr& i* a global bu*ine**" con*i*ting o. *e,eral dominant multinational companies and man& t ou*and* o. *maller $roducer* ranging .rom !rewpu!s to regional !reweriesMore t an 1:: billion liter* 9:5 billion gallon*D are *old $er &earZ$roducing total global re,enue* o. [294.5 billion 9^147.7 billionD in 200<. Beer i* an alco olic drin!* bre+ed .rom malt"*ugar*" o$* > +ater and .ermented +it t e &ea*t.it can al*o be li!e t i* t at be,erage .ermented .rom cereal* and malt".la,oured +it t e o$*.t e alco olic ,olume in t e beer i* bet+een :; to 5; and it i* al*o t e re.re* ing drin!*. 2eer: 3 e Ba*ic* Beer i* a .ermented be,erage $rinci$all& made .rom .our ingredient*/ +ater" malted barle&" o$*" and &ea*t. Eac one o. t e*e ingredient* +ill im$art it* o+n .la,our c aracteri*tic* to t e .ini* ed $roduct" one + ic i* almo*t a* old a* ci,ili'ation it*el.. 8ne Eg&$tian reci$e called .or bread to be le.t out in t e rain and t en allo+ed to .erment. 3 e re*ult +a* a *ogg& but m&*teriou*l& in,igorating concoction.) ine eig t*:5ou ma& a,e eard o. t e PBa,arian Jurit& 6a+"P al*o !no+n a* P)ein eit*gebot.P 3 i* Ierman la+" dated 151< and *till en.orced toda&" 21 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

*ti$ulate* t at onl& barle& malt" o$*" and +ater ma& be u*ed in t e ma!ing o. beer. (t i* one o. t e earlie*t and longe*t running" e0am$le* o. con*umer $rotection legi*lation. (n,enti,e bre+er*" li!e in,enti,e coo!*" a,e o.ten e0$erimented +it t e addition o. ot er ingredient* in t eir *earc .or t e $er.ect bre+. 3 e*e additional ingredient* are called ad2unct* and are an& *ource o. carbo &drate* ot er t an malted grain*. Man& bre+er*" in t eir *earc .or t e $er.ect bottom line and a *table beer +it a longer * el. li.e" add ingredient* *uc a* cane or corn *ugar" mola**e*" corn" and rice in order to $ro,ide t e *ugar* reAuired .or .ermentation +it out incurring t e co*t* o. more e0$en*i,e malted grain*. 3 oug t e*e c ea$er ingredient*" in re*trained Auantitie*" can be u*ed +it intelligent care b& a cra.t bre+er" macrobre+er* tend to be unre*trained in t eir u*e. Macro ,*. Micro: What is the *i, deal a*o't a 5mi#ro*re(,5 isn:t *eer all pretty m'#h the same3 -i#ro*re(eries 6the little ,'ys, ho(e+er yo' (ant to define them7 almost 'ni+ersally 'se #raft *re(in, te#hni;'es8 This is the traditional method of ma0in, *eer in sin,le *at#hes8 Ea#h re#ipe is prod'#ed to ma9imi/e the desira*le #hara#teristi#s of one *eer8 8n t e ot er and" microbre+er* 9t e globall& $re*ent brand ma!er*D almo*t al+a&* u*e ig gra,it& bre+ing to $roduce t eir $roduct*. %lt oug it ma& *ound li!e +or! .or #%=%" t e gra,it& t at i* re.erred to ere i* 2u*t anot er +ord .or alco ol. (n t i* $roce** beer i* .ermented to an alco ol content a$$roac ing t at o. +ine and t en cut +it +ater. (t ma& al*o be .urt er $roce**ed to $roduce more t an one brand. 3 e*e $ractice* u*uall& re*ult in a le** malt& and more e*ter&9.ruit&D $roduct. %not er macro tec niAue i* t e ig budget ad,erti*ing cam$aign to con,ince con*umer* t at t ere actuall& i* a di..erence bet+een t eir brand*. 2arley: i* $re.erred to a* a cereal* a* it can be more ea*il& malted .or bre+ing and *oluble* e0tracted .rom malt are com$lete t an t o*e o. ot er* grain*.+ en t e grain* a* been *tee$ed and dried it i* termed malt"and i* read& .or grinding or *toning.%n& cereal* containing *tarc or *ugar can be u*ed in t e bre+ing o. t e beer*.e0am$le* li!e mai'e"rice"corn"+ eat" o+e,er t e*e grain* lac!* t e e**ential en'&me* 9c emica* + ic .acilitate t e e0traction* o. t e *tarc or t e *ugarDand + en u*ed reAuire* *$ecial treatment* and i. it i* u*ed alone t e .inal $roduct* +ouldn-t be t e beer*. Water:" com$ri*ing about 9<; o. t e .inal $roduct" i* a !e& ingredient. 1 ile *ome bre+er* li!e to e,o!e image* o. $ri*tine glacier .ed *$ring*" e..ecti,el&" +ater i* an ea*& ingredient to modi.& b& .iltration 9u*uall& to remo,e c lorineD or t e additionH*ubtraction o. *alt*. 4ard +ater tend* to be more a$$ro$riate to ale* + ile *o.t +ater com$liment* t e *ubtler .la,our $ro.ile o. a lager. -alt:3 i* ingredient i* made .rom grain" u*uall& barle&" t at a* undergone a $roce** o. +etting and dr&ing called malting be.ore t e bre+er can u*e it. )a+ grain i* *oa!ed and begin* to germinate 9*$routD relea*ing en'&me* t at el$ con,ert it* carbo &drate* into .ermentable *ugar*. (t i* t en roa*ted to *to$ t e germination $roce**. 3 e roa*ting can ,ar& in duration in order to create di..erent degree* o. roa*t& .la,our. 3 e germinatedHroa*ted grain introduce* to t e beer/ colour" malt& *+eet .la,our" bod&" and $rotein to .orm a good ead. 3 e &ea*t +ill con*ume t e *ugar* and $roduce beerL* into0icating ingredient 9et anolD and it* bubble* 9carbon dio0ide" 782D 4o$* are t e cone-li!e .lo+er* o. a .emale climbing ,ine in t e cannabi* .amil& + ic can gro+ a* tall a* 18 .eet. 4o$* contain oil*" bitter acid*" and re*in* t at counterbalance t e *+eetne** o. t e malted barle&" add .la,our" $ro,ide aroma" and el$ $re*er,e t e beer. Jre*er,ation i* a !e& +ord - t e *ame re*in* and acid* t at .la,or t e beer a,e been .ound to dela& t e ine,itable e..ect* o. bacterial *$oilage" t ereb& gi,ing beer a longer * el. li.e. Beer +it *trong o$ aroma and .la,or are *aid to be P o$$&.P 3 o*e + o cra,e bitter beer* are c aracteri'ed a* P o$ ead*.P Jrior to o$ u*age in beer ma!ing" bre+er* bittered t eir beer +it .lo+er*" lea,e*" berrie*" *$ice*" and a o*t o. odd and *ometime* un$alatable ingredient*" man& o. + ic .ailed mi*erabl&. B& t e 1<t centur& o$* became t e mo*t +idel& acce$ted *$ice .or beer. 22 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

-a0in, *eer Bre+ing i* t e $roce** o. c anging +ater and grain into beer t roug a &ea*t catal&*t. 3 e Aualit& o. t e +ater i* e0tremel& im$ortant. 4ard +ater $roduce a bitter ale" *o.t +ater $roduce bitter lager. Barle& or o$*" or a combination o. t em" i* u*ed .or t e grain. Ietting dr& grain read& .or .ermentation i* called malting. 3 e grain i* *tee$ed in +ater until it *$rout*. 3 e *$routing or germination i* not allo+ed to end naturall& but i* interru$ted eit er b& dr&ing or roa*ting in !iln*. %ops: o$* belong* to t e nettle .amil&"t e .emal $lant* u*ed beer* cone* a$ed .ormation* + ic im$at* a bitter .la,our* and aroma* and *timulating di*ge*tion*. S',ars: *ugar i* an ,iatal addition* a* it e$* to $roduce a beer o. $ale color*"le** .illing +it a better ta*te"and increa*e* t e *tabilit& in t e beer*. 1east" alt oug $re*ent in all .ermented be,erage*" +a* not di*co,ered until t e 18t centur&. (t i* a member o. t e .ungu* .amil& t at" becau*e o. it* cell-*$liting ca$abilitie*" i* *el.-re$roducing. 5ea*t a* a ,oraciou* a$$etite .or *+eet liAuid* and $roduce* abundant Auantitie* o. alco ol 9et anolD and carbon dio0ide 9bubble*D a* a +a*te $roduct. 3 ere are limit* to t e amount o. alco ol t at certain &ea*t *train* can tolerate +it out d&ing" ence one rea*on .or t e traditional di..erence in alco ol bet+een beer and +ine. 5ea*t* are *ingle-celled .ungi. %* .ungi" t e& are related to t e ot er .ungi t at $eo$le are more .amiliar +it . 3 e*e include edible mu* room* a,ailable at t e *u$ermar!et" common ba!er-* &ea*t u*ed to lea,en bread" mold* t at ri$en blue c ee*e and t e mold* t at $roduce antibiotic* .or medical and ,eterinar& u*e. Man& con*ider edible &ea*t and .ungi to be a* natural a* .ruit* and ,egetable*. 8,er <00 di..erent *$ecie* o. &ea*t are !no+n and t e& are +idel& di*tributed in nature. 3 e& are .ound in a**ociation +it ot er microorgani*m* a* $art o. t e normal in abitant* o. *oil" ,egetation" marine and ot er aAueou* en,ironment*. =ome &ea*t *$ecie* are al*o natural in abitant* o. man and animal*. 1 ile *ome *$ecie* are ig l& *$eciali'ed and .ound onl& in certain abitat* at certain time* o. t e &ear" ot er *$ecie* are generali*t* and can be i*olated .rom man& di..erent *ource*. &ea*t i* u*ed to lea,en bread t roug out t e +orld and it i* t e t&$e o. &ea*t t at $eo$le are mo*t .amiliar +it . Ba!er-* &ea*t i* $roduced .rom t e genu* and *$ecie* o. &ea*t called =acc arom&ce* cere,i*iae. 3 e *cienti.ic name o. t e genu* o. ba!er-* &ea*t" =acc arom&ce*" re.er* to ?*acc aroE meaning *ugar and ?m&ce*E meaning .ungu*. 3 e *$ecie* name" cere,i*iae" i* deri,ed .rom t e name 7ere*" t e )oman godde** o. agriculture. Ba!er-* &ea*t $roduct* are made .rom *train* o. t i* &ea*t *elected .or t eir *$ecial Aualitie* relating to t e need* o. t e ba!ing indu*tr&. 3 e t&$ical &ea*t cell i* a$$ro0imatel& eAual in *i'e to a uman red blood cell and i* *$ erical to elli$*oidal in * a$e. Becau*e o. it* *mall *i'e" it ta!e* about :0 billion &ea*t cell* to ma!e u$ to one gram o. com$re**ed ba!er-* &ea*t. 5ea*t re$roduce ,egetati,el& b& budding" a $roce** during + ic a ne+ bud gro+* .rom t e *ide o. t e e0i*ting cell +all. 3 i* bud e,entuall& brea!* a+a& .rom t e mot er cell to .orm a *e$arate daug ter cell. Eac &ea*t cell" on a,erage" undergoe* t i* budding $roce** 12 to 15 time* be.ore it i* no longer ca$able o. re$roducing. Curing commercial $roduction" &ea*t i* gro+n under care.ull& controlled condition* on a *ugar containing media t&$icall& com$o*ed o. beet and cane mola**e*. Bnder ideal gro+t condition* a &ea*t cell re$roduce* e,er& t+o to t ree our*. 5ea*t i* t e e**ential ingredient in man& ba!er& $roduct*. (t i* re*$on*ible .or lea,ening t e doug and im$arting a deliciou* &ea*t .ermentation .la,or to t e $roduct. (t i* u*ed in rat er *mall amount* in mo*t ba!er& $roduct*" but a,ing good &ea*t and u*ing t e &ea*t $ro$erl& o.ten ma!e* t e di..erence bet+een *ucce** and *omet ing le** t an *ucce** in a ba!er& o$eration. (n t e $roduction o. ba!ed good*" &ea*t i* a !e& ingredient and *er,e* t ree $rimar& .unction*: Prod'#tion of #ar*on dio9ide: 7arbon dio0ide i* generated b& t e &ea*t a* a re*ult o. t e brea!do+n o. .ermentable *ugar* in t e doug . 2: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

3 e e,olution o. carbon dio0ide cau*e* e0$an*ion o. t e doug a* it i* tra$$ed +it in t e $rotein matri0 o. t e doug . Ca'ses do',h mat'ration: 3 i* i* accom$li* ed b& t e c emical reaction o. &ea*t $roduced alco ol* and acid* on $rotein o. t e .lour and b& t e $ &*ical *tretc ing o. t e $rotein b& carbon dio0ide ga*. 3 e*e re*ult* in t e lig t" air& $ &*ical *tructure a**ociated +it &ea*t lea,ened $roduct*. De+elopment of fermentation fla+or: 5ea*t im$art* t e c aracteri*tic .la,or o. bread and ot er &ea*t lea,ened $roduct*. Curing doug .ermentation" &ea*t $roduce* man& *econdar& metabolite* *uc a* !etone*" ig er alco ol*" organic acid*" alde &de* and e*ter*. =ome o. t e*e" alco ol* .or e0am$le" e*ca$e during ba!ing. 8t er* react +it eac ot er and +it ot er com$ound* .ound in t e doug to .orm ne+ and more com$le0 .la,or com$ound*. 3 e*e reaction* occur $rimaril& in t e cru*t and t e re*ultant .la,or di..u*e* into t e crumb o. t e ba!ed bread. 1EASTS P$ODC"TIO S P$I CEPLES: 5ea*t* can gro+ in t e $re*ence or ab*ence o. air. %naerobic gro+t " gro+t in t e ab*ence o. o0&gen" i* Auite *lo+ and ine..icient. For in*tance" in bread doug " &ea*t gro+* ,er& little. (n*tead" t e *ugar t at can *u*tain eit er .ermentation or gro+t i* u*ed mainl& to $roduce alco ol and carbon dio0ide. 8nl& a *mall $ortion o. t e *ugar i* u*ed .or cell maintenance and gro+t . (n contra*t" under aerobic condition*" in t e $re*ence o. a *u..icient Auantit& o. di**ol,ed o0&gen" &ea*t gro+ b& u*ing mo*t o. t e a,ailable *ugar .or gro+t and $roducing onl& negligible Auantitie* o. alco ol. 3 i* mean* t at t e ba!er + o i* intere*ted in t e lea,ening action o. carbon dio0ide +or!* under condition* t at minimi'e t e $re*ence o. di**ol,ed o0&gen. 8n t e ot er and" a &ea*t manu.acturer t at +ant* to $roduce more &ea*t cell ma**" +or!* under aerobic condition* b& bubbling air t roug t e *olution in + ic t e &ea*t i* gro+n. 3 e $roblem $o*ed to t e &ea*t manu.acturer" o+e,er" i* not a* *im$le a* 2u*t adding air during t e .ermentation $roce**. (. t e concentration o. *ugar in t e .ermentation gro+t media i* greater t an a ,er& *mall amount" t e &ea*t +ill $roduce *ome alco ol e,en i. t e *u$$l& o. o0&gen i* adeAuate or e,en in abundance. 3 i* $roblem can be *ol,ed b& adding t e *ugar *olution *lo+l& to t e &ea*t t roug out t e .ermentation $roce**. 3 e rate o. addition o. t e *ugar *olution mu*t be *uc t at t e &ea*t u*e* t e *ugar .a*t enoug *o t at t e *ugar concentration at an& one time i* $racticall& 'ero. 3 i* t&$e o. .ermentation i* re.erred to a* a .ed-batc .ermentation. 1EAST P$OD"CTIO S P$ACTICES:3 e ba!er-* &ea*t $roduction $roce** .lo+ c art attac ed belo+ can be di,ided into .our ba*ic *te$*. (n order t e*e *te$* are" mola**e* and ot er ra+ material $re$aration" culture or *eed &ea*t $re$aration" .ermentation and ar,e*ting and .iltration and $ac!aging. 3 e $roce** outlined in t e .lo+ c art ta!e* a$$ro0imatel& .i,e da&* .rom *tart to .ini* . 3 e ba*ic carbon and energ& *ource .or &ea*t gro+t are *ugar*. =tarc can not be u*ed becau*e &ea*t doe* not contain t e a$$ro$riate en'&me* to &drol&'e t i* *ub*trate to .ermentable *ugar*. Beet and cane mola**e* are commonl& u*ed a* ra+ material becau*e t e *ugar* $re*ent in mola**e*" a mi0ture o. *ucro*e" .ructo*e and gluco*e" are readil& .ermentable. (n addition to *ugar" &ea*t al*o reAuire* certain mineral*" ,itamin* and *alt* .or gro+t . =ome o. t e*e can be added to t e blend o. beet and cane mola**e* $rior to .la* *terili'ation + ile ot er* are .ed *e$aratel& to t e .ermentation. %lternati,el&" a *e$arate nutrient .eed tan! can be u*ed to mi0 and deli,er *ome o. t e nece**ar& ,itamin* and mineral*. )eAuired nitrogen i* *u$$lied in t e .orm o. ammonia and $ o*$ ate i* *u$$lied in t e .orm o. $ o*$ oric acid. Eac o. t e*e nutrient* i* .ed *e$aratel& to t e .ermentation to $ermit better $4 control o. t e $roce**. 3 e *terili'ed mola**e*" commonl& re.erred to a* ma* or +ort" i* *tored in a *e$arate *tainle** *teel tan!. 3 e ma* *tored in t i* tan! i* t en u*ed to .eed *ugar and ot er nutrient* to t e a$$ro$riate .ermentation ,e**el*. 24 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Ba!er-* &ea*t $roduction *tart* +it a $ure culture tube or .ro'en ,ial o. t e a$$ro$riate &ea*t *train. 3 i* &ea*t *er,e* a* t e inoculum* .or t e $re-$ure culture tan!" a *mall $re**ure ,e**el + ere *eed i* gro+n in medium under *trict *terile condition*. Follo+ing gro+t " t e content* o. t i* ,e**el are tran*.erred to a larger $ure culture .ermented + ere $ro$agation i* carried out +it *ome aeration" again under *terile condition*. 3 e*e earl& *tage* are conducted a* *et-batc .ermentation*. (n a *et-batc .ermentation all t e gro+t media and nutrient* are introduced to t e tan! $rior to inoculation. From t e $ure culture ,e**el" t e gro+n cell* are tran*.erred to a *erie* o. $rogre**i,el& larger *eed and *emi-*eed .omenter*. 3 e*e later *tage* are conducted a* .ed-batc .ermentation*. Curing .ed-batc .ermentation" mola**e*" $ o*$ oric acid" ammonia and mineral* are .ed to t e &ea*t at a controlled rate. 3 i* rate i* de*igned to .eed 2u*t enoug *ugar and nutrient* to t e &ea*t to ma0imi'e multi$lication and $re,ent t e $roduction o. alco ol. (n addition" t e*e .ed-batc .ermentation* are not com$letel& *terile. (t i* not economical to u*e $re**uri'ed tan!* to guarantee *terilit& o. t e large ,olume* o. air reAuired in t e*e .ermentor* or to ac ie,e *terile condition* during all t e tran*.er* t roug t e man& $i$e*" $um$* and centri.uge*. E0ten*i,e cleaning o. t e eAui$ment" *teaming o. $i$e* and tan!* and .iltering o. t e air i* $racticed to in*ure a* a*e$tic condition* a* $o**ible. %t t e end o. t e *emi-*eed .ermentation" t e content* o. t e ,e**el are $um$ed to a *erie* o. *e$arator* t at *e$arate t e &ea*t .rom t e *$ent mola**e*. 3 e &ea*t i* t en +a* ed +it cold +ater and $um$ed to a *emi-*eed &ea*t *torage tan! + ere t e &ea*t cream i* eld at :4 degree* Fa ren eit until it i* u*ed to inoculate t e commercial .ermentation tan!*. 3 e*e commercial .ermentor* are t e .inal *te$ in t e .ermentation $roce** and are o.ten re.erred to a* t e .inal or trade .ermentation. 7ommercial .ermentation* are carried out in large .ermentor* +it +or!ing ,olume* u$ to 50"000 gallon*. 3o *tart t e commercial .ermentation" a ,olume o. +ater" re.erred to a* *et +ater" i* $um$ed into t e .ermentor. #e0t" in a $roce** re.erred to a* $itc ing" *emi-*eed &ea*t .rom t e *torage tan! i* tran*.erred into t e .ermentor. Follo+ing addition o. t e *eed &ea*t" aeration" cooling and nutrient addition* are *tarted to begin t e 15-20 our .ermentation. %t t e *tart o. t e .ermentation" t e liAuid *eed &ea*t and additional +ater ma& occu$& onl& about one-t ird to one- al. o. t e .ermentor ,olume. 7on*tant addition* o. nutrient* during t e cour*e o. .ermentation bring t e .ermentor to it* .inal ,olume. 3 e rate o. nutrient addition increa*e* t roug out t e .ermentation becau*e more nutrient* a,e to be *u$$lied to *u$$ort gro+t o. t e increa*ing cell $o$ulation. 3 e number o. &ea*t cell* increa*e about .i,e- to eig t.old during t i* .ermentation. %ir i* $ro,ided to t e .ermentor t roug a *erie* o. $er.orated tube* located at t e bottom o. t e ,e**el. 3 e rate o. air.lo+ i* about one ,olume o. air $er .ermentor ,olume $er minute. % large amount o. eat i* generated during &ea*t gro+t and cooling i* accom$li* ed b& internal cooling coil* or b& $um$ing t e .ermentation liAuid" al*o !no+n a* brot " t roug an e0ternal eat e0c anger. 3 e addition o. nutrient* and regulation o. $4" tem$erature and air.lo+ are care.ull& monitored and controlled b& com$uter *&*tem* during t e entire $roduction $roce**. 3 roug out t e .ermentation" t e tem$erature i* !e$t at a$$ro0imatel& 8< degree* Fa ren eit and t e $4 in t e range o. 4.5-5.5. %t t e end o. .ermentation" t e .ermented brot i* *e$arated b& no''le-t&$e centri.uge*" +a* ed +it +ater and re-centri.uged to &ield a &ea*t cream +it a *olid* concentration o. a$$ro0imatel& 18;. 3 e &ea*t cream i* cooled to about 45 degree* Fa ren eit and *tored in a *e$arate" re.rigerated *tainle** *teel cream tan!. 7ream &ea*t can be loaded directl& into tan!er truc!* and deli,ered to cu*tomer* eAui$$ed +it an a$$ro$riate cream &ea*t andling *&*tem. %lternati,el&" t e &ea*t cream can be $um$ed to a $late and .rame .ilter $re** and de+atered to a ca!e-li!e con*i*tenc& +it a :0-:2; &ea*t *olid* content. 3 i* $re** ca!e &ea*t i* crumbled into $iece* and $ac!ed into 50-$ound bag* t at are *tac!ed on a $allet. 3 e &ea*t eat* u$ during t e $re**ing and $ac!aging o$eration* and t e bag* o. crumbled &ea*t mu*t be cooled in a re.rigerator .or a $eriod o. time +it adeAuate ,entilation and $lacement o. $allet* to $ermit .ree acce** to t e cooling air. Jalleti'ed bag* o. crumbled &ea*t are t en di*tributed to cu*tomer* in re.rigerated truc!*. 25 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

5E%=3 3E%=3(#I 3 e Aualit& o. &ea*t i* o.ten di*cu**ed in term* o. microbiological $urit& and ga* $roducing acti,it&. %t t e beginning *tage o. t e manu.acturing $roce**" *train $urit& and truene** to t&$e are care.ull& controlled. (n t e laborator&" a $ure culture o. t e &ea*t *train being u*ed i* maintained and $re$ared .or inoculation into t e initial .ermentation ,e**el. =trict ad erence to *anitar& $ractice* and IMJrule* o. t e Food and Crug %dmini*tration are reAuired at all *tage* o. &ea*t $roduction to $roduce $roduct* +it acce$table microbiological *tandard*. 7om$lete microbiological te*ting i* conducted on all .ini* ed &ea*t $roduct u*ing a$$ro,ed and $ubli* ed met od*. 3 i* in*ure* $roduct *a.et& and lac! o. $otentiall& arm.ul organi*m*. Ca!ota Ba!er-* 5ea*t microbiological *tandard* a,e =almonella *$. *$eci.ication o. negati,eH:75 gram* and an E.coli *$eci.ication o. le** t an 100Hgram. Ia* $roduction i* t e ma2or .unction o. &ea*t in bread doug . 3o en*ure con*i*tent ga**ing $er.ormance" eac code o. Ca!ota Ba!er-* 5ea*t i* te*ted .or ga**ing acti,it&. 3 e te*t in,ol,e* ga**ing a *tandardi'ed doug .ormula at a con*tant-tem$erature in a $reci*ion ga**ing a$$aratu* t at mea*ure* t e amount o. carbon dio0ide $roduced o,er a .i0ed amount o. time. 1 ile t e te*t i* an e0cellent $redictor o. &ea*t $er.ormance" it i* not an e0act $redictor o. $roo. time*. 3 i* i* due to t e .act t at $roo. time* are related to bot ga*-$roduction* b& &ea*t and ga*-retention b& t e doug . Factor* *uc a* .lour Aualit&" doug *trengt ener*" and t e amount o. mi0ing are *ome o. t e .actor* t at a..ect ga* retention. Ia**ing acti,it& number* are $ro,ided +it t e certi.icate o. anal&*i* 978%D accom$an&ing eac * i$ment o. Ca!ota Ba!er* 5ea*t. Bntil t e mid 19t centur& all beer +a* made +it to$ .ermenting ale &ea*t + ic +or! be*t at +arm tem$erature* 915 to 24_cD and $roduce .ruit&" di*tincti,e .la,our*. %d,ance* in c emi*tr& led to t e i*olation and de,elo$ment o. bottom .ermenting &ea*t. + ic t ri,e at lo+er tem$erature* 9: to 11_cD. 6o+er tem$erature .ermentation ta!e* longer and lead to t e term lager" .rom t e Ierman +ord Pto *tore.P 3 e cleaner" more *ubtle" .la,our* a**ociated +it lager .ermentation a,e" +it rare e0ce$tion" *+e$t t e global ma** mar!et. 2re(ers yeast:bre+er* &ea*t i* a micro organi*m belonging* to t e *acc arom&ce* *$ice* and i* ca$able o. re$roducting at a .anta*ic rate.it* +or! i* to $ro$agate and *$lit u$ t e *ugar com$onent* in to eAual Auntie* o. alco ol > carbondio0ide.at t i* time it ma& +ell to mention it i* t e carbondi0iod content o. t e beer + ic determine* t e amount o. t e .oam .ormation. 3 ere are : t&$e* o. met od o. ma!ing t e beer*. 2$EWI &S/ 3 e barle& i* t e *tee$ed in +ater until it germinate*.it i* t en !lin-dried u$ to 18degree . to *to$ germenation*.t e re*ultant $roduct* i* termed malt and i* read& .or grinding. -AS%I &:t e cru* ed malt i* mi0ed +it +ater at a gi,en tem$eture* .or $ro$er lengt o. time*. 3 e te*ultant *olution* +ort i* t en u*ed to ma!e a beer and t e re*idu*9*$ent grain*D i* *oled a* *toc! .odder. FE$-E TATIO S: (* t e ne0t $roce** + ere t e &ea*t *$lit* t e *ugar in to alco ol and carbondio0ide.t i* i* t e mo*t deci*i,e $ a*e in t e bre+ing .or attaining bre+* o. .ine ta*te and aroma. Beer %roma* %roma* a**ociated +it beer mainl& come .rom malt and o$*. Malt can *mell $er.um&-*+eet to ric and carmell&. )oa*t&" toa*t&" c ocolat& are c aracteri*tic* t at come .rom more ea,il& !ilned malt*. 4o$ aroma* are o.ten de*cribed a* erbal" $er.um&" *$ic&" gra**&" .loral" $ine&" and citru*& Ales and La,ers %le*" *tout* and *e,eral ot er t&$e* o. bre+*" li!e $orter" are to$-.ermented. 3 e to$-.ermentation &ea*t" =acc arom&ce* cere,i*iae" u*uall& $roduce* *tronger alco ol content* t an t e bottom-.ermentation &ea*t" =acc arom&ce* carl*bergi" but t e latter $roduce* more Aualit&-con*i*tent bre+. 6ager* are bottom.ermented. 2< A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

%le* u*uall& are ea,il& o$$ed" and include bitter*" bro+n ale*" cream ale*" mild ale" $ale ale" (ndia $ale ale" barle& +ine and *e,eral ot er t&$e*. 3 ere are t+o t&$e* o. t e aboriginal ale *till bre+ed in Euro$e. 3 e& are Belgian ?lambicE and Finni* ?*a tiE" + ic i* bre+ed .rom r&e malt. 3 e& are bre+ed on +ild &ea*t and *$ontaneou* .ermentation. Bot a,e ,er& di*tinct ta*te*. 3 e +ord ?lagerE i* Ierman and mean* ?*torageE" + ic re.er* to t e lager 9*torageD .ermentation. 3 e main .ermentation o. bot ale* and lager are done on t e *imilar tem$erature .or 7-14 da&*. %.ter t at time t e ale" de$ending on t e t&$e" ma& be read& .or bottling. 1it lager*" t i* i* onl& t e *tart. %.ter t e main .ermentation t e beer i* $um$ed into lager 9*torageD tan!* +it tem$erature *ome 10 deg 7 lo+er t an room tem$erature. (t i* t en let to mature and .erment .or *e,eral +ee!*" u*uall& <-10 +ee!*. %t 270 da&*" t e longe*t lager .ermentation i* .or t at o. Bude2o,ic!& Bud,ar bre+er&-* Bud =trong. 3 e di..erence* bet+een a larger and ale i* t at t e &ea*t u*ed .or t e .ermentation* o. a larger +or!* at a cooler* tem$eratue* and *in! to t e bottom* o. t e .ermentation* ,e**el* + ile ale &ea*t* +or! at a ig er tem$erature* and ri*e to t e to$ o. t e ,e**el*. %6E/ i* more bitter t an beer* and contian* <; alco ol. PILS E$:a term u*ed .or lig t colored beer* > are all brig t"lig t and lagered. STO"T:i* ,er & dar! ale t at i* *lig tl& bitter* and malt&.roa*ted barel& i* added to .la,our and color t e bre+*. =tout Beer* 4a,ing trouble *lee$ing@ Feeling con*ti$ated@ For aiding dige*tion and a* a natural tonic" drin! a $int o. *tout. =tout* a,e ad an enduring tradition o. gi,ing *trengt " $o**e**ing nutriti,e and ealing ,alue* and" in b&gone &ear*" +ere $re*cribed b& doctor* .or alle,iating a m&riad o. ailment*. =ome traditional Engli* *+eet *tout*" re.erred to a* mil! and cream *tout* .or t e mil! *ugar 9lacto*eD or + e& added to t e bre+" +ere t oug t o. a* $ic!-me-u$* .or in,alid* and" a* recentl& a* t e mid-1900*" +ere .reAuentl& recommended to nur*ing mot er* b& medical $ro.e**ional*. %ccording to Briti* beer e0$ert" Mic ael Sac!*on" in 1920 a Briti* ad,erti*ing agenc& $olled drin!er* about + & t e& dran! Iuinne**. %mong t e mo*t common re*$on*e* +a*" P(t doe* me good.P 3 i* li!el& .ormed t e ba*i* o. Iuinne**L long and *ucce**.ul ad,erti*ing cam$aign e*$ou*ing PIuinne** (* Iood .or 5ou"P PM& Ioodne**" M& Iuinne**"P and PIuinne** .or =trengt .P %lt oug t e earlie*t recorded u*e o. t e +ord P*toutP to de*cribe a beer came in 1<77" *tout a* it* o+n commercial beer *t&le +a* not e*tabli* ed until around 1820. Be.ore t en" *tout and $orter +ere t e *ame *t&le o. beer. =tout i* *im$l& an arc aic term meaning P*trongP and +a* u*ed to re.er to a ig alco ol ,er*ion o. $orter called P*tout $orter.P DR* ST+,T 3oda&" more t an an& ot er beer *t&le" *tout i* de.ined b& a *ingle commercial bre+er -- Iuinne** o. Cublin" (reland" and it* *ignature dr& *tout. But Iuinne** came .rom umble beginning* + en %rt ur Iuinne** boug t an abandoned bre+er& at =t. Same* Iate in Cublin in 1759. (nitiall&" Iuinne** +a* one o. t e .ir*t bre+erie* in (reland to bre+ a $orter and b& 1799 it ad di*$en*ed +it bre+ing all ot er *t&le* o. beer in .a,or o. becoming a $orter *$eciali*t. But +it t e ad,ent o. blac! malt" Iuinne** $ro,ed +illing to c ange +it t e time* and began bre+ing *tout* in t e mid 1800*. 7ontrar& to it* ric " o$aAue blac! c aracter" Iuinne** i* a rat er lig t beer + en it come* to calorie* and alco ol content. Iuinne** Craug t +eig * in at 4.2 $ercent alco ol b& ,olume" + ic i* *lig tl& +ea!er t an Bud+ei*er at 4.7 $ercent. B& contra*t" t e bottled ,er*ion e0$orted to t e Bnited =tate* i* *tronger +it an alco ol content o. < $ercent b& ,olume. 3oda&" t ere are *ome 19 ,ariation* o. Iuinne** =tout made in bre+erie* around t e +orld.

27 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

3 e $ro.ile o. t e cla**ic (ri* -*t&le dr& *tout include* a malt&" caramel .la,or u$ .ront +it a di*tincti,e dr&-roa*ted bitterne** in t e .ini* . 3 ere * ould be no $erce$tible o$ or .ruit& aroma or .la,or" but it * ould di*$la& a ric " cream& ead and ric c aracter +it medium to .ull bod&. 1 ile Iuinne** i* t e *tandard-bearer .or t e cla**ic (ri* -*t&le dr& *tout" t ere are ot er e0cellent e0am$le* .rom (reland" mo*t notabl& Mur$ &L* (ri* =tout .rom t e 6ad&L* 1ell Bre+er& in 7or! and Beami* Ienuine =tout" coincidentall& al*o in 7or!. (ntere*tingl&" Mur$ &L* +a* traditionall& t oug t o. a* t e 7at olic bre+er&" + ile Beami* +a* t e Jrote*tant. %cro** t e %tlantic" .ine %merican microbre+ed ,er*ion* o. dr& *tout include #ort 7oa*t Bre+ing 7o.L* 8ld #o. :8 =tout" Mendocino Bre+ing 7o.L* Blac! 4a+! =tout" =ierra #e,ada =tout and )ogueL* = a!e*$eare =tout" all o. + ic di*$la& o$$ier c aracteri*tic* t an t eir (ri* counter$art*. +&ster Stout 3 e a**ociation o. *tout* +it o&*ter* and lob*ter a* intrigued ga*tronomi*t* .or &ear*. Sac!*on de*cribe* t e combination a* a marriage trul& made in ea,en" and ( +ould a,e to concur. Bre+er* o. old too! t i* one *te$ .urt er b& $roducing *tout* t at included o&*ter* a* an ingredient. #ot *ur$ri*ingl&" t e& +ere dubbed Po&*ter *tout*.P =ome contained ground o&*ter * ell* + ile ot er* contained o&*ter meat or *im$l& o&*ter 2uice. %lt oug ( can t in! o. no o&*ter *tout* being commerciall& $roduced toda&" ( *u*$ect t ere are a .e+ %merican microbre+er* + o a,e recentl& ad a go at it" and ( a,e encountered a .e+ omebre+er* + o a,e recreated t e *t&le. M& be*t recollection o. a omebre+ed o&*ter *tout +a* at an %merican 4omebre+er* %**ociation #ational 7on,ention in Baltimore in 1995. ( ad 2u*t entered t e o*$italit& *uite o*ted b& t e 1a* ington" C.7.-ba*ed omebre+ club" Bre+er* Bnited .or )eal Jotable* 9BB)JD" + en ( eard a commotion and *$irited *cream* emanating .rom t e ad2oining room. 1 en ( *te$$ed into t e room ( *$ied blac!-a*-tar" omebre+ed o&*ter *tout coating t e entire room -- t e dra$e*" ceiling" u$ ol*tered c air*" car$et" bed*$read and all beer gee!* +it in *$ra&ing range. %$$arentl&" + en a $udg&" be*$ectacled club member o$ened i* bottle o. omebre+ed o&*ter *tout" enoug $re**ure ad built u$ in t e bottle t at t e .i* & bre+ ble+ e,er&+ ere. (t mu*t a,e been m& luc!& da& to a,e been *$ared t e carnage. (t +a*nLt a bad ta*ting beer eit er. Sweet Stout-Cream Stout =+eet *tout* .ir*t emerged a* a recogni'able commercial *t&le in 6ondon in t e earl& 1900*. B& 19:<" Mac!e*onL* Mil! =tout .rom Mac!e*on Bre+er& o. Ment" England" +a* +idel& a,ailable t roug out t e countr&. %lt oug t e 1 itbread-o+ned Mac!e*on continue* toda& to bre+ it* P=+eet =tout"P EnglandL* Mini*tr& o. Food $er*uaded bre+er* to remo,e lactic re.erence* .rom t eir label*. =till" Mac!e*onL* di*$la&* a butter c urn on it* label and ot er bre+erie* continue to u*e t e a$$ellation Pcream *toutP on t eir o+n. 8ut*ide t e 2uri*diction o. t e Briti* go,ernment" t e Iuern*e& Bre+er&" in t e 7 annel (*land*" *till bre+* a beer labeled PMil! =tout"P e,en t oug it no longer contain* lacto*e. %* in England" t e Bnited =tate* a* *trict la+* $ro ibiting t e +ord Pmil!P on beer label*" contending t at it +ould con.u*e con*umer*. #e,ert ele**" t e Bo*ton Beer 7o. i* $ermitted to mar!et t e +idel& a,ailable =amuel %dam* 7ream =tout. Io .igure. =+eet or cream *tout* o..er le** roa*ted bitterne** on t e $alate and are more .ull-bodied t an dr& *tout*. 3 e *t&leL* bod& can be .orti.ied +it lacto*e" and t e malt& *+eet" c ocolate&-caramel .la,or * ould be balanced +it o$*. +atmeal Stout =ome *+eet *tout* include oatmeal a* a !e& ingredient. 3 i* $ractice +a* begun during t e Pnutritiou* *toutP era and continue* toda&. 3 e oat* contribute a *il!& *moot ne** to t e *tout" and becau*e o. t eir oil& nature" mu*t be added to t e bre+ in *mall $ro$ortion*. 3+o o. t e be*t oatmeal *tout* a,ailable in t e Bnited =tate* are =amuel =mit L* 8atmeal =tout .rom 3adca*ter" 5or!* ire and %nder*on Galle& Bre+ing 7o.L* Barne& Flat* 8atmeal =tout. 28 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Imperial Stout 4ad it not beer .or t e )u**ian*" (m$erial =tout" originall& !no+n a* (m$erial )u**ian =tout" ma& ne,er a,e been $roduced b& t e Brit*. (t +a* )u**ian 7'arina 7at erine t e IreatL* ,oraciou* a$$etite .or *tout t at in*$ired t e bre+er* o. 6ondon to create t i* *t&le. B& t e time barrel* o. *tout .rom 6ondon reac ed t eir Baltic $ort*" mo*t o. it ad turned *tale. 3o *ol,e t i* $roblem" Briti* bre+er* $roduced a ig l& o$$ed" ig alco ol *tout to *ur,i,e t e long 2ourne&. 7ourage" t e Briti* bre+er& t at +a* 7at erineL* $rimar& *u$$lier" continue* to $roduce it* (m$erial )u**ian =tout toda&" and it i* belie,ed to be t e longe*t continuou*l& mar!eted e0am$le o. t e *t&le. 3 e $re*ent da& label *tate* t at it +a* originall& bre+ed .or 7at erine ((" Em$re** o. all t e )u**ia*" and carrie* t e $ ra*e P%* bre+ed .or more t an 200 &ear*.P 3&$icall&" im$erial *tout* bear an alco ol content o. more t an 7.5 $ercent b& ,olume +it an inten*e roa*ted" $er a$* burnt" .la,or and *trong .ruit& e*ter*" *uc a* burnt currant* and rai*in*. (t i* .ull-bodied and +arming. %lt oug 7ourageL* ,er*ion i* not +idel& a,ailable in t e Bnited =tate*" *ome ot er .ine e0am$le* o. t i* imaginati,e beer are a,ailable: 5a!ima Bre+ing > Malting 7o.L* IrantL* (m$erial =tout" + ic i* a bit lo+er in alco ol and i* bre+ed +it one&/ #ort 7oa*t Bre+ing 7o.L* 8ld )a*$utin )u**ian (m$erial =tout/ Broo!l&n Bre+er&L* Blac! 7 ocolate =tout/ and =amuel =mit L* (m$erial =tout. 3 e .ollo+ing i* Mic ael Sac!*onL* in*$iring de*cri$tion o. im$erial *tout: P1 en a ig gra,it&" roa*ted grain*" and o.ten a +arm .ermentation" $er a$* +it an ale &ea*t" are combined" t e re*ult i* a bre+ o. e0traordinar& $o+er and com$le0it&. (t* inten*it& call* to mind t e tarr& *+eetne** o. a Jedro `imene' * err&. 3 e roa*tine** meld* +it *mo!&" tar-li!e" burnt" .ruit&" e*ter& note* and alco ol .la,or*. 3 ere i* a *ugge*tion o. cocoa" or *trong co..ee" on a +interL* nig t. 3 e .ruitine** i* remini*cent o. t e burnt currant* on t e edge o. a ca!e t at a* 2u*t been remo,ed .rom t e o,en" or t e 7 ri*tma* $udding traditional in Britain" ea,& +it dried and candied .ruit*. 3 e alco ol *ugge*t* t at t e cocoa or co..ee" $udding or ca!e" a* been laced +it *$irit.P D$A"&%T 2EE$S:draug t beer* are lo+ caloried beer*"o. *o $i*ticated .la,our* and :.5; lig t beer*. -raught or -raft !eer is almost alwa$s un.pasteuri%ed and therefore is more fragile/ *t should !e consumed after !eing 0tapped01 and is generall$ truer to the flavors of the ingredients as pasteuri%ation e2poses the !eer to heat and changes the flavor profile/ ) ,eg has a concentricall$ located downtu!e and a valve that allows !eer in and gas out when filling and vice versa when !eer is dispensed/ )lso ,egs have a simple concave !ottom/ (his aspect of ,eg design meant that all the !eer in the ,eg was dispensed which therefore re+uired that the !eer !e processed !$ filtration1 fining or centrifuging1 or some com!ination of these1 to prevent sediment formation/ 3astl$1 ,egs have straight sides unli,e the traditional !arrel or cas, shape/ *n order to get the !eer out of a ,eg and into a customer4s glass1 it can !e forced out with gas pressure1 although if air or gas at low pressure is admitted to the top of the ,eg it can also !e dispensed using a traditional hand pump at the !ar/ B$ the earl$ 5678s most !eer in Britain was ,eg !eer1 filtered1 pasteuri%ed and artificiall$ car!onated/ (his change was largel$ driven !$ the customer9s disli,e of sediment in his !eer/ E`%MJ6E= o. larger beer* li!e 7arl*berg beer"e,ere*t beer"*an miguel* beer*"tuberg beer*" %le beer* li!e corona"bud+ei*er*"am*tel beer".o*ter*" eine!en" 2est taste t e be*t ta*te u*uall& i* acAuired at an alco ol content o. 4.7; et anol $er ,olume. 6e** t an t at re*ult* in a beer +it a bland ta*te. More t an t at and t e ig er alco ol* 9butanol" $entanol etcD become o,er$o+ering and *$oil* t e ta*te. 3 e *tronge*t beer t&$e b& alco ol content i* do$$elboc!" + ic i* u*uall& 8;-10; et anol b& it* ,olume content. 3 e *tronge*t beer brand in $roduction i* Ierman ?Ei*boc!E" +it *ome 14; et anol b& ,olume.

29 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

(ce beer i* $roduced b& .ree'ing t e bre+ and .iltering t e ice cr&*tal*" increa*ing t e alco ol content. 3 i* $roce** +a* alread& !no+n in t e Middle %ge* to ?cold-di*tilE brand& .rom +ine" and t e ancient 7 ine*e $roduced rice ooc t at +a&. 3 e 7anadian* ado$ted t e cold-di*tillation met od .or ice beer. 2eer Types 3 ere are t+o $rimar& t&$e* o. beer" %le* and 6ager*. 3 e $rimar& di*tinction i* t e tem$erature at + ic t e beer i* .ermented. %le* are .ermented at ig er tem$erature* <5-75_F" and 6ager* are .ermented mu*t colder at about 4<-55_F. 3 e *econd di*tinction i* t e t&$e o. &ea*t t at i* u*ed in t e .ermentation $roce**. %le* generall& u*e to$ .ermenting &ea*t. 3 i* mean* t at t e &ea*t .loat* on t e *ur.ace .or t e .ir*t .e+ da&* and t en *ettle* on t e bottom. 6ager* u*e bottom .ermenting &ea*t" + ic doe* not .loat to t e *ur.ace be.ore *ettling. 3 ere i* a t ird t&$e o. beer t at .ar le** common t an %le* or 6ager*" and t at i* t e 6ambic. 3rue 6ambic i* onl& bre+ed in t e Ja&ottenland region o. Belgium. (n %le* and 6ager* t e &ea*t i* *$eciall& culti,ated .or t e .ermentation. 6ambic i* .ermented b& +ild &ea*t. 3 i* mean* t at t e beer i* e0$o*ed to t e Belgian air + ic contain* +ild &ea*t and bacteria. %mong %le* and 6ager* t ere are man&" man& di..erent beer*. =ee t e beer article* .or in de$t in.ormation on man& o. t e*e beer*. For no+ t e ierarc & o. man& t&$e* o. beer i* * o+n belo+.

2eer and ale +ol'mes 4 gill* Y 1 $int 2 $int* Y 1 Auart 4 Auart* Y 1 gallon 9 gallon* Y 1 .ir!in 2 .ir!in* Y 1 !ilder!in : !ilder!in* Y 1 og* ead 2 og* ead* Y 1 butt :0 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

&1E F2&2*ES (F &1E BEE*S, The f't'res of the *eers: Iett& (mage*. 1 en Montana Bre+ing 7o. +on t e P=mall Bre+$ub o. t e 5earP a+ard at la*t &earL* Ireat %merican Beer Fe*ti,al" o+ner 3ra,i* Keil*tra attributed muc o. i* *ucce** to a #ort +e*tern bitter o$ called #ort ern Bre+er" + ic e add* to 40; o. i* bre+* to ac ie,e a bold .la,or and clean a.terta*te. But + en i* current batc o. o$$& beer* run* out in t e ne0t mont or t+o" Mr. Keil*tra +ill be .orced to alter i* $ri'ed reci$e*. =ince t e beginning o. t i* &ear" i* co*t .or #ort ern Bre+er a* increa*ed .rom [5 a $ound to [40. Mr. Keil*tra a* grudgingl& $aid t e ne+ $rice on t e *$ot mar!et" but t e co*t i* too muc .or im to continue" and e,en i. e could" e +ould not be able to get a contract .or t e *oug ta.ter o$ until 201:" a* t e u$coming ar,e*t* a,e alread& been contracted out to larger bre+er*. .Bre+er* are de*cending on Cen,er t i* +ee! .or t e 27t annual Ireat %merican Beer Fe*ti,al" t e B.=.L* large*t beer gat ering in + ic nearl& 2"000 bre+* com$ete. 3 e& are .acing *oaring co*t* and a * ortage in o$*" t e $lant u*ed to gi,e beer it* bitterne**" aroma and .la,or. (t +a* about t i* time la*t &ear t at bre+er* .ir*t *tarted to .eel t e im$act o. t e current o$ cri*i* -- a lo** o. 10"000 acre* +orld+ide in 2007 -- cau*ed b& a bad cro$ .rom Euro$e" gro+ing demand in %*ia 9+ ere beer *ale* a,e increa*ed :; eac &ear .or t e $a*t al. decadeD" and decade* o. reduced acreage in .a,or o. real-e*tate de,elo$ment and more lucrati,e cro$*. =ince t e *ummer o. 2007" t e * ortage a* $u* ed t e co*t o. o$* .rom around [:-[5 a $ound to [20[40 a $ound. (t a* .orced almo*t all cra.t bre+er* -- *mall" inde$endent and traditional bre+erie* -- to rai*e retail $rice*. =maller bre+er*" + o donLt t&$icall& a,e contract* on o$*" a,e ad to $a& t e ig er co*t*" alter reci$e* or turn to le** o$$& bre+* *uc a* + eat beer*" *tout* and Jil*ner*. (tL* been a *truggle" but &ou a,e to be able to ada$t"P Montana Bre+ing 7o.L* Mr. Keil*tra *a&*. ( a,e a cou$le o. ot er o$* t at ( u*e a* a *ub*titute. =ome o. t em +ill +or! ,er& clo*el& and are interc angeable" but ot er* are not. 1e are 2u*t going to a,e to *ee o+ $eo$le react to t em.P %* o$* $rice* a,e ri*en" *o a* con*umer demand .or t e bolder beer *t&le* o$* $ro,ide" *uc a* (ndia Jale %le* 9(J%*D and *ea*onal dra.t* li!e 8!tober.e*t beer* and $um$!in ale*. %ccording to mar!et data t roug Sul&" *ale* .or (J%* and *ea*onal beer* t i* &ear a,e *een t e greate*t increa*e among cra.t beer*" 8; and 1<; re*$ecti,el&. 3 e large*t -- and mo*t com$etiti,e -- categor& at t e Ireat %merican Beer Fe*ti,al i* t e %merican =t&le (J%. P7on*umer demand continue* to go o$$ier and o$$ier"P *a&* Jaul Iat'a" director o. t e Bre+er* %**ociation" a non$ro.it grou$ ba*ed in Boulder" 7olo." t at +or!* +it cra.t bre+er* and run* t e Ireat %merican Beer Fe*ti,al. P1 at +e are *eeing i* t at + en \bre+er*] canLt get t e o$* t e& +ant" t e& are coming out +it di..erent beer*. =ome are rationing t eir o+n beer*.P 1eat er condition* and gro+ing demand .or *mall cra.t bre+* are cau*ing a ma2or * ortage o. o$* and dri,ing u$ $rice*. Mar!et 1atc -* Jaul 6in tal!* to Germont bre+er* about + at it mean* .or t e indu*tr&. .$isin, Pri#es %* t e o$* cri*i* became more a$$arent at t e beginning o. t e &ear" Bear )e$ublic Bre+er& in #ort ern 7ali.ornia" + o*e better !no+n bre+* include )ed )acer (J%" 4o$ )od )&e and )ed )oc! %le" rai*ed it $rice* almo*t immediatel&" .rom a [8.50 a *i0 $ac! to [10. :1 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

8+ner )ic ard #orgro,e *a&* e got an ear.ul .rom di*tributor* + o *aid t e com$an& +ould lo*e mar!et * are to ot er cra.t bre+er*: P(t +a* met +it a lot o. a$$re en*ion. =ure enoug " <0 da&* later e,er&bod& +a* doing t e *ame.P Jrice i!e* a,e been almo*t uni,er*al" +it t e co*t o. *i0 $ac!* increa*ing b& u$ to [2 de$ending on t e mar!et. E,en larger bre+er* *uc a* =ierra #e,ada" t e *econd large*t cra.t bre+er in t e B.=." rai*ed t e $rice o. a ca*e b& 50 to <0 cent* to combat ri*ing co*t*" *aid o+ner Men Iro**man. %t =tone Bre+ing 7o." con*idered one o. t e indu*tr& leader* in creating o$$& beer*" t e 15-20; $rice i!e in*tituted earlier t i* &ear +a* t e Pbigge*t *ingle $rice increa*e +e ad to ta!eP in t e com$an&L* 12&ear i*tor&" *aid o+ner Ireg Moc . )eci$e 7 ange* Ce*$ite t e ri*e in o$ $rice*" one o$tion t at +a* o.. t e table .or almo*t all bre+er* +a* cutting bac! on o$*. For man& bre+ma*ter*" t i* mean* u*ing t e o$* a,ailable and altering t e ingredient* to recreate t e ta*te. Mr. Gaccaro *a&* e o.ten tin!er* +it t e reci$e .or i* (m$erial (J%" + ic u*e* .our ,arietie* o. o$*. P(t tend* to be a beer t at i* robu*t in .la,or t at &ou can $la& around +it "P e *aid. PBnle** &ou drin! it e,er&da&" &ou are not going to notice t e di..erence. 1 at +e a,e learned i* + at ,arietie* +e can *ub*titute in and *till !ee$ our .la,or $ro.ile*.P (n beer $arlance" t ere are t+o !ind* o. o$*: one t at tone* do+n t e *+eetne**" !no+n a* a bittering o$" and anot er t at i* added clo*er to e end o. t e bre+ing $roce**" called an aroma o$" t at gi,e* beer* t eir di*tinct .la,or. 3 e * ortage in o$* a* cau*ed $rice* to *urge b& a* muc a* ten time*. P1 ere it become* more di..icult i* t e aroma ,arietie* t at ma!e a c aracter uniAue"P Mr. Gaccaro *a&*. P5ou can c ange more +it t e bittering o$ +it out a $ercei,ed c ange. 1 en &ou *tart $la&ing +it t e aroma o$*" it i* a little more noticeable.P Ce*$ite ri*ing $rice* and a * ortage in o$*" cra.t beer -- beer made b& *mall" inde$endent and traditional bre+erie* -- a* gro+n <.5; in ,olume and 11; in *ale* in t e .ir*t al. o. 2008" roug l& t e *ame amount a* t e *ame $eriod la*t &ear" Mr. Iat'a *a&*. %ccording to t e Bre+er* %**ociation" in 200< and 2007" 47 o. t e to$ 50 cra.t bre+ing com$anie* gre+ in $roduction to !ee$ u$ +it demand. =o .ar t i* &ear about 42 o. t e to$ 50 are gro+ing to !ee$ u$ +it demand" Mr. Iat'a *aid. 8ne o. t e rea*on* .or t i* continued gro+t de*$ite t e economic do+nturn i* t at cra.t beer i* *till one o. c ea$er lu0ur& item* $eo$le can bu&" +it mo*t *i0 $ac!* co*t le** t an [10" *a&* Mr. #orgro,e o. Bear )e$ublic Bre+er&. Bear )e$ublic a* *een bu*ine** gro+ b& more t an 50; in 200< and 2007" and i* *eeing ealt & $ro.it* again t i* &ear" e *a&*. P1e are in one o. t o*e indu*trie* t at i* reall& doing +ell. ( donLt +ant to *a& itL* rece**ion $roo." but +e are *eeing *tead& gro+t .P

:2 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Bet+een Marc and Ma& o. t i* &ear o$ gro+er* $lanted an additional 8"500 acre* in t e B.=. and more t an 11"000 +orld-+ide to el$ !ee$ u$ +it demand -- t oug mo*t o. t e o$* $lanted are t e bitter o$* + ic are +ill not reac .ull maturit& .or t ree &ear* and do le** to di*tingui* .la,or. %t t e beer .e*ti,al* t i* .all" o$-.illed beer* +ill *till be $re,alent" t oug *ome ma& a,e altered reci$e*. But .or t e ne0t ar,e*t" bre+er* and e0$ert* agree t at t ere could be le** di,er*it& in t e *t&le* o. beer*. 3 ing* are $redicted to get a little better on t e o$ .ront in t e ne0t &ear to t+o"P Mr. Moc *aid. 3 ere a* been a little bit o. lig t at t e end o. t e tunnel" but itL* de.initel& not in t e clear.P B3&&E*S Definition: (n t e culinar& art*" t e +ord bitter* re.er* to an alco olic be,erage .la,ored +it erb* and ot er ingredient* to $roduce a bitter .la,or. =ome bitter* can a,e a *+eet .la,or" de$ending on t eir ingredient* and .ormulation. 3 i* generic term a$$lie* to all bitter liAueur* > bitter* .bitter* are $roduced .rom erb* > root* e0tract* ".rom t e narcotic com$onent* o. 9 $rimaril& Dtro$ical > *ub tro$ical $lant* > *$ice* .t e& are u*uall& dar! in colour > ,alued .or t eir a$$etite $romoting > dige*tion bitter* a,e. B3&&E*S" are distilled alcohimaolic !everages strongl$ infused with the essences of aromatic her!s and roots/ Common ingredients in !itters include gentian1 +uinine1 orange $eel* and %ngo*tura bar!. %lt oug t e alco ol content o. !itters can reac 45; or ig er" mo*t con*umer* onl& u*e a .e+ dro$* at a time to en ance t eir a$$etite*" .la,or ot er di*tilled *$irit* *uc a* gin" or to *ettle t eir *tomac * a.ter a ea,& dinner. Bitters +ere .ir*t de,elo$ed in t e 1820* a* a dige*ti,e aid" but it al*o became $o$ular a* a .la,oring agent .or ,ariou* alco olic be,erage*" mo*t notabl& Pin, Gin. Bartender* +ould .ir*t rin*e a .e+ dro$* o. aromatic !itters around a glass be.ore adding t e !everage o. c oice. 3 i* tradition o. u*ing !itters a* a .la,or en ancer i* *till $racticed b& m&cologi*t* toda&. 7la**ic martini reci$e* o.ten call .or a *+irling o. orange-ba*ed !itters. 7u*tomer* o. tra,eling medicine * o+* during t e 19t 7entur& +ere o.ten bu&ing ig l& concentrated di*tilled *$irit* containing !itters. 3 e*e $atent medicine*" u*uall& *old a* miracle eli0ir*" did actuall& *er,e a .e+ medical $ur$o*e*. % *mall *am$ling o. !itters could be *er,ed a* an a eritif to *timulate a $er*onL* a$$etite" or a* a "igesti&e to el$ *ettle a ea,& meal or alco olic o,erindulgence. Bitters are *till *old toda& in man& grocer& *tore*" eit er +it ot er condiment* a* 1orce*ter* ire *auce or +it !everage mi0er* *uc a* grenadine. % .e+ dro$* o. !itters can be added to reci$e* to en ance t e *+eetne** o. ot er ingredient*" in t e *ame *en*e t at *alt can bring out t e in erent *+eetne** o. melon* or ot er .ruit*. Bitters are u*uall& added in da* e*" and a little do indeed go a long +a&. Bitters are $rimaril& u*ed in t e $re$aration o. coc!tail*" *o it el$* to !ee$ a bottle o. %ngo*tura !itters in a +ell-*toc!ed +et bar. Be,erage* + ic could become too *+eet" *uc a* lemonade" can be tem$ered b& *+irling a .e+ dro$* o. !itters in t e * a!er be.ore $re$aration. Bitters can al*o be added to tonic or soda water a* a omemade cure .or indige*tion and ot er *tomac ailment*. Bitter* can be u*ed a* an ingredient in coc!tail*. 7oc!tail* *uc a* t e Pin, Gin and t e :ld Fashioned are made +it bitter*. An,ost'ra *itters Jro$rietar& concentrated bitter tincture o. erb*" *$ice*" > *$irit* .rom 3rinidad $roduced *ince 1824. Mo*t $o$ular aromatic bitter* e,er !no+n. (ndi*$en*able in coc!tail* calling .or it. :: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Amer Pi#on Jro$rietar& Frenc bitter-*+eet *$irit-ba*ed a$eriti. be,erage bitter* +it *lig t orange c aracter. #otable in t e Ba*Aue drin!" Jicon Junc " + ic i* con*idered one o. t e .ine*t e0am$le* o. a ig ball be,erage. Bn.ortunatel&" .rom t e 1970* to $re*ent" t e 4ou*e o. Jicon a* lo+ered t e $roo. o. t eir $roduct re$eatedl&" creating a *ituation + ere traditional reci$e* calling .or it 9*uc a* t e Jicon Junc + ic +a* created +it t e original 78 $roo. $roduct in mindD did not ta*te t e *ame. JiconL* current iteration a* an alco ol content o. le** t an al. o. t e original $roduct.

orange bitter* Ieneric .or concentrated bitter tincture o. orange $eel" *$ice*" erb*" and *$irit*. E0am$le: Fee Bro*. a*sinthe Ieneric .or di*tilled ig $roo. *$irit-ba*ed a$eriti. bitter* .la,ored +it ani*e > ot er erb* - containing +orm+ood. B*ed mainl& in *im$le coc!tail* * o+ca*ing it" man& more coc!tail* citing it +ere actuall& .ormulated .or t e u*e o. ab*int e *ub*titute* li!e 4erb*aint or $o*t191: Jernod. aromati# *itters Ieneric .or concentrated bitter tincture o. erb*" *$ice*" .ruit" and *$irit*. Ceemed too bitter to be con*umed b& t em*el,e*" t e& are normall& a$$lied to an& be,erage in da* e* or *mall .raction* o. an ounce or mililiter. 3 oug containing alco ol u$ to 80 $roo." manu.acture +a* allo+ed +it out re*triction e,en during Jro ibition" becau*e t e bitterne** +a* *uc t at t e (nternal )e,enue =er,ice" + o admini*tered com$liance +it t e #ational Jro ibition %ct" termed it Pnon-$otable alco olP ie" too bitter to con*ume *traig t. Cora 2itters Jro$rietar& (talian a$eriti.Hdige*ti. bitter* o. long *tanding. Jlea*ant and *+eet. #otable in t e %maro*a 7oc!tail. Campari Jro$rietar& celebrated bitter*+eet (talian be,erageHa$eriti. bitter* $roduced *ince 18<0" b& t e com$an& bearing it* name" o. erb* and .ruit in a neutral *$irit ba*e. #oted .or it* u*e in t e #EI)8#( 7oc!tail among ot er*. Pey#ha'd *itters Jro$rietar& 6oui*iana brand o. ani*-c aractered aromatic bitter* introduced b& 4aitian immigrant" %ntoine %medee Je&c aud. Jroduced *ince t e earl& 19t centur&" :4 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

currentl& b& 3 e =a'erac 7om$an&" + ic can trace it* linage to one o. t e .ir*t ,enue* to *er,e t e*e bitter* - in t e drin! .or + ic t e& +ere created. 3 e& remain notable > e**ential in t e =a'erac coc!tail" a* originall& $re$ared +it brand&" and in later &ear* +it r&e + i*!e&. Fernet 2ran#a Jro$rietar& (talian bitter-*+eet *$irit-ba*ed be,erageHdige*ti,e bitter* Calisaya *itters Ieneric =$ani* H(talian *$irit-ba*ed be,erageHdige*ti,e bitter* o. cali*a&a bar! 9AuinineD" erb*" and *$ice*. Ferro 7 ina and c ina-Martini bitter* are ot er .orm* o. t i* $roduct. 7ali*a& i* a liAueur + ic utili'e* t e *ame main .la,oring ingredient*. pea#h *itters Ieneric concentrated bitter tincture o. $eac $it*" *$ice*" and *$irit*. E0tinct a.ter Jro ibition until re,i,ed in t e mid-1990*" a* t e re*ult o. a con,er*ation bet+een So n Fee > 3ed 4aig " b& Fee Bro*. %ostetter:s *itters Ce.unct Jitt*burg -ba*ed erbal *tomac bitter* called .or in 19t centur& coc!tail guide* and li!el&" along +it =toug tonL* Bitter*" one o. t e .ir*t bitter* e,er *$eci.ied .or coc!tail u*e. =ur,i,ed until at lea*t 111. Aperital Jro$rietar& %rgentine a$eriti. bitter*. #otable in t e E6 IB%)%#( 7oc!tail. *itters Ieneric .or aromatic bitter*" .ruit bitter*" or a$eriti.Hdige*ti. bitter* u*ed in coc!tail* and ot er mi0ed drin! .orm* to en ance *$icine** and $iAuanc&. 1 en called .or +it out .urt er de*cri$tion in mi0ed drin! reci$e*" aromatic bitter* are meant. 2o0er:s *itters Ce.unct $ro$rietar& #e+ 5or!-ba*ed dige*ti,e bitter* brand o. $re*umed cardamom c aracter called .or in 19t centur& coc!tail guide* a* aromatic bitter*. #o e,idence o. manu.acture a.ter Jro ibition" or indeed a.ter t e ad,ent o. t e 20t centur&. BogartL* Bitter* i* a corru$tion o. Bo!erL* Bitter* )hoosh *itters Ce.unct" $ro$rietar& Briti* aromatic bitter* u*ed in %merican bar* in England > Euro$e during > a.ter %merican Jro ibition" called .or in coc!tail reci$e guide* o. t e $eriod" mo*t notabl& - 3 e 7a.e )o&al 7oc!tail :5 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Boo!. #e,er a B.=. im$ort. A**ott:s *itters Ce.unct $ro$rietar& Baltimore aromatic bitter* made b& 7.1. %bbott com$an& until circa 1950. 8ne o. t e t ree mo*t im$ortant aromatic bitter* brand* o. t e t+entiet centur&" t e ot er t+o being %ngo*tura and Je&c aud. <=>?@,ermeister Jro$rietar& Ierman erbal dige*ti,e liAueur containing 5< erb*" root* and .ruit* among + ic are cinnamon" bitter orange*" ginger root" red *andal+ood" and blueberrie*. 1 ile mainl& a dige The f't'res of the *itters 3 e .ir*t de.inition o. t e coc!tail in $rint a$$eared in (he Balance and Colum!ian Repositor$ in 180<" + ic li*t* .our e**ential ingredient*: liAuor" *ugar" +ater" and bitter*. 4o+e,er" bitter* $redate t e coc!tail. Bitter* +ere *old a* curati,e .ormula* and" .ran!l&" +ere not ing * ort o. *na!e oil. Earl& ad,erti*ement* .or t e no+ de.unct JondL* Bitter* claimed t at t e bitter* cured eadac e*" d&*$e$*ia" biliou*ne**" diarr ea" an" con*ti$ation. 9Jre*umabl& t e bitter* !no+ + en to $ut on t e ga* and + en to $ut on t e bra!e* .or t e latter t+o ailment*Zno $un intended.D 5et enter$ri*ing bartender* decided t at t e*e eli0ir* +or! +ell in drin!*. %* &ou can +ell imagine" t e e**ential c aracteri*tic o. a bitter i* t at it contain* a bittering agent. 3 e*e agent* are generall& macerated in alco olZa *ol,entZand *ometime* in +ater and gl&cerin +it *tabili'er*. 7ommon bittering agent*" and one* t at ( u*e in m& o+n reci$e" include gentian root" Aua**ia bar! 9#uassia amara contain* Aua**in" allegedl& t e mo*t bitter *ub*tance on t e $lanetD" Auinine" +orm+ood" and dandelion. %* a brie. a*ide" bitter* are an Pa,er*i,eP .la,or. 1 en +e con*ume *omet ing bitter it *end* +arning *ignal* to our brain t at + at +eLre eating or drin!ing could $otentiall& be to0ic" or .un. Man& *ub*tance* t at a,e $lea*urable a..ect* are al*o bitter 9beer and co..ee" .or e0am$leD. 7ombined +it Pa$erti,eP .la,or* *uc a* *alt& and *+eet" it o.ten cau*e* a mi0ed re*$on*e. 3 i* i* an acAuired ta*teZand letL* .ace it" coc!tail* are an acAuired ta*te. 4o+e,er" t e ad,enturou* drin!er +ill .ind great re+ard* once e or * e a* learned to lo,e coc!tail*. (n t e $a*t" &ou could .ind undred* o. .ormula* .or bitter*" .rom Bro+nL* (ron Bitter* 9no relation to meD to Je&c audL* Bitter*" along +it ,ariou* .la,or* including orange" %ngo*tura" and celer&. Eac one ad a di..erent a$$lication in coc!tail*" and b& *+itc ing .rom one to anot er &ou could tran*.orm a drin!. %$art .rom bittering agent*" man& aromatic com$ound* are added to bitter* a* +ell. %nd" muc li!e +it gin or ,ermout " t e li*t o. $o**ible botanical*" $eel* and ,egetable* i* enormou*. 3o name a .e+: orange $eel*" ca**ia" cara+a&" coriander" and ani*e. Bitter* ran u$ again*t t e la+ + en in 190< 7ongre** $a**ed t e Jure Food and Crug %ct. Jroduct* reAuired *ome trut in labeling and t e be,& o. ab*urd claim* and $otentiall& $oi*onou* ingredient* +ere de*tined to .all a+a&. 98t er *$irit* didnLt .are muc better.D 3 i* +a* t e beginning o. t e end .or bitter*" no longer con*idered medicine" and *ub*eAuent ta0ation +a* nearl& t e .inal *tra+. 8nce Jro ibition $a**ed in 1919" t e number o. a,ailable bitter* +a* reduced greatl&" and t e $roduct :< A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

ne,er reco,ered .rom t o*e blo+*. 3 at i*" until no+. #e0t +ee! ( +ill di*cu** *ome o. t e ne+ line* o. bitter* and o+ bartender* are ma!ing t eir o+n.

T%E W%IS)1
1 i*!& i* a *$irit obtained b& t e di*tillation o. a .ermented ma* o. grain 9 u*uall& barle&" mai'e " or rice " or all toget er D and i* aged in +ood. 3 ere are a$$ro0imatel& 2oo brand* o. + i*!ie* a,ailable and t e& ,ar& in ta*te .rom di*tiller . 3 ere i* no *imilarit& in ta*te bet+een *cotc . (ri* " 7anadian or %merican + i*!ie* ar&e and bourbon. (n t e $roduction* o. t e *cotc + i*!& t+o $roce** are being im$lemented and t e& are : J83 V=3(66 $roce** + ic a* indi,idual di*tillation* according to lot*. Malt& + i*!& i* $roduced b& t i* $roce**. 3 e $atent or 7o..e&D *till $roce** $ermit* continuou* di*tillation*. Irain + i*!& i* $roduced b& t i* $roce**. =cotc malt + i*!& i* made .rom malted barl& onl& and i* manu.actured b& t e $ot *till $roce**. 3 i* $roce** a* t e .ollo+ing *eAuence*. CLEA I &: t e barle& i* +a* ed to *e$arate t e u*! and dried. Malting: t e *elected barle& i* *oa!ed in t e +ater .or 2-: da&* until i* *$rout* a * oot"a t um nail long.it i* t e +ater in =cotland t at im$art* t e uniAue Aualit& o. *cotc . 3 e barl& i* *$read on t e concrete .loor to germinate .or 8-12 da&*. t e *$routing barle& i* con*tantl& turned b& t e and or b& t e =aladin mac ine* to aerated it. Ser+i#e styles of the (his0y: *er,e +it t e *oda"co!e"ice or net and t e on t e roc! W%IS)1 P$OD"CTTI & CO" T$IES :=cotland"7anada"iri* "B=%"()6%#C"(#C(%"BM"4B#I%)5"(3%65"F)%#7E"#EJ%6" The %istory of Whis0y 3 e !no+ledge o. di*tilling +a* di*co,ered *ome+ ere in %*ia around 800 B7. (nitiall& t e tec niAue +a* onl& u*ed to ma!e $er.ume" but t ere i* e,idence t at t e 7 ine*e al*o di*tilled liAuor .rom rice at t i* time. (t i* unclear e0actl& o+ t e !no+ledge o. di*tillation .ound it* +a& to t e Briti* (*le*" but +e !no+ t at t e cra.t +a* broug t to Euro$e b& t e Moor*. 1 at mo*t li!el& a$$ened t en +a* t at t e !no+ledge *$read t roug Euro$e-* mona*terie*. % common t eor& i* t at it +a* =t. Jatric!" t e Jatron =aint o. (reland" + o broug t t e art +it im + en e came to (reland a* a 7 ri*tian Mi**ionar& in 4:2%C. (n an& e,ent" t e !no+ledge at *ome $oint came to t e 7elt* + o u*ed it to ma!e t eir Bi*ge Beat a" + ic i* Iaelic .or W+ater o. li.e-. 1e a,e t e 7elt* to t an! .or t e +ord W+ i*!&- at lea*t" *ince W+ i*!&- can be deri,ed .rom t e Iaelic +ord WBi*ge-. 3 e &ear 1494 i* a mile*tone in t e i*tor& o. + i*!&/ in t e E0c eAuer )oll* o. t at &ear i* recorded a $urc a*e o. Weig t boll* o. malt to Friar So n 7or + ere +it to ma!e aAua ,itae-. 3 i* i* t e .ir*t +ritten $roo. o. + i*!& $roduction in =cotland. %* +it man& ot er cra.t* t e !no+ledge o. di*tilling *oon *$read out*ide o. t e mona*terie*" and e,entuall& t e W+ater o. li.ecame to be $roduced on almo*t e,er& .arm in =cotland. 3 i* +ide*$read ou*e old $roduction +a* to continue until t e 1820* + en t e E0ci*e %ct +a* $a**ed and local go,ernment *tarted to come do+n arder on illicit di*tillerie*. 1 i*!& bac! in t e *i0teent centur& ta*ted ,er& di..erent .rom t e drin! +e en2o& toda&. %t t at time + i*!& +a* con*umed ,er& &oung and ad a brutal" ra+ ta*te. 3 e di*co,er& t at + i*!& im$ro,e* and mello+* i. it i* allo+ed to mature +a* not made until t e mid eig teent centur&. %* +it man& ot er brea!t roug * t e di*co,er& +a* made b& accident/ an old .orgotten ca*! +a* .ound" and t e luc!& o+ner reali*ed t at t e + i*!& ad in .act not been de*tro&ed but in*tead ta*ted better t an e,er. 3 e %ct o. Bnion in 1707 united t e $arliament* o. =cotland and England. 3 e treat& +a* t e re*ult o. $olitical and economic :7 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

.actor* + ic all indicated t at a union +ould be mutuall& bene.icial. 3 e go,ernment naturall& +i* ed to e0$and t e treat& and t e turn e,entuall& came to malt. %.ter a ,iolent $eriod +it man& riot* +it deadl& outcome* an eAui,alent to t e Engli* Malt 3a0 +a* .inall& a$$lied in 1725. 3 i* +a* t e *tart o. an era .illed +it illicit di*tillerie*" *muggling and ro,ing E0ci*e men. (n t e beginning o. t e nineteent centur& more t an e,er& ot er bottle o. + i*!& in =cotland +a* illegall& $roduced. 3 e .ollo+ing &ear* *a+ a large number o. ta0 rai*e*" t e introduction o. di..erent dutie* .or di..erent di*tillerie* and ot er licen*e regulation*. 7rime and ,iolence +a* common and t e admini*tration o. all t e regulation* e,entuall& became unmanageable. (n t e 1820* t e go,ernment ad ad enoug and $a**ed t e E0ci*e %ct + ic made clear e0actl& + at !ind o. $roduction +a* legal and + at +a* not. %not er act +a* al*o $a**ed t at *ub*tantiall& increa*ed t e $enaltie* .or *muggling. 3 e ne+ act* ad t e de*ired re*ult* and illicit di*tilling and *muggling +a* greatl& reduced in onl& a .e+ &ear*. (n 18:1 a .ormer (n*$ector Ieneral o. E0ci*e in (reland" %enea* 7o..e&" in,ented a t+in-column ,er*ion o. t e $atent *till. 3 i* im$ro,ed tec niAue in continuou* di*tillation lo+ered $roduction co*t* and allo+ed *imultaneou* u*e o. malted and unmalted barle& toget er +it ot er !ind* o. corn. 3 e (ri* ne,er li!ed t e idea but 7o..e& managed to introduce it in =cotland. (n 2u*t a .e+ decade*" t e (ri* *tand$oint +ould ma!e t em loo*e t e dominance o,er t e + i*!& indu*tr&/ t e 7o..e& =till could $roduce great Auantitie* com$ared to t e traditional *till* but $roduced an in.erior $roduct. 3 e *olution to t i* $roblem +a* to blend t e *$irit .rom t e 7o..e& =till +it + i*!& .rom traditional *till*. %ndre+ B* er introduced t i* idea in 1852 and t e blending trade +a* born. Becau*e o. t e immediate *ucce** o. blended + i*!&" t e =cotti* ,olume* *oon .ar e0ceeded t e (ri* . 3 i* ad,antage in ,olume *oon became im$ortant/ at about t e *ame time a* t e introduction o. blended + i*!& t e %merican ,ine lou*e J &llo0era ,a*tatri0 came to France. 3 e $e*t ra$idl& *$read and reac ed t e 7ognac region b& t e 1880*. 3 e lou*e all but de*tro&ed t e entire brand& indu*tr& and t e blended + i*!& +a* readil& acce$ted a* an alternati,e. B& t e time t e Frenc ,ine&ard* ad reco,ered" + i*!& ad cea*ed to be Wonl& an alternati,e- and +a* .irml& e*tabli* ed at t e to$. 1 i*!& *tarted out a* a $roduct .or t e Briti* mar!et in t e 1820*" but toda& it a* become a drin! t at i* a$$reciated and lo,ed around t e +orld. Muc o. t i* incredible de,elo$ment i* t e re*ult o. t e introduction o. blended + i*!&/ e,en toda& a$$ro0imatel& 90 $ercent o. all + i*!& t at i* $roduced in =cotland i* u*ed in blended + i*!&. 4o+e,er t e intere*t o. *ingle malt + i*!& a* increa*ed in recent &ear* and t i* de,elo$ment i* li!el& to continue. The #lassifi#ations of the (his0eys
Blac! le,el )ed le,el Iold le,el =(6GE) 6%B6E91 ite le,elD Jremium + i*!& delu0e + i*!& )EIB%6) 14(=M5 B63)% J)EM(MBM B)8#KE

SCOTOC% W%IS)1 =cotlandL* Malt 1 i*!& 3rail 3 e onl& malt + i*!& trail in t e +orld 1 i*!& di*tillerie* +ere .ounded in an en,ironment ric in t e ig e*t Aualit& ingredient*: $ure" clear *$ring +ater and abundant *u$$lie* o. .ragrant golden barle&. 8n t e + i*!& trail o. =$e&*ide" &ouLll .ind more t an al. o. =cotlandL* malt + i*!& di*tillerie*" eac +it it* o+n +arm +elcome and an in,itation to *ee" *mell" ta*te and ab*orb t e magic o. + i*!&. Eac + i*!& di*tiller& on t e di*tiller& tour .ollo+* it* o+n tradition*" lore and reci$e* .or e,er&t ing .rom malting t e barle& to t e eig t and *i'e o. it* *till*. 3 e uniAue c aracteri*tic* o. eac =$e&*ide + i*!& di*tiller& re*ult in delig t.ul" and-cra.ted + i*!& .rom eac one. %ll o..er ,i*itor* a *am$le o. t e .ini* ed $roduct :8 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

and *ome include an in.ormati,e no*ing and ta*ting + ile ot er* gi,e an in*ig t into t e com$le0 art o. blending + i*!& and malt.Follo+ t e +orld-.amou* Malt 1 i*!& 3rail t roug =$e&*ide to *e,en +or!ing di*tillerie*" including a .a*cinating coo$erage and a i*toric di*tiller&. From Benromac to Calla* C u" a $er.ect time ca$*ule o. + i*!&-ma!ing/ .rom Ilen Mora& to =trat i*la" ome and eart o. 7 i,a* )egal/ .rom t e Ilen Irant di*tiller& to t e =$e&*ide 7oo$erage + ere real coo$er* +or! +it incredible *$eed and *!ill/ .rom Ilen.iddic to 3 e Ilenli,et and t e 7ard u di*tiller&" =cotlandL* + i*!& trail *ign$o*t* lead &ou t roug t e $icture*Aue lu* countr&*ide o. =$e&*ide" t e +orldL* .a,ourite malt + i*!& region. Come for a (ee0end in -ay, or in Septem*er for the (his0y festi+als, (hen distilleries, (his0y shops, *ars, p'*s and (hole +illa,es (el#ome +isitors (ith drams, spe#ial nosin,s, #eilidhs and other parties8 Come at any time to enAoy famo's names and share (ellB0ept se#rets (ith 0no(led,ea*le lo#als in (ellBsto#0ed *ars and friendly p'*s8 #o+ t at cra.t coc!tail* a,e gained t eir $lace in t e +orld o. drin!ingZand are no longer relegated to girl*L nig t out or ba*tardi'ed ,er*ion* o. t e cla**ic*ZitL* .itting t at ome bartender* * ould .ocu* on bitter*. (t +a* once enoug + en a*!ed about bitter* to $oint to a cru*t& bottle o. %ngo*tura on t e bac! bar and be done +it it" but no+ t e game a* c anged. %istory (nitiall& 1 i*!&" t e name o. + ic e,ol,ed .rom ui*ge beat a" +a* lauded .or it* medicinal Aualitie*" being $re*cribed .or t e $re*er,ation o. ealt " t e $rolongation o. li.e" and .or t e relie. o. colic" $al*& and e,en *mall$o0. (t became an intrin*ic $art o. =cotti* li.e - a re,i,er and *timulant during t e long" cold +inter*" and a .eature o. *ocial li.e" a +elcome to be o..ered to gue*t* u$on arri,al at t eir de*tination*. 3 i* increa*ing $o$ularit& e,entuall& attracted t e attention o. t e =cotti* $arliament" + ic introduced t e .ir*t ta0e* on malt and t e end $roduct in t e latter $art o. t e 17t centur&. E,er increa*ing rate* o. ta0ation +ere a$$lied .ollo+ing 3 e %ct o. Bnion +it England in 1707" + en England *et out to tame t e rebelliou* clan* o. =cotland. 3 e di*tiller* +ere dri,en underground. 1ater > 3em$erature WATE$ Ger& occa*ionall&" one encounter* a + i*!& + o*e ,irtue* are better di*$la&ed neat. 8ut*ide t e ta*ting room" man& $eo$le $re.er to drin! t eir a.ter-dinner malt* *traig t - +it *ound medical 2u*ti.ication. (n t e*e ca*e* &our o+n *ali,a act* a* t e dilutant" and t e& * ould be *i$$ed in ,er& *mall amount*. Blender* no*e at 20; %BG" but t i* can dro+n *ome + i*!ie* + ic tend to Lbrea! u$L +it too muc +ater. (t i* al+a&* be*t to add +ater a little at a time until an& no*e $ric!le a* di*a$$eared and t e *am$le a* .ull& o$ened u$. 3 e +ater &ou u*e to dilute t e *trengt o. &our dram * ould be *till and not too ig in mineral*. 3rue a.icionado* +ill u*e t e +ater u*ed in t e $roduction o. t e indi,idual + i*!& t e& are ta*ting. =cotti* +ater i* $redominantl& *o.t" *o i. &our local ta$ +ater a* a *u*$iciou* ta*te" i* ea,il& rec&cled or c lorinated" &our be*t $lan i* to u*e $lain bottled +ater .rom =cotland. %t $ro.e**ional ta*ting*" di*tilled +ater i* u*ed. TE-PE$AT"$E 3 e ideal tem$erature at + ic + i*!& * ould be drun! ,arie* according to t e climate o. t e countr& in + ic &ou are drin!ing it. 4o+e,er" .or t e $ur$o*e* o. ta*ting malt + i*!&" it i* be*t a$$reciated at t e eAui,alent room tem$erature o. an old-.a* ioned =cotti* $arlour 9 o+e,er di..icult to recreate in t e*e da&* o. central eating" and ermetic gla'ingD. (n ot er +ord*" &ou * ould no*e at about 15b7. 7 illed + i*!& doe* not readil& &ield u$ it* aroma* and t e addition o. ice +ill clo*e t em do+n altoget er. 8n t e ot er and" +arming t e gla** in t e and - a* one doe* +it brand& - el$* to relea*e t e ,olatile* in t e *$irit" e*$eciall& + en t e *am$le &ou are ta*ting i* neat. :9 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

-alt

Malt whis,$ ta,es its name and flavours from the wa$ it is produced/ (he !arle$ is allowed to sprout !efore !eing toasted over a fire in a malt ,iln1 and the mashing1 distillation and fermentation processes !egin/ )fter distillation1 single malts are allowed to mature for !etween eight and fifteen $ears on average !efore !ottling/ Single malts . whis,ies from a single distiller$ . are familiar to most drin,ers1 and man$ of the !ig.name !rands are single malts1 for e2ample1 Macallan1 Glenmorangie1 and Glenfiddich/ :ther t$pes of malts include" Sing$e %ask ma$ts which are the product of a single distillation and !ottled straight from the maturing cas,/ (his process ensures that the particular character of the specific distillation is emphasi%ed/ Single.cas, malts are normall$ stronger than ordinar$ malts . an$thing up to around ;<= )BV >alcohol !$ volume? . and are usuall$ a!out twice the price/ 'atte" ma$ts where single malts of different ages and from different distilleries >!ut usuall$ owned !$ the same parent compan$? are mi2ed together/ Grain Grain whis,$ is distilled in a different wa$ from malt whis,$1 using a patent still/ *ts main ingredient . !arle$1 mai%e or another cereal . is left unmalted1 !ut one thing it shares with malt is that !oth have to mature for at least three $ears !efore the$ are legall$ allowed to !e called 9whis,$9/ @nli,e malts1 grains get the minimum maturing time/ (he 58.$ear.old *nvergorden is one of the few grain whis,ies availa!le since most goes to !lending plants where it is mi2ed with single malts to form the third t$pe of whis,$ . !lended/ Blended Single malts ma$ !e the most fashiona!le !rands in the whis,$ industr$1 !ut the !lends are its stead$1 !ac,ground performers/ Bells1 #ohnnie Wal,er1 Wh$te A Mac,a$ and (eacher9s are li,el$ to !e the varieties that most newer drin,ers coming to whis,$ will tr$ first/ )nd no matter what impression $ou get from the ads or from 9connoisseurs91 it9s worth remem!ering that most of these !lends can taste Bust as good as . and in some cases1 !etter than . some the single malts $ou9ll hear people raving a!out/ (e$uxe whiskies such as -imple or (he )nti+uar$ are !lends which have a higher proportion of older and !etter +ualit$ malt in their mi2/ Want to more a!out appreciating $our single malts and delu2e !lendsC Read our Guide to (asting Whis,$/ (hese are1 generall$ spea,ing1 the whis,ies produced in the southern half of the countr$1 !elow the Dighland 3ine that runs !etween the rivers (a$ and Cl$de in the centre of Scotland/ (hese whis,ies are mellower and gentler than their northern neigh!ours1 and much of their produce ends up in !lends/ *ronicall$1 their su!tleties of taste are appreciated !$ !oth newcomers to malts and !$ more e2perienced malt drin,ers/ Campbeltown :nce Scotland9s most famous whis,$ town and home to more than E8 distilleries in the 56th centur$/ (heir num!er has dwindled to two in operation . Spring!an, and Glen Scotia . plus the new Gleng$le.-istiller$1 opened in E88F/ *ts whis,ies are more distinctive than those of the 3owlands1 with peat lending more of a hint of the flavours of *sla$ to the north/ (heir num!er has dwindled to two in operation . Spring!an, and Glen Scotia . plus the new Gleng$le.-istiller$1 opened in E88F/ *ts whis,ies are more distinctive than those of the 3owlands1 with peat lending more of a hint of the flavours of *sla$ to the north/
40 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

3slay (he most distinctivel$ flavoured of all whis,ies come from this island1 where the apparentl$ endless supplies of peat are put to use in the malt ,ilns/ (he resulting 9peat ree,9 gives the island whis,ies a smell and taste that has variousl$ !een descri!ed as 9iodine91 9seawater9 and even 9,ippers9G *sla$ malts are undou!tedl$ an ac+uired taste1 and their presence adds instant depth of character to a !lend/ >*ncidentall$1 the name is pronounced 9*sle.aah9/? 1ighland )n enormous area which is home to some of the world9s most famous drin,s names1 as well as others that are worth ta,ing the time to discover/ *n Spe$side alone are more than F8 distilleries with names recognisa!le from an$ supermar,et and li+uor.store shelf/ (his is also the place to come if $ou want to visit lots of distilleries" several in the Spe$ valle$ are on the Whis,$ (rail and open to visitors/ Varieties of whis,$ produced here range from mellow and sweet to aromatic and flower$1 with ever$ shade of flavour !etween/ 3slands Strictl$ spea,ing an area of Dighland1 this is a su!.grouping !ased on geograph$ rather than flavour characteristics/ From )rran1 #ura1 Mull and S,$e in the west to :r,ne$ in the north1 the whis,$ flavours here are as wide.ranging as an$ in the Dighland group/
S#ot#h (his0y :9 .ermented gra$e*D li!e 2.+ red le,el* bell* 2 > b rare grant* t e .amou* grou*e ballantine 2.+ blac! le,el 2.+ green le,el c i,a* regal 12&r* c i,a* regal 18&re* c i,a* regal ro&al *alute Premi'm (his0y di*tilled .rom a .ermented ma* o. grain* u*uall& con"r&e"barle& or + eat and t en aged oa! barrel*.it i* a blended + i*!& + ic i* 12&r* old or more.+ i*!& can be ta!e +it (ce"on t e roc!"or +it t e *oda"cola 2.+ blac! label 2 > b re*er,e ballantine-* gold *eal dim$le 15&r* c i,a* ro&al 12&r* bond cro+n ro&al 7anadian club + i*!& Ilendi..ic 7 i,a* regal Sim beam 41 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Jadd& old iri* So n 2ame*on Sac! Caniel Ilenmorangie 10&r* del'9e (his0y 2.+ gold label 2.+ blue label c i,a* regal 18&* c i,a* ro&al *alute ro&al *tag dim$le antiAuar& sin,le malt (his0y:i* malt + i*!& .rom a *ingle di*tiller&. o+e,er unle** t e + i*!& i* de*cribed a* *ingle ca*! in +ill contain + i*!& .rom man& ca*!* and more di..erent &ear*"*o blender can ac ie,e a ta*te recogni*abel a* t&$ical o. t e di*tiller&.in mo*t ca*e* t e name* o. a *ingle malt +ill be t at o. t e di*tiller*9t e I6E#6(GE3"BB=4M(66="58(74(D+it an age *tatement* and $er a$* *ome indication* o. *ome *$ecial treatment *uc a* maturation* in a $ort +ine ca*!. glen.iddic 12&r*H18&r*H:0&r* glen morangi 10&r* glen morangi * err& +ood glean morangi $ort +ood glen morangi burguno& +ood mala,an morangi 12&r* coolica 12&r* macallan 12&r* + &te > mac!a& 22&r* dalmore 40&r* the *o'r*on (his0y:2ourbon + i*!& it +a* 1*t $roduced in t e &ear o. 1789 in t e u*a"$er a$* it +a* on ma& 4 19<4 t at a re*olution* +a* $a**ed b& t e u* *enate and t e ou*e o. re$re*entati,e* t at bourbon are *traig t + i*!ie* + ic mean* t at t e& are obtained .rom t e a *$irit di*tilled .rom mai'e or r&e and aged in ne+ c arred oa! barrel* .or at lea*t 2 &ear*. =our ma* + i*!e& i* made t roug a ,ariation* o. t e .ermentation met od.t e di*tiller u*e* $art o. t e $re,iou* da&* ma* and .re* &ea*t in t e .ermentation* o. bourbon"t ou* eac batc i* related to t e $re,iou* batc . 3 e Auinte**ential %merican libation" Bourbon con2ure* image* o. corn .ield* and little *tream* cutting t eir +a& t roug Mentuc!&. Mentuc!& i* Bourbon countr& in *$irit and" indeed" in name. For + en t e %merican $ioneer* .ir*t coloni'ed t e countr&" t e& di,ided u$ t e land and one $lot" + ic co,ered muc o. + at i* no+ Mentuc!&" +a* named Bourbon" .or t e Frenc )o&al Famil&. 3 e count& +a* .ormed in 178<. 8riginall& $art o. Girginia" it +a* not until 1792 t at Bourbon 7ount& +a* tran*.erred to t e ne+ =tate o. Mentuc!&. 3 ere +a* a great Auantit& o. corn-ba*ed + i*!e& $roduced in t e area" and it +a* * i$$ed .rom a $ort on t e 8 io )i,er" + ic la& in Bourbon 7ount&. 3 e barrel* +ere *tam$ed +it t eir origin" W8ld Bourbon-" and t u* t e name *tuc!. 3 e $rinci$al di*tinction in Bourbon + i*!e& i* t e ma!e u$ o. t e ma* bill. 3 e ma* bill i* t e li*t o. cereal grain* u*ed .or di*tillation. Bourbon i* di*tilled .rom 51; corn" di..ering it .rom ot er %merican *$irit*. 8t er grain* are u*ed including + eat" r&e and barle&. 42 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Ci*tillation i* ac ie,ed in a $ot *till be.ore ageing in ne+" c arred oa! barrel*. 3 e u*e o. c arred barrel* i* credited" b& and large" to )e,erend Eli2a 7raig. =uc claim* are not nece**aril& reliable" but t e *tor& i* +ort mentioning" .or it i* *o o.t told. 3 e *igni.icance o. t i* i* decidedl& great" .or t e =cotc + i*!& indu*tr& u*e* a $roli.eration o. e0 bourbon barrel*" a* do t e rum and teAuila .raternitie*. Eli2a !e$t an out ou*e" in + ic e *tored i* barrel* and one da&" a .ire tore t roug t e building" blac!ening i* ca*!*. 3 e re,erend .illed i* *corc ed barrel* regardle**" and .ound t e c arred inner* im$arted a ,anilla *+eetne** and a ric ue. 8nce a bourbon barrel a* been em$tied" it cannot be reu*ed" t u* t e& are * i$$ed .or u*e o,er*ea*. 3 e *$irit i* aged .or t+o &ear* and bottled at a minimum o. 40; alco ol b& ,olume. 3 ere a* been t at more recent $ enomenon o. *mall batc and ig end bourbon*. 3 e mar!et .or t e*e i* *ub*tantial and e,er-gro+ing" a* con*umer* lean to+ard Aualit& o,er Auantit&. =ingle barrel o..ering* and arti*an $roduct* are o. increa*ing $o$ularit&. llo+ *$irit.Becau*e o. t e .act t at almo*t all Bourbon i* made in Mentuc!& man& $eo$le belie,e t i* i* a reAuirement" but in .act Bourbon ma& be $roduced in an& *tate. 3 e onl& $rereAui*ite* are t at it mu*t be made in t e B=" contain at lea*t 51 $ercent corn and t at it mu*t be *tored .or at lea*t t+o &ear* in ne+" c arred oa! barrel*. 6a*tl&" t e ra+ *$irit ma& not be di*tilled to more t an 80 $ercent alco ol b& ,olume. t e t&$ical grain* mi0ture* .or bourbon i* 70; corn +it t e remainder being + eat and r&e and malted barel&.t i* mi0ture* calle t e ma* i* .ermented t roug a $roce** called *our ma* .ermentation* in + ic &ea*t .rom $re,iou* .ermentation* i* added to induce t e ne+ batc to maintain a con*i*tent o. .la,or and t e Aualit&.t e re*ult* i* t en di*tilled to $roduce a clear *$irit*. 3 i* *$irit* i* t en $laced in c arred oa! barrel* .or aging"+ ic i* + at im$art* color on to bourbon.con*eAuentl&"bourbon* t at a,e been aged longer are generall& dar!er in color. % .e+ common Bourbon + i*!e&* are: Sim Beam 9Sim Beam Ci*tiller& Gan 1in!le 9Bu..alo 3race Ci*tiller&D Bu..alo 3race 9Bu..alo 3race Ci*tiller&D Eagle )are 9Bu..alo 3race Ci*tiller&D Blanton-* 9Bu..alo 3race Ci*tiller&D Ma!er-* Mar! 9Ma!er-* Mar! Ci*tiller&D 1ood.ord )e*er,e 91ood.ord )e*er,e Ci*tiller&D E,an 1illiam* 94ea,en 4ill Ci*tillerie*D Eli2a 7raig 94ea,en 4ill Ci*tillerie*D 1ild 3ur!e& ba!er* *mall batc ma!er* mar! !nob cree! boo!er* *ingle barbell Eli2a craig 1ild 3ur!e& Bourbon 8 &r* Sim Beam Bourbon 1 ite Sim Beam Blac! 8&r* Ma!er* mar!9m> mD Mnob cree! Boo!er* *ingle barrel 4: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

$E&"AL$ W%IS)1 B6E#CEC 14(=M5 1(74 (= BE31EE# 5-105)= 86C Blac! > + ite 7utt& *ar! Ce+ar* + ite label Famou* grou*e Irant* + i*!& S > b rare 2.+ red lable teac er* *out ern com.ort ,at <9 1 ite 4or*e S > b rare cradle Same*on iri* Ballantine* Famou* grou*e Irant* 4aig 1 ite ore* Tennessee 3enne**ee + i*!e& i* clo*el& related to Bourbon but t ere are a .e+ di..erence*/ 3enne**ee + i*!e& mu*t be $roduced in t e *tate o. 3enne**ee and i* al+a&* .iltered t roug *ugar-ma$le c arcoal. 3 e .iltering $roce** u*uall& ta!e* 10 da&* to com$lete. 3enne**ee + i*!e& +a* recogni*ed a* a *e$arate *t&le b& B= go,ernment o..icial* in 1941. 3enne**ee i* a *t&le o. + i*!e& t at di..er* .rom Bourbon + i*!e& ,er& *lig tl& in $roduction. E,er& ot er $roce** i* t e *ame" t oug t e ma* bill need not contain t e *ame Auantit& o. corn. 3 e additional $roce** i* !no+n a* t e 6incoln 7ount& Jroce**. (t +a* named .or 6incoln 7ount&" in + ic Sac! Caniel .ir*t di*tilled. 3 i* $roce** in,ol,e* .iltering t e *$irit t roug *ugar ma$le c arcoal. 3 i* $roce** remo,e* *ome o. t e congener* and e*ter* in t e *$irit and $ro..er* a *lig tl& *mo!& c aracter. 3 ere are t+o di*tiller* + o $roduce 3enne**ee + i*!9eD&/ Ieorge Cic!el and t e .amed Sac! Caniel 3 ere are onl& t+o acti,e 3enne**ee 1 i*!e& brand*: Sac! Caniel-* 9Sac! Caniel Ci*tiller&D Ieorge Cic!el 1 i*!e& 9Ieorge Cic!el Ci*tiller&D <E Strai,ht Wheat Whis0y: =traig t 1 eat 1 i*!e& i* an %merican *$irit" and di..er* .rom Bourbon in $roduction in one a*$ect: (t i* di*tilled .rom at lea*t 51; + eat" a* o$$o*ed to bourbon-* minimum reAuirement* o. at lea*t 51; corn. =traig t + eat i* mo*tl& di*tilled .rom + eat" but can al*o contain ot er cereal grain*" *uc a* barle&" r&e and corn. (t a* to be matured .or at lea*t t+o &ear* in .re* " c arred ne+ oa! barrel*. Bern eim +a* t e .ir*t *traig t + eat + i*!e& a,ailable in t e B= *ince Jro ibition" and it remain* t e *ole brand. 3 e $rinci$al grain u*ed in t e $roduction o. + i*!e& a* a great deal o. e..ect u$on t e .inal c aracter o. t e *$irit. For e0am$le corn" t e $rinci$le grain u*ed in Bourbon $roduction" a* a *+eetne**" 44 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

it $ro,ide* bod& and eart &" *$ic& .la,our*. 1 eat" on t e ot er and" i* a *+eet" *moot grain" + ic create* a *u$$le" me Bourbon 1 i*!e& $1E C W%EAT W%IS)E1 8nl& a *mall amount o. )&e + i*!& i* bottled a* =traig t )&e 1 i*!& Vmo*t o. it i* u*ed in blending to add c aracter to ot er + i*!ie*. 3o be called a )&e + i*!e&" t e *$irit mu*t be made .rom at lea*t 51 $ercent r&e" di*tilled at le** t an 80 $ercent and *tored in ne+" c arred oa! barrel* .or at lea*t t+o &ear*. )&e + i*!e& i* *lig tl& more $o+er.ul and bitter t an Bourbon. Mo*t current )&e + i*!ie* are made in (ndiana and Mentuc!&. 1 eat + i*!e& mu*t be made .rom at lea*t 51 $ercent o. + eat and i* Auite uncommon. E0am$le* o. )&e 1 i*!e&: c 1ild 3ur!e& =traig t )&e 1 i*!e& c Gan 1in!le Famil& )e*er,e )&e 1: 5ear c =a'erac )&e 1 i*!e& 18 &r c )itten ou*e )&e 1 i*!e& c Mic ter* )&e 1 i*!e& SI &LE -ALT I$IS% W%IS)1:iri* + i*!& i* made .rom a ma* o. cereal* grain* li!e + eat"r&e"mo*tl& +it 20; o. oat* and + eat in a manner *imilar to t e malt o. =cotland and it i* di*tilled in $ot *till.tri$le di*tillation* and long maturation* contribute to t e uniAuene** o. (ri* + i*!& .or e,en t e &ounge*t aged in * err& ca*!* .or at lea*t *e,en &ear* b& la+.iri* + i*!ie* +ere mo*tl& *traig t + i*!ie* ig l& .la,oured and *moot .but no+ a number o. bleded malt and t e grain* + i*!ie* are a,ailable and are .ound to lig t bodied $roduct*. 3 e i*tor& o. (ri* + i*!e& i* a* old a* t e i*tor& o. + i*!& it*el.. 3 e art o. di*tilling i* belie,ed to a,e been broug t to Euro$e t roug (ri* mi**ionar& mon!*. 3 e !no+ledge o. di*tilling *$read t roug t e 7 urc and e,entuall& reac ed be&ond t e mona*ter& +all*. (reland +a* o,erta!en b& =cotland long ago a* t e +orld-* large*t + i*!& $roducing region" but t ere are *till t ree acti,e di*tillerie* on (reland. 3 e (ri* + i*!& i* le** *mo!& t an mo*t =cotti* + i*!& *ince t e (ri* generall& do not *mo!e t eir barle&. %dditionall&" t e (ri* $ractice tri$le di*tillation + ic .urt er reduce* t e medicinal Aualitie* o. t e + i*!&. Some Differen#es *et(een Irish (his0ey and S#ot#h (his0y8 #ot all barle& u*ed in (ri* + i*!& i* malted. 3oget er +it t e .act t at (ri* malt generall& i* dried +it out t e u*e o. $eat or an& ot er *mo!e" (ri* + i*!e& allo+* more o. t e natural .la,our* o. t e barle& to ri*e to t e .ront t an =cotc + i*!&. Becau*e it i* tri$le di*tilled" (ri* + i*!e& al*o a* a *o.ter" more rounded .la,our t an it* =cotti* counter$art. 3 e (ri* $ot *till* are larger t an =cotti* *till*. 3 e (ri* tend to $ut more em$ a*i* on t e $roce** and t e ca*!* t an =cotti* di*tiller* + o em$ a*i*e t e *!ill* o. t e ma*ter blender. Same*on (ri* =ome o. t e + i*!e& di*tiller* o. t e +orld are: Bu* mill* 3 e +orld-* olde*t licen*ed + i*!e& di*tiller&" .ounded in 1<08. Midleton Midleton i* t e large*t di*tiller& on (reland and are licen*ed $roducer* o. Same*on" Jo+er*" Midleton" Jadd& and 3ullamore Ce+. 3 e ne+ Midleton di*tiller& *tarted it* $roduction in 1975. 45 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

7oole& % ne+ (ri* di*tiller& + ic +a* .ounded in 1987. 7oole& $roduce 7onnemara + ic i* t e onl& $eated + i*!e& on (reland. 7oole& al*o ma!e t e Milbeggan and 6oc!e* + i*!e&*. 3ullamore Ce+ (reland-* lig te*t and *moot e*t + i*!e&. 4a* been $roduced b& Midleton *ince 1975. CA IDAI W%IS)1:t e $rinci$le grain* u*ed in 7anadian + i*!& are mai'e"+ eat"and barle& malt.t e $ro$ortion* o. t e grain* u*ed and t e di*tlilling and redi*itilling $roce** are t e tread mar! *ecret* o. t e ma*ter di*tiller*. 7anadian + i*!& i* a $roduct* o. blended + i*!ie* + ic ma& be done be.ore aging or during t e aging $eriod.maturation* ta!e* $alce in c arred"+ ite oa! barrel* .or t+o or more &ear* but mo*t 7anadian + i*!ie* are at lea*t <&ear* old. 7anadian + i*!& a* been around .or a ,er& long time and i* t e number one *$irit im$orted into t e Bnited =tate*. (t currentl& account* .or 11.5; o. *$irit con*um$tion in t e B= and onl& trail* be ind ,od!a .or mar!et * are. 3 e !e& rea*on .or t i* i* t e *moot nature o. 7anadian + i*!&. For mo*t $eo$le" drin!ing i* a ca*ual a..air and 7anadian + i*!& i* a ca*ual + i*!&. 4o+e,er" t ere i* more to t i* *$irit t an meet* t e e&e. 4ere are t e ba*ic*: 7anadian + i*!& mu*t be aged .or at lea*t t ree &ear*" mo*t are aged < to 8 &ear* 97anadian 7lub" =eagramL* G8D and double di*tilled. 3 e .inal $roduct i* almo*t al+a&* a blended + i*!& + ic $roduce* a more con*i*tent $roduct. 3 e 7anadian go,ernment doe* not $lace an& re*triction* on t e ma* bill" blending or di*tillation. Ba*icall&" t e& lea,e it to t e e0$erti*e o. t e ma*ter blender" + ic i* a good t ing. 6i!e =cotc " mo*t 7anadian + i*!&L* are aged in u*ed bourbon or * err& ca*!*. 8ne common rumour i* t at 7anadian + i*!& are blended +it Punaged neutral grain *$irit*P. 3 i* i* .al*e. 3 e realit& i* t at *ome o. t e ma* i* di*tilled to a ,er& ig $roo." e..ecti,el& becoming a neutral grain *$irit" o+e,er it *till mu*t be aged .or at lea*t t ree &ear*. 3 i* i* not nece**aril& a bad t ing *ince a blender reAuire* man& + i*!& t&$e* to c oo*e .rom + en ma!ing t eir .inal $roduct. %merican + i*!e& li!e =eagram*7 7ro+n are blended + i*!e&L* t at can u*e unaged neutral grain *$irit .or u$ to 80; o. t e $roductN 3 e rea*on .or t i* +a* t at a.ter t e re$eal o. $ro ibition" t ere +a* a large ,acuum .or *$irit* t at needed to be .illed. )am$ing u$ $roduction +ould ta!e *ome time and u*ing neutral grain *$irit* and a *mall amount o. + i*!e& +a* t e .a*te*t +a& to mar!et .or man& B= + i*!e& $roducer*. =eagram* P7P 7ro+n i* a 2 &ear old %merican blended + i*!e&" and * ould not be con.u*ed +it 7ro+n )o&al" + ic i* a 10 &ear old 7anadian + i*!&. Mo*t e0$orted to t e B= i* Plig tP 7anadian 1 i*!&. Ba*icall&" t e $roduct i* manu.actured in 7anada .or t e %merican $alette. 3 e number one *elling + i*!& i* 7anadian Mi*t" + ic i* an e0tremel& lig t 7anadian + i*!& made .rom corn 9mai'eD. (t al*o a* a *mall amount o. natural .la,ouring added. 8t er e0$orted + i*!ie* include Blac! Gel,et" 1ind*or 7anadian" 7anadian 4unter" 6ord 7al,ert and )ic > )are. Man& o. t e*e + i*!ie* are not mar!eted in 7anada *ur$ri*ingl&. 8n a *ide note" t e 7anadian 4unter + i*!& label i* $robabl& t e rea*on it i* not *old in 7anada. ( a,e no idea + at u*!ie* and an (nuit unter a,e an&t ing to do +it + i*!&. 3 ere i* a large categor& o. aged 7anadian + i*!ie* t at are *old in 7anada t at are aged and a,e out*tanding Aualit&. 6i!e all *$irit categorie*" &ou +ill .ind di..erent grade* o. Aualit&. 7anadian + i*!ie* o.ten get a bad +ra$ a* not being com$le0" but ( t in! t at re.lect* t at 7anadian nature. 8ur + i*!ie* are mello+" rela0ed and created to be en2o&ed +it .riend* and .amil& in a ca*ual en,ironment. 4o+e,er" t ere are a .e+ e0$re**ion* o. 7anadian + i*!& t at +ould ma!e an& connoi**eur a$$&. Iib*on* Fine*t 918 5ear 8ldD Gi!sons Finest >5E Hear :ld? 1i*er* Ger& 8ld 918 5ear 8ldD 4< A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

7orb&L* 6ot 40 Jot =till 7orb&L* Ji!e 7ree! Couble Barreled Cor!$9s Ro$al Reserve 7anadian 7lub .ounder* Blend 7anadian 7lub 920 5ear 8ldD 7anadian 7lub 915 5ear 8ldD Crown Ro$al -anfields Private Reserve Fort$ Cree, Barrel Select )l!erta Premium 588= R$e %lberta =$ring* Seagram9s V: #orn 3 i* t&$e o. %merican + i*!e& +a* de,elo$ed due to t e abundant *u$$l& o. corn" and i* a $redece**or to Bourbon. %* t e name *ugge*t* corn i* t e main ingredient/ t e ma* mu*t con*i*t o. at lea*t 80 $ercent corn. %not er di..erence bet+een 7orn 1 i*!e& and Bourbon i* t at 7orn + i*!e& doe* not a,e to be aged in +ood. (. 7orn 1 i*!e& i* to be aged" an& maturation mu*t be done in eit er un-c arred barrel* or u*ed Bourbon barrel*. 2lended Ameri#an Whis0ey 3 e blended %merican 1 i*!e& * ould not be con.u*ed +it t e blended =cotti* + i*!&. Blended %merican + i*!e& onl& contain* 20 $ercent o. )&e and Bourbon + i*!e&/ t e remaining 80 $ercent are made u$ o. a neutral ma**-$roduced indu*trial *$irit. %* a re*ult" %merican blended + i*!e& i* ,er& c ea$. (t i* al*o muc lig ter t an .or e0am$le 3enne**ee and Bourbon + i*!ie*. Ameri#an Sin,le 2arrel Whis0ey:=ingle barrel + i*!e& i* among*t t e rare*t o. an& *$irit .rom %merica. 3 e term re.er* to + i*!e& + ic a* been aged in a *ingle barrel" and a* been bottled unblended 9t an! &ou 7a$tain 8b,iou*D. 3 e*e are al*o o.ten bottled at natural ca*! *trengt P*traig t .rom t e barrelP" and becau*e t e& are unblended t e& u*uall& o..er an unbridled le,el o. ric ne** and com$le0it&" and are eld in a *$ecial $lace b& connoi**eur* o. bourbon and ot er + i*!e&*. %merican =mall Batc 1 i*!e&:3 e term P=mall Batc P a* ne,er been $ro$erl& de.ined" t oug it al+a&* re.er* to %merican + i*!e&* + ic a,e been di*tilled in limited Auantit&. 3 e mo*t common$lace meaning o. t e term i* .or a bourbon or r&e + i*!e& + ic i* di*tilled in Auantitie* o. around 1"000 gallon* or le** 9t&$icall& .e+er t an 20 barrel*D" .rom a ma* bill o. under P200 bu* el* o. grainP. 3 e re*ult i* almo*t al+a&* more com$le0" and *mall batc + i*!e&* are u*uall& de*tined .or connoi**eur*. Famou* =mall Batc + i*!e&* include Ma!erL* Mar!" Ba*il 4a&denL*" Four )o*e* and Eli2a 7raig. 2lended -alt Whis0y Blended malt* $ro..er t e ad,antage o. a,ing t e attribute* o. numerou* *ingle malt*" combined. Blended malt i* e**entiall& a blend o. *ingle malt + i*!ie*. #o grain + i*!& can be added. Blended malt* are *ometime* re.erred to a* W$ure malt*- t oug t e term a* generated muc contro,er*& .or it i* deemed to be mi*leading B6E#CEC 14(=M(E=:are normall& a c ea$er + i*!ie* made .rom a mi0ture* o. malt and grain* + i*!ie*.a + i*!& *im$l& de*cribed a* a *cotc + i*!& or iri* + i*!e& i* mo*t li!el& to be blend in t i* *en*e.a blend i* u*uall& .rom man& di*tillerie* *o t at t e blender can $roduce a .la,or con*i*tent +it t e brand"and t e brand name*. E.g li!e c i,a* regal"2ame*on iri* + i*!e&"7anadian club"+ill u*uall& not t ere contain t e name o. a di*tiller&. o+e,er blend can le** .reAuentl& a,e ot er meaning*.mi0ture o. malt +it no grain* .rom di..erent di*tillerie* more u*uall& called a ,atted malt"ma& *ometime* be 47 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

re.erred to a* blended malt"and a mi0ture* o. grain* + i*!ie* +it no malt* +ill *ometime* carr& t e de*ignation* ?blended grain*E. 4ATTED -ALT:A V A VATTED WHISKY OR A B LENDED MALT IS COMPOSED O MALT
WHISKY ROM MORE THAN ONE DISTILLERY ! THE MAIN "OAL IS TO CREATE A MALT WHISKY WITH A #NI$#E CHARACTER % WHICH MAY BE HELD CONSTANT OVER TIME ! THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE BLENDED MALTS MI& AND BLEND TO"ETHER IS CALLED 'MARRYIN"(! VATTED IS A RELATIVELY #NCOMMON + i*!& t&$e.

1 i*!e& ba*ed coc!tail* are 4ig land cooler )u*t& nail or !ilt li.ter =cotc mi*t )ound t e +orld 3 i*tle 1 i*!e& *out

$'m
)um i* *uc an e,ocati,e *$irit. (t tran*.orm*" tran*cend* and in*tantl& tran*$ort* t e drin!er to t e *un+a* ed * ore* o. t e 1e*t (ndie*/ + ite *and*" $alm tree* and blue *ea*. (t al+a&* a* a *en*e o. 2o,ialit&" in $art... t an!* to it* 7aribbean origin*" and al*o becau*e o. t e unaba* ed decadence *urrounding a libation + o*e ra+ ingredient i* *ugar. (n t e =$ani* and Briti* %ntille*" rum i* traditionall& di*tilled .rom mola**e*" a b&-$roduct o. *ugar $roduction and toda& a ,ariet& o. *till* are u*ed in it* $roduction" but becau*e it i* made in *o man& di..erent countrie* legal reAui*ite* di..er greatl& around t e +orld. B*uall&" $ot *till* are u*ed to di*til t ic!" ric " aged rum* 9 El Corado 15 and Ju**er-* are good e0am$le*D. 7ontinuou* column *till* are u*ed to $roduce + ite *$irit* be*t a**ociated +it coc!tail* 9rum* li!e Bacardi 7arta BlancaD. )um* are *old bot aged and ot er+i*e and due to t e tro$ical nature o. t e climate" 7aribbean rum* mature $articularl& ra$idl& - at a* muc a* t rice t e rate o. =cotc + i*!&. (n t i* re*$ect 15 &ear old rum i* t e eAui,alent o. 45 &ear old + i*!&N 3 e 7aribbean a* been culti,ated .or *ugar .or centurie*" and t e ,ariou* occu$ier*" be t e& =$ani* " Frenc or Engli* " a,e t eir o+n term* .or t e *$irit/ )on" ) um and" o. cour*e" )um re*$ecti,el&. 3 ere a* al+a&* been a *trong connection +it t e )o&al #a,&. (ndeed" t e #a,& a..orded t eir *ailor* a $int o. rum a* $art o. t eir dail& ration. 3 e rum +a* traded and e0$ort gre+ in a large $art becau*e o. t e e0$ort $o**ibilitie* t at *ea tra,el broug t about. Man& com$eting argument* e0i*t a* to t e origin* o. t e term ?rumE. 3 e mo*t con,incing i* t at it i* a * ortened ,er*ion o. ?rumbullionE V a term .or great u$roar and noi*e and a good reminder o. t e o.ten ,iolent" dramatic i*tor& o. rum. 8t er term* a,e e0i*ted" including ?!ill de,ilE V u*ed to de*cribe *$irit di*tilled .rom mola**e*. )umbullion meaning rum$u* +a* t e drin! o. t e *la,e* on $lantation* in t e Briti* " 1e*t (ndie* a* earl& a* t e 17t centur& and .rom t i* came t e drin! a* +e !no+ a* rum toda&. Briti* la+ in 1904 de.ined rum a* *$irit* di*tilled .rom t e b&$roduct* o. *ugar cane .rom gro+ing countrie*. Juerto rico i* a big rum $roducer and ot er *u$$lier* are bratian" t e +e*t indie*"Gene'uela"bra'il"Samaica"%u*tralia and cuba. )um i* made b& di*tilling .ermented *ugar and +ater. *ugar come* .rom .ermented .rom cane 2uice*"concentrated cane 2uice"or mola**e*. mola**e* i* t e *+eet"*tic!&"re*idue"t at remain* a.ter *ugar cane 2uice i* boiled and t e cr&*talli'ed *ugar i* e0tracted. Mo*t rum i* made .rom mola**e*. 3 i* mola**e* i* o,er 50; *ugar. rum* made .rom cane 2uice. 48 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Definition
)um mu*t be made .rom *ugar cane and di*tilled in a countr& in + ic *ugarcane gro+*" alt oug it ma& be aged and bottled an&+ ere. (t mu*t be bottled at a *trengt no lo+er t an :7.5; ab,. %istory of the r'ms :)um i* i*toricall& !no+n b& man& di..erent name*. (t i* belie,ed t at t e name W)um- originated in Barbado* alt oug no one !no+* .or *ure. (t a* been called W)umbu*tion-" Barbado* 1ater-" W)ed E&e-" W)um*cullion-" WCe,il-* Ceat -" -#el*on-* Blood-" W)umbo- and Mill-Ce,il-. %ll t e*e name* im$l& rum to a,e been a .ier&" *trong and $o+er.ul *$irit inducing t e drin!er into drun!en *tu$or +it ea*e. (t +a* !no+n a* W#el*on-* Blood- a* it +a* belie,ed t at %dmiral #el*on-* bod& +a* carried bac! to England in a barrel o. )um. 3 e *ailor* on t e boat" alt oug greatl& re*$ecting #el*on" *tarted to *i$ on o.. t e rum to drin!. 1 en t e& got bac! to England t e barrel +a* em$t& o. rum" *o t e *ailor* ad been drin!ing #el*on-* Blood. Modern rum brand* +ill tran*late rum into t e language i*toricall& o. t e coloni'ed area V )um 9Engli* i*land*D" ) um 9Frenc i*land*D and )on 9=$ani* and Jortugue*e i*land*D. =ugar cane 9t e ra+ ingredient o. rumD .ir*t arri,ed in t e 7aribbean +it 7 ri*to$ er 7olumbu* in 149: on i* *econd ,o&age. 3 i* ma!e* t e 7aribbean t e birt $lace o. t e rum indu*tr& alt oug rum +a* $roduced earlier in ot er $art* o. t e +orld. 2000 &ear* ago" *ugar cane gre+ li!e +eed* in (ndia and 7 ina. %.ter i* conAue*t o. t e Jun2ab" %le0ander t e Ireat-* armie* *$read t e cane t roug Eg&$t and t e Mediterranean. 6ater" t e Moor* too! t e cane to Euro$e a,ing learned t e *!ill* o. di*tillation .rom t e =aracen*. 3 i* !no+ledge and *!ill* +ere ta!en to t e 7aribbean b& t e 1<t 7entur& =$ani* 7onAui*tador*. 3 eir original o$e* o. .inding gold +ere da* ed and *o t e& turned to rum t at turned out to be 2u*t a* $ro.itable. (t i* .unn& to t in! t at *uc a ,aluable $roduct come* .rom mola**e*" t e +a*te $roduct o. *ugar re.inementN 1it t e Engli* " Cutc " =$ani* and Frenc coloni'ing t e 7aribbean during t e 1<00-*" rum *oon became t e corner-*tone o. t e 7aribbean econom&. 3 e Briti* )o&al #a,& a* a long i*tor& +it rum. 6i.e on board t e na,al ,e**el* o. t e 1<00-* +a* $rimiti,e and ard. (t +a* made arder b& t e .act t ere +a* ,er& .e+ com.ort* V in $articular drin! V a$art .rom *tale beer and .oul +ater *tored .or +ee!* in +ooden ca*!*. 1 en Gice-%dmiral 1illiam Jenn ca$tured =$ani* Samaica in 1<55" t e local rum +a* broug t on board. 3 e *ailor* mu*t a,e lo,ed t i* *+eet ta*ting *$irit to li.t t em out o. t eir mi*er&. B& 17:1" a dail& rum i**ue +a* common$lace on board * i$* *tationed in t e 1e*t (ndie*. %t .ir*t" t e rum ration *im$l& re$laced t e beer ration" + ic meant eac *ailor +a* drin!ing d a $int o. crude and ,er& *trong rum e,er& da& in one gul$. E0treme drun!enne** +a* ine,itable cau*ing *ic!ne** and deat * t roug accident*. B& 1740" Gice-%dmiral Ed+ard Gernon ordered t at rum +a* no longer *er,ed a* a d $int ration but at t+o al. ration* diluted at 4:1 +it +ater. Gernon-* nic!name o. ?8ld IrogramE +a* * ortened to ?grogE and u*ed a* t e name .or t e ration. 8,er t e &ear*" t e ration +ea!ened *o t at b& 1850" t e ration +a* onl& a Auarter o. t e original amount. 1it t e e,er-increa*ing *o$ i*tication o. modern +ea$on *&*tem*" t e )o&al #a,& ad to abandon t e rum ration on Sul& :1*t" 1970 V ?Blac! 3ot Ca&E V t e .inal ration +a* drun! +it t e traditional toa*t o. ?B$ =$irit*E. )um and t e B=% (n 1<54" a Ieneral 7ourt order made in 7onnecticut made rum .rom t e 7aribbean illegal but it *till became an im$ortant $art o. t e colonial #ort %merican econom&. Food" li,e*toc! and timber +ere traded in e0c ange .or rum" + ic +a* a $articular .a,ourite o. t e .i* erman and lumber2ac!* + o ad to endure ar* +inter* and cold +eat er. Ce*$ite being illegal" rum +a* al*o traded to t e #ort %merican (ndian* + o dran! ,a*t Auantitie* o. it. %lco ol abu*e de,a*tated t e *ocial and economic order 49 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

in t e (ndian communitie* t at ad alread& been it b& di*ea*e broug t o,er b& t e Euro$ean *ettler*. 7ombined +it t e B= 7a,alr&" )um and di*ea*e el$ed to de*tro& t e %merican (ndian*. (t too! t e %merican )e,olution and it* ine,itable di*ru$tion o. t e econom& to *lo+ do+n t e *$read o. rum to t e (ndian*. Be.ore long" mola**e* +a* being * i$$ed to #e+ England .or di*tillation into rum V undred* o. di*tillerie* *$rang u$ and a roaring indu*tr& ma!ing 12 million gallon* o. rum a &ear. Mo*t o. t e mola**e* came .rom Frenc i*land* a* it +a* c ea$. (n 17::" t e Briti* Io,ernment in 6ondon $a**ed t e .ir*t Mola**e* %ct" $utting ea,& ta0e* on im$ort* o. rum" *ugar and mola**e* .rom non-Briti* (*land* o. t e 7aribbean. 3 i* ne+ la+ +a* not +elcomed in t e colonie*" a* ra+ material* .rom Briti* i*land* +ere more e0$en*i,e. (t i* +idel& belie,ed t at rum $la&ed a ,er& crucial role in .ueling t e .lame o. di*content t at led to t e Bo*ton 3ea Jart& and t e %merican )e,olution. )um" *muggled in b& rumrunner*" el$ed to !ee$ %merican *$irit* ig during t e &ear* o. Jro ibition in t e =tate* 91919 V 19:2D. Bootlegging" controlled b& t e Mob gang*ter*" +a* ,er& $ro.itable. % con*ignment o. rum boug t on #a**au" Ba ama* .or [170"000 could be +ort u$ to [2 million on t e *treet* o. 7 icago. 3 e big $la&er* o. t e +ere $eo$le li!e ?=car.aceE %l 7a$one and Bill t e ?Ming o. t e )um )o+E Mc7o& 9t e $ ra*e ?3 e )eal Mc7o&E date* .rom t e 1920-* + en Bill Mc7o&-* rum +a* .amed .or it* $urit& and *trengt D + o +ere rumored to a,e made a* muc a* [20 million a &earN Jroduction: )um i* made .rom a *ugar cane" *acc arum o..icinarum" + ic i* one o. t e talle*t member* o. t e gra** .amil&. 3 e cane can gro+ u$ to 14 .eet ig under tro$ical condition*. 3 roug modern genetic im$ro,ement" t e cane* are no+ ig er in *ugar content and more re*i*tant to di*ea*e t an t e original t&$e*. 3 e ar,e*ting o. *ugar cane ta!e* $lace a* clo*e to t e ground a* $o**ible. (n *ome $lace*" t e .ield* are torc ed +it .ire .ir*t to clean a+a& t e dead lea,e* and to dri,e out *na!e*. 3 e cane i* u*uall& cut b& and u*ing a mac ete i. t e .arm i* on ill& ground or it i* too *mall to need mec ani'ation" alt oug t e larger .arm* u*e ar,e*ting mac ine*. 3 e $lant re-generate* b& *ending out ne+ * oot* 9?ratoon*ED .rom t e ba*e o. t e ground *tal!. 3 e*e * oot* gro+ to+ard* t e *un into *tal!* t at $ oto*&nt e*i'e t e *ucro*e .ound in t e cane. (n mo*t ot er $lant*" t i* *ucro*e i* turned into *tarc .or energ& *torage V not *o in t e *ugar cane. (t remain* in it* original .orm. %t t e time o. ar,e*t" t e *tem* o. t e cane are *$ong& and .ull o. t e ric l& *+eet *a$. 3 e cane deteriorate* Auic!l& a.ter ar,e*ting" *o it i* tran*$orted Auic!l& to t e mill. %t t e mill" t e cane i* c o$$ed and t en $a**ed t roug a *erie* o. roller* and grinder* t at *Auee'e t e 2uice out .rom t e *tem*. 3 e cru* ed remain* o. t e cane 9?baga**eED are u*ed .or ,ariet& o. t ing* .rom .uel to c i$board. 3 e green coloured cane 2uice 9?,e2ouED i* t en eated and clari.ied be.ore being $um$ed into e,a$orator* t at dri,e o.. an& e0ce** +ater. 3 e liAuid i* t en cool-boiled in a ,acuum to create a *&ru$& mi0ture .rom + ic Irade % *ugar cr&*tal* are e0tracted. 3 e bro+ni* -blac! liAuid t at remain* i* !no+n a* 6ig t Mola**e*. (t i* bot lig t in colour and .la,our and i* o.ten u*ed a* *&ru$ .or de**ert*. %.ter a *econd boiling" t e mola**e* i* dar!er and t ic!er. 3 i* mola**e* i* !no+n a* blac! treacle mola**e*. 3 e t ird and .inal boiling gi,e* ?Blac!*tra$E mola**e* - t e *tu.. .rom + ic rum i* made. (t i* ,er& t ic!" dar! and *tic!&. (t ta*te* *lig tl& bitter e,en t oug it *till contain* a$$ro0imatel& 55; o. t e uncr&*tali*ed *ugar. (t contain* lot* o. t e original im$uritie* o. t e *ugar + ic el$ gi,e t e rum it* c aracteri*tic .la,our* and aroma. )um $roducer* *tate t at it i* t e uniAue Aualitie* o. t e *ugar cane" + ic gi,e t eir rum t e .eeling o. t e i*land it i* .rom. (t ta!e* a$$ro0imatel& 1.5 gallon* o. mola**e* to ma!e 1 gallon o. rum. )um* made .rom mola**e* are called ?) um (ndu*trialeE + erea* rum* made .rom *ugar cane 2uice are !no+n a* ?) um %gricoleE and are commonl& .ound in t e Frenc (*land* and =out %merica V $rimaril& Bra'il 97ac acaD. 3 e ne0t *tage i* t at o. .ermentation. 3 i*" in e**ence" i* all about t e action o. &ea*t on *ugar*. (. &ou $ut t em bot in +arm" *+eet liAuid" t e& multi$l& ra$idl& and *ecrete en'&me* t at con,ert *ugar into 50 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

roug l& eAual amount* o. alco ol and carbon dio0ide. Fir*t" a ?6i,e 1a* E i* made b& mi0ing t e mola**e* +it +ater *o it reac e* about a 15; *ugar content. 3 e Aualit& o. t e +ater i* ,er& im$ortant" a* it* mineral content +ill a..ect t e .inal rum Aualit&. 7ane 2uice .or a ) um %gricole can be .ermented +it out adding an& +ater" a* it* *ugar content i* naturall& lo+ enoug . Su*t a* *ugar cane a* been geneticall& c anged to *uit it* en,ironment" t e &ea*t u*ed a* been *$eciall& cultured to contribute to t e di..erent c aracteri*tic* and .la,our* o. t e rum. 4o+e,er" *ome $roducer* are a$$ier to u*e t e natural &ea*t* .ound in t e air to *tart .ermentation. 3o create a ea,ier" dar!er *t&le o. rum" o.ten t e ?CunderE" or re*idue o. di*tillation .rom t e *till *imilar to Bourbon-* =our Ma* " i* added. ?6iming*E 9t e *cum t at .orm* on t e *ur.ace o. mola**e* a* t e *ugar i* e0tractedD can be added to create a more $ungent .la,our. (. a lig t rum i* reAuired" it i* .ermented .or onl& one or t+o da&*" alt oug it can be a* lo+ a* 12 our*. (. t e rum i* .ermented *lo+er V u$ to 12 da&* V a ea,ier *t&le 9e*$eciall& + en dunder or liming* are addedD i* $roduced. 3 e *lo+er .ermentation al*o el$* to gi,e a ea,ier rum a* ot er microorgani*m* a,e a c ance to +or! along*ide t e &ea*t* and *o contribute t eir o+n *et o. alco ol .la,our*. % * orter .ermentation $eriod doe* not gi,e t e*e micro-organi*m* a c ance to act in t i* +a&. %.ter .ermentation" t e +a* i* a$$ro0imatel& 5-9; alco ol. %.ter .ermentation" t e +a* i* di*tilled. )um can be di*tilled eit er u*ing a $ot or column *till. 3 e t&$e o. *till u*ed +ill o.ten be lin!ed to t e i*tor& o. t e i*land. 3 e old Engli* and Frenc colonie* +ill u*uall& u*e a $ot *till 9t e *till u*ed in =cotland and 7ognacD + erea* column *till* are mainl& u*ed b& t e old =$ani* colonie*. =ome rum* +ill u*e a blend o. $ot and column di*tilled rum* to gi,e a greater de$t and com$le0it& to t eir rum* 9e.g. %$$leton E*tateD. 3 e $ot-di*tilled rum* tend to be ea,ier a* t e ig e*t *trengt a.ter di*tillation i* 85; ab," *o t ere i* more room .or im$uritie* be.ore bottling. 7olumn di*tilled rum* are lig ter" cri*$er and cleaner +it le** o. t e mola**e* c aracter a* t e& lea,e t e *till at a muc ig er alco olic ,olume 9<;D.>9 A,ein, Cue to t e con*i*tentl& ig tem$erature* in t e 7aribbean" rum age* at a$$ro0imatel& t ree time* t e rate o. =cotc or 7ognac. 3 i* W7aribbean %geing- 9or W3ro$ical %geing-D mean* t at a 7-&ear-old rum +ill a,e man& o. t e *ame Aualitie* o. a 21-&ear-old =cotc N E,en + ite rum* +ill be aged .or a $eriod o. time" u*uall& u$ to t ree &ear*. 3 e colour i* t en .iltered out u*ing c arcoal .iltration. 3 e ageing o. rum 9a* +it all ageingD gi,e* t e rum a *moot er" more com$le0 Aualit&. (t *tarted + en rum $roducer* *tarted to ma!e more rum t an t e demand reAuired. 3 e e0ce** rum +a* *tored in oa! ca*!*" + ic +ere al*o u*ed to tran*$ort t e rum on * i$* bac! to Britain" =$ain and France. (t +a* noticed t at t e *$irit gained colour .rom t e +ood and a *u$erior ta*te. 3 e $roce** o. ageing i* largel& not under*tood" alt oug +e !no+ t at t e *$irit ta!e* tannin*" .la,our* and colour* .rom t e +ood a* it i* $orou* and *o allo+* t e *$irit to mo,e in and out +it tem$erature. 3 i* al*o allo+* t e rum to Wbreat e- cau*ing com$le0 o0idati,e c ange* to t e c emical ma!e-u$ o. t e *$irit. Mo*t barrel* u*ed in t e 7aribbean are u*ed Bourbon barrel*. 9Cue to t e la+* go,erning Bourbon" t e& a,e no u*e o. *econd and barrel* and *o *u$$l& man& o. t e +orld* ot er *$irit* +it barrel* .or ageing.D 3 e*e barrel* are *ometime* rec arred on t e in*ide to el$ im$art more o. t e c aracter .rom t e +ood" a* +ell a* to re-carameli*e t e *ugar* in t e +ood. 3 e amount o. rum in contact +it t e +ood +ill a..ect t e rate at + ic it age*. 3 ere.ore" t e *maller t e barrel" t e greater t e *ur.ace area to ,olume ratio and t e Auic!er t e ageing $roce** +it in it. Man& $eo$le belie,e t at a rum $ea!* in it* ageing bet+een 17 and 20 &ear*. 3 i* doe*" o+e,er" de$end on t e *t&le o. rum and + et er it +a* made it a $ot or column *till. Curing ageing" *ome o. t e rum i* lo*t t roug e,a$oration t roug t e $orou* +ood. 3 i* lo*t rum i* called t e W%ngel-* = are- 9alt oug in Samaica it i* called WCu$$&-* = are- V a du$$& i* a Samaican g o*t or *$iritD and account* .or u$ to a <; lo** $er &earN (n cooler climate*" t i* .igure i* normall& around 2; $er &ear. 51 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

8.ten a rum $roducer +ill add +ater to t e rum be.ore ageing to bring it do+n to around 80;ab,. 3 i* +ill *lig tl& *lo+ t e e,a$oration +it out indering t e e..ect o. t e +ood ageing. 2lendin, t e ,a*t ma2orit& o. rum* are blended .rom a mi0 o. *t&le*" age* and t&$e*. (n *ome ca*e* 9BacardiD t e& are blended .rom rum* originating in di..erent countrie*. =ome rum are al*o colored +it caramel at t i* *tage to en*ure a con*i*tenc& o. color +it in t e $roduct a* +ell a*" in *ome ca*e*" to el$ gi,e a *+eeter" more caramel ta*te and aroma. 8nce t e di..erent rum* a,e been *elected .or blending" t e& are allo+ed to Wmarr&- toget er a.ter being reduced to bottling *trengt +it +ater. %gain" t e Aualit& o. +ater i* ,er& im$ortant and i* o.ten boa*ted about b& t e rum $roducer. 7uban )um (n.ormation: )um i* a di*tilled be,erage made .rom *ugarcane b&-$roduct* *uc a* mola**e* and *ugarcane 2uice b& a $roce** o. .ermentation and di*tillation. 3 e di*tillate" a clear liAuid" i* t en u*uall& aged in oa! and ot er ca*!*. 1 ile t ere are rum $roducer* in $lace* *uc a* %u*tralia" (ndia" )eunion (*land" and el*e+ ere around t e +orld" t e ma2orit& o. rum $roduction occur* in and around t e 7aribbean and along t e Cemerara ri,er in =out %merica. =ome ma2or rum brand* include Bacardi" Brugal" 7a$tain MorganL*" %$$leton E*tate" 4a,ana 7lub" =tro " Matu*alem" Mount Ia&" Bundaberg" M&er*" Malibu )um" Io*lingL*" 7ru'an" Ju**erL*" Flor de 7aea" Con U" )on %buelo" and )on Kaca$a 7entenario. Jrior to %lco ol Jro ibition" man& o. t e .ine*t rum* +ere once $roduced in #e+ England. )um i* $roduced in a ,ariet& o. *t&le*. 6ig t rum* are commonl& u*ed in mi0ed drin!*" + ile golden and dar! rum* are a$$ro$riate .or u*e in coo!ing a* +ell a* coc!tail*. Jremium brand* o. rum are al*o a,ailable t at are made to be con*umed neat or on t e roc!*. )um $la&* a $art in t e culture o. mo*t i*land* o. t e 1e*t (ndie*" and a* .amou* a**ociation* +it t e Briti* )o&al #a,& and $irac&. )um a* al*o *er,ed a* a $o$ular medium o. e0c ange t at el$ed to $romote *la,er& along +it $ro,iding economic in*tigation .or %u*traliaL* )um )ebellion and t e %merican )e,olution. 3 e origin o. t e +ord rum i* unclear. % common claim i* t at t e name +a* deri,ed .rom rumbullion meaning Pa great tumult or u$roarP. %not er claim i* t e name i* .rom t e large drin!ing gla**e* u*ed b& Cutc *eamen !no+n a* rummer*" .rom t e Cutc +ord roemer" a drin!ing gla**. 8t er o$tion* include contraction* o. t e +ord* *acc arum" 6atin .or *ugar" or arOme" Frenc .or aroma. )egardle** o. t e original *ource" t e name ad come into common u*e b& Ma& 1<57 + en t e Ieneral 7ourt o. Ma**ac u*ett* made illegal t e *ale o. *trong liAuor P+ et er !no+ne b& t e name o. rumme" *trong +ater" +ine" brand&" etc." etc.P (n current u*age" t e name u*ed .or a rum i* o.ten ba*ed on t e rumL* $lace o. origin. For rum* .rom =$ani* -*$ea!ing locale* t e +ord ron i* u*ed. % ron aee2o indicate* a rum t at a* been *igni.icantl& aged and i* o.ten u*ed .or $remium $roduct*. ) um i* t e term u*ed .or rum* .rom Frenc -*$ea!ing locale*" + ile r um ,ieu0 i* an aged Frenc rum t at meet* *e,eral ot er reAuirement*. =ome o. t e man& ot er name* .or rum are )umbullion" )umbu*tion" Barbado* +ater" )um*cullion" Ce,ilL* Ceat 9or PMill-Ce,illPD" #el*onL* Blood" and )umbo. % ,er*ion o. rum .rom #e+.oundland i* re.erred to b& t e name =creec 9*ee #e+.oundland =creec D" + ile *ome lo+-grade 1e*t (ndie* rum* are called ta.ia. 4arieties of $'m 52 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

Bntil t e *econd al. o. t e 19t centur& all rum* +ere ea,& or dar! rum* t at +ere con*idered a$$ro$riate .or t e +or!ing $oor" unli!e t e re.ined double-di*tilled *$irit* o. Euro$e. (n order to e0$and t e mar!et .or rum" t e =$ani* )o&al Ce,elo$ment Board o..ered a $ri'e to an&one + o could im$ro,e t e rum ma!ing $roce**. 3 i* re*ulted in man& re.inement* in t e $roce** + ic greatl& im$ro,ed t e Aualit& o. rum. 8ne o. t e mo*t im$ortant .igure* in t i* de,elo$ment $roce** +a* Con Facundo Bacardi Ma**o" + o mo,ed .rom =$ain to =antiago de 7uba in 184:. Con FacundoL* e0$eriment* +it di*tillation tec niAue*" c arcoal .iltering" culti,ating o. *$eciali'ed &ea*t *train*" and aging +it %merican oa! ca*!* el$ed to $roduce a *moot er and mello+er drin! t&$ical o. modern lig t rum*. (t +a* +it t i* ne+ rum t at Con Facundo .ounded Bacardi & 7om$aeia in 18<2. Ci,iding rum into meaning.ul grou$ing* i* com$licated b& t e .act t at t ere i* no *ingle *tandard .or + at con*titute* rum. (n*tead rum i* de.ined b& t e ,ar&ing rule* and la+* o. t e nation* t at $roduce t e *$irit. 3 e di..erence* in de.inition* include i**ue* *uc a* *$irit $roo." minimum aging" and e,en naming *tandard*. E0am$le* o. t e di..erence* in $roo. i* 7olombia" reAuiring t eir rum $o**e** a minimum alco ol content o. 50 %BG" + ile 7 ile and Gene'uela reAuire onl& a minimum o. 40 %BG. Me0ico reAuire* rum be aged a minimum o. 8 mont *" t e Cominican )e$ublic and Janama reAuire* one &ear" and Gene'uela reAuire* t+o &ear*. #aming *tandard* al*o ,ar&" +it %rgentina de.ining rum* a* + ite" gold" lig t" and e0tra lig t. Barbado* u*e* t e term* + ite" o,er$roo." and matured" + ile t e Bnited =tate* de.ine* rum" rum liAueur" and .la,ored rum. Janama u*e* PclaroP" Po*curoP and Paee2oP. Ce*$ite t e*e di..erence* in *tandard* and nomenclature" t e .ollo+ing di,i*ion* are $ro,ided to el$ * o+ t e +ide ,ariet& o. rum* t at are $roduced. 1it in t e 7aribbean" eac i*land or $roduction area a* a uniAue *t&le. 3 e*e *t&le* can be grou$ed b& t e language t at i* traditionall& *$o!en. Irade* o. )um 3 e grade* and ,ariation* u*ed to de*cribe rum de$end on t e location t at a rum +a* $roduced. Ce*$ite t e*e ,ariation* t e .ollo+ing term* are .reAuentl& u*ed to de*cribe ,ariou* t&$e* o. rum: f 6ig t )um*" al*o re.erred to a* lig t" *il,er" and + ite rum*. (n general" lig t rum a* ,er& little .la,or a*ide .rom a general *+eetne**" and *er,e* accordingl& a* a ba*e .or coc!tail*. 6ig t rum* are *ometime* .iltered a.ter aging to remo,e an& color. f Iold )um*" al*o called amber rum*" are medium-bodied rum* + ic are generall& aged. 3 e rum can obtain it* .la,or t roug addition o. *$ice* and caramelHcolor 9a ,ariation o.ten *old a* =$iced )umD" but i*toricall& gain* it* dar!er color .rom aging in +ooden ca*!* 9t&$icall& oa!D. f Car! )um" al*o !no+n a* blac! rum" cla**e* a* a grade dar!er t an gold rum. (t i* generall& aged longer" in ea,il& c arred barrel*. Car! rum a* a muc *tronger .la,or t an eit er lig t or gold rum" and int* o. *$ice* can be detected" along +it a *trong mola**e* or caramel o,ertone. (t i* u*ed to $ro,ide *ub*tance in rum drin!*" a* +ell a* color. (n addition to u*e* in mi0ed drin!*" dar! rum i* t e t&$e o. rum mo*t commonl& u*ed in coo!ing. (t +a* t i* t&$e o. rum immortali'ed in t e *ong L3 e 8ld Blac! )umL b& t e #e+.oundland .ol! grou$ Ireat Big =ea. 5: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

f Fla,ored )um: =ome manu.acturer* a,e begun to *ell rum* + ic t e& a,e in.u*ed +it .la,or* o. .ruit* *uc a* mango" orange" citru*" coconut" and lim!e + ic i* a lime rum .ound in =+eden. 3 e*e *er,e to .la,or *imilarl& t emed tro$ical drin!* + ic generall& com$ri*e le** t an 40; alco ol. f 8,er$roo. )um i* rum + ic i* muc ig er t an t e *tandard 40; alco ol. Mo*t o. t e*e rum* bear greater t an 75;" in .act" and $re$aration* o. 151 to 1<0 $roo. occur commonl&. f Jremium )um: %* +it ot er *i$$ing *$irit*" *uc a* 7ognac and =cotc " a mar!et e0i*t* .or $remium and *u$er-$remium *$irit*. 3 e*e are generall& boutiAue brand* + ic *ell ,er& aged and care.ull& $roduced rum*. 3 e& a,e more c aracter and .la,or t an t eir Pmi0ingP counter$art*" and are generall& con*umed +it out t e addition o. ot er ingredient*. )um Jroduction Bnli!e *ome ot er *$irit*" *uc a* 7ognac and =cotc " rum a* no de.ined $roduction met od*. (n*tead" rum $roduction i* ba*ed on traditional *t&le* t at ,ar& bet+een location* and di*tiller*. Mo*t rum $roduced i* made .rom mola**e*. 1it in t e 7aribbean" muc o. t i* mola**e* i* .rom Bra'il. % notable e0ce$tion i* t e Frenc -*$ea!ing i*land* + ere *ugarcane 2uice i* t e $re.erred ba*e ingredient. 3o t e ba*e ingredient &ea*t" and $otentiall& +ater" are added to *tart .ermentation. 1 ile *ome rum $roducer* allo+ +ild &ea*t to $er.orm t e .ermentation" mo*t u*e *$eci.ic *train* o. &ea*t to el$ $ro,ide a con*i*tent ta*te and $redictable .ermentation time. Cunder" t e &ea*t-ric .oam .rom $re,iou* .ermentation*" i* t e traditional &ea*t *ource in Samaica. ?3 e &ea*t em$lo&ed +ill determine t e .inal ta*te and aroma $ro.ile"P *a&* Samaican ma*ter blender So& =$ence. Ci*tiller* t at ma!e lig ter rum*" *uc a* Bacardi" $re.er to u*e .a*ter-+or!ing &ea*t*. B*e o. *lo+er-+or!ing &ea*t* cau*e* more e*ter* to accumulate during .ermentation" allo+ing .or a .uller-ta*ting rum. %* +it all ot er a*$ect* o. rum $roduction" t ere i* no *tandard met od u*ed .or di*tillation. 1 ile *ome $roducer* +or! in batc e* u*ing $ot *till*" mo*t rum $roduction i* done u*ing column *till di*tillation. Jot *till out$ut contain* more congener* t an t e out$ut .rom column *till* and t u* $roduce* .uller-ta*ting rum. %ging o. )um Man& countrie* reAuire t at rum be aged .or at lea*t one &ear. 3 i* aging i* commonl& $er.ormed in u*ed bourbon ca*!*" but ma& al*o be $er.ormed in *tainle** *teel tan!* or ot er t&$e* o. +ooden ca*!*. Cue to t e tro$ical climate common to mo*t rum-$roducing area*" rum mature* at a muc .a*ter rate t an i* t&$ical .or =cotc or 7ognac. %n indication o. t i* .a*ter rate i* t e angelL* * are" or amount o. $roduct lo*t to e,a$oration. 1 ile $roduct* aged in France or =cotland *ee about 2; lo** eac &ear" rum $roducer* ma& *ee a* muc a* 10;. %.ter aging" rum i* normall& blended to en*ure a con*i*tent .la,or. %* $art o. t i* blending $roce**" lig t rum* ma& be .iltered to remo,e an& color gained during aging. For dar!er rum*" caramel ma& be added to t e rum to ad2u*t t e color o. t e .inal $roduct. Present #onditions of the r'ms 3 e $re*ent condition* o. t e rum * o+ t at t e *u$$l& o. t e rum +ill be ig demand. 54 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

)utures of the rums) =ince it* creation b& 7ongre** o,er 91 &ear* ago" t e rum co,er-o,er $rogram a* $ro,ided im$ortant budgetar& *u$$ort .or Juerto )ico" and later .or t e B.=. Girgin (*land*. #e+ $lan* to u*e .ederal ta0 re,enue* to e0ce**i,el& *ub*idi'e indi,idual rum com$anie* could $ut t e entire $rogram in 2eo$ard&. "istory of the 3um: In 4566, Congress approved the first law for the governing of /uerto 3ico, and provided that federal ta#es on /uerto 3ican products would be used to help pay for the government of the 7.S. territory. The original version of the current law was enacted in 4548. It now %covers over& 0transfers1 to /uerto 3ico9s government most of the federal ta#es collected on rum produced on the Island and in foreign counties to help pay for the cost of government. In 45:;, Congress granted the request of the 7.S. .irgin Islands for support of its government budget similar to that granted to /uerto 3ico. Current permanent law gives /uerto 3ico and the 7.S. .irgin Islands <46.:6 of the <4=.:6 per proof gallon ta# on rum distilled in each territory and in foreign countries. Temporary law, which requires recurring congressional approval, provides an additional <>.8: per proof gallon. /uerto 3ico9s 7se of ?ederal 3um Ta# 3evenues /uerto 3ico uses 5; percent of the federal ta# revenues to support investments in infrastructure, health, education, and environmental preservation. Si# percent is being spent to promote the territory9s rum industry. 2ocal law limits to 46 percent the amount that can be used for this purpose. These funds support marketing, efficiency and innovation initiatives of the industry as a whole and do not directly benefit individual rum companies. /uerto 3ico adheres to this limitation to keep the use of the funds true to the original intent of Congress in transferring the ta#es to /uerto 3ico9s government. )#cessive Subsidies and ?air Trade Concerns The program as created by Congress was intended to provide budgetary support to the territorial governments @ never that federal revenues be used to e#cessively subsidi!e rum companies. The -overnment of the .irgin Islands has recently developed plans to use most of the federal ta# to individually benefit two large corporations that brand and sell rum. $ne of the arrangements would give a single company more than <A6 million, nearly :6 percent, of the federal ta# each year for =6 years. This amount is so large it would cover the entire cost of producing the product. /uerto 3ican producers say they will not be able to compete with distillers subsidi!ed to the e#tent planned in the .irgin Islands. -iving the federal ta# to rum producers that also sell the rum abroad would be an actionable subsidy under 7.S. international fair trade commitments. ?uture of the /rogram /uerto 3ico9s resident commissioner and eight other members of the 7.S. "ouse of both parties have sponsored a bill 0".3. >4>>1 to limit to 46 percent the amount of federal ta# revenue that can be used to subsidi!e rum production. The federal ta#es at issue have not been collected yet and their use is fully within the purview of the Congress to determine or limit. Distillations of r'm rum i* a colorle** *$irite*.barrel aging and t e u*e o. added caramel determine* t eir .inal color. =ince caramel i* burnt *ugar. 3 e brand t at a,e been c arcoal .iltered" ea,ier are t e dar! rum*. )ecentl&" rum a* *urged in $o$ularit&. (t* regard a* a .ine coc!tail mi0er i* good and +ide*$read and a number o. t e +orld-* mo*t $o$ular drin!* are rum-ba*ed" t e CaiAuiri and t e Mo2ito being t+o $rime e0am$le*. (t i* onl& recentl&" t oug " t at our belo,ed rum a* reall& been en2o&ed en ma**e a* a *tandalone be,erage o. true merit" and t i* ne+ direction i* e0cellent" .or rum i* a* muc a connoi**eur-* libation a* an& ot er dar! *$irit. 6i!e all dar! *$irit*" a *temmed tuli$ gla** i* be*t .or o$timum $alate entr& and .or .ocu*ing t e aroma*. 55 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

=ome o. t e name* o. t e rum* are: Malu*alem $latino Bacardi 8&er* 7a$tain morgan 9dar! rumD 6amb-* na,& 9dar! rumD 4a,ana club :&re* 4a,ana 7&er* 9dar! rumD 4a,ana club ane2o 7 ano* Mount a$$le ton 1 ite 4an*en +ood* Got =ome o. t e coc!tail* rum ba*ed 7uba libre Jina colada CaiAuiri Jain !iller Ma* a,a Bet+een t e * eet* Sum$ u$ and !i** me = ang ai Bacardi *u$erior blanco Bacardi carta oro gold Bacardi limon 4a,ana club Malibu coconut* Classifi#ations of the r'ms: Classifi#ations of $'m White $'ms are generall& lig t-bodied 9alt oug t ere are a .e+ ea,&-bodied 1 ite )um* in t e Frenc i*land*D. 3 e& are u*uall& clear and a,e a ,er& *ubtle .la,our $ro.ile. (. t e& are aged in oa! ca*!* to create a *moot $alate t e& are t en u*uall& .iltered to remo,e an& color. 1 ite )um* are $rimaril& used as mi#ers and blend particularly well with fruit flavours. &olden $'ms" al*o !no+n a* Am*er $'ms" are generall& medium-bodied. Mo*t a,e *$ent *e,eral &ear* ageing in oa! ca*!*" + ic gi,e t em *moot " mello+ $alate*. Dar0 $'ms are traditionall& .ull-bodied" ric " caramel-dominated )um*. 3 e be*t are $roduced mo*tl& .rom $ot *till* and .reAuentl& aged in oa! ca*!* .or e0tended $eriod*. 3 e ric e*t o. t e*e )um* are con*umed *traig t u$. Spi#ed $'ms can be + ite" golden" or dar! )um*. 3 e& are inf'sed (ith spi#es or fr'it fla+o'rs. )um $unc e* 9*uc a* $lanter* $unc D are blend* o. )um and .ruit 2uice* t at are ,er& $o$ular in t e 7aribbean. ADeAo and A,eBDated $'ms are aged )um* .rom di..erent ,intage* or batc e* t at are mi0ed toget er to in*ure a continuit& o. .la,or in brand* o. )um .rom &ear to &ear. =ome aged )um* +ill gi,e age *tatement* *tating t e &ounge*t )um in t e blend 9e.g." 10-&ear-old )um contain* a blend o. )um* t at are at lea*t 10 &ear* oldD. % *mall number o. Frenc i*land )um* are Gintage Cated. White r'm: %re u*uall& clear and color le**. 3 e& are u*uall& aged .or <-12 mont *. Dar0 r'm: 7aramel-dominated rum*" ric e*t o. t e*e rum* are con*umed *traig t u$. &olden r'm: al*o !no+n a* amber rum-* medium-bodied Spi#ed r'm: t e& are in.u*ed +it *$ice* or .ruit* .la,our*. AneAo.a,ed.rh'm +ie'9 r'mes: 10 &er* old rum contain* a blend o. rum t at are atle*t 10&r* old. 34E 76%==(F(7%3(8#= 8F 34E )BM=: 5< A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

14(3E I86C C%)MHB6BE )EC )BM J)EM(MBM =BJE) J)EM(MBM B63)% J)EM(MBM )E=E)GE =EJ7(%6 )E=E)GE F%M(65 )E=E)GE 34E )BM )EI(8#=: The Cari**ean i* t e e$icenter o. t e +orld rum $roduction*. 2ar*ados $roduce* lig t"*+eeti* rum*"e0am$le* doorl&-* C'*a $roduce* lig t bodied"cri*$"clean rum*"ideal .or mi0ing and coc!tail*.e0am$le* li!e 4a,ana club The Domini#an rep'*li# i* notable .or it* .ull bodied e.g bermude*"matu*alem &'yana i* ea,& demerara rum* named .or a local ri,er.demerara rum* can be aged .or e0tended $eriod*"and .reAuentl& u*ed .or blending +it lig ter rum* .rom ot er region* e.g el dorado %aiti follo+* t e Frenc tradition* o. ea,ier rum* t at are double di*tilled in $ot *till and aged in oa! .or : or more t an : &ear* to $roduce .ull .la,oured e0ce$tionall& *moot ta*ting rum* e.g barbancourt <amai#a i* ric an aromatic rum-* it ranging .rom lig t to ,er& .ull .la,oured e.g %$$leton martiniAue i* a Frenc i*land in ea*tern 7aribbean e.g 2.ball& P'erto ri#o i* !no+n $rimaril& .or lig t",er& dar! rum*.all + ite Juerto )ican be aged a minimum o. one &ear + ile dar! rum* mu*t be aged : &ear* e.g Bacardi Trinidad $roduce* mainl& lig t rum* .or e.g ango*tura 2ra/il t e& mo*tl& $roduce lig t rum* +it unaged cane *$irit calle cac aca t e be*t !no+n e0am$le li!e cac aca $'m types *ased on ra( material 'sed: =ugarcane Suice: man& Frenc rum* 9r um*D are made .rom 100; *ugarcane 2uice" + ic i* t en .ermented" di*tilled and aged. 3 e*e rum* tend to contain a ig le,el o. .loralH erbal aroma* and clearl& di..erentiated .rom mola**e*-ba*ed rum*. (n Frenc -*$ea!ing rum-$roducing countrie*" rum* made .rom *ugarcane 2uice are !no+n a* P) um %gricole"P to di..erentiate t em .rom P) um (ndu*triel"P + ic i* made .rom mola**e*. -olasses: + en *ugar $roce**ing $lant* e0tract *ugar .rom t e *ugarcane 2uice" t e& boil t e 2uice until cr&*tal* *tart to .orm" lea,ing be ind a t ic! liAuid !no+n a* mola**e*. Ce$ending on o+ long t e& boil t e 2uice and o+ muc *ugar t e& ta!e out" one i* le.t be ind +it Irade % Mola**e* 9 ig e*t Aualit& ig e*t $ercentage o. .ermentable *ugar le.tD" Irade B Mola**e* 9*lig tl& lo+er Aualit& t an Irade %D" Irade 7 Mola**e*" Irade C Mola**e* and" .inall&" Blac! =tra$ Mola**e* 9lo+er Aualit&D. 3 e better rum* in t e mar!et are made u*ing ig er Aualit& mola**e* becau*e t e& container a ig er $ercentage o. .ermentable *ugar* and a lo+er $ercentage o. c emical* 9u*ed to e0tract *ugar cr&*tal*D t at can inter.ere +it &ea*t during t e .ermentation o. t e mola**e*. Other: a #o'ple of distilleries 9in Ea*tern Euro$e" $o**ibl& el*e+ ereD a,e di*tilled alco ol .rom .ermented *ugar beet e0tract* and a,e attem$ted to *ell t e re*ulting alco ol a* )um. Fortunatel& t e& a,e .aced o$$o*ition .rom larger mar!et* and a,e not been able to e0$ort t e $roduct a* *uc . =ugar 57 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

beet*" a member o. t e 7 eno$odiaceae .amil&" are a great *ource o. *ucro*e and a ,iable alternati,e to *ugarcane + en t e goal o. culti,ation i* obtaining *ugar a* a .inal $roduct 9*ugar .rom *ugar beet* account* .or about :0; o. t e +orldL* $roductionD. %* o. t e time o. t i* +riting" t ere are no countrie* in t e +orld + ic a,e $a**ed legi*lation allo+ing .or alco ol made .rom .ermented *ugar beet* to be labeled and *old a* rum. )um i* made e0clu*i,el& .rom *ugarcane or it* b&$roduct*" an&one telling &ou ot er+i*e i* l&ing to &ou. $'m types *ased on fermentation method: #atural Fermentation: #atural .ermentation i* *imilar to t e $roce** u*ed in t e beer indu*tr& to ma!e 6ambic-*t&le beer. Ci*tillerie* rel& on +ild" naturall& occurring &ea*t" $re*ent in t e air and in t e cane 2uice to con,ert t e *ugar* 9*ucro*eD in t e ma* into alco ol. #atural .ermentation ta!e* $lace in o$en container* to ma0imi'e t e e0$o*ure o. t e ma* to t e air. 3 i* t&$e o. .ermentation" de$ending on t e *i'e o. t e ,at" can ta!e .rom one to t+o +ee!*" and t e re*ult* are not al+a&* 100; du$licable. Controlled Fermentation 6*at#hD: (n t i* met od" a $articular *train o. &ea*t" + ic i* u*uall& guarded a* one o. t e di*tiller&-* mo*t ,aluable a**et*" i* introduced into t e ma* and allo+ed to $er.orm it* 2ob. 3o reduce t e ri*! o. natural .ermentation .rom occurring" t e controlled &ea*t i* .ir*t mi0ed +it a *mall batc o. t e ma* " in *ome ca*e* 2u*t a cou$le o. ounce*. #e0t" t e &ea*t i* allo+ed to multi$l& and reac a $redetermined concentration. 3 i* *tarter i* mi0ed +it a larger amount o. liAuid" around a gallon" .rom t e ma* . 3 i* $roce** i* re$eated t+o or t ree time* until a large amount o. ig l& concentrated *tarter i* ac ie,ed" + ic i* t en added into t e large .ermentation tan!*. 7ontrolled .ermentation done in t i* +a& u*uall& ta!e* onl& t+o to t ree da&* and t e re*ult* are ,er& $redictable and re$roducible. Controlled Fermentation 6#ontin'o'sD: 8ne o. t e late*t trend* in t e +orld o. .ermentation i* t at o. .ermenting in a continuou* $roce** rat er t an in batc e*. %* t e name im$lie*" t i* met od con*i*t* o. a main .ermentation tan! t at continuou*l& recei,e* a *tream o. diluted mola**e*. 1 ile t e in.lu0 o. mola**e* !ee$* t e &ea*t t ri,ing in t e medium" an eAual amount o. liAuid i* e0tracted .rom a di..erent $lace in t e .ermentation tan!" alread& ?dige*tedE and read& to be di*tilled. 1 ile t e conce$t o. continuou* .ermentation i* relati,el& ne+ to t e rum indu*tr&" it i* not *o in ot er .ield*" *uc a* t e medical indu*tr&. %n earl& continuou* $roce** +a* a ,inegar generator in + ic acetobacter attac ed to +ood * a,ing* in*ide a container +it one o$ening on to$ and anot er one at t e bottom. 3ric!ling a *ugar *olution do+n t roug t e container $ac!ed +it t e +ood * a,ing* $roduced ,inegar. 3 e acetic acid di*courage* contamination at condition* + ere t e acetobacter t ri,e. $'m types *ased on distillation method : Pot Still: 3 e*e are t e earlie*t di*tillation de,ice* 9al*o u*ed in t e $roduction o. Brand& and =cotc D. % ba*ic $ot *till con*i*t* o. t ree $art*: t e !ettle" + ere t e liAuid mi0ture i* boiled" t e conden*er" + ic cool* do+n t e ,a$or* coming .rom t e !ettle" and t e goo*enec!" + ic connect* t e !ettle to t e conden*er. 3 e liAuid obtained .rom t i* t&$e o. di*tillation i* al*o !no+n a* ?*ingle di*tillate"E *ince it i* $roce**ed t roug t e *till onl& once. 3&$icall& t i* liAuid i* $roce**ed a *econd time" t u* $roducing a ?double di*tillateE + ic i* cleaner and *tronger t an t e *ingle di*tillate. =e,eral di*tillerie* a,e ta!en t i* a *te$ .urt er b& running t e di*tillate a t ird" e,en a .ourt time t roug t e *till" obtaining a cleaner" *tronger" more recti.ied *$irit at t e end o. eac run. Becau*e t e amount o. liAuid t at can be di*tilled at one time +it a $ot *till i* limited to t e *i'e o. t e !ettle" di*tiller* em$lo&ing t i* met od mu*t $er.orm t eir +or! batc b& batc " + ic i* a ,er& labor inten*i,e $roce** 9t e !ettle mu*t be cleaned in bet+een batc e*D. Col'mn Still: 3 e continuou* di*tillation *&*tem +a* created in an attem$t to ma!e t e di*tillation $roce** more con*i*tent. (t al*o reduced t e amount o. +or! reAuired to $roce** eac batc " t u* allo+ing .or ig er ,olume* o. alco ol to be $roduced. % di*tillation column i* con*tructed muc li!e a ,ertical 58 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

ma'e" made u$ o. a number o. ori'ontal tra&* $laced at di..erent le,el* t roug out t e column. 4ere t e .ermented liAuid mi0ture i* introduced into t e column at it* ig e*t le,el + ile *team i* introduced at it* lo+e*t le,el. %* t e liAuid ma!e* it* +a& do+n t e column" it i* eated b& t e *urrounding *team" and t e alco ol in t e mi0 i* ,a$ori'ed. 8nce it reac e* t e bottom o. t e column" t e ?+a* E contain* no alco ol and i* remo,ed t roug a relea*e ,al,e. 3 e *aturated *team i* collected .rom t e to$ o. t e column and i* t en cooled do+n" allo+ing it to conden*e. Ce$ending on t e t&$e o. alco ol de*ired" column *till o$erator* +ill em$lo& *e,eral column*" eac one .eeding t e ne0t" eac one $roducing a cleaner" *tronger" more Precti.iedP *$irit. $'m types *ased on a,e: Bnaged: 3ec nicall&" unaged rum i* not rum" but rat er aguardiente" + ic i* et &l alco ol +it or +it out a lot o. congener*" de$ending on t e di*tillation met od. 3 ere a,e been claim* b& *ome com$anie* t at t eir $roduct* are Pbottle-agedP or Paged in *tainle** *teel container*.P Bot o. t e*e mean t e alco ol i* unaged" a* onl& time *$ent in*ide a +ooden barrel con*titute* a* aging. )um doe* not age in *tainle** *teel container* or gla** bottle*" contrar& to claim* made b& *ome creati,e mar!eter* and mi*in.ormed +riter*. A,ed: 3 e age o. a rum re.er* e0clu*i,el& to t e amount o. time t e rum *$ent in*ide a +ooden 9t&$icall& oa!D barrel $rior to bottling. (n t e B=%" i. a rum label di*$la&* an age *tatement" b& la+ t i* age a* to be t at o. t e &ounge*t rum in t e blend 9i. t e rum i* blendedD. (n Euro$e" t e *ame rumL* label can in*tead di*$la& t e age o. t e olde*t rum in t e blend 9i. t e rum i* blendedD. =ome countrie* allo+ barrel* in t eir aging +are ou*e* to be re.illed" + ic reduce* t e amount o. air*$ace and t u* reduce* t e amount o. rum lo*t to e,a$oration. 8t er countrie* do not allo+ re.illing" re*ulting in ig er e,a$oration lo**e* eac &ear. %ge alone i* not an indicator o. Aualit&" a* climate 9natural and arti.icialD dictate o+ t e rum interact* +it t e barrel + ile in t e aging +are ou*e*. Mno+ing + ere a rum come* .rom" t e la+* o. t at countr&" and t e age *tatement 9i. one i* $ro,idedD on t e label" are all $iece* o. t e $u''le needed to .ull& under*tand a rumL* c aracter. $'m types *ased on *lendin, te#hni;'e: Sin,le 2arrel: (n it* $ure*t .orm" a =ingle Barrel )um i* one + ere eac bottle o. .ini* ed $roduct i* clearl& identi.ied +it t e barrel t at it +a* .illed .rom. Ce$ending on t e la+* o. t e countr&" *ome barrel* ma& be clo*e to .ull 9i. t e la+* allo+ .or re.illing t e barrel*D or ma& be at 70-80; ca$acit&. % t&$ical 200 liter barrel +ill &ield at mo*t 22 ca*e* o. 12 750ml bottle* eac . Becau*e barrel* tend to ,ar& a lot bet+een t em 9due to tannin*" re*in*" etc.D" eac lot +ill a,e c aracteri*tic* t at ma!e it uniAue and di..erent .rom ot er lot*. =ome com$anie* em$t& undred* o. barrel* o. rum into a large mi0ing +ooden ,at" + ere t e rum re*t* .or +ee!* or mont * be.ore being bottled" calling t e re*ulting $roduct a P*ingle barrelP" re.erring to t e mi0ing ,at" rat er t an to t e indi,idual barrel*. 8ne good e0am$le o. a =ingle Barrel rum i* 7ru'anL* =ingle Barrel. Solera: 3 e =olera met od i* *ometime* em$lo&ed in t e blending o. rum*. 8riginall& de,elo$ed b& t e =$ani* and o.ten u*ed in t e $roduction o. = errie*" it con*i*t* o. a *erie* o. barrel* $laced in long ro+*" *tac!ed .our" .i,e or more le,el* ig " eac ro+ containing a di..erent ?,intage.E )um read& to be bottled i* dra+n .rom t e bottom le,el o. barrel*. 8nl& about one t ird o. t e rum in eac barrel i* remo,ed. %t t i* $oint" rum .rom t e barrel* abo,e i* u*ed to re.ill t e bottom barrel* and *o .ort until all t e le,el* are .ull again. Eac &ear" a* t e ne+ rum i* added to t e to$ barrel" *ome rum i* mo,ed do+n to t e ne0t le,el .or aging. %* a re*ult" t e &oung rum $ic!* u$ *ome o. t e c aracteri*tic* o. t e older rum and $ro,ide* con*i*tent Aualit& &ear a.ter &ear. % good e0am$le o. a =olera rum i* )on Botrgn =olera .rom Iuatemala.

59 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

8t er: B& de.inition" blending i* t e art 9more t an *cienceD o. mi0ing di..erent rum* o. di..erent t&$e* and age* toget er" and + en de*ired" adding .la,oring or coloring agent*. Mo*t rum* $roduced in t e +orld are blended a.ter maturation to ac ie,e t e $articular c aracteri*tic* de*ired. Blending u*uall& ta!e* $lace in ,er& large container* + ere indi,idual barrel* are em$tied and mi0ed toget er to en*ure $roduct con*i*tenc&. =ome di*tillerie* +ill blend $ot *till rum and column *till rum toget er to come u$ +it t e ,ariou* $roduct* t e& *ell. 8t er com$anie* +ill mi0 column *till rum* o. di..erent age* and *t&le* 9*ome lig ter" *ome ea,ierD in order to ac ie,e uniAue .la,or $ro.ile*. $'m types *ased on style: %merican 97olonialD: 3 i* *t&le o. rum i* remini*cent o. t e original $roduct di*tilled in t e earl& &ear* b& enter$ri*ing 7olonial* +it brand&-ma!ing e0$erience. 3 e rum +a* $ot-*tilled" ad a ig le,el o. congener* and +a* aged 9more t an li!el& ,er& brie.l&D" in oa! container* onl& long enoug to tran*$ort it to mar!et* and to !ee$ it + ile being *old to eager con*umer*. % good re$re*entati,e o. t i* *t&le i* Jric ardL* Fine )um 9Jric ardL* Ci*tiller&D" di*tilled in 3enne**ee. C'*an and P'erto $i#an: 3 e Juerto )ican rum *t&le i* deri,ed .rom t e 7uban *t&le" in + ic t e goal i* to di*till t e lig te*t" cleane*t" mo*t recti.ied alco ol $o**ible" and t en to add .la,or to it onl& t roug care.ul aging and blending. For t i* rea*on" 7uban and Juerto )ican rum* are con*idered to be Plig tP rum*. % great e0am$le o. Juerto )ican *t&le i* Con U Irand %ee2o .rom =errallT*. Fren#h: #ot all rum* 9r um*D made in Frenc -*$ea!ing countrie* are con*idered to be Frenc in *t&le. 8nl& t o*e di*tilled in $ot *till* .rom .ermented *ugarcane 2uice 9a* o$$o*ed to di*tilled .rom mola**e*D are con*idered Frenc in *t&le. Frenc rum* are c aracteri'ed b& a large amount o. congener* t at re*ult in increa*ed alde &de* 9.ruit& and .loral note*D. Iood re$re*entati,e* o. t i* *t&le are made in MartiniAue 9.or e0am$le Ce$a'" $icturedD" in t e Frenc 1e*t (ndie*. <amai#an.&'yanese: E$itomi'ed b& dar!" ea,& and $otent $roduct*" rum* .rom t e*e t+o countrie* a,e e*tabli* ed de.ined t i* categor& and" *ub*eAuentl&" a,e .oug t again*t t e en*uing *tereot&$e. 1 ile not all rum* $roduced toda& in t e*e t+o countrie* are true to t e original *t&le" a .e+ o. t em continue to $er$etuate it" $er a$* no one more t an M&erL* Samaican )um. % great e0am$le o. a modern Samaican- *t&le rum i* %$$letonL* GH`. a+al 62ritish $oyal a+yD: )um +a* di*tributed to Briti* *ailor* dail& a* a ration meant to !ee$ morale ig " a muc needed incenti,e *ince t e +or! +a* arduou* and .inanciall& not ,er& re+arding. #a,al rum +a* rarel& $urc a*ed .rom a *ingle countr&Hdi*tiller&" in*tead t e %dmiralt& ad a Preci$eP + ic t&$icall& included combining rum* .rom Barbado*" Samaica and Iu&ana 9read P)um 5e*terda& and 3oda&P b& 4ig Bart&-Ming and %nton Ma**el .or more in.ormationD. 1 ile Ju**erL* i* t e mo*t commonl& name re$re*entati,e o. t i* genre" Briti* )o&al #a,& (m$erial )um i* t e mo*t aut entic. Spanish: 1 en =$ani* *ettler* arri,ed to t e #e+ 1orld" t e& broug t t eir brand&-ma!ing *!ill* 9and eAui$mentD +it t em. (t did not ta!e a ,er& long time .or t em to *tart u*ing locall& abundant .ruit* and *ugarcane to $roduce alco ol. =$ani* -*t&le rum* are c aracteri'ed b& t eir ig l&-.ruit&" brand&-li!e bouAuet" +it dominant rai*inHcurrantHberr& element*. 1 ile t e*e can be $roduced u*ing column *till*" mo*t rum* in t i* categor& are $roduced b& di*tillerie* t at em$lo& $ot *till*. % great e0am$le o. t i* *t&le i* )on Kaca$a 7entenario .rom Iuatemala.

<0 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

8t er: Ci..erent countrie* around t e +orld are u*ing .orm* o. *ugar t at are readil& a,ailable in t eir mar!et* but + ic are not t&$ical out*ide t eir countrie*. 8ne *uc e0am$le i* Me0ico" + ere *ome di*tillerie* a,e began .ermenting and di*tilling $iloncillo" + ic i* a ,er& unre.ined and moi*t .orm o. bro+n *ugar. )um* di*tilled .rom $iloncillo a,e ,er& $eculiar organole$tic $ro$ertie* t at di*tingui* t em .rom ot er rum*. Future $ractice +ill dictate i. t i* i* t e beginning o. a PMe0ican =t&leP o. rum or not. $'m types *ased on added fla+ors: Fruit Fla,ored: For t e mo*t $art" .ruit-.la,ored rum* *old t roug out t e +orld are not ing more t an unaged alco ol 9et anolD +it .la,oring" coloring 9*ometime*D and *+eetener added. =uc $roduct* * ould not be *old a* rum" *ince t e& are made +it un-aged alco ol. % great e0am$le o. a .ruit-.la,ored rum t at i* made u*ing aged rum i* =anta 3ere*aL* ) um 8range" .rom Gene'uela. Spi#ed: 6i!e .ruit-.la,ored rum*" mo*t *$iced rum* *old are made +it unaged rum 9et anolD. 3 e mo*t t&$ical *$ice* u*ed to .la,or t e*e $roduct* are: ,anilla" cinnamon" nutmeg" clo,er and *ugar. %n e0cellent e0am$le o. a *$iced rum i* =ailor Serr& =$iced #a,& )um. 8t er: t ere are rum-ba*ed be,erage* or in.u*ion* a,ailable t roug out t e 7aribbean + ic .all* e0clu*i,el& in neit er o. t e $re,iou* t+o categorie*. 8ne e0am$le i* t e PMama SuanaP 9PCama SuanaPD .rom t e Cominican )e$ublic" + ic i* made u*ing a long reci$e o. botanical*" root*" one&" ani*e" e,en dried u$ animal $art*. (t i*" o. cour*e" con*idered an a$ rodi*iac. $'m types *ased on al#ohol #ontent: )egularH=tandard: %n& rum t at i* bottled and *old +it an alco ol *trengt bet+een :5; and 45;. Stron, and O+erBproof: =trong rum* a,e alco ol *trengt * o,er 45;" t&$icall& around 55; but lo+er t an 75;. 8,er-$roo. rum* a,e alco ol *trengt * o. 75; or ig er. E0erci*e caution + en ta*ting t e*e rum*" eit er dilute t em 9u$ to 50;D +it +ater or dra*ticall& ad2u*t t e amount *am$led. (ce doe* not .loat on o,er-$roo. rum* 9due to it* *$eci.ic +eig tD. )um 6iAueur: la+* ,ar& .rom countr& to countr& regarding + at con*titute* a liAueur but e,er&one agree* t at t e alco ol *trengt i* lo+er t an t at o. *traig t rum" and t at t e *ugar content i* Auite ele,ated. 3 e combination o. lo+ alco ol and ig *ugar re*ult in a *moot

2$A D1
CEF(#3(8# 4(=3835 J)E=E#3 78#C(38#= 34E FB3B)E= 8F 34E B)%#C5 I)%C(#I 8F 34E B)%#C5 =E)G(7E =356E= C(FFE)E#3 35JE= 8F B)%#C5 78#I#%7 (= C8#E B5 C8BB6E C(=3(66%3(8#= J)87E== 1(74 (= 34E M%`(MBM B=E 8F 34E J83 =3(66%#C 34E 786BM =3(66 J)87E== %)M%I#%7 (= C8#E B5 34E =(#I6E 78#3(#8B= C(=3(66%3(8#= J87E== <1 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

M%)7 7%6G%C8= J8M%7E B)%#C5/ C8#E B5 34E FE)ME#3%3(8#=HC(=3(66%3(8#= J)87E==

&I 4OD)A TEE"ILA W%ITE LA2EL &OLD LA2EL


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Italian Wines Beers, Spirits & Liqueurs ther Pro!ucts

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FRATELLI AVERNA

<2 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

AMARO AVERNA

#$erna is an e%cellent liqueur with &ull 'o!( an! smooth taste, e%tremel( pleasant & taste it straight, with ice or &ro,en) It is pro!uce! using an ancient recipe ma!e o& h generation to another since -./.) 0ach o& the most !elicate phases o& the pro!uction o& the 'itter, all o& which ta+e pl chec+e! in or!er to guarantee the authenticit( o& the ingre!ients an! the high quali the most &amous 'itters appreciate! worl!wi!e)

GRAPPA CABERNET BARRIQUE

It is a $arietal grappa re&ine! in small woo!en 'arrels) 2he qualit( o& "rattina result which ma+es it unique) 2he woo!en tones, the smo+e an! the well3!e&ine! $arietal technologies applie! !uring the !istillation process an! the re&inement in 'arriques

GRAPPA CHARDONNAY FRATTINA

"rom the renowne! white 'err( grapes o& Char!onna(, "rattina has selecte! the ' !istillation process, an e%ceptionall( smooth an! clean pro!uct)

# &ine an! !elicate &ruit( 'ouquet, with scents o& green apple an! a slight 'alsamic gentle &la$our o& this pro!uct)

GRAPPA NERO D'AVOLA

"rom the most prestigious 4ero !1#$ola grapes ripening in the warm sun o& Sicil(, o'taine! a highl( intense an! well3structure! !istillate, smooth to the smell with !i&& 'lac+'err(, 'lue'err( an! currant to the spic( notes o& cinnamon an! nutmeg, till th caro') Its smooth taste is enhance! '( pleasant &ruit( notes)

<: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

GRAPPA TOCAI

"rom the &ragrant white tocai grape "rattina has selecte! the 'est marcs an! o'tai smooth an! &ine pro!uct)

It5s &lower( 'ouquet is enhance! '( pleasant &ruit( notes) # !elicious 'len! o& whit

GRAPPA SAUVIGNON

6rappa !i Sau$ignon is pro!uce! '( the !istillation o& a no'le an! &ine $ariet( o& gr the wine)

It is a &ine3&la$oure! grappa, rich in pleasant aromas, mus+(, her'aceous an! &ruit(

GRAPPA MOSCATO

"rom the aromatic muscat grapes, "rattina has selecte! the 'est marcs an! o'tain smooth an! &ine pro!uct) # &ragrant an! strong 'ouquet with &lower( notes o& rose an! &ruit( notes o& peach, !istinguishes this grappa) Its sweet an! well3structure! taste has nuances o& peach, rose, !ate an! 'lac+ pep

GRAPPA PINOT BIANCO

"rom the &ragrant white pinot grapes, "rattina has selecte! the 'est marcs an! o't smooth an! &ine pro!uct)

Its &ruit( an! &lower( 'ouquet has a !elicious 'len! o& white &lowers an! $anilla note walnut)

<4 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

GRAPPA PROSECCO

"rom the prosecco grapes, har$este! at their pea+ o& ripeness in the sweet hills o& regions, "rattina has selecte! the 'est marcs an! o'taine!, through a slow !istillat

Its &ine an! light &la$our has hints o& apple an! $anilla, an! a slight her'aceous nua Its taste is smooth with notes o& apple, summer &ruits an! tropical &ruits

GRAPPA GRECO DI TUFO

"rom the no'lest Me!iterranean white grape $ariet(, "rattina has o'taine! a highl( with $anilla &la$ours)

2his new 6rappa alternates the !elicate &ruit( notes o& apricot an! tropical &ruits wit It has a 'alance! an! permanent taste with 'anana an! &ig notes)

MANDARINO (Sicilian tangerines7

Pro!uce! using onl( natural ingre!ients, Man!arini !i Sicilia 'rings us 'ac+ to the n characteristic is its &resh an! so&t taste an! its intense an! &ruit( &la$our that gi$es o notes)

SAMBUCA AGRUMI 8Citrus &ruits Sam'uca7

In this e%traor!inar( liquor, the pure star anisee! Sam'uca meets the &reshness an 'irth to a harmonious intensel( &la$oure! taste)

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SAMBUCA LIQUIRIZIA (Liquorice Sam'uca7

2he strength o& the liquorice meets the star anise to get 'len!e! into a sweet an! & the most e%igent palates)

SAMBUCA AVERNA 8-99: star anise7

2he most genuine Me!iterranean tra!ition together with the e%perience an! prestig Sam'uca) Ma!e o& -99: star anise, the no'lest o& the anises) Sam'uca #$erna st &ullness o& its taste an! it a!!s &reshness to the palate

VECCHIA ROMAGNA

;istille! &rom pri,e! grapes, Vecchia Romagna Blac+ La'el is an unmista+a'le 'ra Long aging partl( in small oa+en cas+s an! the recipe o& an e%pert gi$e it a strong, a warm, intense colour) It is +nown an! appreciate! the worl! o$er &or its &inest qualit( an! e%clusi$e triang Vecchia Romagna 0tichetta 4era is Ital(s 4o)- an! most popular 'ran!()

NARDINI
GRAPPA NARDINI ALLA MANDORLA

2he 'ase grappa is com'ine! with in&usions o& almon!s an! 'itter cherries) 2he re

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GRAPPA NARDINI RISERVA

ne o& the most prestigious 4ar!ini pro!ucts, this Riser$a is o'taine! '( aging the (ears)

GRAPPA BIANCA NARDINI

2he 4ar!ini grappa is unquestiona'l( the lea!er in the qualit( mar+et) It is o'taine

GRAPPA NARDINI RUTA 2his grappa is o'taine! &rom an ancient recipe that uses Wall Rue 8Ruta7) 2his grappa has !igesti$e an! me!icinal qualities)

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ACQUA DI CEDRO NARDINI

2his is the no'le cousin o& the 'etter +nown <limoncello< 3 a ce!ar liqueur with a sh

TAGLIATELLA COCKTAIL NARDINI

# &ruit( liqueur with a grappa 'ase) Intense an! pleasant 'ouquet, with a 'itter che Ru'( re! colour, &ruit( with a 'itter=sweet taste)

GRAPPA GINEPRO NARDINI

2ra!itional !igesti$e liqueur o'taine! &rom >uniper 'erries) 2(picall( re&reshing, it h

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BITTER NARDINI Bitter aperiti&, o'taine! &rom a mi%ture o& her's an! citrus &ruit) It has a clean an!

RABARBARO NARDINI 2ra!itional aromatic liqueur ma!e with rhu'ar') # pleasant an! intense taste)

AMARO NARDINI ;igesti$e liqueur with a pleasant an! !istincti$e liquorice a&tertaste) Can 'e ser$e! hot or col! with ice

LIQUORE ROSSO NARDINI ?nquestiona'l( the 'est Bar!ini liqueur) # pleasant !rin+ ma!e &rom a mi%ture o& her's an! citrus &ruits) # so&t $el$et( &la$our with a slightl( 'itter a&tertaste)

ITALIAN
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BITTERS
AMARO MONTENEGRO

2o this !a( #maro Montenegro is prepare! accor!ing to the tra!itional recipe, whic centur() Ingre!ients un!ergo a meticulous selection process with onl( the rarest an! most p gi$ing #maro Montenegro its !istincti$e taste) Scents o& orange peel, &resh corian!er, re! cherr(, tea an! cucum'er)

FRANCOLI

The Francoli Distillery was founded in 1951 y current co!pany president Lui"i Fra producers# Francoli$s liqueurs are all trustworthy interpretations of Italy$s !ost popular na!es

AMARETTO

2he name is a !iminuti$e o& the Italian amaro, meaning <'itter<, in!icating the !istin 'itter almon!) @owe$er, the 'itterness is not unpalata'le, an! the &la$our is enhanc

almon!s, in the &inal pro!ucts, there&ore, the liqueur5s name can 'e sai! to !escri'e

ANNICE

# !eliciousl( sweet an! aromatic liqueur to 'e ser$e! at the en! o& a meal, either ' Stemming &rom the original recipe 'ase! on the s+il&ul mi%ture o& e%tra3pure alcoho

#nis or anisette is pro!uce! through !istillation o& the see! o& the anAs plant, which liqueur has a power&ul &la$our when !run+ straight, in mi%e! !rin+s, howe$er, it pro mi%e! simpl( with water, where it pro!uces a mil+( white consistenc()

BITTER # 'itters is an alcoholic 'e$erage that is &la$oure! with her'al essences an! has a &la$our, an! is use! as !igesti$e liqueur)

2he wor! <Bitter< !eri$es &rom the &act that it !oes not contain a!!e! sugar or swee

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BRANDY COURTEOIS V.S.O.P.

Bran!( 8&rom 'ran!(wine, !eri$e! &rom ;utch 'ran!ewi>nB<'urnt wine<7 is a spirit 'een pro!uce! '( &ermenting grapes) Most 'ran!ies are age! in woo!en cas+s to Ver( Special l! Pale means that the (oungest 'ran!( is store! at least &our (ears ol!er)

FERNET

"ernet is a t(pe o& amaro, a 'itter, aromatic spirit) "ernet is ma!e &rom a num'er o& her's an! spices which $ar( accor!ing to the 'ra chamomile, car!amom, aloe, an! especiall( sa&&ron, with a 'ase o& grape !istille! s

"ernet is usuall( ser$e! as a !igesti& a&ter a meal 'ut ma( also 'e ser$e! with co&&e temperature or on the roc+s 8with ice7) )

Because o& its list o& ingre!ients, a num'er o& home reme!ies call &or "ernet, inclu! can stop (ou &rom !rin+ing)))7

GRAPPA DA BARRIQUE 6rappa is a &ragrant grape3'ase! pomace 'ran!( o& Italian origin)

Literall( <grape stal+<, most grappa is ma!e '( !istilling pomace an! grape resi!ue le&t o$er &rom winema+ing a&ter pressing) 2he &la$our o& grappa, li+e that o& wine, !epen!s on the t(pe an! qualit( o& the grap process) 2he < arrique< part o& the name means that it5s 'een age! in 'arrels

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GRAPPA DEL TAMBURLANO 2he <ta! urlano< is one o& the components use! in the grappa ma+ing)

GRAPPA GRAN CRU

2he <Grand cru< part o& the name, 8"rench &or great growth7 is a regional classi&icat &a$oura'le reputation in pro!ucing wine)

#lso use! to !escri'e grapes, wine or cognac, the term is a classi&ication an! is int or territor()

GRAPPA VIA S.MARTINO ANTICA So&t, pleasant 6rappa, with a well mature! taste

GRAPPA L.F. BONARDI

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Clear an! cr(stallineC aromatic pleasant smell) @ues o& citrus &ruit, anisee!, rose p

GRAPPA L.F. MULLER

86rappa !i MDller 2hurgau7 2his recentl( create! $ine is the result o& an operation carrie! out '( 6ermans who particularl( common in 6erman( an! #ustria an! is success&ull( grown in 2rentino lightl( aromatic scent, which is also !r(, &resh, &ruit( an! harmonious) 6rappa also steam in alem'ics an! is &ollowe! '( some3month sharpening in stainless steel con

GRAPPA RISERVA BARRIQUE

#ge! o$er E (ears in small oa+ 'arrels an! +egs) Colour o& wet leather, so&t taste, w spices)

GRAPPA ORO DI BAROLO, GIFT BOX

;istille! &rom the 4e''iolo3grapes o& the Barolo3region, it matures &or more than F 6rappa) Ver( &ruit( with hints o& 'itter almon!sC so&t, roun! 'o!( with an intensi$e w

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GRAPPA BIANCA Bright an! sil$er that shimmers, rich nose, slightl( 'itter, smooth)

MARASCHINO Bright an! clear, this Marasca cherr( liqueur has 'een ma!e in Ital( since -.E-C it 'err( &la$our with spice)

SAMBUCA BIANCA 2his e%cellent Sam'uca is ma!e o & -99: star anise, the no'lest o& the anises 3 it &ullness o& its taste an! it a!!s &reshness to the palate

VODKA LEMON Vo!+a &la$oure! with citrus &ruits VODKA MELON Vo!+a &la$oure! with melon >uice VODKA PEACH Vo!+a &la$oure! with peach >uice

FRATELLI
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BRANCA
BRANDY BRANCA (STRAVECCHIO).

2he so&t, $el$et( &la$our, am'er colour an! the aging o& (ears in tra!itional oa+ cas

FERNET BRANCA MENTA 'rrrrrrrrrr(('ranca!enta# )n intense thrill of freshne

Brancamenta was create! in the mi!3 G/9s, when the tren!iest (oungsters 'egan a o& mint s(rup, thus unconsciousl( gi$ing 'irth to a tonic an! re&reshing !rin+) 2han+s to its !istinguishing an! special instinct, Branca loo+s at the new tren! as t per&ect in all seasons) #n o$ernight success) 2he &reshness o& mint is what stri+es at &irst in Brancamenta) Its unique &la$our, wh &rom its secret &ormula, cherishing the 'est qualities o& the true pie!montese peppe It has light3'rown colour, 'alance! 'ut intense &la$our, a re&ine! accent) 2he uniqu spices gi$es the !istincti$e an! pleasant aroma) Per&ect in e$er( season &or its re&r ser$e! on the roc+s) FERNET BRANCA

In -.FH Bernar!ino Branca create! "ernet3Branca, soon to 'ecome the worl!3&amo the !o,ens o& her's an! spices pic+e! in F continents) 2he secret o& a recipe Bran

2he &ragrance o& oa+ 'arrels, per&ectl( 'alance! 'len! o& &la$ours mature! &or twel$

2he super'l( 'itter taste o& "ernet3Branca 'egins here) 2a+e (our time I relish its q

MARZADRO

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GRAPPA 1 LUNE

2his is an age!, high qualit( 6rappa, which is em'lematic o& the culture, care an! a o& 2rent, &rom selecte! $ines, an! !istille! in the t(pical still) 2he 6rappa is le&t to re an! ro'inia cas+s, each o& which len!s its characteristic per&ume, aroma, colour an Slowl(, through time, the woo! an! 6rappa e$ol$e to create &ull harmon(, while the per&ume an! the roun! taste, with a hint o& $anilla) Le ;iciotto Lune is a high3pro&ile 6rappa, which suggests a $ariet( o& !i&&erent situa to stress important an! pleasant e$ents

GRAPPA MARZADRO !"

# $ocation &or e%cellence) 2his 6rappa is, more than an( other, a sign o& Mar,a!ro Mar,a!ro FKL is ma!e o& a M'len!N o& marc coming &rom nati$e 2rent $ine $arietiesJ Char!onna(, MDller 2hurgau an! Moscato, gi$ing this 6rappa t(pical an! unmista+ precious multi3$arietal 6rappa is ma!e using the tra!itional M'ain marieN !istilling m le&t to age &or twel$e months) Mar,a!ro FKL is a generous an! well3'alance! 6rapp aromas) It is e%cellent 'oth chille! an! at room temperature) # super' pro!uct that

GRAPPA VALPOLICELLA

"ull an! en$eloping &la$our, a character which re&lects the wine &rom which it is pro

GRAPPA AMARONE

# precious 6rappa age! &or K/ months in small oa+ cas+s) Rich an! intense taste pleasingl( en$eloping sensations) Mar,a!ro !e!icates M6iareN to commemorate the 'eing accuse! o& sorcer( in the 6iare localit(, in the pro$ince o& 4ogare!o, aroun! con!emne! to !eath)

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GRAPPA GENZIANA # harmonious union o& grappa with the roots o& the gen,iana Lutea)

Per&ume intense, (iel!e!, characteristic, with $arious signs gi$en '( the $arious es "la$our so&t, $el$et(, intense, characteristic, pleasant)

GRAPPA RUTA 2his 6rappa is gotten '( the union o& the grappa with the plant o& the wall rue) 2he green colour is gi$en '( the chloroph(ll o& the plant o& Rue) Per&ume intense, (iel!e!, characteristic, with characteristic sign o& the plant) "la$our so&t, $el$et(, intense, characteristic, pleasant

GRAPPA CUMINO

;uring the Mi!!le #ges, the cumin plant was use! as !igesti$e an! as a spice to &l

2he 6rappa al Cumino has a unique pleasant &la$our an! it maintains the !igesti$e

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GRAPPA PROSECCO VALDOBBIADENE

2he !istiller( is the mi!!le o& Prosecco $ine(ar!s at the &oot o& the snowcappe! Ita 2his part o& Ital( is so close to #ustria that (ou ha$e a mi% o& 6ermanic precision a an! wine) 2his grappa &eels an! tastes li+e that) !i Val!o''ia!ene

ACQUAVITE UVE NERE ;istille! &rom &ine re! grapes an! age! in small woo! 'arrels)

Blac+ 6rape Bran!(J Bran!( with clear $arietal characteristics, ma!e '( !istilling 2 Bran!( with a &ull an! well3'alance! &la$our) Well 'alance! with su'tle notes o& $anilla an! a pleasing, elegant palate)

ACQUAVITE UVE BIANCHE

White 6rape Bran!(J Bran!( ma!e &rom a selection o& Moscato, Pinot an! Char!o en!uring

Prepare! in a <!iscontinuous still<, using the <'ain marie< metho!, which gi$es a cle use!)

ACQUAVITE UVE MOSCATO Muscatel 6rape Bran!(J Bran!( ma!e &rom *ellow Muscatel grapes &rom Vallagar Muscatel com'ine! with a strong an! &ruit( special &la$our)

;istincti$el( aromatic, it re$eals attracti$e &loralit( on the nose) 2he palate is intens

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ACQUAVITE DI MELE

Mela Ver!e &rom the !istiller( Mar,a!ro, 2rentino, Ital() Is an amia'le apple liqueur

2his is a tren!( pro!uct, with a !ecisi$e an! unique taste) Mela Ver!e unleashes n rela%ing !rin+) Ser$e col!)

BELLABOMBA BOMBARDINO

2his liqueur is o'taine! '( the in&usion o& &resh 2rentino mil+ with egg (ol+s an! rum !rin+, usuall( ser$e! in s+i pistes mountain huts an! 'ars, 'ut is equall( appreciate

It can 'e ser$e! at room temperature, 'ut is more commonl( en>o(e! hot, toppe! w pow!er)

ANIMA NERA

It is a $er( inno$ati$e liquor) 2he &la$our in$ol$es une%pecte! an! original, se!uces

It is a pro!uct a!apta'le to an( situation o& consumption) 2ren!, create aggregation ,ero !egrees)

LIQUEUR MELONE

6rappa3'ase! liqueur with the in&usion o& natural melon >uice, le&t to instil &la$our &o

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LIQUEUR MIRTILLO (BLUEBERRY)

6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& mountain 'lue'erries, le&t to ins Some o& the 'erries are $isi'le in the 'ottle)

LIQUEUR MISS PERA

6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& pear >uices, le&t to instil &la$our &

LIQUEUR ALLA PESCA (PEACH)

6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& peach >uices, le&t to instil &la$ou

LIQUEUR ALLA FRAGOLINE (STRA#BERRY)

6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& wil! straw'erries, le&t to instil &la

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LIQUEUR AL LAMPONE (RASPBERRY7 6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& rasp'erries, le&t to instil &la$our Some o& the 'erries are $isi'le in the 'ottle)

LIQUEUR AI FRUTTI DI BOSCO (FORREST FRUITS)

6rappa 'ase! liqueur o'taine! with the in&usion o& mi%e! 'erries an! &orest &ruits, l

GRAPPA $ LA TRENTINA TRADIZIONALE

# grappa with its roots &irml( in the territor( that gi$es it its 'estJ the t(pical $ines o& consequent per&umes, the e%perience o& centuries5 past) La 2rentina 3 2ra!itional 6rappa 4oseJ intense, !irect, with signi&icant &resh sensations PalateJ !r(, &ull o& character, t(pical o& its homelan!

GRAPPA $ LA TRENTINA MORBIDA

# grappa with its roots &irml( in the territor( that gi$es it its 'estJ the t(pical $ines o& consequent per&umes, the e%perience o& centuries5 past) La 2rentina 3 So&t 6rappa 4oseJ so&t, !elicate, en$eloping PalateJ intense with pleasantl( persistent aromatic hints LINEA AFFINA

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RISERVA ROVERE '%% #ge! &or . (ears)

# &ull tasting grappa o& great character an! personalit(C an e%plosion o& sensations the selection o& the grapes use!) Rich, em'racing an! long lasting on the palate

RISERVA CILIEGIO '%% #ge! &or . (ears) # roun! an! !elicate tasting grappa, 'oth to the taste an! the aroma) # comple% aroma 'ut an un'elie$a'le so&tness on the palate RISERVA ACACIA '%% #ge! &or . (ears) # roun! an! !elicate tasting grappa, 'oth to the taste an! the aroma) # comple% aroma an! rich palate

LINEA LA MIA GRAPPA

The *Linea La +ia Grappa, offers the +ar-adro$s traditional Grappe of the re"ion# This ran"e of "rappa co!es in ottles with sealin" wa% and handwritten la els, as sa!ples in order to certify quality# /ith its hi"h clai!s of quality the distillery has recei&ed nu!erous international ho

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GRAPPA VALPOLICELLA Since -OFO the !istillates o& Mar,a!ro are the e%pression o& no'le han!icra&t art)

2he Valpolicella grappa has a clear !r(ing 'erries, lea$es an! mushrooms nose an

GRAPPA AMARONE

6rappa with harmonious, !ura'le taste, &rom the !istillation o& the Cor$ina, Verone !rie! until "e'ruar( to concentrate the &la$ours

GRAPPA AFFINATA La Mia 6rappa #&&inata has a won!er&ul smooth taste)

LINEA GRAPPOLO

GRAPPA CHARDONNAY

2he 6rappa !i Char!onna( is an elegant one with &ine nuancesC So&t, harmonious GRAPPA PROSECCO

2his grappa is o'taine! '( !istilling the marc resulting &rom the $ini&ication o& Prose !istillation with the use o& copper alem'ics) 2his !istillation metho! is slow 'ut (iel It has a goo! intensit( an! has a rich &lower( aroma o& h(!rangea an! mus+C harm an a&tertaste that clearl( remin!s o& green almon!s an! 6ol!en apples) 8: A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

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GRAPPA AFFINATA La Mia 6rappa #&&inata has a won!er&ul smooth taste

LINEA FRUTTA 6R004 #PPL0 P#R in liquore C@0RR* P#R in liquore #PRIC 20 P#R in liquore P0#R P#R in liquore R#SB0RR* in liquore SPECIALS

OLIA DEL GARDA 3 grappa 'ase! oli$e liqueur

#n ancient recipe &rom the La+e 6ar!a area) # !elicious 6rappa3'ase! oli$e liqueur prepare! accor!ing to an ancient recipe, wh generations) 2he( ha$e han!e! !own its histor(, along with its no'le an! e%quisite !igesti$e liqu

ANICE DI ANNA

;elicious sweet an! aromatic liqueur that is !run+ a&ter meals 3 smooth or a!!e! to #n original recipe 'ase! on the purest alcool an! wisel( mi%e! sugar, water an! an

ZEDDA PIRAS
84

The history of 0edda 1iras is ti"htly ound to its land of ori"in, Sardinia# It all e"an Francesco 0edda4 initially focused on wines, the co!pany soon enlar"ed its offer w

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eca!e the heart of the usiness# In 1993 0edda 1iras eca!e part of Sella5+os )t the end of the 697s the co!pany adopted inno&ati&e wor.in" technolo"ies witho

MIRTO BIANCO

Mirto Qe!!a Piras, tra!itional Sar!inian spirit, originates &rom the lea$es o& the Whi

0%tremel( popular in Sar!inia, it is ser$e! as an a&ter3!inner !rin+)Its particular aro unmista+a'le per&ume is appreciate! '( the most !eman!ing consumers

MIRTO ROSSO &' SARDEGNA Mirto Qe!!a Piras, tra!itional Sar!inian spirit, originates &rom the small re! 'erries the M(rtle plant 8M(rtus Communis7)

0%tremel( popular in Sar!inia, it is ser$e! as an a&ter3!inner !rin+)Its particular aro unmista+a'le per&ume is appreciate! '( the most !eman!ing consumers)

MIRTO MONTE ARCOSU

Prestigious liqueur, o'taine! '( 'len!ing o& Sar!inian m(rtle 'erries, pic+e! an! se tra!itions) It is a goo! !igesti$e an! tonic) It is more en>o(a'le to 'e ser$e! col!)

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RAMO D'ORO

2his no'le liqueur is o'taine! '( the in&usion o& lemon peel culti$ate! respecting th antique recipe that Qe!!a Piras has maintaine! unaltere! through the (ears) It5s particularl( goo! on ice a&ter a meal)

FILU'E FERRU

2he name "ilu 1e "erru comes &rom the &irst (ears o& the Ring!om o& Ital(, to a$oi! people hi! 'ottles o& grappa un!ergroun! an! attache! a piece o& 'ar'e! or iron w

"ilu 1e "erru is a grappa !istinguishe! &or its $igour, !ilute! '( the light characterist

IL GUSTO DELLA COSTA

The co!pany was founded in )pril 8777, its !ain o 9ecti&e to process fruits of the products#

The two partners, +assi!o and +ario )nastasio, own 3 terraced allot!ents of a o 177 ! and :77 ! a o&e sea le&el, entirely occupied y le!on trees# The le!ons a che!ical fertili-er nor fun"icides, ut only or"anic fertili-ers and copper sulfate#

FINOCCHIETTO LIQUEUR

"ennel liqueur preser$es the &la$or an! the aroma o& this plant that is release! '( t

"ennel is use! in recipes &or its aroma, especiall( in meat !ishes, 'ut also in pasta

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FRAGOLINO LIQUEUR

"ragolino is ma!e '( &ermenting wil! straw'erries in pure alcohol &or a'out -9 !a(s

nce prepare! the s(rup o& glucose is a!!e! together with the straw'erries an! al !a(s) 2o ser$e it together with slices o& wil! straw'erries)

"ragolino is !elicious as a !essert or a 'e$erage an! can 'e use! &or the preparati

LEMON CREAM 8#nelli 'ottle7

2his liqueur, o'taine! &rom the peels o& the 'est lemons o& the Coast, has an intens e%cellent !igesti$e i& ta+en a&ter meals) 2r( also to top ice cream or in a long !rin+

LEMON CREAM 8#n&ora E999 'ottle with stan!7

2his liqueur, o'taine! &rom the peels o& the 'est lemons o& the Coast, has an intens e%cellent !igesti$e i& ta+en a&ter meals) 2r( also to top ice cream or in a long !rin+

LEMON CREAM 8'lue glass7

2his liqueur, o'taine! &rom the peels o& the 'est lemons o& the Coast, has an intens e%cellent !igesti$e i& ta+en a&ter meals) 2r( also to top ice cream or in a long !rin+

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LIMONCELLO 8in clear glass 'ottle7

2his liqueur, o'taine! &rom the peels o& the 'est lemons o& the Coast, has an intens e%cellent !igesti$e i& ta+en a&ter meals) 2r( also to top ice3cream or in a long !rin+)

LIQUORICE LIQUEUR

Ma!e with pure Cala'rian liquorice an! I can certainl( $ouch &or the &act that (ou c an! s(rup( !rin+ will lea$e (ou with a !istinctl( liquoric( a&ter taste) I& (ou li+e liquo

MANDARIN LIQUEUR 2he Man!arin liqueur is ma!e using the &inest man!arins &rom Southern Ital()

2he Man!arins are pic+e! &rom selecte! growers an! are use! with a!!iti$es or co It ma+es a stri+ing a!!ition to coc+tails)

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E!!s 0rie% In Olive Oil (it$ Bla# Olives

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Rose Petal Syrup


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I )irst learne% about rose 2etal syru2 3$en Pa&ela S$el%on 4o$ns 2oste% about it on 0a on t$e internet5 "ast555

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Eggs Fried In Olive Oil With Black Olives


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T$e best t$in! about $avin! our o3n #$i# ens $ere in U&bria is #olle#tin! )res$ e!!s ev !ol%en yol s- an% alt$ou!$555

MA* +6- +./+

Strawberry Basil Ja
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($en 3e arrive% in U&bria 7ust over a &ont$ a!o- ri2e- lus#ious stra3berries 3ere see 8to %o9 list to555

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Shepherd!s Pasta With Ricotta " Sausage


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T$is is anot$er one o) t$ose ;ui# an% easy 2asta %is$es t$at you #an 2ut to!et$er in t$ your555

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Rustic Se
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olina #e

on " Rose

ary $ake

I $ave &a%e a nu&ber o) #a es si&ilar to t$is one- s2e#i)i#ally #a es t$at in#lu%e bot$ # but t$is 2arti#ular #a e555

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Pancetta Wrapped Stu%%ed $hicken $utlets


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I) you )re;uent &y blo! )airly re!ularly- you 3ill no3 t$at I a& a #$i# en lover5 I #an e I555

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Farrotto Pri
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avera

0arrotto is si&2ly a %is$ t$at uses )arro in 2la#e o) ri#e an% #oo s it in t$e sa&e )as$ion 0arro555

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MA* /<- +./+

&pple Oat Bran 'u%%ins


I $ave been rea%in! &ore an% &ore on t$e $ealt$ bene)its o) oat bran- an% a)ter )inally U&bria I555

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(olden Braised &rtichokes With (arlic " '


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One o) &y )avorite t$in!s about s2rin! in Italy is t$e availability o) arti#$o es at our lo# an% ty2es555

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Spring Pasta $arbonara With &sparagus


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2a!e / o) <= / + 1 : ? = 6 < , /. 555 <= @

I en7oye% t$is tasty 2asta %is$ re#ently 3$en 3e 3ere %inin! out )or lun#$ an% as soon a

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MELON LIQUEUR CREAM 2he Melon liqueur is ma!e using the &inest melons &rom Southern Ital()

2he Melons are pic+e! &rom selecte! growers an! are use! with a!!iti$es or colou It ma+es a stri+ing a!!ition to coc+tails)

MIRTO LIQUEUR 8liquore al mirto7

2he Mirto liqueur originates &rom the small re! 'erries o& the M(rtle plant 8M(rtus C

It1s normall( ser$e! as an a&ter3!inner !rin+)I ts particular aroma ma+es it a !istinc appreciate! '( the most !eman!ing consumers)

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Eggs Fried In Olive Oil With Black Olives

T$e best t$in! about $avin! our o3n #$i# ens $ere in U&bria is #olle#tin! )res$ e!!s every %ay5 Our e!!s are )ull o) )lavor 3it$ %ar !ol%en yol s- an% alt$ou!$ I love to use t$e& in a variety o) %is$esone o) &y )avorite 3ays to en7oy t$e& is to si&2ly )ry t$e& in our olive oil alon! 3it$ a )e3 tasty bla# olives5 *ou really %o not nee% a re#i2e to #reate t$is si&2le %is$- but i) youHve never t$ou!$t o) )ryin! e!!s t$is 3ay- so&e instru#tions &ay $el25 As 3it$ &ost si&2le %is$es- to !et t$e best results you s$oul% try an% use t$e best in!re%ients5 Pi# t$e )res$est e!!s you #an )in%- so&e to2 ;uality eCtra vir!in olive oil- )lavor)ul bla# olives- an% a little #oarse sea salt5 I li e to serve t$ese e!!s 3it$ so&e toaste% #ountry brea% so you #an so2 u2 t$e runny yol s 3$i#$ )or &e &a es t$is a #o&2lete &eal5 I love t$ese e!!s so &u#$ t$at I also &a e t$e& )or &ysel) )or %inner 3$en IH& alone- alon! 3it$ a ni#e &iCe% sala%5 I use a nonLsti# s illet an% &y 2an is not t$at lar!e so I usually %o not )ry &ore t$an 1 to )our e!!s at a ti&es an% I li e to )ry &y e!!s so t$e 3$ites are set an% are be!innin! to #ris2 alon! t$e e%!es- but I li e &y yol s to re&ain runny5 T$e %ay I %e#i%e% to ta e 2$otos o) t$ese e!!s )or t$is 2ost- 3e $a% our )irst %ouble yol e% e!!I I )in% about t3o tables2oons o) oil 2er e!! is )ine )or &e- but )eel )ree to use &ore i) you li e5

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UPENDRA NEPALI
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Buon A22etitoI Debora$ Mele +./+

Eggs Fried In Olive Oil


,ield+ Serves : Prep -i e+ ? &ins $ook -i e+ /. &ins

0res$ e!!s )rie% in olive oil alon! 3it$ tasty bla# olives are a !reat brea )ast treat5

Ingredients+

< "ar!e E!!s /+ Bla# Olives EI Re#o&&en% Gaeta or Kala&ataF /= Tables2oons ECtra Bir!in Olive Oil E+ Tables2oons 2er E!!F Coarse Sea Salt Sli#e% Toaste% Country Brea%

.irections+
In a $eavy botto&e% )ryin! 2an $eat < tables2oons o) t$e oil until very $ot5 A%% $al) t$e olives- an% #are)ully brea : o) t$e e!!s an% sli%e t$e& into t$e 2an5 Coo t$e e!!s over &e%iu& $i!$ $eat- s2oonin! t$e $ot oil over t$e 3$ites until t$e 3$ites are set but t$e yol is still runny- about : &inutes5 Re&ove t$e e!!s- an% 2la#e t3o to a 2late alon! 3it$ so&e olives5 Coo t$e re&ainin! e!!s in t$e sa&e &anner5 Serve 3it$ a s2rin lin! o) #oarse salt on to2- alon! 3it$ so&e sli#e%- toaste% #ountry brea%5
CHEESE ' EGGS- RECIPES / COMMENT M

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1
(ennarino O May +,- +./+ P /.Q+< 2&

I love t$is re#i2e5 I believe t$at you 7u%!e e!!s a##or%in! to t$e 3ay your &ot$er &a%e t$e& )or you- an% t$en you !o )ro& t$ere5 My &ot$er &a%e t$e& al&ost 7ust li e t$is5 Instea% o) t$e olives E3$i#$ I 3ill try neCtL #anHt 3aitF s$e 3oul% use %rie% $ot )in!er 2e22ers5 Also s$e 3oul% s2oon t$e $ot oil over t$e yol s a little 7ust to !la>e t$e& over a bit5 "ove $o3 t$e e%!es #ris2 u25 EC#ellent re#i2e5 T$an s
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Rose Petal Syru2 E!!s 0rie% In Olive Oil (it$ Bla# Olives Stra3berry Basil 4a& S$e2$er%Hs Pasta (it$ Ri#otta ' Sausa!e Rusti# Se&olina "e&on ' Rose&ary Ca e

Healt$y Re#i2es ' MoreI

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UPENDRA NEPALI
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Buon A22etitoI Debora$ Mele +./+

Shepherd1a Pasta
,ield+ Serves : L = Prep -i e+ /. &ins $ook -i e+ +? &ins

T$is 2asta %is$- also no3n as Pasta al Pastore is sai% to $ave ori!inate% in Calabria by s$ee2 $er%ers5

Ingredients+

/K+ Poun% 0res$ Mil% Por Sausa!e- Re&ove% 0ro& Casin!s + Cloves Garli#- Peele% ' Min#e% / Poun% O) Pasta ESee Notes AboveF + Tables2oons Olive OIl / Poun% 0res$ Ri#otta C$eese Salt ' Pe22er /K1 Cu2 Grate% Pe#orino Ro&ano C$eese To ServeQ Cra# e% Bla# Pe22er A%%itional Grate% Pe#orino C$eese

.irections+

Pla#e a lar!e 2ot o) salte% 3ater on to boil )or t$e 2asta5 In a $eavy s illet- #oo t$e sausa!e until li!$tly bro3ne%- brea in! u2 t$e sausa!e &eat 3it$ t3o )or s as it #oo s5

108 A complete beverage knowledge for f & b service

UPENDRA NEPALI
Mobile number +977-01-9841452192 Email id: atomelement@gmail.com Budd anila!ant a"!at mandu #e$al %lc em& t e $i''eria and t e aut entic (talian )e*taurant" t amel !at mandu" ne$al+977-01-4218472

A%% a #ou2le o) tables2oons o) 2asta 3ater to t$e s illet an% ee2 3ar& over lo3 $eat5 Coo t$e 2asta until al %ente- t$en %rain t$e 2asta- reservin! a #u2 o) t$e 2asta 3ater5 Return t$e 2asta to t$e 2ot an% a%% t$e olive oil an% sausa!e over &e%iu& $eat stirrin! to &iC5 A%% t$e ri#otta- an% enou!$ o) t$e 2asta 3ater to loosen t$e ri#otta so it #oats t$e 2asta an% re&ove )ro& t$e $eat5 Season 3it$ salt an% 2e22er an% stir in t$e /K1 #u2 o) !rate% Pe#orino #$eese5 Serve t$e 2asta in in%ivi%ual bo3ls- o))erin! a%%itional #$eese an% #ra# e% bla# 2e22er at t$e table5
DRIED PASTA- DRIED PASTA L MEAT- RECIPES + COMMENTS M

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