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Studio Workshop:

Figure Drawing with Roman Dress

Classical Nudes (recto); Classical Statuary (verso):Verso: Classical Statuary, Thodore Gricault, French, about 1814 1815. Graphite, pen and brown ink, and brown wash. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Instructor: Audrey Chan with the Legion Six Historical Society Saturday, February 22 & March 1, 2014

2014 J. Paul Getty Trust

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


LOOKING TO ANTIQUITY
Artists have long looked to classical antiquity for inspiration. Drawing from ancient works of art and architecture has its artistic roots in the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century and continuing in the academic training of Neoclassical artists through the late 19th century. Sketchbooks in hand, some artists even traveled to Italy and Greece to explore the surviving monuments of classical culture in situ. These sketches served a practical function as studies for paintings and sculptures. Artists would typically only sign drawings they considered independent works of art, made for viewing outside of the atelier. These studies were also more widely disseminated as portfolios of engravings.

(left) Draped Figures, Charles-Nicolas Cochin II, French, 1770s. Etching from Dessein
(Paris, after 1777), pl. 28. Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, 85-B16658.

Artists throughout the ages also looked (right) Seated Male Figures after Ancient Roman Sculptures, Jacques-Louis David, to ancient Greek and Roman sculpture French, 17751780 or 17841785. Pen and ink, wash, chalk, and pencil. 19 3/4 x 13 in, to master the depiction of the human Album 11, fol. 7. Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, 940049. figure, long considered the cornerstone of artistic practice. To perfect their representation of human anatomy, musculature, and proportion, artists imitated ancient precedents, developing a classical figural type that remained the predominant mode of representation for centuries. In the 20th century, modern artists such as Pablo Picasso, Fernand Lger, and Giorgio de Chirico looked to antiquity to inspire modern paintings and sculptures that interpreted ancient motifs through the prisms of cubism and surrealism. In this two-part figure drawing workshop, we will take part in the tradition of sketching from antiquity, working both from ancient sculptures in the galleries of the Getty Villa and by drawing ancient Roman fashions modeled by reenactors from the Legion Six Historical Society in the studio. Drawing exercises will emphasize the depiction of the standing and seated figure, clothed in drapery and armor.

ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN COSTUME


We know from a multitude of visual sources that dress held a significant symbolism in ancient life. For both the Greeks and Romans, dress reflected the constraints of a hierarchical society. With a few exceptions, both Greek and Roman clothing tended to be draped, wrapped, and pinned (as opposed to being closely fitted like contemporary clothing). While this was true across lines of sex and social hierarchy, the color, material, and quality of a garment reflected ones status and rank as well as office and authority. Ancient coins, sculpture, statues, and paintings mirrored contemporary social attitudes. Like these forms of mass communication, Greco-Roman dress is a lens to better understand the past.

Two Studies of an Ancient Statue (recto), Nicolas Poussin, French, Rome, about 1645. Pen and brown ink, with some later red chalk framing lines. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


DAY 1: MENS FASHION
The basic form of clothing for both sexes in all walks of life was the remarkably simple tunic, a tube of fabric with openings for the head and arms. Almost all ancient clothing, including the Greek chiton or the Roman tunica, was a variation on this basic form. When we speak of male dress in the ancient world, we must also consider warriors armor and equipment. The warriors role was one of the most important an ancient man aspired to in his lifetime.

ANCIENT GREECE

From circa 700 to 168 B.C., the Greek hoplite was the elite soldier of the ancient world. Indeed, the fighting style of the hoplite, which demanded disciplined teamwork to create a formidable phalanx of speararmed men, defined the "Western way of war" for centuries. The equipment of the hoplite changed subtly over the centuries, but the basics remained the same. The hoplite would be armored from head to foot and would carry a long thrusting spear as his main weapon. His primary defense was a large, circular, and dished shield called the hoplon or aspis, made of a wooden core covered with leather and bronze sheeting. The bronze shield at left belonged to King Pharnakes, who ruled the kingdoms of Pontus and the Bosporan on the shores of the Black Sea from about 185 to 160 B.C. In the image at right, Legion Six's Ron Glass portrays an Athenian hoplite of the era of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, circa 490400 B.C. He wears a Chalcidian style helmetonly slightly more open than the famous Corinthian typethat still provides extensive protection. His body armor, or linothorax, is made of layered linen, and his lower legs are protected by brass shinguards called greaves. Thus attired, Greek soldiers successfully defended Europe from the Persians and engaged in decades of bitter internecine warfare.
Shield, Greek (found at Pontus), 185-160 B.C. Bronze. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Another object in the Getty's collection, a small ceramic vessel called a lekythos, depicts a soldier donning his panoply of armor (see image at left). He appears to be wearing a padded cloth undergarment called a thoromachus by the Greeks and a subarmalis by the Romans. This important garment often sported linen or leather strips at the hips and shoulders, which provided extra protection for the thighs and upper arms. Called pteryges ("feathers"), these narrow strips became another iconic emblem of the Greco-Roman warrior. The Greeks also utilized a more famous and artistic form of armor, the muscle cuirass, later adopted by the Romans and was featured in countless Hollywood movies in the 20th century. Made of brass carefully hammered into the form of an idealized male torso, the muscle cuirass was widely employed by wealthier hoplites and high-ranking Roman officers for more than one thousand years, from circa 500 B.C. to A.D. 500. In fact, only subtle details differentiate a Greek officer of the Hellenistic Era (336-30

Oil Jar with a Young Man Arming, attributed to Douris, Greek, Athens, about 490 B.C., terracotta. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


B.C.) from his Roman counterpart. In the image above, Brandon Barnes of Legion Six depicts a Roman Tribune of the late Republic or early Empire. At left, a large stone sarcophagus depicting scenes from the Trojan War, carved in the second century A.D., shows Greeks and Trojans battling one another in this Romanized form of Hellenistic armoras well as depicted in the "heroic nude." Ancient Rome After the Battle of Pydna in 168 B.C., the Roman legionary supplanted the Greek hoplite as the ancient world's model fighting man. The legionary was usually heavily armored with a combination of Greek and Celtic-style armor, the latter reflecting the Romans strategy of incorporating the best elements of their enemies' fighting systems into their own military structure. The legionarys fighting style was more flexible than that of the rigid Greek phalanx, employing a throwing spear or javelin called a pilum and a short thrusting sword, the gladius hispaniensis ("Spanish sword"). The backbone of the Roman legion was its centurions, tough career officers who each commanded eighty fighting men (a "century"). The sixty-odd centurions of a legion were arrayed in a hierarchy headed by the Primus Pilus, the chief centurion. He was a professional soldier second in rank only to the general, or Legatus, who was usually a political appointee. At right, David Michaels of Legion Six depicts a Primus Pilus of circa A.D. 100. The properly attired centurion wore several pieces of equipment that distinguished him from the rank-and-file, namely a transverse (as opposed to fore-and-aft) crest, greaves, and polished scale armor. He also wore his sword on the left, while regular milites wore theirs on the right. Finally the centurion carried a twisted staff of wood called a vitis (vine-staff) as a symbol of office; it was a "swagger stick" and a club for meting out punishment. We are fortunate that several tombstones bearing beautifully sculpted images of Roman centurions have survived to the present day. On their funeral portraits, long-serving centurions are often shown wearing their phalarae (service metals) on a harness over their body armor. These are beautiful disks would bear sculpted images of gods, goddesses, and famous Romans of old. The most distinctive of all Roman garments was the toga, a huge expanse of wool wrapped and draped around the torso in elaborate folds. Derived from Etruscan dress, the toga was the very symbol of Roman citizenship; only citizens were allowed to wear the toga, while slaves were attired in the tunic. The toga was so large and unwieldy that a man required assistance to don it. Lacking any clasps or buttons, the toga had to be held in place using the left arm, rendering that limb all but unusable. Once attired in a toga, any strenuous physical activity became next to impossible. This was perhaps intentional, since respectable Romans did not engage in manual labor. The basic offwhite woolen toga, or toga virilis, was the formal dress of most Roman men of legal age. When running for office, a man would don a specially whitened tunic called a toga candida (the origin of the word "candidate"). Once elected, a magistrate wore the toga praetexta, which had a broad purple stripe along one
Relief with Two Togate Magistrates, Roman, A.D. 5075, bronze. The J. Paul Getty Museum

border. Election to office also usually meant membership in the Senate, thus Roman senators are also depicted wearing the purple-bordered variant. High officials such as Consuls (and later, the Emperor) wore the toga picta, dyed a deep shade of purple and elaborately embroidered.

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


GALLERY EXERCISES
Finding the figure:

OBSERVE
What shapes can you find in the figures pose? Can you see the bodys movement underneath the drapery? How does the figures parts relate to the whole? Take this pose yourself and observe your balance of weight and the extension of your limbs.

GESTURE
Quickly establish the entire form by using rapid sketching strokes (feel free to scribble!). Roughly map out the bodys rhythm and points of articulation. Focus on the entire form and its movement through space.

Statuette of Mars-Cobannus, Gallo-Roman, A.D. 125-175. Bronze. The J. Paul Getty Museum

LINEAR CONTOUR
Close one eye and use your pencil to measure the angles that comprise the figures contour. Use linear marks to transfer the observed angles to your drawing. Continuously measure the segments in relation to one another to maintain correct proportional relationships.

MASS
A quick way to establish volume is to sketch in the entire mass of the figure in 50% gray. From this point, you can add shadow through continued mark making, or add highlights with your eraser.

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


BUILDING VOLUME Value Scale
The key to depicting the play of light and shadow on drapery is to capture the subtle shifts in light to dark values. A value scale represents the varying amounts of light and dark tones that might be in your drawing. To make the many values in an image more manageable, it is helpful to break them down into five basic values: cast shadow (black); shadow edge (dark gray); halftone or mid-tone (medium gray), reflected light (light gray), and highlight (white of the paper).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Draw five squares, connected side-by-side. Using a soft pencil, shade in the first square so that the value is black. In the second square, shade so that the value is slightly lighter than the first. The third square will be shaded even lighter. Shade the fourth box so that it is just gray enough to see. The fifth box can be left as the white of the paper.

Shading

Cross-hatching

Study of a Hanging Drapery, Hans Brosamer, German, about 1530 1540. Pen and black ink. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


STUDIO EXERCISES Model: David Michaels, Legion Six Historical Society 2:00-2:20pm 2:20-2:40pm 2:40-2:50pm 2:50-3:20pm 3:30-4:30pm 4:30-5:00pm GESTURE DRAWING (5 MINUTE POSES) CONTOUR DRAWING (10 MINUTE POSES) BRIEF CRITIQUE 30 MINUTE POSE - TOGA 1 HOUR POSE - ARMOR FINAL CRITIQUE

Torso of a Man Wearing Armor, Roman, Flavian, about A.D. 83-85. Marble. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


DAY 2: WOMENS FASHION
Ancient Greece The tunic was the basic article of clothing that literally stitched the classical clothing world together. Three ladies of the Legion Six Historical Society will be wearing and discussing different interpretations of the tunic: the peplos and the Ionic chiton worn in Ancient Greece, and the [Roman] stola worn throughout the Roman Empire. They will also be wearing personal adornmentsjewelry, shoes and hair accessories which reflect the socio-economic status of the women and delineate broad fashion trends of their time periods. These items also often incorporated regionally-sourced precious materials, such as lapis from the Eastern Mediterranean. The garments were typically homespun and weaving was considered the quintessential domestic art and female pastime in Ancient Greece. A woman's ensemble would consist of two principal garments: the aforementioned tunic fashioned as either a peplos or Statuette of a Woman chiton and a cloak or wrap known as a himation. The Wearing a Peplos, Greek, 460-450 B.C. Bronze. The J. peplos, originally a simple rectangular piece of [heavy] Paul Getty Museum fabric like unbleached or natural wool, was worn folded over along the upper edge forming a 'bib' (apoptygma) and was fastened at the shoulders with pins. This peplos, more than the chiton, was a unique garment of both the Greek islands and the Greek mainland. The Ionic chiton a garment characterized by its diaphanous folds and pleats was made of lighterweight material such as linen. Later on, it could also be made of colorful spun silk, depending upon the social station of its wearer. The chiton was made from a rectangular piece of fabric, as long as it was wide and typically twice the length of a woman's outstretched arms. It was stitched along the sides, either pinned or stitched at the shoulders, and finally girdled around the waist. The addition of the belt or girdle below the breasts or around the waist created the sleeve effect. The himation was a garment worn by women and men. It was also made from a rectangular piece of cloth such as wool or heavier linen (in contrast to the lightweight chiton). It was often worn over the chiton to afford extra protection against the elements and in consideration of modesty. It was draped diagonally over one shoulder or symmetrically over both shoulders, like the Roman palla.
Statuette of a Draped Female Figure, Greek, 100-1 B.C. Marble. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


Ancient Rome The garment that best described the ideals of modesty and matronly domesticity cherished by the Roman matrona was the stola, a long tunic which touched the tops of a woman's feet and was complemented by a long, rectangular woolen mantle worn over it called a palla. Under the stola, the woman sometimes wore a tunica interior, akin to the chemise of later times. Made of linen or lightweight wool, it was generally worn belted under the breasts, more for support than decoration. The stola could be worn alone with a palla, a length of fabric of various materials that would be draped around the body. Married women generally wore the stola over the tunica interior. The addition of this garment was meant purely to represent the woman's marital status, whereas the colors and textiles of the garments suggested her social class. Tunics, stolas and pallas were dyed in different colors, often vibrant hues. While Roman society was partial to a spectrum of bright colors, the passage of time has stripped statuary of the often garish paint that was used to color it. This now-lost color lent a sense of realism to this early representation of contemporary popular culture, leisure, and style.

Mummy Portrait of Isadora, Romano-Egyptian, A.D. 100-110. Encaustic, gold, linen, and wood. The J. Paul Getty Museum

Faustina the Elder, full and detail views, Roman, from Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), A.D. 140 160. Marble. Gift of J. Paul Getty, The J. Paul Getty Museum

Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


GALLERY EXERCISE: DEPICTING DRAPERY

Folds that are falling from one point and are affected by the downward pull of gravity.

Drapery that tends to fall in circular pattern.

Folds that are pulled between the two points, creating somewhat rounded shapes that lead to one of the points.

Folds that fall away from the point of tension and are pushed together creating pipe-like folds.

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


TIPS FOR DRAWING DRAPERY
Fabric naturally falls in folds, especially when it moves. One of the most important aspects to consider when drawing drapery is the form over which fabric is draped, stretched, or pulled. Drawing drapery can seem intimidating at first, but folds of a fabric can be broken into simplified planes. Usually, a fold can be reduced to three planes: an ascending plane a flat or curved-top plane a descending plane It is important to keep in mind that folds vary depending on the surface and material. Therefore, when drawing drapery, it is necessary to draw from direct observation of your subject.

Drapery folds appear in a variety of forms:

The ascending and descending planes may be overlapped by the top plane.

The space separating the folds may be broad and flat, or may be narrow and concave and appear to roll in a wavelike manner.

Unless interrupted by other forms, folds will radiate from one or multiple points.

When held at two points, both sets of radiating folds will come together as individual folds intercept each other.

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


When stretched tightly, folds are pushed closely together. When the drapery falls loosely, Yshaped folds may occur.

In general, folds are variants of a wave-like form with a rise, crest, and fall.

GALLERY CONNECTION Notice how the womans seated pose causes the fabric of her garment to pool around her body. How many different types of folds can you identify?

Found in Rome in the 1500s, this large statue of a seated woman portrays Cybele, the mother goddess, with many of her attributes, each signifying a different role. She wears a crown in the form of a towered wall, a symbol of her role as protectress of cities. Her right hand holds a bunch of wheat and poppy heads, a symbol of her role as a goddess of agriculture. Her most famous attribute, the lion, sits at her feet, symbolizing her power over wild animals. Under her left arm she holds additional symbols: the rudder and the cornucopia. This statue's most unusual feature is its face, which belongs to an older Roman matron, not an idealized goddess. Wealthy Roman women would frequently commission portraits of themselves depicted as if they were goddesses. Cybele is an unusual choice, however, which may indicate that this woman was a priestess in the goddess's service.

Portrait of a Woman as Cybele, Roman, about A.D. 50. Marble. The J. Paul Getty Museum

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


STUDIO EXERCISES Model: Lorie Ann Hambly, Legion Six Historical Society 2:00-2:20pm 2:20-2:40pm 2:40-2:50pm 2:50-3:20pm 3:30-4:30pm 4:30-5:00pm GESTURE DRAWING (5 MINUTE POSES) CONTOUR DRAWING (10 MINUTE POSES) BRIEF CRITIQUE 30 MINUTE POSE - STANDING 1 HOUR POSE - SEATED FINAL CRITIQUE

Drapery Study (recto), full and detail views, Andrea del Sarto, Italian, Florence, 1522 1525. Red chalk. The J. Paul Getty Museum

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


GLOSSARY: Composition The structure of a picture as separate from both subject and style; the essential abstract design; the selection and organization of line, shape, value, texture, pattern, and color into an aesthetically pleasing arrangement embodying such principles of design as balance, harmony, rhythm, repetition and variation, dominance and subordination, and focus. Contour The outermost extremities or limits of a shape, whether two-dimensional or threedimensional, as in the skin or shell of an object, form, or volume; contour may be associated with the outline of a subject and may change with different viewing positions. Contour drawing Drawing that focuses on capturing in a highly descriptive way the extreme edges of a shape, form, or object, depicting it as separate from its adjacent or neighboring forms. Contour hatching Curved lines that follow the outer contours of the turning of form, allowing a more descriptive modeling of cylindrical and spherical subjects Contrast The visual effect of a striking difference between art elements creating a condition of compositional intrigue; opposites or complementary art elements that through their visual forces set each other off or draw attention and focus to each other or to particular areas within a design. Foreshortening A term that applies to organic and anatomical forms seen in radical perspective as in the portrayal of lines being shorter than they actually are, in order to create the illusion of correct sizeand-shape relationships in space. Form The positive aspect or complement of space; the visible or recognizable configuration or shape of any object existing in atmospheric space. Gesture The essential line or depicted state of movement of a live form. Gesture drawing A drawing done for the sole purpose of studying gesture whose objective is to capture the essential, descriptive movements of live forms in space, whether human or animal. Hatching Repeated parallel strokes with a drawing tool that produce clusters of lines creating compositional values and tonal variations usually descriptive of form and surface. Highlights The highest values present on the surface of an illuminated form; the intense spots of light that appear on the crest of a surface facing the light source. Light The illumination of an object. Line The pathway of a moving point. A line is usually made visible by contrasts in value or surface. Negative shape(s) In two-dimensional figure-ground relationships, the remaining or unoccupied shapes within a composition surrounding or aside from the positive shapes that maintain a visual importance equal to that of the positive shapes.

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


Negative space or area(s) In figure-ground relationships, the spaces or areas surrounding the positive shapes that may also be referred to as ground, empty space, field, or void space. The negative spaces cause the positive shapes or forms to project forward, creating a three-dimensional illusion within a composition. Positive line, shape, form Established line, shape, or form that serves as the subject of a drawing and carries the intended visual dominance or subject meaning of a composition. In figure-ground relationships it is defined by its opposite negative shapes. Rhythm The visual manifestation and flow of repetition, variation, patterning, harmony of form, and movement within a composition. Scale A proportional system of measurement set in accordance with an established standard. Scribbling Random, multidirectional lines used to build varied tones, textures, and densities and to define surface qualities, shape, and volume, or to capture gesture or a movement as in a searching line. Searching line An approach to drawing in which the hand and drawing instrument move freely and quickly across the paper surface either in continuous rhythms or in a series of broken lines. Sometimes they follow contour; at other times they draw through, around, even across form in order to find the gesture and major lines of movement within the form. Sfumato An Italian word meaning smoked. The gradual almost imperceptible blending of tones from light to dark in paintings or drawings; a technique used by Renaissance artists in combination with chiaroscuro for the visual enhancement of the overall tones within a composition. Shadow The state of being blocked or partially blocked from directional light or illumination; a precise area of shade cast by an object intercepting directional rays of light. Shape The flat, two-dimensional aspects of form as opposed to three-dimensional volume; when a three-dimensional form is reduced to a silhouette, the viewer is conscious only of its shape. Sketch A drawing done quickly with minimal or no elaboration but that may use scribbled lines or tones to suggest form, texture, and shadow. Space The negative aspect or complement of form; the atmosphere surrounding forms or objects. Subtractive method In the dark-field manner, the gradual removal of the dark drawing materials from within a black field creating shapes, forms, tones, or textures of lighter values by allowing light to enter into the composition. Value Degree of light and dark; the light and dark characteristics of color; the amount of light reflected by a particular color. Value scale A progressive range showing the incremental and consistent steps of change between extreme light and extreme dark.

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Studio Workshop: Figure Drawing with Roman Dress


BIOGRAPHY
Audrey Chan is an artist, writer, and educator whose work addresses political and cultural identities through performance, video, and image/text. She received a BA with Honors from Swarthmore College in Studio Art and Political Science, and an MFA from the Program in Art at California Institute of the Arts. In 2009, she was an artist-in-residence at the cole Rgionale des Beaux-arts de Nantes in France. Exhibitions include: 3 Solo Projects: Audrey Chan, Elana Mann, Chan & Mann (Ben Maltz Gallery, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles), Half the Sky: Intersections in Social Practice Art (Luxun Academy of Fine Arts, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China), L.A. Heat and (de)Constructing Chinatown (Chinese American Museum, Los Angeles). In 2013, she received a CCF Fellowship for Visual Artists and an ARC grant from the Center for Cultural Innovation. Chan is currently a Project Specialist for Artist-Based Programs in the Education Department of the J. Paul Getty Museum. audreychan.net Founded in A.D. 2001, the Legion Six Historical Foundation is a California-based group of living historians who strive to recreate the soldiers and civilians of a Roman frontier town. The groups talented members have produced their own clothing, armor, equipment, and everyday objects, all based on actual archaeological finds, ancient representational arts, and primary literary references. Its mission is to inform, educate and entertain people of all ages about Greco-Roman civilization by giving them a first-hand look at how ancient peoples looked, dressed, equipped themselves and related to one-another. Toward these goals, Legion Six has participated in film and television productions, given presentations at schools and universities, and presented demonstrations at the J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa. The Legion Six Historical Foundation is a 5013 non-profit organization and runs on the tax-exempt contributions of its supporters.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, Shelby. How to Wear a Toga the Ancient Roman Way, 2011. VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQYloC_QcWY Cosgrave, Bronwyn. Costume and Fashion: From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. London: Hamlyn, 2000. Daehner, Jens ed. The Herculaneum Women: History, Context, Identities. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust, 2007. Houston, Mary G. Ancient Greek, Roman & Byzantine Costume. London: Dover Publications, 2011. Matyszak, Philip. Legionary: The Roman Soldiers Manual. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2009. Mendelowitz, Daniel M. A Guide to Drawing, Sixth Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2003. Sebesta, Judith L., and Larissa Bonfante, eds. The World of Roman Costume. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2001. Symons, David J. Costume of Ancient Rome. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.

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