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# Ov e r v i e w o f

C o r r e l a t i o n & R e g r e s s i o n
Bivariate Correlation and Regression
Bivariate correlation and regresson evauate the degree of reatonshp
between two quanttatve varabes. Pearson Correaton (r), the most
commony used bvarate correaton technque, measures the assocaton
between two quanttatve varabes wthout dstncton between the
ndependent and dependent varabes (e.g., What s the reatonshp between
SAT scores and freshman coege GPA?). In contrast, bivariate regression
utzes the reatonshp between the ndependent and dependent varabes to
predct the score of the dependent varabe from the ndependent varabe
(e.g., To what degree do SAT scores |IV| predct freshman coege GPA |DV|?).
When to use bivariate correlation/regression?
1 IV (quantitative) relationship/prediction
1 DV (quantitative)
Multiple Regression
Multiple regression dentfes the best combnaton of predctors (IVs) of
the dependent varabe. Consequenty t s used when there are severa
ndependent quanttatve varabes and one dependent quanttatve varabe
(e.g., Whch combnaton of rsk takng behavors |amount of acoho use,
drug use, sexua actvty, and voence-IVs| best predcts the amount of
sucde behavor |DV| among adoescents?). To produce the best
combnaton of predctors of the dependent varabe, a sequenta mutpe
regresson seects ndependent varabes, one at a tme, by ther abty to
account for the most varance n the dependent varabe. As a varabe s
seected and entered nto the group of predctors, the reatonshp between
the group of predctors and the dependent varabes s reassessed. When no
more varabes are eft that expan a sgnfcant amount of varance n the
dependent varabe, then the regresson mode s compete.
When to use multiple regression?
! IV (quantitative) relationship/prediction
1 DV (quantitative)
Source:
Merter, C. A., & Vannatta, R. A. (2005). Advanced and multivariate
statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation (3rd ed.).
Los Angees, CA: Pyrczak.
B i v a r i a t e C o r r e l a t i o n
I" Research #uestions\$
Genercay-Stated Research Oueston:
What is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
Exampes of Appropratey-Stated Research Ouestons:
What is the relationship between students on-task behavior and
What is the relationship between instructors assessment knowledge and
the passage rates in their courses?
What is the relationship between salar and ears o! teaching service?
Exampes of Inappropratey-Stated Research Ouestons:
achievement?
What is the impact o! instructors assessment knowledge on the passage
rates in their courses?
II" %a&pling & Data\$
Sampes shoud aways be seected randomy (probabty sampes)
Aows for generazaton of resuts to arger popuaton
Uness the goa s ony descrptve n nature (e.g., acton research)
Data must be quanttatve
Scae of measurement (.e., nomna, ordna, nterva, rato) does
not necessary matter, as ther exst numerous types of correaton
coeffcents that can be cacuated
III" Data 'nal(sis & Interpretation\$
Anayss nvoves the cacuaton of a correaton coeffcent (.e., a
quanttatve measure of a reatonshp)
Most common s a Pearson correaton coeffcent (r)-correaton
between two nterva varabes
Numerous others exst for varous combnatons of varabes.
However, a are nterpreted n smar manner; range from -1.00 to
+1.00 (some range from 0.00 to +1.00)
Genera rue of thumb for nterpretaton.
Sampe output from SPSS.
Vaue of
coeffcent
Symmetrca
matrx
P-vaue
(sgnfcance)
Sampe sze
Mu l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n
I" Research #uestions\$
Genercay-Stated Research Oueston:
Which combination o! variables !rom a larger set o! "Vs best predicts
the #V?
Exampes of Appropratey-Stated Research Ouestons:
Which student demographic variables best predict academic
achievement?
What combination o! student demographic variables \$i%e%& S'S&
ethnicit& gender& education status o! mother(!ather& !amil income&
age& and birth order) best predicts academic achievement in college
chemistr courses?
Exampes of Inappropratey-Stated Research Ouestons:
What is the relationship between student demographic variables and
II" %a&pling & Data\$
Sampes shoud aways be seected randomy (probabty sampes)
Aows for generazaton of resuts to arger popuaton
Uness the goa s ony descrptve n nature (usuay not the case
for MR)
Data must be quanttatve
Scae of measurement (.e., nomna, ordna, nterva, rato) shoud
be nterva or rato (others w work, but perhaps resut n ess cear
nterpretaton)
III" Data 'nal(sis & Interpretation\$
Anaytc process.
Mutpe regresson seects ndependent varabes, one at a tme, by
ther abty to account for the most varance n the dependent
varabe (rank order IVs)
As a varabe s seected and entered nto the group of predctors,
the reatonshp between the group of predctors and the dependent
varabe s reassessed
When no more varabes are eft that expan a sgnfcant amount of
varance n the dependent varabe (.e., that contrbute sgnfcanty
to the mode), then the regresson mode s compete
Exampe mutpe regresson.
IVs -
o BEGINNING SALARY
o |OB SENIORITY
o AGE
o WORK EXPERIENCE
o SEX & RACE CLASSIFICATION
DV -
o CURRENT SALARY
Sampe output from SPSS.
Four
(progressve)
regresson
modes, based
on rank orderng
Mutpe Correaton:
Pearson correaton
between predcted
and actua DV scores
Varance n DV
accounted for
by IVs
Contrbuton n
varance at each
step (mode)
Test of
sgnfcance of
each modes
predctabty
Varabes
ncuded n
each mode
Tests of sg. for
ndvdua
varabes
Coeffcents used
to deveop
regresson
(predcton)
equaton
*
CurrentSaary
= (.845)*
BegnnngSaary
+ (-.145)*
WorkExperence
+ (.097)*
|obSenorty
+
(-.088)*
SexRace