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5ESS EXCHANGE SYSTEM Basic characteristics/Functions of the 5ESS-2000 Switch Overview :The 5ESS-2000 Switch is a digital exchange that

can serve as a local(lines) toll(trun!s) tande"(lines and trun!s) #S$S(o%erator Service $osition S&ste") or international gatewa& exchange de%ending on the t&%e of switch' (t can serve a s"all co""unit& with fewer than )00 su*scri*ers or a large "etro%olitan area serving "ore than )00 000 su*scri*ers' Modular Distributed Desig :The 5ESS- 2000 switch is a digital switching with distri*uted %rocessing' +istri*uted %rocessing "eans that "ulti%le %rocessors handle all call %rocessing functions' ,an& %rocessors are distri*uted throughout the s&ste" su%%orted *& a central %rocessor' These distri*uted %rocessors handle second-to-second decisions that "ust *e "ade to %rocess a call' -all %rocessing self "aintenance and testing are %erfor"ed inde%endentl& in each "odule' $rocessors co""unicate with each other via an i ter al digital etwor! that lin!s the "odule together' The 5 ESS 2000 Switch hardware has three "a.or t&%es of e/ui%"ent "odules' "# SM $Swit%&i g Module' (# CM $Co))u i%atio s Module' *# AM $Ad)i istrative Module' Each "odule %erfor"s its assigned functions to contri*ute to the o%eration of the entire switch' The SM connects all lines and trun!s to the 5 ESS-2000 Switch' (t %erfor"s "ost of the call %rocessing functions' There can *e "an& S,s %er 5ESS2000 Switch' The CM %rovides co""unication *etween the S,s and the 0,' There is one -, %er 5ESS-2000 Switch'

The AM %rovides ad"inistration and "aintenance ca%a*ilities' There is one 0, %er 5ESS-2000 Switch' Growt& a d Degrowt& :,odular architecture "a!es it eas& to increase or decrease the ca%acit& of the exchange' (ncrease in the ca%acit& of the switch is called 12#3T4' +ecrease in the ca%acit& of the switch is called +E12#3T4' The S, is the %ri"ar& "odule for growth or +egrowth of the 5ESS-2000 switching s&ste"' 1rowth or +egrowth is acco"%lished *& changing the no' of S,s in a switch or the no' of units within the S,s'

"# S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E /-NCT,ONS Overview :0ll external lines trun!s and s%ecial services c!ts' are ter"inated at the switching "odule' The analog 5 digital are converted to the digital for"at used inside the 5ESS-2000 Switch' The S, %erfor"s al"ost 657 of the call %rocessing 5 "aintenance functions including 8 9ine 5 Trun! scanning 2outine "aintenance 5 self-"aintenance Tone 5 -adence generation +igit anal&sis -all routing -!t' Switching $ac!et switching 0nnounce"ents -all %rogress su%ervision

The S, %rovides "an& su*scri*er calling features including 8 -all 3aiting 0**reviated +ialing -all +iversion -onference -alls

#ne 5 ESS-2000 Switch can su%%ort as "an& as )62 S,s' Each S, can handle as de%endent u%on engg' considerations' TY0ES O/ S+,TCH,NG MOD-.ES (t can *e e/ui%%ed with the following t&%es of S,s 8A' .SM $.OCA. S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E' :-

This t&%e of S, serves local lines trun!s 5 (S+: ((ntegrated Services +igital :etwor!) users' The 9S, is usuall& referred to as the S,' 1' HSM $HOST S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E' :This %rovides the nor"al 9S, su*scri*er interfaces 5 also interfaces one or "ore 2S,s (2e"ote Switching ,odules)' C ' 2SM $2EMOTE S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E' :This t&%e of S, is designed to "eet the needs of those co""unities that are too s"all to *e served *& their own 5ESS-Switch in a re"ote area' This is done *& having the 2S, connected to an 4S,' The 2S, can *e as far awa& as 2;2!"s' Fro" the host u%to ; 2S,s (called a ,,2S, (,ulti,od 2S,)) can *e interconnected to serve )< 000 lines 2000 trun!s or a co"*ination of line 5 trun!s' The 2S, %rovides full - stand -alone ca%a*ilities including direct trun!s to other exchanges 5can *e used singularl& or grou%ed in clusters'


0SM $0OS,T,ON S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E' :-

This t&%e of S,s su%%orts #S$S(#%erator Services $osition S&ste") features' #riginall& the S,s were called (,s((nterface ,odules)' S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E COM0ONENTS

S,s consists of two t&%es 8


The single SMC$S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E CONT2O..E2' is nu"*ered ) and contains the control units that are assigned s%ecific locations within the S,-' CONT2O. -N,TS :- (t controls all activities within the S,s such as -all $rocessing and "aintenance functions' 0n S, can have fro" one to four .T0 $ .,NE3T2-N4 0E2,0HE2A.' ca*inets that are nu"*ered 0 ) 2 = and ;' 0E2,0HE2A. -N,TS :- (t %erfor" testing function and %rovide custo"ers and other exchanges access to the 5 ESS- 2000 Switch digital networ!' There are two t&%es of %eri%heral units' 5 , ter6a%e - its :- that interface %ac!et data analog and digital lines and trun!s to the 5 ESS2000 Switch' 5 Servi%e - its :- that %rovide su%%ort as test e/ui%"ent and "ulti%ort conferencing circuits'




9ocated in the S,- ca*inets are the two S, control units 8a' T&e SM0$S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E 02OCESSO2' 7 b' T&e TS,$T,ME S.OT ,NTE2CHANGE2' These two units are co"*ined into the MCTS,$MOD-.E CONT2O..E2 7 T,ME S.OT ,NTE2CHANGE' which is also referred to as the ,-T>'

a' S+,TCH,NG MOD-.E 02OCESSO2 :The S,$ contains the "icro%rocessor and "e"or& used to %erfor" the call %rocessing and "aintenance functions within the S,' The S,$ %erfor"s five "a.or functions 8 -ontrol $eri%heral >nits' $erfor"s -alls $rocessing' $erfor"s S, "aintenance' (nitiali?es S, "e"or&' -o""unicates with the 0, and others S,s'

b' T,ME S.OT ,NTE2CHANGE2 :The second control unit in the S, is the TS((Ti"e Slot (nterchanger)' The TS( %erfor"s the ti"e %ortion of the ti"e-s%ace-ti"e division switching' This t&%e of switching allows "ulti%le in%uts access to a set no' of out%uts when %rocessing %hone calls' This TS( trans"its and receives %eri%heral ti"e slots to 5 fro" %eri%heral units' $eri%heral ti"e slots contain digital call data fro" lines and trun!s or other user data such as fro" co"%uters' The TS( also switches data fro" the networ! side to the -, where it is routed to other S,s' The TS( interchanges the %eri%heral ti"e slots to the networ! ti"e slots on two :-T(:etwor! -ontrol 5 Ti"ing) lin!s connecting the S, to the -,' (n the reverse direction the TS( also interchanges networ! ti"e slots to %eri%heral ti"e slots' The TS( also interchanges %eri%heral ti"e slots *etween different %eri%heral units' (' SM 0E2,0HE2A. -N,TS :- (t consists of the following 8 A' ,NTE2/ACE -N,TS 1' 0AC4ET S+,TCH -N,T C' SE28,CE -N,TS A' ,NTE2/ACE -N,TS8-

T&ere are two a alog i ter6a%e u its :a' .-$.,NE -N,T':- (t connects analog lines fro" the su*scri*ers tele%hones to the 5ESS- 2000 b' AT-$ANA.OG T2-N4 -N,T':- (t ter"inates a variet& of analog trun!s to the digital switching networ!' These voice fre/' trun!s can *e interexchange trun!s trun!s to $B@s ($rivate Branch Exchange) trun!s to announce"ent "achine units or local test c!ts' T&ere are ( digital i ter6a%e u its :a' ,S.-( $,NTEGE2ATED SE28,CES .,NE -N,T MOD-.E (' :(t ter"inates *oth analog 5 digital su*scri*er lines' The (S9>2 is e/ui%%ed in S,s that have (S+: ((ntegrated Services +igital :etwor!) 5 its %ri"ar& %ur%ose is to %rovide service to the (S+: su*scri*ers'


D.T- $D,G,TA. .,NE T2-N4 -N,T' :(t ter"inates digital trun!s fro" other exchanges or fro" 2S, facilities in a switch and converts T) or $-, ($ulse -ode ,odulation ) 2,*/s (,ega*it $er- Second) for"at to networ! ti"e slot for"at'

1' 0S-$0AC4ET S+,TCH -N,T' :(t is a s%ecial interface unit that does not directl& ter"inate lines or trun!s' The $S> %erfor"s several "iscellaneous (S+: functions 8-

a) ' $rocesses (T>-T( (:TE2:0T(#:09 TE9E-#,,>:(-0T(#:

>:(#: TE9E-#,>:(-0T(#: ST0:+02+(A0T(#: SE-T#2) :o' < 5 B signaling'

*) ' $rocesses %ac!et switched data' C' SE28,CE -N,TS 3 SE28,CE C4TS# :There are 5 t&%es of service units = of which are referred to as +S>s (+(1(T09 SE2C(-E >:(TS)' The different t&%es are as follows 8a' .DS- $.OCA. D,G,TA. SE28,CE -N,T ' :(t has two functions 8D To generate digital tones D To decode digital tones The tones generated or decoded *& the 9+S> can *e routed to an& line or trun! on a %articular S,' The 9+S> functionalit& can *e %rovided in a variet& of e/ui%"ent configurations ranging fro" a full unit to a single c!t' %ac!'

b' GDS- $G.O1A. D,G,TA. SE28,CE -N,T ' :-

Ever& 5ESS-2000 Switch has atleast one 1+S> which can %rovide services to an& S, in the exchange' The 1+S> can also *e configured in a variet& of wa&s' The 1+S> has the following two functions 8D -onference facilities D Trans"ission testing %' DS-( -2A/3 SAS $ D,G,TA. SE28,CE -N,T ( - 2ECO2DED ANNO-NCEMENT /-NCT,ON 3SE28,CE ANNO-NCEMENT SYSTEM ' :(t %rovides an announce"ent when a call is routed to a vacant code e/ui%"ent is *us& or *loc!ing conditions exist' #ther uses include #S$S features 5 when custo"ised announce"ents are needed' S0S has "ore announce"ent ca%acit& than its %redecessors 20F'

d' MMS- $MOD-.A2 META..,C SE28,CE -N,T' also %alled as MS- :(t has = functions 8 D D D e' ,etallic test access Su*scri*er line testing 0 scan 5 distri*ute function

00M- $0E2,OD,C 0-.SE METE2,NG -N,T ' :Su*scri*er lines used in coin*oxes hostels 5 restaurants ver& often have a ho"e "eter installed 'These su*scri*ers are connected to the $$,> ( or $$,> auxiliar&) which in.ects the correct signalling to incre"ent the ho"e "eter 5 %rovides the su*scri*er with an accurate "easure of %hone usage '

(# COMM-N,CAT,ON MOD-.E /-NCT,ONS Overview :Because of the distri*uted %rocessing architecture of the 5ESS-2000 Switch infor"ation "ust constantl& *e exchanged *etween %rocessors ' The -, (-o""unications ,odule) serves as the hu* (focal %oint) for all inter"odule co""' in a 5ESS-2000 Switch ' COMM-N,CAT,ON MOD-.E /-NCT,ONS :(n the switch the 0,5 S,s are not directl& connected to each other' The -, routes "essages *etween each "odule so the& all wor! together' The -, has four "ain functions 8 -all Switching 8 The -, interconnects the %aths *etween switching "odules to co"%lete tele%hone calls and to rela& data' ,essage Switching 8 The -, %rovides %aths to send infor"ation *etween %rocessors to %rocess calls "aintain records and %erfor" s&ste" tas!s' :etwor! Ti"ing 8 The -, %rovides accurate ti"ing and s&nchronisation for the 5 ESS-2000 Switch'

Fast $u"% 8 The -, %rovides resources to /uic!l& download(%u"%) software fro" 0, to 0:S, if needed' COMM-N,CAT,ON MOD-.E .,N4AGES : The 0, is connected to the -, *& the +S-4(+ual Serial -hannel) *us' This "etallic *us has two serial *it strea"s that receive and rela& control "essages' :-T(:etwor! -ontrol 5 Ti"ing) lin!s are fi*re o%tic ca*les that connect each S, to the -,' The :-T lin!s carr& infor"ation in a "ax' of 5)2 ti"e slots divided *etween two %h&sical lin!s' #ne of the 25< ti"e slots on each lin! is a dedicated control "essage ti"e slot' Each of the control ti"e slots is used to carr& inter"odule control "essages' The other 255 ti"e slots %er lin! are used to carr& call data(voice sa"%les or custo"er data trans"issions)' :ot shown on the gra%hic the -9:E(-o""s' lin!) is the hardware %ath *etween the S,$ 5 the ,S$>(,essage Switch $eri%heral >nit) of the -,' This is the %ath that carries the control ti"e slot' Because of the redundant nature of the -, hardware each S, has alternate -9:E %aths across the switching networ!' CM CA1,NET CON/,G-2AT,ONS :- The -, line-u% can var& in si?e fro" a "ini"u" of two to a "ax' of twelve ca*inets that are grown fro" the centre out in a "irror i"age' Basic ca*inets 5 5 < are alwa&s e/ui%%ed and de%ending on the nu"*er of S,s su%%orted additional ca*inets can *e added two at a ti"e starting with growth ca*inets ; and B' MA9O2 COM0ONENTS O/ THE CM :0ll versions of the -, are divided into two functional units 8"' (' T&e MSGS $MESSAGE S+,TCH ' T&e ONTC$O//,CE NET+O24 AND T,M,NG COM0.EX'

The following descri%tion is *ased on the "ost co""on t&%e of -, currentl& in the field the -,2'

The ,S1S and #:T- are each "ade u% of su*-units ' The four "a.or functions of the -, are %erfor"ed *& these hardware su*-units 8 )) MSGS :a ' MSC- $Message Swit%& Co trol - it ' b ' MS0- $Message Swit%& 0eri:&eral - it ' ( ' ONTC :a' b' CMC- $Co))u i%atio s Module Co trol - it ' TMS- $Ti)e Multi:le;ed Swit%& - it ' The #:T- also includes so"e functional areas of the S,/ S,-2000 " ' MSGS a' MSC- :-

(t %rovides control over the ,S$>' (t %asses control infor"ation to 5 fro" the 0, 5 the other -, unitsF it also inter%rets the destination code of the control "essages co"ing fro" the S,s ' The ,S-> directs the infor"ation flow *etween %rocessors in the 0, 5 the S,s ' b' MS0- :-

(t %rocesses control "essages 5 switches the" to the 0, or S,s ' The ,S$> can *e regarded as a series of "ail *oxes in which "essages are de%osited *efore the& are routed' Each S, has assigned ca%acit& in the ,S$> 5 control "essages are transferred under direction of the ,S-> ' ( ' ONTC a' CMC- :-

(t %rovides ti"ing for the s&ste" 5 %rovides control for the T,S ( Ti"e ,ulti%lexed Switch )' (t also %rovides the connection %ath *etween the T,S 5 0, ,S-> 5 ,S$>' b' TMS- :(t ter"inates the :-T lin!s 5 switches *oth data 5 control ti"e slots *etween the lin!s ' The hardware units of the T,S %erfor" the actual switching of the calls *etween trun!s ' :o single unit of the -, is "ore i"%ortant than the others ' Because of the interconnecting %aths all the %arts are necessar& ' Because of this virtuall& all %arts of the -, are du%licated ' TY0ES O/ COMM-N,CAT,ON MOD-.ES :There are four t&%es of -,s in the field 8" ' CM":This was the earliest t&%e of -, ' (t o%erates "uch the sa"e as the -,2 *ut is of an older vintage ' (t is "ade u% of a "ax' of ; ca*inets of e/ui%"ent ' (t is ca%acit& li"ited (=2 S,s ) 5 has *een re%laced nearl& ever&where with -,2 ' ( ' CM( :,ost co""on toda& the -,2 can su%%ort u% to )62 S,s or a "ix of S,s 5 S,-2000 ' (t is "ade u% of a "in' of 2 ca*inets *ut can grow to as "an& as )2 when needed ' *' CM( +,TH <.0S $<-AD .,N4 0AC4ET S+,TCH ' :This is a "odification of the -,2 which adds additional control "essage ca%acit& ' (t is availa*le for offices with high ca%acit& S,-2000s' (t is nearl& identical to the -,2 with additional hardware units

added ' = ' CM(C :This unit is intended for s"all office a%%lications 5 su%%orts onl& a li"ited no' of S,S ' (t is "ade u% of a 2 shelves which can reside in an S, ca*inet '

* # ADM,N,ST2AT,8E MOD-.E /-NCT,ONS O8E28,E+ :(n the 5ESS-2000 Switch the 0, (0d"inistrative "odule ) is a switch e/ui%"ent "odule which has the overall control of the entire 5ESS- 2000 Switch ' The 0, controls the -, 5 co""unicates with all the S,s (through the -, ) ' The 0, "onitors itself and the -, for "alfunctions ' ADM,N,ST2AT,8E MOD-.E /-NCT,ONS : (t has a "in' of ) ca*inet 5 can have a "ax' of = ca*inets ' The 0, %erfor"s resources allocation 5 %rocessing functions that are done "ore efficientl& on a centralised *asis such as 8 -all routing for inter"odule 5 intra"odule calls 0d"inistrative data %rocessing/ *illing data Traffic "easure"ent re%orts ( s&ste" %erfor"ance re%orts ) ,e"or& "anage"ent S&ste" "aintenance ,aintenance file records o f changes to the s&ste" software release $ersonnel interface / s&ste" "onitoring 0llocating trun!s for call %rocessing


There are three "ain units located within the 0, 8G C- $Co trol - it ' G ,O0 $, :ut 3 Out:ut 0ro%essor ' G D/C $Dis! /ile Co troller ' The C- "onitors overall s&ste" o%eration ' The ,O0 interfaces with the ,-- (,aster -ontrol -enter ) 2#$ (2eceive #nl& $rinter ) 5 other %eri%heral devices ' The D/C controls the T+ (Ta%e +rive ) 5 ++ (+is! +rive )' > CONT2O. -N,T :The control unit consists of two su*units 8A' T&e CC$CENT2A. CONT2O. ' 1' MM$MA,N MEMO2Y' A' CC$CENT2A. CONT2O.' :(t has six "a.or functions 8? - E;e%utes 0rogra)s - The -- contains logic circuits that execute ste%*&-ste% instructions to control the o%eration of the 0, %rocessor' ? - E;e%utes 0rogra) re@uests - res%onds to re/uests fro" the S, and fro" "aintenance %ersonnel' ? - 0ro%ess ad)i istrative data - co"%iles re%ort infor"ation and %rints re%orts %eriodicall&' ? - Mo itors sAste) o:eratio a list of ##S(out-of-service) e/ui%"ent' - "aintains a log of e/ui%"ent status and

? - -:dates Du:li%ates C- - co""unicates with du%licate stand*& -> to !ee% its "/" u%-to-date' ? - Ma ages data tra s6er - -ontrols "/" transfer *etween its own "/" its hard dis! 5 the "icro%rocessor that serve the %eri%heral units in the (#$' 1' MM$MA,N MEMO2Y' :The ,, stores %rogra" instructions and data' The ,, stores the instructions and other data needed *& the %rocessor to %rocess calls collect ad"inistrative infor"ation and %erfor" s&ste" "aintenance' AM 0E2,0HE2A. COM0ONENT /-NCT,ONS :D,S4 /,.E CONT2O..E2 :The +F- is res%onsi*le for interfacing with the S-S((S"all -o"%uter S&ste" (nterface) %eri%heral devices such as the dis! and ta%e drives' SCS, D,S4 D2,8E :The functions of the S-S((S,099 -#,$>TE2 SHSTE, (:TE2F0-E) dis! drive are as follows 8 Stores co%ies of software used in the 5 ESS-2000 Switch --if data in the ,, is lost it is restored fro" the dis! co%&' Stores hardware configuration data I infor"ation on the dis! defines the configuration of hardware and line and trun! ter"ination' Stores *illing data I dis! has a te"%orar& area for *illing data' The data is stored until it is re/uested *& the host collector or du"%ed to ta%e' TA0E D2,8E :The ta%e drive is a *ac!u% for infor"ation stored on dis!' The ta%e drive "a& *e either a conventional

co"%uter nine trac! ta%e drive or a +0T( +(1(T09 0>+(# T0$E)' +ata can *e transferred fro" ta%e to dis! or fro" dis! to ta%e' Billing data for the 2evenue 0ccounting office is also stored on ta%e' ,N0-T3O-T0-T 02OCESSO2 :The (#$ is the interface for other %eri%heral devices used *& the switch such as "aintenance (nterfaces (,-- and 2#$) datalin!s and alar" signaling'

MASTE2 CONT2O. CENTE2' :The 0, "aintains u%-to-date records on s&ste" o%erations and !nows the status of all hardware units throughout the exchange' This infor"ation is availa*le to "aintenance interface called the ,-- is the "ain local wor! station for "aintenance %ersonnel' (t uses a full- color video dis%la& ter"inal as a window to the s&ste"' B& entering %o!e co""ands selected fro" "enus on the ter"inal screen or "an "achine language co""ands selected fro" the 5 ESS-2000 Switch -o""ands 0nd 2e%orts ,anual "aintenance %ersonnel can diagnose e/ui%"ent re"ove e/ui%"ent fro" service restores e/ui%"ent to service test lines and trun!s and "odif& the data*ase and service features for custo"ers' The 2#$ (2eceive-#nl&-$rinter) %rovides a %rinted co%& or re%orts fro" the ,--' The %ri"ar& functions of the ,-- are to %rovide the following 8)) 2) =) ;) Cisual dis%la&s of s&ste" status and alar" infor"ation' The "eans to control test and reconfigure the s&ste"' The "eans to "anuall& recover the s&ste"' 0ccess to exchange data ' CA.. 02OCESS,NG :-

O8E28,E+ :(t %rovides a funda"ental descri%tion of line-to-line and trun!-to-trun! calls in a 5 ESS-2000 Switch ' CA.. 02OCESS,NG STAGES :There are five functional ste%s of call %rocessing including the location of the originating and ter"inating e/ui%"ent' These ste%s are 8 ? - Origi atio :- (t *egins when the su*scri*ers line goes off-hoo! or when an inco"ing trun! is sei?ed' #rigination receives the inco"ing digits selects the digit anal&sis ta*les and deter"ines the screening infor"ation for this call' ? - Digit A alAsis :- (t inter%rets the digits that it receives for" origination selects a destination for each call and %asses the dialed digits to routing' ? - 2outi g3S%ree i g :- 2outing uses the destination infor"ation fro" digit anal&sis and screening infor"ation fro" origination to select the ter"inating trun! grou% or line' The t&%e of charges associated with this call is deter"ined and sent to charging' ? - C&argi g :- (t uses the charging infor"ation fro" routing to ex%and the charging data into a for"at usea*le *& the -all 0ccounting %rocess' There are various t&%es of call accounting featuresF fro" *asic 0,0 records to Fee -alculation' ? - Ter)i atio :- The last ste% in call %rocessing is ter"ination' Ter"ination %rocess are different for calls destined for lines and calls destined for trun!s'

5 Tru ! Ter)i atio - an idle trun! "e"*er of the trun! grou% is selected *ased on a %re-deter"ined %attern' 0fter selection digits are out%ulsed to the distant office' 5 .i e Ter)i atio - the line identified in routing is chec!ed to deter"ine if the line has an& s%ecial features' 2inging is a%%lied to the line if a%%lica*le or the s%ecial feature is activated' CA.. 02OCESS,NG :The "ost i"%ortant function of a 5ESS-2000 Switch is to %rocess su*scri*er calls ' Su*scri*erJs calls can *e classified as line-to-line line-to-trun! trun!-to-line or trun!-to-trun! ' 0 line-to-line call is a call that starts on a line served *& a 5ESS-2000Switch 5 ter"inates to another line served *& the sa"e switch ' The S,s involved in the call will %erfor" al"ost 65 7 of the call %rocessing functions ' +uring a line-to-line call the originating S, detects when a su*scri*erJ s tele%hone receiver has *een %ic!ed u% ' The S, %rovides dial tone 5 then re"oves dial tone when the first digit is dialed ' (t then collects 5 anal&ses the dialled digits ' :ext the S, sends a re/uest to the 0, for a call %ath ' The ter"inating S, locates the su*scri*er line for the line-to-line call 5 %rovides ringing ' 1AS,C CA.. TY0ES Origi atio 9ine 9ine Trun! Trun! Ter)i atio 9ine Trun! 9ine Trun!

3hen the 0, has *een selected an availa*le %ath it alters the -, to set u% a lin! *etween the S,s' The -, %rovided call %aths *etween S,s 5 carries all internal s&ste" co""unications' The functions of the S, 0, 5 -, in a trun!-to-trun! call are *asicall& the sa"e as the line-to -line descri*ed a*ove exce%ts that the originating S, detects a trun! sei?ure rather than a su*scri*er %ic!ing u% the receiver ' 0lso the ter"inating locates an availa*le trun! instead of a line' (f a call involves *oth a line 5 a trun! (line-to-trun! trun!-to-line ) the scenarios a*ove "a& differ slightl& ' 0lso the scenarios "a& differ de%ending on the a%%lications su%%orted *& &our exchange ' 9ine-To-9ine calls can *e of two t&%es 8"' ,NT2A-SM - where *oth su*scri*er lines (originated 5 ter"inated ) are connected to sa)e S, ' This doesnJt re/uire use of -, ' (' ,NTE2-SM - where *oth su*scri*er lines are connected to di66ere t S,s ' This re/uires use of -, ' 5ESS-(BBB S+,TCH A00.,CAT,ONS :O8E28,E+ :The 5 ESS-2000 Switch was designed with a flexi*le "odular a%%roach with regard to *oth software and hardware allowing for digital services ca%a*ilities that su%%ort "an& a%%lications' -urrent a%%lications su%%orted *& the s&ste" are follows 8

)) 2) =) ;) 5) <) B) K)

9ocal Exchange Toll Exchange 1atewa& Exchange #S$S(#%erator Service $osition S&ste") (S+:((ntegrated Services +igital :etwor!) ST$(Signalling Transfer $oint) SS$(Services Switching $oint or 0ction -ontrol $oint) ,S-(,o*ile Switching -enter or 3ireless)

"' .OCA. EXCHANGE :9ocal su*scri*erJs gain access to the local exchange through lines ' The exchanges switches a call fro" an internal su*scri*er to another su*scri*er directl& or through a trun! c!t' to a su*scri*er in another exchange ' 0 trun! c!t' ( or trun! ) connects a local exchange to another local exchange or toll exchange ' 0 local exchange has a high 7 of lines 5 a s"all %ercentage of trun!s ' (' TO.. EXCHANGE :0 toll exchange ( or trun! tande" exchange ) connects a local exchange to another local exchange or to a gatewa& exchange ' 0 toll exchange has a high %ercentage of trun!s 5 a low %ercentage of lines if an&' *' GATE+AY EXCHANGE :There is one international networ! consisting of interconnected gatewa& exchanges ' Each countr& (0 5 B ) in this networ! has its own gatewa& exchange an international toll exchange ' (nternational calls enter 5 leave the countr& fro" this gatewa& exchange ' =' O0E2ATO2 SE28,CE 0OS,T,ON SYSTEM :-

The 5 ESS-2000 Switch offers auto"atic o%erator services via the #S$S(#%erator Service $osition S&ste")' #S$S a%%lications are director& in/uir& and Traffic 0ssistance' +irector& (n/uir& allows o%erators to su%%l& director& nu"*ers to calling su*scri*ers' Traffic 0ssistance allows o%erators to co"%lete calls and res%ond to in/uires for su*scri*ers' The #S$S uses a s%ecial S, called a $S,($osition switching ,odule)' 5' ,NTEG2ATED SE28,CES D,G,TA. NET+O24 :0nother t&%e of 5 ESS-2000 Switch a%%lications is the (S+: ((ntegrated Services +igital :etwor! )' (S+: offers new voice 5 data services 5 allows features such as #S$S' (S+: also allows voice data 5 signalling infor"ation to travel over the sa"e digital su*scri*er line ' (t lets all three co"%onents use the sa"e trans"ission %ath si"ultaneousl& ' Two %eo%le with (S+: can "a!e %hone calls 5 use their co"%uter ter"inals to access one or "ore co"%uters at the sa"e ti"e' (S+: service is full& co"%ati*le with $#TS service' (S+: service re/uires s%ecific (S+: hardware 5 software in the S, ' C' S,GNA.,NG T2ANS/E2 0O,NT :The ST$ ( Signalling Transfer $oint ) is an exchange a%%lication that sends signalling "essages on their wa& to the %ro%er destination over a different %ath than the associated voice c!t' ST$s are associated with the --SB (-o""on -hannel Signalling B ) ' This a%%lication allows for "ore efficient use of trun! circuits' D' SE28,CE S+,TCH,NG 0O,NT :The SS$ (Service Switching $oint ) also called 0-$ ( 0ction -ontrol $oint ) is a 5ESS-2000 Switch

a%%lication that is %art of an (: ((ntelligent :etwor! ) configuration ' (: technolog& allows the introduction of advanced services %ri"aril& through software u%dates with "ini"al networ! rearrange"ents 5 "ini"al service disru%tion ' The SS$ is a*le to recognise an inco"ing (: call %rocess it or re/uest call handling instructions *& use of a re"ote data*ase that is accessed *& "an& switches in the (: ' E' MO1,.E S+,TCH,NG CENTE2 :The ,S- ( ,o*ile Switching -enter ) %erfor"s the switching functions for wireless s&ste"s ' This 5ESS-2000 Switch a%%lication "onitors su*scri*er "o*ilit& "anages resources co""unicates with other networ!s %erfor"s call routing 5 control functions ' The ,Sconfiguration includes an 0, -, S,s 31S, (3ireless 1lo*al Switching ,odule ) at least one 3S, ( 3ireless Switching ,odule ) 5 %ossi*l& a 32S, ( 3ireless 2e"ote Switching ,odule ) or "ulti"odule ' MA,NTENANCE TOO.S :O8E28,E+ :The ,-- ( ,0STE2 -#:T2#9 -E:TE2 ) ->ST#,E2 +#->,E:T0T(#: T93S (T2>:E 0:+ 9(:E 3#2EST0T(#:) function 5 2-/C ( 2E-E:T -40:1E 0:+ CE2(FH ) function are all essential tools for 5ESS- 2000 Switch "aintenance' MCC $MASTE2 CONT2O. CENTE2 ' :The ,-- is the %ri"ar& co""unication lin! *etween "aintenance %ersonnel 5 the 5ESS-2000

Switch for %erfor"ing the "aintenance functions ' (n s"aller exchanges it is %ossi*le to have onl& the ,-- ter"inal ' 9arger exchanges will need "ore ter"inals 5 %rinters '

T.+S $T2-N4 AND .,NE +O24STAT,ON ' :-

The function of the T93S is to test the lines 5 trun!s in an exchange' This function "a& *e invo!ed fro" ter"inals located within the exchange (,-- ) or fro" re"ote "aintenance facilities ' The ter" T.+S can *e used to reference the T93S function (software ) or the ter"inal used to access the T93S function (hardware ) ' 0 ter"inal is defined for use as a T.+S in the switchJs E-+ data*ase' T.+S /u %tio 8-

The T93S function is used to 8L 2e"ove 5 restore service to su*scri*er lines 5 trun!s for testing ' L Test su*scri*er lines ' L (nitiate o%erational 5 trans"ission tests on trun!s ' -- #%erational tests chec! the a*ilit& of a trun! to co"%lete a call' -- Trans"ission tests "easure the /ualit& of signals *eing reserved *& a trun! ' 1E.T.,NE C,2C-,T :So"eti"es tests are %erfor"ed fro" locations other than the ,--' For instance during installation difficult fault conditions "ight occur in the S,(Switching ,odule) that can *e located a distance fro" the ,--' This "a& cause so"e inconvenience for "aintenance %ersonnel since the& "ust wal! *ac! and forth *etween the S, and the ,--' To avoid that the ESS2000 Switch fra"es(ca*inets) are e/ui%%ed with connectors to allow the "aintenance %ersonnel to connect %orta*le (/# devices such as a TTH or a ter"inal with !e&*oard near the S,' This feature is called the beltli e %ir%uit'

Beltline .ac!s (connectors) are "ulti%lied at o%tional fra"e locations around the exchange "a!ing the circuit accessi*le fro" several %oints' The& are "ounted on a .ac! stri% located *etween the fuse %anels at the to% of the e/ui%"ent fra"es' 0lthough the *eltline .ac!s can *e "ulti%lied to each S, a "axi"u" of two *eltline circuits "a& *e used at the sa"e ti"e' The& are referred to as Beltline 0 5 Beltline B' The *eltline .ac!s are wired to the %eri%heral controllers in the (#$((n%ut/#ut%ut $rocessor )>nit' 2ECENT CHANGE AND 8E2,/Y :The 2-/C(2ecent -hange and Cerif&) function ena*les &ou to view and alter the 5 ESS-2000 Switch data*ases and is accessed fro" the ,--(,aster -ontrol -entre) #,-(#%eration 5 ,aintenance -enter) ST93S(Su%%le"entar& Trun! and 9ine 3or!stations) or fro" o%tionall& e/ui%%ed 2-/C ter"inals' The ,-- and the #,- have access to all 2-/C functions' (ndividual ter"inals however "a& *e restricted to s%ecific functions' 2-/C %rovides the ca%a*ilit& to view and alter the data*ases in the 5 ESS2000 Switch' 2-3C function has the following two "odes 8 2-(2ecent -hange) "ode %rovides a wa& of accessing and changing the s&ste" data*ases to reflect changes in custo"er services or s&ste" ca%a*ilities' C(Cerif&) "ode %rovides the a*ilit& to view *ut not change data*ase contents' This allows one to verif& that the correct changes were "ade'



Salient Features 8 #-B stands for O2GAN CONT2O. 1HE2S,ON +igital switching s&ste" develo%ed *& ,/s -(T 09-0TE9 of France' +igital switching s&ste" with single MTN stage' #,- 5 S/: are du%licated' Cariet& of services %rovided are

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Basic Tele%hon& (S+: ,o*ile Cideo text 5 others

(t su%%orts different t&%es of signalling s&ste"s 8 i) +ecadic ii) ,F iii) -0S iv) --(TT :o'- B ,ax no' of .unctions "a& *e <0 000 #nl& =5 t&%es of -ards ( excluding -S: ) S%ace re/uire"ent is ver& s"all Environ"ental re/uire"ent is not ver& stringent Traffic handing ca%acit& is K 00 000 B4-0 0uto"atic fault recover& feature 5 re"ote "onitoring #%erating s&ste" used is 2T#S (2eal Ti"e #%erating S&ste" ) 9anguage used is -4(99

2 ) ,0O#2 >:(TS #F #-B SHSTE, 8 2') ) -S: (S>BS-2(BE2 -#::E-T(#: >:(T ) 8 (t is -S:9 for local su*scri*erJs 5 it is -S:+ for re"ote su*scri*erJs ' 0 -S: *asicall& consists of ) Basic 2ac! 5 = Extensions 2ac!s' -a%acit& of -S: is 5000 "ax' Su*scri*erJs "a& *e 0nalogue 5 +igital' 0 ) T0B0S - For #rdinar& su*' -)< su*' %er card ' B ) T0B0E - For ho"e "etering - )< su*' %er card ' - ) T0B0:- For (S+: su*scri*erJs - consu"es )< %orts ) T2>:E 0:+ O>:-T(#: -#::E-T(#: >:(T (S,T ) 8 (t is the interface *etween the switching networ! 5 .unctions fro" other exchanges ( or re"ote n su*-connection unit )

S3(T-4(:1 ,0T2(@ (S,@ ) 8 (t is a single stage M T N ' (t is "ade u% of 4ost Switching ,atrix 5 *ranch selection 5 0"%lification Function S,@ is du%licated'

) 0>@(9(02H EP>($,E:TS -#:T2#9 ST0T(#: ( S,0 ) 8

(t contains ET0 5 $>$EET0 consists of fre/' 2eceiver/1enerator conference calls --TS ' Tone 1enerators - $>$E So"e +#ES functions of --(TT :o' B'
2'5 a) *) c) d) e) f) 2'<

) -ontrol >nits(S,-) 8 There are six control units as under 8 ,ultiregister(,2) - for esta*lishing and releasing of calls' Transistor(T2) - for storing Exchange data*ase' -harging >nit(Tx) -for carr&ing out charging .o*s' ,ar!er(,P) - %erfor"s connection 5 disconnection of su*scri*er' --S-B -ontroller($-)- for carr&ing out routing 5 traffic "anage"ent functions' ,atrix S&ste" 4andler(1@) - for "onitoring connection in S/: ) #%eration 5 ,aintenance >nit(S,,) 8

(t is #,- for su%ervising functions of different units and for ta!ing suita*le actions at the event of faults' (t uses two identical "icro%rocessors ,otorola-<K0=0' There are two "agnetic dis!s each of ca%acit& )'21B for various storage' #ne strea"er drive of 525,B is %rovided for initialisation and *ac!u% etc' There are two "agnetic ta%e drives for transferring charging data for *illing etc su*se/uentl&' S,, is du%licated ' #,- (#$E20T(#: 0:+ ,0(:TE:0:-E -E:TE2 ) 8 (t is a general %ur%ose co"%uter called ,(T20-225 su%%lied *& ,/S--(T 0lcatel France through ,/s'(T( 9td' #ne co"%lete s&ste" consists of ) -$> unit ; ,agnetic Ta%e >nit (,T>s ) 5 ) 4ard-dis! drive' ) s%are s&ste" consisting of ) -$> unit ) ,agnetic Ta%e >nit 5 ) 4ard-dis! drive used as a stand *& s&ste" ' 2EP>(2E,E:T #F #,- 8 The nor"al call connection in E-)0B exchange is inde%endent of #,- 'The su*scri*ers will not *e affected if the #,- fails' This #,- s&ste" is re/uired *& the "tce staff for feeding/ retrieving infor"ation to / fro" E)0B exchange' The following tas!s will not *e %ossi*le to carr& out if the #,- fails 8i)

(nterrogation of su*' data li!e "eter reading status of %hone-%lus facilit& etc'


iii) iv)


,odification of su*' data li!e creation/ addition /su%%ression of new su*' line *arring/ restoring of ST+ service %roviding/ deleting %hone - %lus facilities etc (nterrogation of Exchange data li!e status of all the units of exchange status of $-, lin!s c!t' grou% status traffic data etc ,onitoring of exchange data su*-data li!e %eriodic traffic re%ort .unction re%ort o*servation data %rint out of fault "essages generated *& various units re%air of various diagnostics testing of su*' lines testing of .unction etc' 2etrieval #f Calua*le +ata 8- $re%aration of *i"onthl& "eter- reading ta%e (T0@(9 Ta%e ) saving of "e"or& data of control units (,,S> Ta%e ) 5 %re%aration of s&ste" ta%e'

BASIC CONSTITU ENTS OF THE OMC SYSTEM : The %ictorial view of ,itra-225 #,- co"%uter is shown in the fig' The co"%lete co"%uter s&ste" is covered in ; ca*inets as shown *elow 8) ) -$> >:(T 8- (t consists of the following $-Bs ($rinted -!t' Board ) -$> $ower Su%%l& 090) 2eal Ti"e -loc! 2T0,- -ou%ler E$-56 ,agnetic Ta%e -ou%ler #$-50 ,agnetic Ta%e -ou%ler ,$-50 +is! -ou%ler :ESS(E- 0da%tor +is! -ou%ler :ESS(E- #%erator 3atch -dog Ti"er E$-<= 0s&nchrous -ou%ler 9$-55 The :o' of 9$-55 $-Bs "a& var& fro" ) to ; de%ending u%on no' of ter"inals connected with this s&ste"' ) 9$-55 can cater K %eri%herals for "ore than =2 %eri%herals extension shelf is to *e used' Eight - External (nterru%t E$ -5; ,0E -ou%ler -$-5) -$> T:-5) 25< !* ,ain ,e"or& ,E-0= ( ' MAGNET,C TA0E -N,T $MT- ' O2 1M $1AND MAGNE,C ':The ,T>s are used as auxiliar& storage device 'There are total 5 ,agnetic ta%e units out of which 2 ,T>s are %rovided with For"atter $-B 5 designated as B,-0 (,tce) 5 rest of the ; i'e' B,-0 B,-) B,-2 B,-= are used for nor"al s&ste" wor!ing ' The ,agnetic Ta%e >nit B,-0

is of "ore i"%ortance *ecause it controls rest of the = drives will not wor! ' (n such event we have use B,-0 ( ,tce ) in %lace of B,-0 ( service )' The "agnetic Ta%e >nits are used for the following functions 8 Storing +etail - Billing ,essages ( 1T+T Ta%e ) Storing fault 5 ano"al& "essages ( #FF0 Ta%e ) $re%aring su*scri*erJs -"eter - reading Ta%e ( T0@(9 Ta%e ) $re%aring control units "/" data Ta%e (,,SC Ta%e ) $re%aring s&ste" Ta%e ( S&ste" Ta%e )

C02(#>S TH$ES #F ,T>s >SE+ (: T4E SHSTE, 83ith the fast technolog& u%gradation ever&ti"e we find new t&%e/ "odel of "agnetic ta%e unit ' $resentl& = t&%es of ,T>s are availa*le at different #,- sites in (ndia 8)) $E2TE- t&%e - ,ade in >S0 2) ++F t&%e - ,ade in France =) ++F- $E2TE- t&%e -,ade in France To save the detail Billing ,essages when the #,- fails ) "ag' Ta%e unit (B,-0) is %rovided in +SF rac! of each E-)0B exchange ' The ++F tu%e 5 ++F- $E2TE- t&%e "icro%rocessor *ased "ag' ta%e units used in #,- as B,-0 are full& co"%ati*le with the ++F or ++F-$E2TE- T&%e B,-0 used in +SF rac! ' D,S4 -N,T -D-EB :This is also used as auxiliar& "/" for ,(T20-225 -o0"%uter ' (t %la&s a vitial role in "an -"/c dialogue ' The s&ste" 5 a%%lication data of different E-)0B exdchanges connected with the #,- are stored in the dis! drive ' The data storage ca%acit& is K0 "ega *&te' #ut of the 2 dis! driver ) is connected to service -$> 5 the other is !e%t as stand*& dis!' (n earlier su%%lies of ,(T20-225 the dis! %ac!s inside the #+-K0 dis! driveF re"ova*le dis! %ac! and fixed dis! %ac! and fixed dis! %ac!' 0ll the useful data are stored an fixed dis! %ac!' Two Filters 8 #ne %refilter and one a*solute filters are used in >+-K0 dis! drive to %rovide a dust -free enviro"ent in dis! area' $eriodic clearing of %re-filter

and change of a*solute filter is a "ust for fault free o%eration of the >+-K0 dis! drive' $ossi*ilt& of 4ead crash due to +ust 8 The diagra" *elow de%icts how the head crash can occur in dis! due to %resence of various t&%es of dust %articles on dis! surface' B& wa& of indication we are showing *elow the co"%aritive si?es of so"e %ollutants and the height of the head' SE2C(-E TE2,(:09 ,0E 8 The service ter"inal ,0E is used as co"%uter console !e&*oard for direct dialogue with co"%uter' #,- s&ste" is initialised through this ter"inal' There are two ,0E %rovided one for service unit 5 other for stand*& s&ste"' #ther $eri%herals 8 Tele T&%e 3riter(TTH) Cideo +is%la& >nit(C+>) $rinter These %eri%herals are the "edia through which "an-"achine dialogue ta!es %lace' The no' of TTH/C+>/(2 de%ends on :o' of exchanges connected si?e of each exchange no' of fault control%osition in test roo"s' 0s "entioned earlier K ter"inals can *e connected to one 9$-55 $-B in -$> unit' For "ore than ;9$-55 $-Bs(i'e for connecting "ore than =2 ter"inals) extension shelf has to *e installed to acco""odate "ore 9$-55 $-Bs' These TTH/C+>/(2 are located in ex%loitation roo" or test roo" ' For shorter distances(a*out )00ft) these %eri%herals can *e directl& connected to #,-' >se of %eri%herals at distant %laces re/uire ,#+E,' These ,#+E,S are installed in B,# rac! in the #,- roo"' The TTHs wor! at =00 Bauds s%eed while C+> 5 (2 wor! at )200 Baud s%eed' 34ET4E2 2E1>902 ,0(:TE:0:-E #F ,(T20- 225 #,SHSTE, 2EP>(2E+ 8 0s "ost of the %eri%heral devices are of electro"echanical t&%e hence %eriodic chec!ing for their wear and tear and cleaning is also re/uired' The

,tce schedule for the #,- 5 %eri%herals to *e carried out *& exchange ,tce staff' These ,tce tas!s should *e %erfor"ed ti"el& to ensure faultfree o%eration and long life of %eri%herals' The details of tas!s carrried out *& 2,- tea" during 5 "onthl& %eriodic ,tce ' Each #,- site has *een su%%lied with one +E9SEH T##9E(T Test Ta%es called SE,S ta%e SEE3 ta%e ,T-(T ta%e and s%ares and consu"era*le' These ite"s are used for testing the -$> $-Bs ,T>S +is!s and other %eri%herals' $#(:TS T# BE -4E-EE+ +>2(:1 (:S$E-T(#: #F ,(T20-225 #,- SHSTE, 8 $#(:TS ) ) 3hether #,- S&ste" is wor!ing nor"al without an& lin! failure %ro*le" Q 2 ) 0re there fre/uent T20$ "essages or +(S- 0ccess Error "essages on ,0E Q = ) 4ow "an& units of #,- are down Q ; ) 4ow "an& #,- $-Bs of -$> rac! are %ending fault& Q 5 ) 3hether exchange "tce staff are %ro%erl& carr&ing out "tce activities as %er +#T guidelines Q < ) 3hether < "onthl& %eriodic "tce is *eing carried out *& 2,- tea" Q 0*solute filter of >+-K0 dis! driven has *een changed or not ' B ) 3hether all #,- activities are *eing %ro%erl& recorded in M#,"tce log *oo!N' K ) 3hether sufficient no' of s%are "ag' ta%es are availa*le Q -#,,E:TS ) ) There should not *e fre/uent lin! failure %ro*le"' 2 ) For a relia*le s&ste" no such "essages should co"e ' = ) 3henever an& ,T>-0) 5 /or >$-K0 dis! is fault& i""ediate action should *e ta!en to get it re%aired ' ; ) (t should *e re%orted to 2,- ' 5 ) These should *e carried out as %rescri*ed *& +#T ' < ) :or"all& after ever& < "onths the a*solute filters of *oth >+ -K0 dis! drives has to *e re%laced *& new one to avoid head-crash 5 dis! failure ' B ) 0ll activities should *e recorded in %ro%er for"at as suggested *& +#T ' K ) 0 "in' =< "ag' ta%es of good /ualit& should alwa&s *e availa*le (for ) #,- R ) Exchange )'

6 ) 0re the "ag' ta%es %ro%erl& stored in a cu% *oard 5 records of their use "ainted in register Q

)0 ) 3hether all the staff on dut& are a*le to M(nitialise the #,-N 5 o%ening of "ag' ta%e for 1T+T / #$F0 Q ))) 4ow "an& %eri%herals TTH/ (2/ C+> are fault&Q )2 ) 3hether all the tools availa*le in +E9SEH T##9 E(T Q )= ) 3hether ,,S> ta%e is *eing %re%ared ever& wee! Q

6 ),ag' ta%es should *e stac!ed one over others instead the& should *e %ro%erl& arranged in well %rotected cu% *oard ' 0 record should *e "aintained to identif& "uch useed ta%es for re%lace"ent ' )0 ) 0ll "tce staff of OT# level 5 a*ove should at least !now #,initiali?ation 5 "ag' ta%e o%eration ' )) ) Fault should *e locali?ed *& exch'-staff 5 re%orted to 2,-' )2 ) (f an& tools are "issing/ lost the sa"e should *e arranged i""ediatel&' )= ) The ,,S> ta%e should *e %re%ared atleast once in a wee! for each exch' -onnected to #,- 5 should *e tested for loading of data in control unit fro" +SF once in a "onth' ); ) 2elative hu"idit& F te"%' 5 dust free environ"ent should *e "aintained for %ro%er 5 fault free o%eration of #,- 5 %eri%herals'

); ) 3hether %ro%er environ"ental conditions are "aintained in #,roo" Q

0220:1E,E:T #F $0SS3#2+ 0:+ 12#>$(:1 #F -#,,0:+S 8 There are nearl& =20 co""ands availa*le in E-)0B s&ste" for %erfor"ing various functions ' These co""ands are grou%ed 5 %ut into )< different classes' 0n& class of co""and can *e %ut in %assword for %rotection ' There is a co"%lete flexi*ilit& regarding arrange"ent of co""ands in different classes in E-)0B exchanges' 3hatever has *een arranged *& the installer either the so"e is *eing followed or so"e +Es are arranging co""ands as %er their convenience ' (t is also noticed that in so"e exchanges so"e i"%ortant co""ands are not guarded *& %assword' (t has further *een noticed that it is %ossi*le to %revent incre"enting of su*s' "eter reading during ST+ call *& entering certain co""ands are %ossi*le "isuse of this deficienc& in this s&ste" cannot *e avoided with the

intention of "al-%ractice' This deficienc& in the s&ste" has alread& *een *rought to the notice of TE- for wor!ing out suita*le %reventive solution' 2 ) Till the ti"e TE- is a*le to *ring out suita*le solutions to strea"line the arrange"ent of %assword in E-)0B exchange a co""ittee was constituted *& ,T:9 Bo"*a& 5 2,- Bo"*a&'


0fter &ears of *eing treated as a luxur& teleco""unications has co"e into its own in the eighth $lan' The +e%art"ent of Teleco""unications has announced a"*itious %lans for the addition of B'5 "illion lines to the existing 5'K "illion *& the end of the Kth %lan()662-6B) as co"%ared to onl& ='2 "illion in )6K2-62' To *ridge the ga% *etween the su%%l& and de"and +oT invited a tender for 200 000 lines of switching e/ui%"ent on 2u%ee %a&"ent' (n the industrial %olic& of Oul& )66) Teleco"' e/ui%"ent was delicenesed and through o%en to foreign invest"ents' -onse/uentl& six new technologies were %lanned to *e validated' These foreign su%%liers set u% their validation exchanges each of )0 000 lines ca%acit&(including two 2S>s of 2E each) at different %laces e'g' E3S+ of Sie"ens(1er"an&) at -alcutta 0@E-)0 of Ericsson(Sweden) at "adras Fetex-)50 of fu.itsu(Oa%an) at Bo"*a& #-B2K= of 09-0TE9(France) at +elhi etc' Three new +igital Switching S&ste"s i'e' E3S+ 0@E-)0 Fetex-)50 which got validated first were inducted in the (ndian Teleco"' :etwor! 5 three la!h lines were i"%orted fro" these three su%%liers' (n addition ='5 la!hs lines were also i"%orted on lease *asis fro" these su%%liers' Su*se/uentl& four "ore switches i'e' #-B-2K= of 09-0TE9(France) 5ESS of 0T5T(>S0) S&ste"-@ of 1$T(>E) and :E02-<)E of :E-(Oa%an) also got validated' E3S+ is one of the two technologies selected for T0@ and is also the technolog& for (ntelligent :etwor! and ,o*ile -o""unication' SYSTEM /EAT-2ES :E3S+ +igital Switching S&ste" has *een designed and "anufactured and designed and "anufactured *& ,/s Sie"ens 1er"an&' The na"e is a**reviated for" of 1er"an e/uivalent of Electronic Switching S&ste" +igital E3S+ switch can su%%ort "axi"u" 2 50 000 su*scri*ers of <0 000 inco"ing outgoing or *oth wa& trun!s when wor!ing as a %ure tande" exchange' (t can carr& 25 200 Erlang traffic and can withstand )'; "illion B4-0' (t can wor! as local cu" transit exchange and has --S :o''B (S+: and (: ca%a*ilities ' SYSTEM A2CH,TECT-2E :-

The "ain hardware units of an E3S+ Switch are as under 8$"' Digital .i e - it $D.-' :- functional unit on which su*scri*er lines are ter"inated' $( ' .i e3Tru ! Grou: $.TG' :- +igital Trun!s are connected to 9T1s' The access function deter"ined *& the networ! environ"ent are handled *& +9>s and 9T1s' $*' Swit%&i g Networ! $SN' :- 0ll the 9T1s are connected to the S: which inter connects the line and trun!s connected to the exchange in accordance with the call re/uire"ent of the su*scri*ers' --:- and -$ are also connected to S:' $=' Co-ordi atio 0ro%essor $C0' :- (t is used for s&ste"-wide coordination functions such as routing ?oning etc' 4owever each su*s&ste" in E3S+ carr&out %racticall& all the tas!s arising in their area inde%endentl&' $5' Co))o C&a el Sig alli g Networ! Co trol $CCNC' - it :- This unit functions as the ,essage Transfer $art(,T$) of --S-B' The >ser $art(>$) is incor%orated in the res%ective 9T1s' Bloc! diagra" of E3S+ is given in fig')' (t also shows that the "ost i"%ortant controls are distri*uted throughout the s&ste"' This distri*uted control reduces the coordination overheads and the necessit& of co""unication *etween the %rocessors' (t results in high d&na"ic %erfor"ance standard' For inter-%rocessor co""unications <; !*%s se"i%er"anent connections are set through S:' This avoids the necessit& for a se%arate inter%rocessor networ!' S-1SC2,1E2 3 ADM,N,ST2AT,ON /AC,.,T,ES ,N E+SD :)'

2a:id %all set u: :- 0**reviated +ialing - 4otline (""ediate - 4otline with Ti"e #ut 2' Call 2estri%tio Servi%es :-

- #/1 2estrictions - 0d"inistration -ontrolled - Su*s controlled - (/- Barring =' Abse t Subs%riber Servi%es - (""ediate diversion - +iversion on no re%l& to o%erator to a nu"*er to announce"ent ;' Call Co):letio servi%es +iversion on *us& -all 3aiting -all %riorit&(originating 5 ter"inating) 5' Multi:artA servi%es -onference call Tele-"eeting <' Alar) %all boo!i g :-asual 2egular (nu"*er of consecutive da&s) B' Servi%es to 01X +irect dialing in (for different $B@ ca%acities) 9ine hunting K' Mis%ella eous Servi%es ,alicious call identification - 0ll calls - S%ecial su*scri*er signal 6' Call %&arge servi%es :Se%arate counters for 9ocal -all charges ST+/(S+ calls charges :u"*er of calls Service activation charges and Service usage charges Trans"ission of "eter %ulses $reventive "eter o*servation (ad.usta*le threshold) SYSTEM DATA -all -handling ca%acit& :o' of Su*scri*er lines - "ax' 250 000 :o' of Trun!s - "ax' <0 000

Switcha*le traffic 200 E Su%%l& Coltage -loc! accurac&

- "ax' 25

-;K C no"inal direct voltage ,axi"u" relative fre/uenc& deviation 8 %lesiochoronous )0 ex% -6 F s&nchronous )0 ex%' -)) 0ll conventional signaling s&ste"s e'g --(TT 22 :o'5 :o' B Carious loo% and shunt resistance %ossi*le' $ush-*utton dialing ,ultifre/uenc&' Signaling to --(TT 2eco""endation /'2= 2otar& dialing 8 5 to 22 %ulse/s Basic access 8 )<0 !*%s(2BR+Rs&nc') BS<; !*%s +S)< !*%s $ri"ar& rate access 8 20;K !*%s(=0BR+Rs&nc')

Signaling s&ste"s 0nalog su*scri*er line 5 trun! accesses

(S+: accesses

+igital trun! accesses Traffic routing

20;K !*%s $er destination "ax' B high-usage routes and one final route Se/uential or rando" selection of idle trun! of a trun! grou% :u"*er of trun! grou%s %er exchange 8 ,ax' )000 inco"ing and ,ax' )000 outgoing and ,ax' )000 *othwa& $eriodic %ulse "etering

-all charge registration

0,0 8 0uto"atic ,essage 0ccounting or +etailed Billing(-0,0 90,0) (02ST0T ((nter 0d"inistration 2evenue accounting and Statistics) ,ax')2B ?ones ,ax'< tariffs %er ?one Tariff switchover %ossi*le in)5"inute ti"ing intervals Trans"ission of co""unication data to co"%uter center (out%ut on ta%e also %ossi*le) Exa"l%e 8 Exchange for 2;000 lines units a%%ro')00 "eter s/uare' 0"*ient te"%erature 8 5 degree centigrade to ;0 degree centigrade 2elative hu"idit& 8 )07 to K07

S%ace re/uire"ents

Environ"ental conditions