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VERGIL'S AENEID,
BOOK
EDITED

I.

WITH INTRODUCTORY
AND

NOTICES, NOTES,

COMPLETE VOCABULARY,
rOR THE UBB OP

CLASSES READING FOR SECOND CLASS CERTIFICATES AND FOR UNIVERSITY MATRICULATION.

BY

JOHN HENDERSON,
BEAD MASTER,
ST.

M. A.

CATHAAtNES COIXEOUTB INSTITnTB.

NEW

EDITION.

TORONTO:
THE
COPP,
9

CLARK COMPANY
FRONT STREET WEST.

(LIMITED),

Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada,


eight hundred and ninety-one, by

in the

year one thousand

The

Copp, Clark Company (Ldiited), Toronto,

Ontario, in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.

PREFACE
edition is designed to meet the wants of stn lents reading Second Class Certiticates and University Pass Matriculation. The notes have been purposely made copious and fulL When it is remembered that Vergil is usually put into the hands of a school boy at a very early period of the course, and that the Aeneid is really a difficult book for a junior pupU, no apology need be offered for the assistance
for

The present

given in this edition. Latin

The

object of the notes

is

principally to explain
edition of Harkness's

the grammatical difficulties that occur.

The

liitest

In regard to Orthography, though some forms not usually met with in ordinary
Edition of 1881)
is

Grammar (Standard

referred to.

have been introduced, the readings of Bibbeck have not, as a whole, been adopted. The pupil would be puzzled if we were to read e.g. omnis (ace. pi.) in one line, and omnes in the next, for the same case. The letter j throughout has also been retained. Pupils will never learn to appreciate VergU, if teachers bother them with nice
editions

questions of Latin orthography,


dispute.

which,

in

many

cases,

are

still

in

The

editions of Conington,

Kennedy and Greenough have been

con-

sulted in preparing the notes of the edition.


St.

Catharines,

May

28th, 1886.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


In this edition the notes have been considerably enlarged and in
cases entirely re-written.

many

Some

sliglit

typographical errors, which in-

advertently crept into the First Edition, have been corrected.

St.

Cathakinrs, Oct. 24th,

1890.

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2009 with funding from

Ontario Council of University Libraries

http://www.archive.org/details/vergilsaeneidOOvirg

LIFE OF VERGIL.

Publius Vergilius Maro^


October, B.C. 70, in
tlie lirst

w.is

born on the fifteenth of

Birth.

consulship of

M.

Licinius Crassus

and Cn. Pompeius, at Andes, (now P'utola), a small village near Mantua. Since the full franchise was not given to this part of Gaul (GaUia Transpadana) till some years afterwards^, the poet, like many of his predecessors and contemporaries in literature, was not a Roman, but an Italian
provincial.'

The parents
obscure birth.

of

Vergil,

like

those of

Horace, were of His

parents.

Some

authorities say that the poet's father

he was a brickmaker, while others was the servant of a travelling merchant, Magius, whose daughter, Magia Polla, he afterwards married. Whatever may have been his occupation, certain it is, that he was at the time of the poet's birth, the steward, factor, or The childhood of possessor of an estate near Mantua. Vergil was passed amid the hills and woods that fringed the verdant banks of the Mincius, and the early association of the poet with the lovely scenery in the neighborhood of his native town may account for the exquisite touches of pastoral life which is so well depicted in the Eclogues and the

was a

potter, others, that

again assert that he

Georgics.

'

Every

Roman

citizen

had

re<:fularly

three

names

denoting-

the individual, the

Publius Vergilim Maro, Pubhus is tliepraenomen, marking the vdividwd; Vergil iusis the nomen, denoting the rjens or clan while M'iro is the cofinomen, or family name. Sometimes an agnomen was added for honorgens or clan, and the/dmilia.

Thus

in

arj' distinction,

as Africamis to Scipio,
;

Numidicv^

to Metellus.
till

The

original form of

the
2

name was VergUius


B.C. 49.

Virgilius

was not common

the middle ages.

'

Furius Bibaculus was


:

bom

at

Cremona
;

Varro, at Atax

Asinius Pollio,
;

among

the Marsi

Aemilius Macer, at Verona


Sallust, at

Cornelius Callus, at

Venusia

Quinctilius Varro, at

Cictro, at

Arpinum

men

of the time Tibullus,

Cremona; Catullus, at at Umbria; Amitemuni Livy, at Patavium. Of the distinguished Caesar, and Lucretius alone were bom at Rome.
;

Forum Julii Verona; Pr pertius,

florace, at

LIFK OK VIORGJI.
His
st^idies
\\v

Vergil began his studies at Cremona, where,

we

are told,

beffin

65 B.C.

assumed the toga

virilis

on the same
itself

Lucretius died.

The town
Varro.

day on which had already been noted,

having been the birthplace of Furius Bibaculus, and of the


critic, Quinctilius

VerfHl goen
to

After a brief stay at Cremona, and svibsequently at Mediohniuni


Vergil, after the
of rhetoricians
torician,

Rome,

B.C. SS.

In the capital, {Mihm), the poet went to Rome. fashion of the day, attended the lectures

and philosophers.
teacher of

the

Under Epidius, the rheMarc Antony and afterwards of

Octavius, and under the Epicurean philosopher, Siron, the

poet became acquainted with the outlines of rhetoric and


philosophy.
for the bar,
It is quite probable that his father

intended him
in-

but a weak voice and a diffident manner were


the

superable barriers in
public speaking.

way

of

obtaining distinction in

Vergil soon gave up rhetoric, and, in fact,

renounced poetry for the more congenial study of philosophy. Under Siron, he seems to have made considerable progress in Epicurean philosophy, and the love he retained for this branch
of learning is

plainly

observable

in

many

of

his

extant

writings.*

he welcomes the exchange


useful studies

In a minor poem, generally supposed to be genuine, of poetry and rhetoric for more

with you, empty coloured flagons of the rhetoricians, words swollen, but not with the dews of Greece ; and, away with you, Stilo, Tagitius and Varro, you, nation of pedants, soaking with fat you, empty cymbals of the classroom. Farewell, too, Sabinus, frientl of all my friends now, farewell, all my beautiful companions, we are setting our sails for a haven of bliss, going to hear the learned words of the great .Siri>n, and we mean to redeem our life from all Farewell, too, sweet Muses ; for, to tell the distraction. trutK, I have found how sweet you were: and yet, I pray you look on my pages again, but with modesty and at rare

"

Away

intervals."*
Gees to Naples.

After a short stay at Rome, Vergil probaVjly went to Naples, where we are told, Parthenius, another Epicurean, was his
1^

'st^ructor.
;:

The
IV., -219;

great
Aeu:

Epic of
I.,

Lucretius,

added to

tiie

743; VI., 724; Geoig: II 475-492.

6CaUlepta: VII.

Di Rtrum Naiura.

LIFE OF VEHGIL.
teachings of his instructors gave, no doubt, his mind a strong bent towards the doctrines of Epicurus. It is probable that the ^ poet returned to his father's farm before the outbreak of Returns the war between Pompey and Caesar, B. C. 49. It is also likelj' honu.
.

that he remained there


42),

till

after the battle of Philippi (B.C.

and that he employed his time in gaining by observation materials which he afterwards employed in his great didactic poem, the Georgics. Unlike Horace, Vergil sympathized with the party of Caesar. The formation of the Second Triumvirate threw the Koman world into the broils of a civil
war.

In the division of the provinces, the Gauls (except

fell to Antony. The lands of eighteen were given up to reward the legions of the unscrupulous Antony, and among the lands were those of Cremona. The district around this city failing to satisfy the greedy rapacit}' of the legionaries of the Triumvir, the farms of the neighbouring Mantua were seized, and among the lands con-

Gallia Narbonensis)
cities

fiscated

were those of the poet's father,

C. Asiuius Pollio, y^j^^"^

the prefect of GaUia

Transpadaiia, unable to restrain the

lawlessness of the soldiers of Antony, sent Vergil to

Rome
Regains hix

with a recommendation to Augustus to allow the poet to It is quite probable that conretain his paternal estate.
genial tastes

aud a recMUiition

oi the genius or

.,

f.

IT

-y

Vergil may/arjn.

have influenced Pollio to take this course. At the close of the same year (41 B.C.), however, war broke out anew between Octavius and L. Antonius. Pollio, was deposed from Another oflBce, and Alfenus Varus appointed in his stead. division of lands followed, and the poet is said to have been deprived of his estate the second time.'' His friends Gallus, (^,^^^(,5^^^ /''' Pollio, and Farus, however, interposed and saved his farm. By them he was introduced to Maecenas, the patron of afterwards the prime minister of Augustus. literary men This "year marks the beginning of the rising fortunes of theS.C.W.

With his friend and patron, P ollio, as Consul, Vergil /ori!M7ie poet. became the honoured member of a literary coterie which Vergil.
graced the table of Maecenas.

o/

The intimacy that Vergil enjoyed at court, is shewn by his being one of those who went to Brundisium along with Maecenas, when the latter

was negotiating a treaty between Augustus and Antony.*


7

log-ues I. and I.\. Horace: Satires I., 5 and


:

10.

8
His
residences.

LIFE OF VERGIIi.

Through the munitnccnt kindness of his patrons he wjia He had a magnificent house raised to luxury and affluence. in Rome on the Esquiline near the residences of Horace and Maecenas, estates in Sicily, and in Campania, near Naples. The mild climate and clear skies of Southern Italy suited his delicate constitution, and till his death, his Campanian residence was his favorite abode.* From the date of his early
need be said of his life except that he devoted himself to study and to the completion of his immortal works. In the year B.C. 19, he went to Greece, possibly with a view to restore his health, and to At Athens he give a finish to his great work, the Aeneid. Vergil met Augustus who had just returned from Samos. returned to Italy in company with the Emperor, but died at Brundisium three days after he landed, 2'2nd September, He was buried near Naples, on the road leading to 19 B.C. His epitaph, said to have been dictated Puteoli (PuzzuoH). by. himself in his last moment, was as follows ;
Eclogues
till

his death, little

Deith.

Epitaph.

70

Mantua me genuit; Calabri rapuere;


I
1

tenet

nunc

Parthenope.
is

Cecini pascua, rura, duces.^"

Vergil

generally described as of tall stature, delicate

frame, homely features, and dark complexion, abstinent in

the use of food, shy, and fond of retirement.


to have
lines thus

Horace

is

said

had Vergil in his mind's eye when he wrote^^ the rendered by Conington
:

"The man

is

passionate, perhaps misplaced

In social circles of fastidious taste

His ill-trimmed beard, his dress of uncouth His shoes ill -fitting, may provoke a smile
; ;

stj'le,

But he's the soul of virtue but he's kind, But that coarse body hides a mighty mind."

He was
the

so pure and chaste that the Neapolitans gave 'him


of

name

Parthenias, or the maiden. ^'^

He

is

said to
traits

have been shy and even awkward in society, and these


Geo. IV., 563.
Illo

Vergilium ine tempore dulcis alebat Parthenope, studiis florentcm ignobilis oti.
last line

">Some have taken the


Aeneid.

to refer to the Eclogrues, the Georgics,

and the

HHor.

Sat.

I. 3,

29-31.

1 irapfie^-os,

a maiden.

WORKS OF VEKGIL.
even the polished society of the Capital never succeeded in He was (listmstful of his own powers, w hich
his hig h ideas of literary excellence led

eradicating.

him

to.uudejcjrate.

In the midst
ous

of

an
;

irreligious age,

he had the stronges t

religious sentiment
;

in the midst of vice,

he remained virtuthe writings of

and

wliile

licentiousness

disfigures

many

of his brother poets, the pages of Vergil

everywhere

inculcate the highest truths of morality

and

virtue.

n.

WORKS.
Vergil is said to have attempted in his youth an epic Early poem^' on the wars of Rome, but the difficulty of the task His earlier poems, soon led him to abandon his design.
Culex, Moretum, Ciris, Copa and those that pass under the name Caialepta, though they give little proof of great ability, still show the careful attention the poet bestowed on metre and diction. The writings that first established the reputauorks.

tion of Vergil were the Edorjaes,^* pastoral poems, ten ia.Eclogues.

number, written between 43 B.C. -37 B.C. This class of poetry was as yet unknoAvn

in Italy,

though

it rpj^^ocritus

had

already reached its perfection in the

hand

of the Sicilian anap^stoml

Theocritus, whose influei||e

may be

traced in

many

writers

from the days

of Vergil to those of

Tennyson.

the Sicilian exhibits a true picture of joys and sorrows, character, sentiment and habits of the rural
swains, the piny woods of fertile

The IdyP* of the shepherd's life. The

with feeding

Sicily, the upland lawns sky of his native island are delineated so true to nature, that the homely bard not only won the ear of the most critical period of Greek literature, but has left his undying impress on all subsequent As Kingsley has said, " Theocritus is one of pastoral poetry.

flocks, the

sea and

the poets

who

will never die.


;

He

sees

men and

things in his

own
I

light way, truly


3.

and he describes them simply, hon-

EclofTue VI.,

>*

PovKo\fto, to attend rattle).

These were called by the generic term Bucolica (fiovKoXiKa, scil, iroi.ij/u.aTa, from The terra Eclogue is from the Greek iKXoyri, a choice

coUectvm, and

larger number.

that the poems under that name were a collection from a Spenser wrote the word Mglogue and followed the derivation of Petrarch, ai^iiv Aoyoi, " tales o/ goatx" or " laled of goatherdg."
16 eiSuAAo',

may mean

little

picture.

10

WORKS OF VKKGtL.
estly, and with careless touches of pathos and humor, while he floods his whole scene Avith that gorgeous Sicilian air like one of Titian's pictures, and all this is told in a language and

metre which shapes itself almost unconsciously, wave after wave, into the most luscious joy."
Theocritus

Vergil's Eclogues, on the other hand, can hardly be said to

'cmnmu-^ be true pictures of pastoral life. His shepherds and shepherdesses belong to the island of Sicily lather than to the
district of

Mantua.

Often, too, he

dress a mere pretext for discussing

makes the shepherd's some political event, or for


Varro, or Gallus.

paying some compliment to


too
artificial.

Pollio,

His
life is

characters are too conventional, his representation of

In the

Roman

Eclogue

we

miss that individu-

alizing the

character which so strongly marks the

Greek
Their
^

Idyl.

StiU the earlier poems of Vergil have beauties.


style,
art.
:

melodious diction, their soft and easy flowing admired by Horace, no mean judge of the poet's
Division of
Eclojues.

were

Dunlop divides the Eclogues into two

classes

1 )

those in

which, by a sort of allegory, some events or characters of the time are drawn under the image of pastoral life as in 1,
4, 6,

10

(2)

those in which shepherds and rural scenes are

really depicted, as in 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9.
(1)

Others divide them:


2,

those copied from Theocritus, a#l,


4, 6, 10.

3,

5,

7, 8, 9

(2)

those more original, as


TheGeorgics

four books, was written (between B.C. 37-B.C. 3U^*j at the request of Maecenas^^ to whom the poem was dedicated. In this didactic Epic, Vergil copies

The

Georgics,'^'' in

largely from

Hesiod, Nicander, and Aratus.^"

While the

his

Eclogues have justly been regarded as inferior to the Idyls of Greek original, Theocritus, the Georgics, on the other

hand, have been accouuteil superior to any other poem on the


1
'7

Sat.

1.

10, 45.

Gcorgica,yeiopyLKa, from yea.=yri, the earth

and

epyov,

a work.

alluded to in the Georgics are: the death of Julius 8 The chief historical events civil wars ended by the battle of PhilipiJi, 42 B.C. the Caesar, 44 B.C. (B. 1, 456);
(B. 1, 490);

the wars waged (34 B.C.) in Parthia under Antony and those on the (B. 1, 509); the battle of Actium and the submission of the East B.C. 30 (B. 2, 172; 3, 27.32; 4, 5C2): the irraption of the Daci on the Danube,

Rhine under Agrippa


30 (B.
2, 497).

B.C
'0

See the opening lines of Georgics,


Hesiod's Wurks

I.

and

IV.
Oeorrjics.

*>

and Days ;

Aratus's

Phuenomena ; Nicander'a

WORKS OF VEKGiL.
same subject that has ever appeared.
the apt

11

The harmonious ami Peutieso/


* (^eorgtcs.

graceful language, the pleasing descriptions of rural scenes,

charming episodes, all combine to lend au which in any other hands would have intolerably dull. Tiie time was ripe for such a poem. been Agriculture had h> en the chief employment and the honored occupation of the Romans from the early days of the The long-continued wars had, however, desolated City. Italy, ^^ and Vergil with sorrow laments, "the plough hath not its meed of honor, the fields lie neglected, and the the crooked pruning hooks are tillers are off to the war forged into stiff swods. "^^ Even after war had ceased, the soldier, too long accustomed to cr.jnps and the excitement of a

and

interest to a subject,

military

life,

cared

little

about the prosaic

life of

a farmer.

To

recall the

peaceful habits of rural industry, the poem,

which Addison pronounces " the most complete, elaborate and finished piece of all antiquity," was written. The first Cnntmts o/ *'"'^'**book trtats of tillage, the second of orchards, the third of the care of horses and cattle, and the fourth of bees. The two most successful imitations in English of this poem are Philips's Yet, no one can read Pastorals, and Thompson's Seadons. the English imitations without being struck with tlieir inferiority to the

poem

of Vergil.

The Aeneid,^ in twelve books, written between 29 B.C. Aeneid. and 19 B.C., recounts the story of the escape of Aeneas from bnrni"g Troy, his wanderings over the deep in search of a home which the fates had promised, his final settlement in Italy as the founder of the Roman Empire destined in after No doubt, Vergil, borrowed largely ages to rule the world. ^*'"5''"' frun the Greek and Roman writers who preceded him. The charged '^ uith Romans were original in no department of literature, except plagiarism.
,
.

Civil wars, almost continuous,


1,

had raged

in Italy froi;i 49-31 B.C.

Georg.

507:

non
Et curvae rvjidum fakes
**The
first

ulliig

aratro

Di'jnus honos, nqualent abductis arva colonis,


conjlaittur in ensem.

is in a letter of Vergil to Augustus was on an expedition against the Caiitai)ri ins. De Aenea rjuidetn rrwo, simeheiculejam. diijmim auribug haherem luig libenter tnitterem: sed tanta inrfioa'a rex >r, ut jiaene vitiis mentix tanlvm opu:iinrjressustnihi

notice of the Aeneid that

we have

written probably B.C. 26,

when the

latter

videar,

cum

prarserlim,, ut xcio, alia

qitoque ntudiu,

ad id

oyius iniUtoque potiora

impreliar.

Macrub. Sat.

1, 2:, 12.

12

WOUKS OF VEKGIU
perhaps in the departments of History ami Jiirisiirinlence. Vergil can hardly be called a borrower any more than the rest
of his

countrymen

in other spheres of letters.

The

religion,

the philosophy, the very political life of the Romans, were all of composite structure, and poetry could scan^cly avoid
the eclecticism that everywhere prevailed.

The

object of

Vergil was to produce a national epic, by showing the vari-

ous steps of the growth of the Empire, and in doing

this,

he had

to give prominence to the influence of

Greek

litera-

ture as an important element in moulding


V.'yfril

Roman

thought.

Vergil had been severely censured^* for his deficiency in


^jjg

clUicised.

power

of

invention, for his intermixture of

Greek and

Latin traditions, for his anachronisms, for his mode of representing the character of Aeneas, and for the sameness of

These are the main charges brought by his detractors, and granting the full indictment brought against the poem, Vergil still has the proud claim No doubt his of being one of the greatest of epic poets. power of invention is less than Homer's, no doubt he did intermingle the traditions of Gieece and those of Rome, (for this, as we have remarked, could hardly be otherwise in his
the indiviilual
chiii iicturs.

no doubt he did commit the heinous crime of anachronism, but he sins in this along with Shiikespeare and Milton, and there is no doubt that this hero Aeneas is cold-blooded These defects, however, are far more and uninteresting. than counterbalanced by his many excellencies. "There is in Vergil a great tenderness of feeling, something better and more charming than mere Roman virtue or morality. That he excels in pathos, as Homer in sublimity, is an old This pathos is given opinion, and it is surely the right one. at times by a single epithet, liy a slight touch, with graceful this tenderness is more striking art by an indirect allusion stern lioman character and wth the contrasted with the as The poet never becomes stately majesty of the verse. he hardly ever ofiends againt good affected or sentimental taste he knows where to stop ; he is excellent in his silence
age),
; ;

Wordsworth says, is a master of language, but no one can really be a master of language unless he be also a master of thought of which language is the expression.
as well as in his speech
;

Vergil, as

^*

Especially by the

Emperor Cali^la, Markland, and

Niebuljr.

WORKS OF VEKGIL.
Cnitwell thus defends Vergil in regard to the main charge:
Vertil

13

"The Aeneid was meant


poem, carrying on the

to be, above all things, a national

lines of thought, the style of speech,


;

which national progress had chosen and it was not meant to eclipse, so much as to do honor to, early literature. Thus those bards who, like Ennins and Naevius, had done good service to ]\ome by singing, however rudely, her history, find their imagines ranged in the gallery of the Aeneid. Thus they meet with the flamens and pontiffs, who drew up the witli the antiquarians and pious scholars, ritual formularies who had sought to find a meaning in the immemorial names, whether of place or custom or person with the magistrates, novelists and philosophers, who had striven to ennoble and enlighten Roman virtue, with the Greek singers and sages, for they, too, had helped to rear the towering fabric of Roman All these meet together in the Aeneid, as in greatness. solemn conclave, to review their joint work, to acknowledge its final completion, and to predict its impending downfall. This is beyond question the explanation of the wholesale appropnation of others' thoughts and language, which would
;

otherwise be sheer plagiarism."

The object that Vergil had in writing the Aeneid is variously Object Spence, Holdsworth and Warton say that stated by writers. the poem was written with a political object to reconcile the This view is also held Romans to the new order of things. that the poem had as much a political by Pope, who says object as Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel; that its primary object was to praise Augustus, and the secondary one was to flatter the Romans by dwelling on the splendor of their "Augustus is e^^dently typified under the character origin. both are of Aeneas, both are cautious and wise in counsel
;

of

free

from the perturbations of passion ; they were cold, unfeeling, and uninteresting ; their wisdom and policy were worldly-minded and calculating. Augustus was conscious and the that he was acting a part, as his last words show the sentiment and conduct of between Aeneas, whencontrast ever the warm impulses of affection might be supposed to have sway, likewise created an impression of insincerity. The characteristic virtue which adorns the hero of the Aeneid
;

as the epithet
filial

pi?/*,

so constantly ajjplicd to
virtue

piety,

and there was no

him shows, was which Augustus more


14
LIFE OP VBROIL.
ostentatiously put forward than dutiful affection to Julius Caesar

who

adopted him."

Browne.
III.

PRINCIPAL ROMAN EPIC WRITERS.


[The Student shovld consult Smith's Ci'S'tdml Dictionary for on account o/ the
subjoined poets.]

Namb.

LIFE OF VERGIL.

15

CHRONOLOGY,
Date.
LlFB OF VKRGIL.

&c., (Continued.)

LmsRART Chronology.
of Lucretius, aet.

Civn. Chronologt.

55

Vergil assumes the Death toffa virilis at Cre44.

Caesar's

first

invasion of

Britain.

mona.
54
Verffil

begins the study of philoso phy.

Caesar's second invasion of


Britain.

49

Caesar dictator. the franchise Transpadani.

Confers

on

the
Death

48

Battle of Pharsalia.
of

Pompey.

44

Caesar assassinated.
Earliest date of logues.

43

Ec

Second Triumvirate.

Kclogue II. probably written.


42

Eclogues

III.

and V

Horace
b II nits

serves

as

t'l-

Philippi fought.

written.

tniUium at

Phil-

ippL
41
Vergil's estate confiscated.

Eclogue
ten.

IX.

writ-

40

Vergil's estate stored.

reI.,

Consulship of Polio. Treaty of Brundisium.

Writes Eclogues
IV.,

VIII.,

and

perhaps VI.
37

Vergil wrote

Eclogue X. Georgics begun.

Death

of Sallust.

Battle of Actium.

Aeneid begun.
Augustus? writes to Vefgil concerning the Aeneid.

23

Death
Death
of Vergil at Bniiidi^iinn.

of Marcellua

'^

19

16

METRE OF THK AENEID.


V.

METRE.
The dactylic hexameter,

The Aeneid
^j^
.

is

written in the heroic metre of the

Romans

^j^^

dactylic hexameter.

This was the most ancient as

among the Greeks It was cultivated at an early period, far and Romans. beyond the beginnings of authentic history, as we find it in its most perfect shape in the poems of Homer and Hesiod, and the responses of the Delphic oracle. Ennius is said to
well as the most dignified form of verse

have discarded the rude Saturnian metre of his predecessors, and to have introduced the hexameter among the Romans. Vergil is generally considered as the model of this kind of
verse

among the
the
first

Latins.

The
feet,
fifth is

dactylic hexameter consists, as its

name

implies of six
;

four of which

may be
:

dactyls or spondees

the

usually dactyl, and the sixth invariably a spondee.


is

The following

the scheme

\j \J

yj kJ

Ifo. Of dactyls

For the comparative number of dactyls and spondees in and ^j^g gj.g^ Jq^j. places no definite rule can be given. Generally speaking, the line is more smooth when the arrangement is varied to avoid monotony. A succession of dactyls may be
(1)

used for various reasons,


Intdnu\erU pdli,
\

e.g.,

quick motion, cp. B.

I.

90.

et creb\ris

mtcat\ lgmbiis\ aether,

where the quick flashes of lightning and the instant peals of thunder fall in quick succession.

SoinB. I. 150: Jdmque Jac\es

et\

sdxa vo\ldnt furdr\ drma mln\lstrat:


of

where the quick succession

brands and stones follow.

On

the other hand a succession of spondees


effort
:

may

be em-

ployed to describe a laboured

cp. B. I. 118.

Adpdr\ent rd\ri ndnt\es

in\

gurgUe\ vdsto.

Here the slow spondees mark the struggling motions of the crew amid the waves.

So

also

a dignified gait
I.

may

be

imitated

by

successive

spondees: B.

46.

Ast

ego\

quae dllvum ince\do re\glna Jdv\tsquS.

METRE OF THE AENEID.


(2)

Rarely the

fifth foot is
:

line is called a

spondaic^ line

a spondee, in which case the Spondaic '**** e.g., B. I. 617.

Tune
(3)

ille\

Aene\ds quem\ Dardani\o An\chisaff.

When

the last syllable of a word remains over, after Word


is

the completion of a foot, that syllable


syllable, in
it

called a caesural
off,

""^*"^'^

consequence of

its

being separated, or cut

as

were, from the rest of the word in scaning the verse. The term caesura^ is also applied to a pause or stress of the The voice, which naturally rests on the caesural syllable. melody of the verse depends in a great measure on the position of the caesura.

Verse
'**'*"''''

The

chief verse caesuras in the dactylic

hexameter are
(a)

PenthemimeraV" Caesura at the end


:

of the first syllable Penthemi-

of the third foot

B.

I.

621.

"^^ra.

Auodll\o Be\lt'; genl\tdr turn] Belus d\plmdm.


(b)
'

Hephthemivieral^ Caesura,
:

at the

end

of

the

first ffephthe-

syllable of the fourth foot

B.

I.

441.

mitneral Caesura.

JjUcGs in\ urhe fu\it medi\d" lae]tlssimus\ umbrae.


(c) r'Ao
.

Trochaic'^, after the trochee of the third foot

B.

I. Trochaic

Caesura

Lu8trd\bunt conv\exa," pdl\us dum\ stderd\ pdscet.


(d)

Bucolic^ Caesura,

at

the end of the dactyl of the


is

Bttcolic
^''*"''-

fourth foot
B.
I.

when

this foot

a dactyl and ends the word

154.

Sic cunct\us pelag\l cecl dU\ frdgor\" aethera] postquam.\


It

may

be observed, generally, that a verse

may have

one,

two or three caesuras ; that verse, however, is best divided in which the sense pause and the caesural pause coincide as
in

each case given above.


Vergil

In
**

we have

28 spondaic lines: 17 of these end in a quadrisyllable, 9 in a

trisyllable, 2 in a mouosylalile.

Called by the Greeks


iriVre,

to/htj,

o cutting.
l^^pos,

From
caesura.

five;

V'. ^V;

part, or /oof.

hence the fi/th-hal//oot

This

is

also

caUsd the strong or masculine caesura.

wProm
caesura.

firra,

seven; rim, half; ^epos, a part oi foot; hence the seventh-half-foot

Also called the weak or feminine caesura,

So called
caesura
is

because often employed by Vergnl


in the

in his pastoral ot Bucolic poetry.

Thi

common

poems

of Theocritua.

18
Last word in the line.
(4)

METRE OF THE AENEID.


The
jjart

last

word

in a dactylic hexametei' line is for the

most

a dissyllable,'^ or a trisyllable.

A quadrisyllable is

rarely allowed, except in the case of a proper name.


times, but rarely, a monosyllable
line,
is

and generally
:

in the case of

Someemployed at the end of a est, and then usually with

an

elision

B.

I.

105.

Dat

l(ttus\;

insequiHur cumul'o" prae\ruptu8 a\quae md7is.\


tgt\

Expldr\dre lab\or-" mihi\ jiissa cap\essSri\ fas

Ac
Metrical
figure*.

velu\ti mdg\n<} in popul\d"

cum\ saepe c5\drla

e8t\

(6)

Metrical figures
Elision occurs

Elision.

(a)

thong, or with the letter,


following
h.

when a word ending in a vowel or diph-m preceded by a vowel and the


di^jhthoug, or the letter

word begins with a vowel,


such
is

When
is

the case the last syllable of the word so


bj'

ending with a vowel, diphthong, or the letter -m preceded


a vowel
elided, i.e., struck out together,
e.g.

and

in scansion is

not regarded as a part of the verse,


(1) B. I.

95

Quis dn\te ora pa\t7-um Tro\jae suh\ motnlhus]


(2)

dltis.

B.

I.

210
prae,dae dccing\uni daplb\usque /u\turi8.\
:

Illi \se

(3) B. I.

180

Aenelas scd2)u\lum intSri\d cdnsc\endit,


(4) B. I.

St\

dinnim.

213

MlttiCe\; forsan
(5) B. I.

et\

haec

6\ll7n me7nin\isse

juv\dbU.

246

Itmare\ prdruptum\
In
(1)

et p'^lag\6

prhnit\ arvd son\&nti.


i.e., left

the vowel

-e in

ante

is

elided,

out in scan-

sion before the vowel o- in the next

word
is

ora.

In
gunt.

(2)

the diphthong -ae in praedae


the -um

elided before accin-

In

(3)

is

elided before the interea.

In
In
"
Leaviiijf
:

(4) et is (5)

not
in

aflFected in

scansion

by the h

in haec.

-um

proruptum

is

elided before
first

e- in et.

out the three unfinished hnes in the


323 trisyllabic
;

hook

of the -Aeneid

we have 420

dissyllabic

8 nionosyllabic

2 quadrisyllabic endings.

METRE OF THE AENEID.


(b) Tlie non-elision of a final
initial

19

vowel or diphthong before a,nBiatus.


called a hiatus, e.g.,

vowel, h or diphthong
16
:

is

B.

I..

Foslhubt\td 'colu\isse Sa\7nd, htc\ illius \drin&.

B.

I.

617

Tunc

ille

\Aene\ds quern \Darda}ti\o An\ch.u'ae.\

The

first

hiatus

may

be explained that in the case of a


is

proper noun, and a sense pause, the hiatus


the second example considerable license
case of a proper noun.

admissible.

In

is

admitted in the

is defined as the union of two vowels in be properly pronounced separately as which should sound (c)

Synaeresis

Synaeregis.

-ei

in Oilf^

-eu in Ilioneus

-ei

in deinde.

This figure

is

also

called Synize.sis.
e.g. B. I.

120

Jd
B.
I.

,1

fdli\dam Ilion

ei

ndv\em,

jdm

\fortis A\chaiae.

195:

VinS, hon\us quae, \deinde cdd\ls oner\drdt Ac\estes.

It Synapheia. (d) Synapheia is the principle of continuous scansion. sometimes happens that a final vowel, diphthong, or -m preceded by a vowel at the end of a line is elided before the initial vowel, diphthong, or h at the beginning of the next
line
e.g. B. I.

332

J(lcte\mur doct\ds t\gnari

homt\numque

I8\cdru7n\que

Errdmus,
So
also, B. I.

448
\llm,ina,\

Aered\ cUi gradi\hus sur\gehdnt

nexde\que

Acre

tr&bes,
final

In these lines the


the initial vowel

vowel in -que

is

struck out before


line.

in the first

word

of the succeeding

There are altogether


'

twenty-one hypermetrical

lines

Vergil.
(e) Ictus is

in Hypetmt'^'^^ IvMf.

elevatif)n of the voice (apaic).

the beat of the foot which corresponds with the jctm. This naturally falls on the lirst

syllable of the foot,

and we, therefore,

find eases (jocnrriiig in

20

STORY OP THE AENElD.


which a syllaWu uaturally short
its
is

luiigfcheued,

simply from

occupying the natural position of a long syllable.


B.
I.

(1)

308

Qui
(2)

tene\ant,

nam m\cuUd
\et

vi\det, hdinin\esnS /er\an&.

B.

I.

478

Per
(3)'

terrain

ver\sd pul\vls ln\scrihitur \hdstd.\

B,

I.

651

Pergama
(4)

\r.um pete\ret m\conce.ss\dsque hymen\aeos,


:

B.

I.

668

LUora

\jacte\tur,

odl\ls Ju\ndni8 in\i(iuae,

VI.

THE STORY OF THE AENEID.


Ancestors of Aeneas.
^

Aeneas was the sou of Anchises and Venus, and thus connected with the royal family of Troy. In the earlier stages of the war he did not take any part, and not till his flocks were driven from Mount Ida by Achilles did he lead
'

his followers against the Greeks.

When
city,

the Greeks, after

a siege of

ten years, took the

according to Vergil,

LeavesTroy.

Aeneas carries off on his shoulder the aged Anchises, takes the young Ascanius by the hand while Creusa follows His wife Creusa in the behind, and escapes to Mount Ida.
confusion of the siege
to
is

lost in the darkness.

He

appears

Wandei-ing of Aeneas,

Lands

at

have remained on Ida till the second year of the war, when, with a fleet of twenty vessels and a number of followers, he set sail from Troy in quest of lands destined by He flrst lands in Thrace, and begins to build a ^j^g fates.
city,

Thrace.

but Next he

is

deterred

by the ghost

of the

sails

to Delos, then to Crete,

murdered Polydorus. where the Penates

At

the

Strophades.

appear to Aeneas, and declare his destined home to be in Again he sets sail Italy, the native land of Dardanus. storm the by a to Strophades, i.eueadia, and driven and is
n rr ^ t. Chaonia where he nnds Heleuus, a seer, son of Priam, and k'ng of that country, who tells Aeneas to sail round Sicily. The ships of Aeneas land in the country of the Cyclops Polyphemus, near Aetna, when Achemenides, whom Ulysses had
.

>

-x

<

At

Sicily

left

behind in the cave of the Cyclops, advises them to the land of Polyphemus. Guidsd by Achemenides, from flee Aeneas passes Scylla and Charybdis and lands at Drepanum,

STORY OF THE AENEID.


where Anchises dies. He then starts out for Italy, but stress weather drives him on the coast of Africa, near Karthage. Juno aware that Rome one day would conquer her beloved Karthage had an unrelenting hatred against Aeneas, and instigated Aeolus to let loose the winds and wreck the Trojan Neptune, however, interferes in time and calms the fleet. The Trojans had a sheltered harbor for the troubled waves. seven remaining ships and soon they land. They afterwards discover that they are on the coast of Africa. Jupiter had meanwhile despatched Mercury to prepare Dido to give a kind welcome to the shipwrecked followers of Aeneas. Sur. rounded by a cloud, and invisible to all, Aeneas and Achates go to explore the country. They see the towers ami walls of the youthful city and are surprised to find their missing comUnder the guise of rades holding audience with the queen. Ascanius, Cupid is sent by Venus to kindle love in the breast Dido is married to Aeneas. Other fortunes the of Dido.
of

21

M Karthage

fates

had
is

with Aeneas.
order
Italy.

Mercury is sent to remonstrate In spite of the love and entreaties of Dido, the given to sail, and once more the Trojans steer for
in store for him.

Dido, through grief for her fickle lover, mounts the Dido kUUs funeral pile and stabs herself, and then her attendants burn her ^^^^^V-

body.

He

arrives a second time at

nine days celebrates the funeral


father, Anchises.

Drepanum and then for games in honor of his dead Arrives at While the games were in progress, some of Sidly a
despairing of ever having a settled home,
fire,

the Trojan

women

fire the ships.

Jupiter sends rain and puts out the

but

Aeneas leaves in Sicily all the elderly people and all weary of roaming where they found Segesta. The rest sail for Italy and land at Cumae. Then he meets the Sibyl, under whose guidance he descended Segesta. to the lower world aud learns the full details of his future Latinus, king of the land on which Aeneas landed, had life. Lavinia, wJiose hand is sought for by Turnus, daughter a
not
till

after four ships are destroyed.

king of the Rutuli. The Latins summon allies from all sides to repel the foreigners, while Aeneas obtains the aid of Evander

^r^rs in
^<^2/-

and seeks the assistance


absent,

of

the Trojan

camp

Turnus, and the Latins.

While he was attacked without success by Aeneas returns and displays his
the Etrurians.
is

prowess in battle. He slays Mezentius, the Etruscan, and Turnus, and afterwards marries Lavinia.

2J

CONTENTS OF THE FIKST BOOK OF AENEID.


vn.

THE CONTENTS OF THE FIRST BOOK.


The invoca-

The poet invokes the Muse


Aeneas
o'er the ileep,

to sing of the wanrlerings of

twno/the

and

his sufferings while attempting to

lay the foundations of imperial

Rome.

The

trials of

the hero

are ascribed to the unrelenting rage of cruel Juno. The reasons


"

Karthage, a city of Africa, was founded of yore by settlers

hatrcT^^
against the
'

from Tyre.
cherished

This

city, rich in
all

wealth and proud in war, was


other places.
She, however,

by Juno before

M-33.

was apprehensive of its destruction because she had heard that a remnant of the Trojans were sailing o'er the sea, whose
descendants were destined in after days to overthrow her

beloved Karthage.

The

slight offered to her

beauty in the

decision of Paris, son of Priam, the late king of Troy, and the

honors

bui'ning hate,

heaped on Ganymede tended to foster her and she accordingly determii "Hi to keep the Trojans away from Italy.
lately

Juno's pro^A^olusSlt-SO.

The Trojans had

left

the port of

Drepanum

in Sicily,

where

Anchises, the father of Aeneas had died, and were dashing

through the foaming brine with brazen keel.


Aeolus, the god of winds, and instigates
to

Juno comes to
to send a storm

him

overwhelm the Trojans


as a wife.
lets loose

in the deep.

In case he carries

out her purpose, she promises the fairest of aU her nymphs


l.'^eiopeia,

The storm
80-12$.

Aeolus

the winds, and in an instant the East,


fury. '

breaks forth: South,

and South- West winds lash the waves into


.
. .

Then

follow the shrieks of the sailors, the creaking of cables, the

darkening
all

clouds which veil the

sky and brood

o'er the

deep, the peals of thunder, the gleaming lightning.

While

things threatened instant death, Aeneas wishes that he


at

had died

Troy before

his father's eyes.

One

ship

commanded by the
are disabled.

trusty Orontes

went

that

down and

the rest

Neptune
ttorm:
12k-156.

Meanwhile Neptune, the lord of the main, felt that a storm had been let loose, and great was his wrath, as he knew well j^}^Q wiles of his sister Juno and her wrath against the Trojans. He summons to him the winds, and upbraids their king for his presumption in allowing them to have free scope. The sea is calmed by the soothing words of the lord of the sea.

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST BOOK OF AENEID.

23

The toil-worn crew of Aeneas make for the nearest shores, The weary and turn to the coasts of Africa. There is a bay, protected f^".'**. by an island, affording a safe shelter from every wind, and in 179. this Aeneas takes refuge, with seven ships saved out of twenty. The weary Trojans land. Achates strikes a spark from the flint and tries to start a fire. The corn damaged by the waves is brought out of the vessels, and bruised to make a meal for the shipwrecked Trojans.
Aeneas, in the meantime, mounted a
cliff

in hopes of seeing Aeneas

some
vessel

of the tempest-tossed ships that


is

he had missed.
Seizing a
.

No ^ock-e%ie
shoots

in sight.

He
'

espies,

however, three stags, each iol-de'r:

lowed by a herd
of

of deer,

on the shore.

bow and divides the


"""'^*'\.

arrows from his trusty henchman Achates, he lays low seven


the deer.
equally

among

the

He

returns to the harbor and divides the surviving


ships

number

among the

one to each.

He

also dis- g^sf*'

wine which kind Acestes had given to the Trojans as they were leaving Sicily. With words of cheer he bids his comrades bear up under their hardships. Tliey then prepare the meal and enjoy their repast, after which
tributes the

they talk for a long time of the fate of their lost comrades.
Juppiter, meanwhile,

was gazing on the realms

of Africa Venus com-

when Venus, with tearful eyes reminds "the father and men" of the promises that he had uttered as

of gods

^^'"'"f, ^f

to the the promise.i

Juppiter bids her spare her fears, and of the destiny of the Trojans. decrees her the of the fates are immutable and If!"^ "/ "^ assuring that Trojans that she shall yet behold the Trojan Aeneas wage a great 22S-250.

subdue hostile tribes, build walls, reign in Latium, and subdue the Kutuli. lulus (also called Ascanius), son of Aeneas, shall reign in Lanuvium and shall fortify Alba Longa, After a period of three hundred years. Ilia, a priestess, shall bear to Mars twin son, Romulus and Remus, and these shall found an empire to which shall be set, "no bounds of Even cruel Juno shall join in realm, no term of years." as "lords of the world." As years Romans the cherishing roll on Greece shall be subdued, and Honor and Vesta shall rule the world and the dread Gates of War shall be closed

war

in

Italy,

for ever.

Mercury

is

sent from heaven to inspire in Dido, the queen Mercury

is

of Karthage, a friendly feeling towards the Trojans

who

shipwrecked on her shore.

are \aHh^30^

$97-

24
Aenea*
vuets his

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST BOOK OF AENEID.


-Ail nig'it

long after the meal Aeneas broods o'er his


lot of his

own

mother
S05-SSU.

woes and the

comrades.
,
,

As

soon as day dawns ho


,

determines to go forth and explore the shores to which he had come in his wanderings. After safely mooring his fleet

under the shelter of a rock, he sallies forth with trusty Achates. In the midst of a wood he meets his mother, who was dressed like a Spartan huntress. Venus enquires whether Aeneas had seen any of her sisters wandering there. After telling Venus that he had seen no one, he hints that her look is more than human, and that she is evidently of divine race
:

he begs her lighten their sorrows, and had come.

tell to

what land they

Venm

tells

"^

mdo^s'^^

wrongs:

and then unfolds the story how the queen, who was from Tyre, had a ^^ IDiilo's wiongs husband Sychaeus, and a brother Pygmalion in wickedness far beyond other men how the savage Pygmalion killed the unwary Sychaeus at the altarj how the young Dido collected some companions, sailed away to the west and come to the spot on which the rising city of Karthage was now being built.

Venus

tells

him he
:

is

in Africa

Aeneas
If

tells

Aeneas

tells his

is

tale,

wanderings.
ships remain.

name and his race. Italy is the goal of his With twenty ships he embarked on the sea, the

mother-goddess guiding his course, but only seven battered

he thought out twelve swans, with joyous She points ^ost, will be safe. ^ hii]ipy owcn and reveals notes circling in the air, so the twelve ships with full sail are At the end of either entering or have entered the harbor. Ss7-Ul7' his mother, recognizes who he shrouded prophecy them her in a cloud, so that no one might see them, though they might see all. She takes Aeneas and Achates veiled in this cloud
Keniis

She announces
'

to

him that
.

his comrades,
.

whom
.

draws a

to Karthage.
Description
?^?l*//f''*^*'

Aeneas, from the


buildings, where

hill

o'erlooking Karthage,

admires the

Numidian huts. Eagerly the Karthaginians ply their work, some building walls, some chosing sites for houses, and marking others a citadel
lately stood rude
;

out the boundaries with a furrow ; others digging a harbor, and others still laying the foundations for a high theatre.

Among
Aeneas amines
temple:
iSO-iiO. exthe

the throng he mingles


is

still

unseen.

In the midst of the city

a sacred grove, where Dido was


of

in honor lJ^il(\illcr "<* xo a temple

Juno.

While Aeneas was

'

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST BOOK OF AENEID.

25

waiting for the arrival of the queen, he examines with scruti- walls of a
nizing gaze each object in the great temple.

Here he

sees i^i./^s,

depicted the scenes of the Trojan war, the crested Achilles pursuing in flight the Trojans, the snow white tents of

Rhesus, the flight of Troilus, the procession of Trojan


dess, the

women
:

going to the temple of Minerva to propitiate the dread god-

dragging of Hector round the walls of Troy

all

these scenes and

many more were

witnessed by Aeneas.
courtiers, enters the
Th''

Meanwhile the queen, attended by her


temple.

queen

With all the graceful dignity of Diana, when enten leads the dance, Dido enters the temple and takes her seat as ^^^ temple queen and judge of her subjects. Aeneas sees, also amid
slie <,g

the throng attending the queen, Antheus, Sergestus, and the


valiant Cloanthus, and other Trojans supposed to be lost.
Ilioneus teUs Dido that they are a shipwrecked

remnant

of Hioiieus, tht

the Trojans on their

way

to Italy.

He

also hints at the pro-

^*^f

y*"

bable loss of Aeneas.

Dido assures them

of her assistance jaii^aA;.

and protection, and promises them that she


Sicily, if

will

send them to

520-578.

they desire it, or allow them to settle at Karthage. As for Aeneas, she promised to send trusty men to see whether he had been cast on shore, or not.

The cloud which had enshrouded the forms of Aeneas and T}m mist Achates now parts and immediately Aeneas shone forth in f^l%]^^ beauty amid the clear light, declaring himself. With grateful heart he prays for a blessing on Dido for her kindness to his
comrades.

Dido welcomes Aeneas to her palace, which was furnished Dido welwith princely splendor for the approaching banquet. She eis-sis.
also proclaims a public festival.

Aeneas sends Achates to the

fleet to

bring lulus (also called Aeneas

ABcanius) to the city. Gifts also were to be brought from fuh^^*^ 61^-656. the ships as presents for the queen.

The wily goddess Venus, meanwhile causes Cupid to be y^mis subtransformed in form and mien into Ascanius, and accompany Cupid for the faithftd Achates with presents to the queen. 657696^'
Tyrians, amid the joyous halls, recline on Amid the the embroidered couches. The' gifts of Aeneas are admired fe(ut

The Trojans and


all.
rr,

Cupid embraces Aeneas and then Dido, and both ^'^^"^ '?' spwes the ,1 1 ii T7the Trojan leader and the Jiarthaginian queen are mspired queen with ^' *^^^-^^^' with mutual flame.

by

26
The
liba-

CONTENTS OF THE FIKST BOOK OF AENEiD.


After the
'^''^^^'n

first

part of the banquet, the tables are with-

^eationo/^iie
ffoils.-sonf)

ao<l

golden goblets crowned with wine are set before

the guests.

The queen prays

tliat

this

day mav be long

723-756.

remembered by the iynaus. A libation is then poured on the table and the cup is handed to the courtiers of the queen to drink. The long-haired loijas sings songs taught him of yore by great Atlas. At the request of the queen Aeneas is asked to tell the story of the Fall of Troy, which occupies Books II. and III. of the Aeneid.

'

iS-a-.

AM^^

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS


LIBER
I.

Anna virumque
Litora,

cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris

Italiam, fato profugus,

Lavinaque venit
terris jactatus et alto

multum

ille et

Vi superum, saevae

memorem

Junonis ob iram,")

Multa quoque

et bello passus,

dum

conderet urbem,

Jlu^v^^

Latinum Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae. Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso, Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores Tantaene animis caelestibus irae? Impulerit. Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii te nuer e coloni,
Inferretque deos Latio, genus un3e

10

Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe


Ostia, dives opu^m studiisque asperrima belli
;

Quam

magis omnibus unam Hie illius arma, Posthabita coluisse Samo. Hie currus fuit hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, Si qua fata siau.nt, jam turn tenditque fovetque. Progeniem sed enim I'rojano a sanguine duci Audierat, Tyrias olim quae ve rtere t arces

Juno

fertur terris

15

20

Hinc populum late regem belloque superbum Venturum excidio Libyae sic volvere Parcas. ^~" Id metuens veterisque memor Saturnia belli, Prima quodjad TrolaTn pro) carls 'gesse rat Afgrs
:

Necdihi;.!

etiam causae irarum saevique dolores

'^5


28
p.

VERGILl MAKONIS AENEIDOS LIB. L


;

Excideiant aniino manet alta mente repostum Judicium Paridis spretaeque injuria foimae, Et genus invisum et rapti Ganymedis honores His accensa super jactatos ae quo re toto Troas, reliquias Danauin atque immitis Ach[lli,
;

30

Arcebat longe Latio, multosque per annos Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum. i--

Tantae niolis erat Romanam condere gentem. Vix e conspectu Siculae telluiris in altum Vela dabant laeti, et spumas sails acre ruebant, Quum Juno, acternum servans sub pectore volnus,

35

Haec secum " AJene incepto desistere victam, Nee posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ?
:

Quippe vetor

fatis.

Pallasne exurere classem

^ Argivum atque

ipsos potuit submergere ponto,

40

Unius ob noxam, et furias AJacis Oilei ? Ipsa, Jovis r^pidum jaculata e nubibus ignem,
Disjecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis.

Ilium exspirantem transfi.xo pectore flammas Turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit acuto Ast ego, quae divum incedo regina, Jovisque Et sorior et conjunx, una cum gente tot annos
;

45
'

'-

Bella gero.

Et quisquam numen Junonis adorat

Praeterea, aut supplex aris imponet

honorem

.'"

7-

Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans 'imborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris,

50

Aeoliam

venit.

Hie vasto rex Aeolus antro

Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras Imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat.


I Hi indignantes

magno cum murmure mentis


;

55

Circum

claustra frernunt

celsa sedet

.^

eolus arce
;

Speptra tenens,'mollitque animos et temperat iras '^'*lNi'iaciaf*, maria ac terras caelumque profundum

Quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque per am^s.' Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris, Hoc metuens, molemque et montes insuper altos
Imposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certo Et premere et laxas scirct dare jussus habenas.

60

p.

VERGIL! MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.


:

I.

29|

Ad qucm

Juno supplex his vocibus usa est "Aeole, namque tibi divum pater atque honiinum rex Et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento, Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,
tuin

65

Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates

Incute vim ventis submersasque obrue piippes, Aut age diversos et disjice corpora ponto. Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae, Quarum quae forma pulcherrima l^eiopeia, Conubto jungam stabih propriamque dicabo, Omnes lit tecum mentis pro tahbus annos

'

7^

Exigat

pulchra faciat te prole parentem." -^ Aeolus haec contra " Tuus, o regina, quid optes
et
: ;

75

Explorare labor

mihi jussa capessere

fas est.

Concilias, tu das e pulis

Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Jovemque accumbere divum, Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potcntem." ^x^
/

80

Haec

ubi- dicta,
:

cavum conversa cuspide montem


ac venti, velut agmine facto,

Impulit in latus

Qua

data^ porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant.

Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis

Una Eurusque Notusque

ruunt creberque procellis

85

Afiicus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.

Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum,

Eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemque

Teucrorum ex
Intonuere

oculis

poli, et

ponto nox incubat atra. crebris micat ignibus aether,


;

<>h
90""

Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem. *f Extemplo Aeneapsolvuntur frigore membra Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera,palmas
Talia voce refert
:

"O
!

tcrque quaterque bcali,


altis

Ouis ante ora patrum Trojae sub moenibus


Contigit oppetere

95

O Uanaum

fortissimo gentis

Tydide

occumbcre campis Non potuisse tuaque animam banc efifundeie dextra, Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo jacet Hcclor, ubi ingens
!

mene

IliaciS

Sarpedon, ubi tot Simo'is corr-pta sub undis Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit."

100

&
:

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.

I.

Talia jactanti stridcns Aquilone procella

Velum adv^rsa

ferity
;

fluctusque ad sidera

tollit.

Franguntiir remi

turn prora avertit et undis


^,

Dat latus insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons. Hi summo in fluctu pendent his unda dehiscens
;

105

Terrain inter fluctus aperit

furit

aestus arenis.

Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet Saxa vocant Itali mediis quae in fluctibus Aras Dorsum immane mari summo tres Eurus ab alto
;

lie

In brevia et Syrtes urget, miserabile visu,


Illiditque vadis atque

aggere cingit arenae.

Unam, quae
In

Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten,


excutitur pronusque magister
;

Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus

puppim

ferit

115

Volvitur in caput

ast illam ter fluctus ibidem

Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex. Adparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto, Arma virum, tabulaeque, et Troia gaza per undas.
Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatae, Et qua vectus Abas, et qua jjiandaevus Aletes, laxis laterum compagibus omnes Vicit hiemps Accipiunt inimicum imbrem rimisque fatiscunt. Interea magno misceri murmure pontum, Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus et imis Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus et alto

Jam validam

120

125

Prospiciens,

summa placidum

caput extulit unda.

Disjectam Aeneae toto videt aequore classem, Fluctibus oppressos Troas caelique ruina
:

Nee latuere doli fratrem Junonis et irae Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, deKinc
;

130
talia fatur
?
:

"Tantane vos generis tenuit Jam caelum terramque meo


Miscere

fiducia vestri

sine nujnine, Venti,

et tantas audetis tollere

moles

?
:

Quos ego

sed motos praestat

Post mihi non simili Maturate fugam, regique haec dicite vestro

componere fluctus poena commissa luetis. -v


;

135

Non

imperium pelagi saevumque tridcntem, Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxa,
illi

t>.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.

t.

31
140

Vestras, Eiire,

domos

ilia

se jactet in aula

Aeolus, et clause ventorum carcere regnet." Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida aequora placat, Collectasque fvgat nubes, solemque reducit.

Cymothoe simul

et Triton
:

adnixus acuto
Icvat ipse tridenti

Detrudunt naves scopulo

145

Et vastas aperit Syrtes et temperat aequor, Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas.
/'Ac veluti
/

magno

in

populo

quum

saepe coorta est


;

Seditio, saevitque animis ignobile volgus

Jamque
Turn
\^

faces et saxa volant (fu^r

arma

ministrat)

150

pietate

gravem ac mentis
silent, arrectisque

si

forte

virum quern
^7 ^r^J^-ov^S^
"^

Conspexere,

auribus adstant

Ille regit dictis

ji aninios, et pector

mu lcet

Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, aequora

postquam
155

Prospiciens genitor, caeloque invectus aperto


\Flectit equos curruque volans dat lora secundo.

Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu

Contendunt petere,
Est
in secessu

et

Libyae vertuntur ad oras^


:

portum Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto Frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos. Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minantur In caelum scopuli, quorum sub vertice late Aequora tuta silent tum silvis scaena coruscis Desuper horrentique atrum Ihemus imminet umbra
longo locus
insula
:

160

165

Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum, Intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo,

.p

j/i

t^l

Nympharum domus

hie fessas(non vincula naves

Ulla tenent, unco non alligat ancoia morsu.

Hue septem Aeneas collectis /Ex numero subit ac magno


;

navibus omni
telluris

\/,}J~%X

t^

170

amore

Kgressi optata potiuntur Troes arena,

l^^''*

Kt sale tabentesjirtus in litore ponunt. NAc primum silici scintillamexcudit Achates

Suscepitque ignemToITTsTatque arida circum Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flammam.

175

Turn Cererem c orrupt aqi undis Cerealiaque arma

32
Expediunt

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.


rcrum, frugesque receptas

I.

fessi

Et tojjere parant flammis et frangere saxo. Aeneas scopQlum interea conscendit, et omnem Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quern Jactatum vento videat Phrygiasque bircmes, Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici.
.

i8c

Navem

in

conspectu nuUam, tres


;

litore

cervos
185

Prospicit errantes

hos tota armenta sequuntur

tergo, et

Constitit

longum per valles pascitur agmen. hie, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas
alta ferentes

Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates,

Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita

Comibus

arborcis, sternit, turn volgus^ et


telis

omnem
an
;

IQC

Miscet agens

nemora

inter frondea turb

Nee

prius absistit,

aequet. Corpora fundat Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes. Vina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acestes Litore Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus heros, Dividit, et dictis maerentia pectora mulcet
:

quam septem ingentia victor humi, et numerum cum navibus

'
.

195

"

O
et

socii-jf-neque

enim

ignari

sumus ante malorum

L^*''
2co

passi/graviora, dabit deus his quoque finem.

Vos

Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantes


revocate animos,

Accestis scopulos, vos et Cyclopea saxa

Experti
Mittite
;

maestumque timorem

forsan et haec oHjti meminisse juvabit

Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum, Tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas

205

Ostendunt

illic

fas

regna resurgere Trojae.

Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis."


Talia voce refert, curisque ingentibus aeger

Spem
Illi

voltu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem.


:

se praedae accingunt dapibusque futuris

210

Tergora deripiunt costis et viscera nudant


Pars in frusta secant veribusque trementia figunt
Litore aena locant

flammasque ministrant. Turn victu revocant vires, fusique per herbam


alii,

Implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferinae.

215

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.

1.

3?

Fostquam exenipta fames epulis mensaeque remotae, Amissos longo socios sei mone requirunt,

Spemque metumque

inter dubii, seu vivere credant,

Sive extrema pati nee

jam exaudire

vocatos.

Praecipue pius Aeneas, nunt'.Ofbntl(^\

220

Nunc Amyci casum gemit et crudelia secum Fata Lyci, fortemque Gyan fortemque Cloanthum. Et jam finis erat quum Juppiter aethere summo
;

Despiciens mare velivolum terrasque jacentes


Litoraque
et latos populos, sic vertice caeli

2J5

Constitit, et

Libyae
tales

defixit

lumina regnis.

Atque ilium

jactantem pectore curas

Tristior et lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentes Adloquitur Venus " O, qui res hominumque
:

deumque
230

Aeternis regis imperils et fulmine terres,

Quid mens Aeneas in te committere tantum, Quid Troes potuere, qu^ibus tot funera pa^sis, Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ?
Certe hinc

Romanes

olim, volventibus annis,

Hinc fore ductores revocato a sanguine Teucri, Qui mare, qui terras omni dicione tenerent,
Pollicitus

235

quae te, genitor, sententia vertit ? Hoc equidem occasum Trojae tristesque ruinas
;

Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens

Nunc eadem
Antenor

fortuna viros tot casibus actos

240
?

Insequitur. :-jQuem das finem, rex

magne, laborum

~^-

potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis,

niyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus

Regna Liburnomm, et fontem superare Timavi, Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis ^lt mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti. Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit T.eucrorum, et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit
Troia
;

24.5

nunc placida compostus pace

quiescit

Nos, tua progenies, caeli quibus annuls arcem, Navibus, infandum amlssis, unius ob iram yi/
!
.

250

Prodim ur, atque Italis longe disjungimur oris. Hie pfetatis honos ? Sic nos in sceptra reponis
3

?"


"M
Olli
p.

VEHGILI MAUON'IS AENEIDOS LIE

I.

subridens

hominum

sator atque

deorum
255
:

Voltu, quo caelum tempestatesque serenat,

Oscula libavit natae, dcliinc talia fatur " Parce metu, Cytheiea manent immota tuorum
:

Fata

tibi

cernes

urbem
;

et

promissa Lavini

><

Moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli

Magnanimum Aenean
Tlic
tibi

(fabor enim,

Longius et Bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque feroces Xontundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas,

neque'me sententia vertit. quando haec te cura rcmoidct, volvens fatorum arcana movebo)

260

265

Ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen lyip
'

Additur

Ilus erat, dum res

stetit Ilia

regno

Triginta

magnos volvendis mensibus orbes Imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini Transferet, et longam muUa vi muniet Alba n. Hie jam ter centum totos regnabitur annos
Gente sub Hectorea, donee regina sacerdos Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolenv ^' Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet Moenia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. His ego nee metas rerum nee tempora pono Imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno, Quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat,
:

,-

270

i'

275

280

Consilia in melius referet,

mecumque

fovebit

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam.


Sic placitum.

Veniet

lustris

labentibus aetas,

Quum domus

Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas

Servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis.

285

Nascetur pulchra Trojanus origine Caesar, Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris,
Julius, a

magno demissum nomen


;

lulo.

Hunc

tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis

onustum,
29c.'

Accipies secura

vocabitur hie quoque votis.


;

Aspera turn

posifis mitescent saecula bellis

P.

VEUGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS

LIB.

I.

35

Cana

Fides, et Vesta,
:

Kemo cum
:

fratic Quirinus

Jura dabunt dirae ferro et compagibus artis Furor impius intus, Claudentur Belli portae Saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aenis Post tergum nodis, freniet horridus ore cruento."
*>-

295

Haec ait, et Maia genitum demittit ab alto, Ut terrae, utque novae patcant'Karrnaginis arces Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido Finibus arceret. ^ Vol at ille per aerajnagnum

no

'

Remigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris. Et jam jussa facit, ponuntque ferocia Poeni Corda volente deo. In primis regina quietum Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque bcnignam. ~^ At pius Aeneas, per noctem plurima volvens, Ut primum lux alma data est, exire locosque
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras,

305

Qui teneant, nam inculta vid^, homjnesne fci'aene, Quaerere constituit, sociisque exacta'refcrre. ,-Classem in'cbnvexo nemorum sub rupe cavata
Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus unibris ipse uno graditur coniitatus Achate, Occulit
:

310

;'Bina
*

manu

lato crispans hastilia ferro.


tulit

Cui mater media sese

obvia

silva,

Virginis os habitumque gerens, et virginis

arma

^15

Spartanae, vel qualis equos Threissa fatigat /i^ijrtvtw Harpalyce, volucremque fuga praevortitur Eiirum.

Namque

umeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum

Venatrix, dederatque

comam

dififundere ventis,

Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentes. Ac prior, " Heus," inquit, "juvenes, monstratc mearum Vidistis si quam hie errantem forte sororum,
Succinctam pharetra, et maculosae tegmine lyncis, Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem."
Sic

320

Venus
te

et

Veneris contra

sic filius orsus

325
voltus

''Nulla tuarum audita rjyhi, neque visa sororum,

O quam
Mortalis,

memorem, Virgo.'' namque baud tibi nee vox hqminem sonat. O dea certe
;

An Phoebi

soror.''

an

Nympharum

sanguinis una

V.uA

I.

36
7.

p.
>

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.

'^

...
Icves,

,.''
in oris
;

Sis

fclix, n'ostniin^iie

quaecumque, laboiein,

330

Et quo sub caclo tandem, quibus orbis


Jactemur, doceas
:

igJnai^hominulTique locoruinque

Erramus, vcnto hue et vastis fluctibus acti Multa tibi ante aras nostra cade^hostia dextra." __^ Turn Venus " Hand equidem tali me dignor honore
:

335

Virginibus Tyriis

mos

est gestare pharetram,

Purpureoque alte suras vincire cothurno. Punica regna vides, Tynos et A generis urbem Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello. Imperium DidoJTyria regit urbe nrofecta,

340

Germanum
Ambages
^
;

fugiens.

Longa

est injuria, longac

Sed

summa

sequar fastigia rerum^

Huic conjunx Sychaeus erat, dji^issimus a.rvh^ajy\^ Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore,
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugarat
345

Ominibus.

Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat


medius venit
furor.
at{ri

Pygmalion, scelere ante alios in\manior omnes.

Quos

inter

Ille

Sychaeum-ariMbre,

ImpfiJ^ ante aras, atque

c^ecus

Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum- Germanae factumque diu celavit, et aegram,
;

350

Multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago
Conjugis, Ora modis attollens pallida miris,

Crudeles aras trajectaque pectora ferro

355
retexit.

Nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omnc"

Turn celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, Auxiliumque viae veferes tellure recludit Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. lis commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni Aut metus acer erat naves, quae forte paratae,
I :

360

Corripiunt, onerantque auro

portantur avari
fict,i.^

Pygmalionis opes pelago


1

dux femina

)evenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernis <-

_'

365

Moenia surgent^mque novae Karthaginis arcem, Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam,

p.

VEHGILI MAIIONIS AEiNKIDOS Lin.

I.

3^

'

Taurine quantum possent circumdare tergo. Sed vos qui tandem? quibus aut venistis ab

oris,
..

Quove
"

tenetis iter ?"

Quaerenti talibus

ille
;^^

..

370

Susjjirans

imoque trahens a pectore vocem Pea, si prima repetens ab o: igine pergam,

Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laboriiriT;' Ante diem clause componat Vesper Olympo. Nos Tj^oja "antiqua, si veStraS for^ per aures
Trojae

/
375
.,

nomen

irt,

diversa

pei"

aeqtiora vectos

Foi^^jua
."pum pius

Libycis tenrpestas appulit ods.-0/\

,0^ /^'

Aencasiraplos qifi^cx'Foste Penates

Classe veho me.cimi, fanm sup^r aethera,notus^


Italiam quaero patriam et genus ab Jove

summo.

'

380

>
"<f
,

Bis denis Phiygium conscendi navibus aequor, Matre dea monstrante viam, data fata secutus. Vix septem convulse undis Euroque supersunt. Ipse ignotus,'i%ens, Libyae deserta peragro,

^,

''Europa atque Asia pulsus."


(^

Nee

plura querentem
;

385

(
^

Passa Venus liiedio sic interfata dolore est y "Quiquis es, baud, credo, invisus caelestibus auras / Vitales carpis, Tyriam qui adveneris uruem.

Perge modo, atque hinc

te

reginae ad limina prefer,

-Namque

tibi

reduces socios classemque relatam

390
,.
.;

Nuntio, et in tutum versis aquilonibusjictam, ^Ni frustra augurium vani docuere parente".\

Aspice bis senos,

lapta\i^es

agpine cycnos,

A^'X-'^

'^^
'

Aetheria qiros lapsa plaga Jovis ale^aperto

"^
'

Turbabat caelo

nunc

terras orahie~lbngo
;

30^^

Aut capere aut captas jam dcspectarc videntur

Ut reduces

illi

ludunt stridentibus

alis,

Et coctu cinxere polum, cantusque dedere, Haud aliter puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum Aut portum tenet aut pleno subit ostia velo. Perge modo et, qua te ducit via, dirigc gressiim."
^

^00

''

-^^

Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit,

Ambrosiaeque comae divinum


Spiravere, pedes vestis defluxit

vertice

odorem
^o<(y<j

ad imos,
ubi

Et vera inccssupatuit iWa

IIIp

matrcm

38
Adgnovit,
tali

I*.

VERGIU MARONIS AENKIDOS


:

LIB.

I.

uiL;icntem est voce secutus


toties, crudelis tu

"Quid natum

quoque,

falsis

Ludis imaginibus? cur dextiae jungere dextram Ncn datiir, ac veras audire et reddere voces ?" '^
---Talibus incusat,

gressumque ad moenia Icndit


gradientes acre saepsit,

410

/At Venus obscuro


/

Et multo nebulae circun\dea^udit amictu,


Cernere ne quis eos, neu quis contingere posset, Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere causas.
Ipsa

Paphum

sublimis abit, sodesque revisit


illi,

415
t
^

Laeta suas, ubi templum

centumque Sabaeo

Ture calent

arae, sertisque recentibus halant.

Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat. Jamque ascendcbant collem, qui plurimus urbi

Imminet, adversasque aspcctat desiiper arces.' Miratur molem Aeneas, hiagalia quondam,
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum. pars ducere muros, /Instant ardentes Tyrii .Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa,
:

420

-'Pars optare locuni tecto et concludere sulco.

425

Jura magistratusque jegunt, sanctumque sentatum. ^|>' Hie portus alii efFodlu'nt liic alta theatris
;

Fundamenta

locant

a,lii,

immanesque columnas
430

Rupibus excidunt, scaenis decora alta futuris. Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura
Exercet sub sole labor,

Educunt

fetus, aut

quum gentis adultos quum liquentia mella


c^^^

Stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas, Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto

Ignavum

fucos pecus a pracsepibus arcent


.

435

^j^ -\Kerve^pus_redolent ue thy Wb


i

fr a grantia

mel la
"
!

"O

fortunati,

quorum jam moenia surgunt


suspicit urbis.

Aeneas

ait, et fastigia

Infert se saeptus nebula, mirabile dictu.

Per medios miscetque viris, neque cernitur u]H. 7 Lucus in urbe fuit media, laetissimus umbrae /Quo primum jactati undis et turbine Pocni
[Effodere loco^rgnum, quod regia Juno

'

440
;

p.

VERGILI MARON'IS AENEIDOS LIB.


;

I.

39

/ Monstra'-at, caput aciis equi sic nam fore bello \ Egregiam et facilem victu per saecula gentem. '" liic templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido Condebat, donis opulentum et numine divae,
Aerea'cui gradibus suiTgebantllimina, ;nexa^(jue

445

Acre

trabes, foribus ca-do stridebat aenis.

i^-'\

Hoc

primu''a in luco nova res oblata

timorem

450
,

Leniit, hie

primum Aeneas

sperare salutem

Ausus,

et afflictis

melius confidere rebus.

Namque
Reginam

sub in^enti lustrat


opperiens,

dum

singula temple,
sit urbi,

dum, quae fortuna

Artificumque ijianus inter se operumque laborem


Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas

455

Bellaque jam fama totum vulgata per orbem,


Atridas Priamumque et saevum ambobus Acbillem. " Quis jam locus," inquit, "Achate, Constitit, et lacrimans
:

Quae

regio in terris nostri


!

non plena

laboris

460

En Priamus

sunt hie etiam sua praemia laudi

Sunt lacrimae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt. Solve metus feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem."
;

Sic

ait,

atque

animum

pictura pasci|. inani,


f^^umine voltum.
,

^"^^

^liy^
461;
'

n
Jy
"^
I

Multa gemens, largoque umectat


ifc.'c^

+ u

^"''Hiis

yioeDaf, uijloellanteiPergama ciicnim

Hac iu^eraat Graii!^^emefetTr^j|ia j^ventus J^'^-'-^ Hac PnrygeS, instaret curru criST?rtus Achilles. Nec procul hmc Khesi niveis tentona velis Adgnoscit lacrimans, primo quae prodita somno
lydides multa vastabat caede cruentus,

/ I q ^^f'V'-^^Ov^.
470

Ardentesque

avertit equos in castra, priusquam Pabula gustassent Trojae Xanthumque bibissent.

\ ^v^
->-,

Parte alia fugiens amissis Trottus q,rmis,


Infelix

puer atque impar

cong;, res5ti's Achilli,

teuAxA AAA

47

Fertur equis, curruque jjasretre^upinus inani,


"Lora tcnens tamenj^h^krjfcrvixque

-^
.

^r^^.
n /\jA

comaeque trahuntur ^

Per terram,
f.

et

versa puTvis inscribitur hasta.

Crin?i5?rsniades pa^sis

liu^ea ad templiiuyjoi^.-fcquae Palladis ibant."' peplumque ferebant ;


;

480

Suppiiciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis

'^

40

p.

VKUGILI MAROXIS AENEIDOS

1,115.

I.

fixos oculos ^ejsa tenebat. Diva ^.Ter ciicum Iliacos rg^Dtaverat Hectora muros,

^o

^^"^^^

Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat

Achilles.
inio,

V~Tum

vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab

4S5

Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus a;nici 'fendentemque manus Priamum conspexit iner ncs. Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis,

^Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma#< Ducit Amazonidam lunatis agmina peltis
Penthesilea furens mediisque in millibus ardct,

490

Aurea subnectens exsertae cingula


Bellatrix,

mammae
'^

audetque viris concurrere virgo. Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur, dum Haec Dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno,
Incessit

'

"
495

Regina ad templum forma pulcherrima Dido,

magna juveniim

stipante caterva.

Qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per juga Cynthi Exercet Diana chores, quam mille secutae Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ilia pharctram Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omncs Latonae taciturn pertemptant gaudia pectus ^
;

500
^-

^^
""**

Talis erat Dido, talem se laeta ferebat

\S

'^^^^aeptararmis,
M

solioqire alte

subnixa resedit.

Jura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborem \Partibus aequab it justis, aut sorte trahebat,-

Qaum

subito Aeneas concursu accedere

magno
510

Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum, Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo ~ '
Dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat orSs.
Laetitiaque metuque
I
.

Obstipuit simul ipse, simul perculsus Achates


;

avidi conjungere dextras

Ardebant
'

sed res animos incognita turbat.

515

Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti^

Quae

fortuna

viris,
:

classem quo

litore linqunnt,

Quid veniant

cunctis
et

nam

lecti

navibus ibant

Orantes veniam,

templum clamoie peteb.mt.


p.

VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIB.

I.

41

Postquam

introgressi et

coram data copia

fandi^
;

/\

520

Maximus
"

Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit

regina,

novam

cui condere Juppiter uil;cin-,

Justitiaque dedit gentes frenare superbas.

Troes

te miseri, ventis
:

maria omnia

vecti^^
-

Oramus

prohibe infandos a'havibus igncs,


et

525

Parce pio generi,

propius res aspice nostras^

NonVios aut ferro Libycos populate, Penates ~ VenimQs, aut raptas ad litoia v^rtere praedas.

Non ea

vis aii'mo,

nee tanta superbia

victis

Est locus, Hespeiiam Graii cognomine dicunt,

530
;

Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glacbae


/Oenotri coluere viri
(

italiam dixisse

nunc fama' minores ducis de nomine gentem.


;
:

Hue

cursus

fuit

(.

m vada

x^uum subito adsurgens


caeca
tulit,

fluctu

nimbosus Orion

535

penitusque procacibus austris

y*

Perque undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa hue pauci vestris adnavimus oris. Quod genus hoc hominum ? quaeve hunc tam barbara morem hospitio prohibemur arenae Permittit patria Bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra. Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, ^t spcrate deos memores fandi atque nefandi. Rex eiat Aeneas nobis, quo justior alter Mec pietate fuit, nee bello major et armis
Dispulit
:
.''

540

545

Quern

si I'ata

virurn servant,

v^scitur kiira

Aetheria, neque adhuc cfudehbus occubat umbiis,

Non metus
Paeniteat
:

officio

nee

te certasse

priorem

sunt et Siculis regionibus urbes,


"T

Armaque, Trojanoque a' sanguine clarus Acesles. v^/V VQuassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, Et silvis aptare trabes, et stringere remos
:

55

<\
I

Si datur Italiam, sociis et rcge recepto,

Tendere, ut Italiam

Latiumque petamus Sin absumpta salus, et tc, pater optime Teucrum, Pontus habet Libyae, nee spes jam restat luli
lacti
:

555

\At freta Sicaniae saltern sedesque paratas,

42

1'.

VKROIIJ MARONIS AENKIDOS Uli

I.

Unde hue

advecti,

regemque petamus Acestem."


;

Talibus Ilioneus

cuncti sinuil ore fremebant

Dardanidae.

560
:

Turn breviter Dido, voltiim demissa, profatur "Sol vile .corde metum, Teiicri, secludite curas. Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt
Moliri, et late fines custode tueri.
Qiiis

genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?


?

565

Virtutesque, virosque, et tanti incendia belli

Non

obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Foeni,

Ncc tam aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe. Seu vos Hesperiam magnam Saturniaque arva Sive Erycis fines regemque optatis Acestem,
Auxilio tutos dimittam, opibusque juvabo.
Voltis et his

rsjjj

57o

\ZA^
?
;

mecum Urbem quam statuo

pariter considere regnis

vestra est

subducite na\es

Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. Atque utinam rex ipse Noto compulsus eodem
Afforet

575

Aeneas

equidem per

litora certos

Dimittam, et Libyae lustrare extrema jubel^oy Si quibus ejectus silvis aut urbibus errat."

^
:

His animum arrecti dictis et fortis Achates Et pater Aeneas jamdudum erumpere nubem Ardebant prior r enean compellat Achates q!^' Nate D^, quae nunc animo scntentia surgit
;

580
?

uC^ Omnia
^*'****

tuta vides, classem, sociosque receptos.

tin us abest,

medio
:

in fluctu

quem vidimus

ipsi

Submersum
Vix ea

dictis

respondent cetera matris."


circumfusa repente

585

fatus erat,

quum

Scindit se nubes et in aethera purgat apertum.


1

RestititAeneas. clar^ue in luce

I'efulsit,

Osnumerosquet)^

similis

namque

ipsa

decoram
590

Caesariem nato genitrix lumenque juventae Purpureum et laetos oculis afiflarat honores Quale manus addunt ebori decus aut ubi flavo Argentiim Pariusve lapis circumdatur auro.
:

Tum

sic

reginam alloquitur cunctisque

repent?

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AKNKIDOS


:

LIB.

I.

43
595

Improvisus

ait

" Coram, quern quaeritis, adsum

Troius Aeneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis. sola infandos Trojae miserata labores (Jj
I

Quae nos reliquias >anaum, terraeque marisque Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egenos Urbe domo socias. Grates persolvere dignas Non opis est nostrae, Dido nee quicquid ubique est Gentis iJardaniae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem ~^ Di tibi, si qua pios respectant numina, si quid Usquam justitiae est et mens sibi conscia recti, Praemia digna ferant. Quae te tam laeta tulerunt
;

600

605

Saecula
In freta

qui tanti talem genuere parentes


fluvii current,

dum

Lustrabunt convexa, polus

dum montibus umbrae dum sidera pascet,


610

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt, Quae me cumque vocant terrae. Sic fatus amicum
Ilionea petit dextra laevaque Serestum
:

Post

alios,

fortemque Gyan fortemque Cloanthum.

Ubstipuit primo aspectu Sidonia Dido,

Casu dd'nde viri tanto"; et sic ore loquuta est "Quis te, nate Dea, per tanta pericula casus Insequitur? quae vis immanibus adplicat oris ?" Tune ille Aeneas, quem Dardanio Anchisae Alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam ? "Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire, Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem
:

615
-

620

Auxilio Beli.

Genitor tum Belus


et victor

opimam

Vastabat Cyprum

dicione tenebat.

Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis Trojan.ie nomenque tuum regesque Pelasgi.
Ipse hostis Teucros insigni laude ferebat,

625

Seque ortum antiqua Teucrorum a stirpe volebat. Quare agite, o tectis, juvenes, succedite nostris. Me quoque per multos similis fortuna labores Jactatam hac demum voluit consistere terra.

Non
Sic

ignara mali, miscris succurrere disco."

630

mcmorat, simul Aenean

in regia (hicit

44

p.

VERGILl MAKON'IS AEXKIDOS LIB.

I.

Tecta, simul divum tcmplis indicit honorem.

Nee minus

inteiea sociis

ad

litora mittit

Vil|[inti tauros,

magnorum

horrentia centum

Terga suimi, pingues


'

c^tum cum

matribus agnos,
,

635

Munera laetitiamque dii. At donius interior rcgali spIendidjiJuxu


Insti^U.ur njfi<^iisque pai'ahf dpnvivia teclis
:

Arte

labor.'ttae vestes

ostroque superbo

Ingens argcntum mensis caelataque

auro

640

Kortia facta patiLim, series longissima rerum

Per

tot-diicta virds antiqiir^

ab origine

gentis.

Aeneas, neque enim patrius consistere mentem Passus amor, rapidum ad naves prafinittit Achatcm,

Ascanio

ferat hacc, ips^nique

ad moenia ducat

645

Omnis in Ascanio 'cari^tat cura parentis. Munera praeterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis,
Ferrejubet, pallam signis auroque rigentem, Et circumtcxtum croceo vclamen acantho, Omatus Aigivae Helenae, quos ilia Mycenis,

650

Pergama quum

peteret inconcessosque

Hymenaeos,
;

Extulerat, matris Lecae mirabile

donum

Praeterea sceptrum, llione quod gesserat olim,

Maxima

nataruin Priami, colloque monile


et

duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. Haec celerans iter ad naves tendebat Achates. ">- At Cythere_a nova artes, novajpectore v6rsat Consilia ut facicm mutatus et era Cupido

Baccatum,

655

"

Ascanio veniat donisque furentem Pro Incendat Yeginanij atque ossibus implicet i;.,ncm. Quippe domiirn tiiTiet3mbiguam Tyripsque l.ilingues.
dulci

660

Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura re"cursa'.

Ergo

his aligerum dictis adfatur


vires,

Amorem

"Nate, meae
Nate, patris

mea

niagna potentia solus,

summi

qui tela Typhoia temnis,*'"'J_

1'

665

Ad

te confugio, et
.-'

supplex tua numina posco.

Frater ut

eneas pelago tuus omnia circum

Litora jactetur, odiis Junonis iniquae,

p.

VERGILI MARONIS AKNEIDOS


saepe dolore.

LIB.

1.

45

NoUl

tibi

et nostro doluisti

Nunc Phoenissa
Vocibus
Hospilia
:

tenet Dido, blandisque moratui^

670

et vereor,
;

quo se funonia yertant


cessabit cardine reruni.
dolis, et

baud tanto

Quocirca capere ante

cingere flamma

Reginam

meditor, ne quo se numine mutet,

a ''^Sed magno A^neae mecum teneatur amore. ,Qua facere idj)ossi., riostram nunc accipe menteni.
<j

675

Rl^gius accitu cari genitoris ad

Sidoniam puer

ire parat,

urbem mea maxima


alti.

cura,

Dona

ferens, pelago et

flammis restantia Trojae. Cythera

Hui>c ego sbpiturh somno super

680

'Aut super Idaliiim sacrata sede recondam,

Ne qua scire dolos rriediusve occurrere possit. Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam
Wi**^i^ane dolo, et notos pueri inclue voltus
:

Ut,

gremio accipiet laetisssima Dido Regales inter mensas laticemque Lyaeum, Quum dablt amplexus atque oscula dulcia figet, Occultum inspires ignem fallasque veneno."
te

quum

685

Paret

Amor

dictis carae genit^cis, et alas


luli.

'

Exuit, et gressu gaudens incedit


.

6go
altos

r~^t

yenu,s' Asganio placidam per

membra quietem

v'^^^ririgat, et fotum gremio, dea


ttr-^

tollit in

Idaliae lucos, ubi mollis

amarcus ilium

Floribus et dulci aspirans complectitur umbra, ^"

Jamque
Regia

ibat dicto parens, et

portabat Tyriis^

dona Cupido duce laetus Achate.


"^^^
'"'
'i

695

Quum

venit, aulaeis Jariise regina superbis

Aurea composuit sponda, mediamquetocavit. Jam pater Aeneas et jam Trojana juventus/
Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro.

"

700

Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque


Expediunt, tonsisque ferunt mantelia
vilis.

canistris
i

Quinquaginta intus famulae, quibus ordine longam Cura penum struere, et flammis adolere Penates Centum aliae, totidemque pares aetate ministri,
;

705

46

p.

VERUILI MAKONIS AKNEIDOS


onereiit, et pocula pDuant.

LIB.

Qui dapibus inensas

^
r

Necnon

ct Tyrii

per limina laeta frequcnles

discumb.re pictis.'^ \ Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur lulum V^X Flagrantesque dei voUUjS simulataqiie verba Pallamque et pictum croceo velainen acantho.
Convenere,
toris jussi

^
^
710

N f^

Praecipue
Expleri

infelix, pesti

devota futurae,

mentem

nequit ardescitqiie tuendo

Phoenissa, et pariter puero donisque movetur.

lUe ubi complexu Aeneae colloque pependit

715

Et

magnum

falsi

implevit genitoris

amorem,

Reginam

ocfculis, haec pectore toto gremio fovet, inscia Dido, Haeret.et interdum Insidat quantus miserae deus.x At memor ille ^

petit.

Haec

P
^

^
jf

Matris Acidaliae paulatim abolere Sychaeum


Incipit, et vivo tentat praevertere

amore

y ^^y iSj V
"

720

Jampridem resraes animos desuetaque corda. Postquam prima quies epulis, mensaeque rciuotae, Crateras magnos statuunt et vina coronant. Fit strepitus tectis vocemque per ampla volutant ^
Atria: dependent lychni laque; ribdf aureis,
Incensi, et
.

72^

noctem flammis funalia vmcuni. Hie Regina grav^i gemmis auroque poposcit Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belus et omnes A V>e\o soliti. Turn facta silentia tectis " Juppiter, hospitibus nam te dare jura loquuntur,
:

'

7^^

$f^

Hunc laetum
Esse
velis

Tyriisque diem Trbjaque profectis

nostrosque hujus raeminisse minores.


et

Adsit laetitiae Bacchus dator,

bona Juno

Et

vos, o coetum, Tyrii, celebrate faventes"

735
;

Dixit, et if^imensam laticum libavit

honorem

Primaque libato summo tenus Turn Bitiae dedit increpitans Spumantem pateram et pleno
Post
alii

attigit ore.
ille

impiger hausit
:

se proluit auro

proceres.

Cithara crinitus lopas

740

Personal aurata, docuit quern maxinius Atlas. Hie canit errantem lunam solisque labores ;

p.

VKRGILI >tAKOXIS AENEIDOS


et

LIB.

I.

47
;

unde imber et ignes Arcturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones Quid tantum Oceano properent se tinguere soles "*" Hibemi, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet. Ingemuiant plausu -Tyrii Troesque sequuntur. ^i(^[ c-w Necnon ei varlp nocterri sermone trahebat Infelix Dido longumque bibebat amorem, Multa super Priamo rogitans, super liectore jTiulta ^ /'*""'-' ^"^ Nunc, miibus Aurorae yenisset films armis 'T^'~ Nunc, qtiales'Diomedis equi nunc, quantus Achilles. ^*^/ "Immo, age, et a prima die hospes origine nobis
iToniinum genus,

Unde

pecudes

745
CUO^^-''-*-

"

750

liisidias," inquit,
'"

"
;

Erroresque tuos

nam

Danauni^asusque tuorum, te jam seprima portat

755

Oinnibus errantem

terris et fluctibus aestas."

DESCENT OF THE ROMAN JULIAN FAMILY FROM

THE TROJANS.

Scamander
Teucer

Juppitcr=Electra

Dardanus

Batea

Ilus

Erichthonius

Tros

Ilua

Assaracus
I

Laomedon
Priam
I

Capys
Anchises = Venus

Hector

Aeneas
Ascanius or Inlus

48

NOTES.
1

Arma vimmque

Vergil cano: "I sing of arms and the man." observes the custom of epic poets by announcing his subject at the outset : cp. the opening lines of the Iliad, Odyssey and Paradise Lost arma may be used here to show the contrast between the subject of the Aeneid and that the Georgics (cp. the opening line of Georgic I. ), in which the theme, viz., the occupations of rustic life, is announced. Distinvirum, referring to the deeds of Aeneas. " who of old from the coasts of guish cano and cano qui littora Troy came, an exile of fate, to Italy and the shore of Lavinium." primus Heyne and Wagner, finding a difficulty in reconciling the usual meaning of this with the statement of Antenor's previous settlement, mentioned v. 242, make primus olini, "of old." Gallia Cisalpina was not formally included in Italia Propria till 42 B.C., and possibly was not considered by Vergil as a part of Italy Proper. Distinguish org aK-y, the land or district on the sea; lj^us = pr/y/iiv, the land covered by the breakers of the sea ; ripa = TxPV, the bank of a river.
.

ItaUam=ad

Italiam Vergil, with many other poets, sometimes omits prepositions after verbs of motion cp. Aen. I, 365, devenere locos ; " But ere we could arrive the spot Shaks. Julius Caesar I, 2 proposed. "/a<o may be taken (i) with profwjus as above, abl. of instr. or (2) with venit, abl. manner. In what compound words
: :

is

.short? H. 594.5; A. & G. 354, d. Lavinaque others read Lavliiiaque. In scansion, if the latter reading is adopted, i is ^-* consonantal, i. e. pronounced y.

pro

3-5

Ille

Latio: "hard driven on land and on the deep by the violence of heaven, for cruel Juno's unforgetful anger, and hard bestead in war also, ere he might found a city and carry his gods into Latium." ille : cp. Homeric 6 ys, not the subject of jactatus {est), but in alto apposition with qui. ten-is local ablatives H. 425, note 3; A. & G. 258, {. svperum=zsuperorum, scil. deorum. multa

passus, like jactatus, a participle, lit. "much, too, having suffered in war also." dum conderet "in his attempts to build :" H. 519, II., 2 : A. & G. 328. The idea of purpose is implied. Latio in

Latium
6

in prose.

Unde = a

quo, scil., ortum est: "from whom (sprung)." Some think that the three stages of the growth of Rome are referred to, viz., the original settlement at Lavinium, the transference of power to Alba Longa, and the final selection of Rome as the seat of empire. The Latins dwelt in the broad plain between the Sabine mountains

and the sea, and traced their descent to King Latinus.


4

The word

49


50

vercil's Aiy.

b.
i.

flat

cp. latus, nT^arvq, Eng. Latini means the dwellers of the plain for the loss of the initial mute, cp. laiix, jrAdf ; lavo, nXvvECv. ; Vergil is incorrect in saying that the Latins were descended from Aeneas, as they existed before his advent cp. Livy, i. i. Their chief town was Lavinium (now Pratica).
: :

Alhani patres

the head of a confederacy of thirty destruction by Tullus Hostilius, the leading citizens were transferred to Rome, and became incorporated in the common state. Many of the noble families of Rome, notably the Alba Longa occupied a Julii, traced their descent to the AIl)ans. vi.penia (rt. MUN, site prol^ably near the convent of PalazzuoJo. to defend ; cp. a-fxiiv-eiv), the walls for defensive purposes ; {7min-rus, also rt. mun), a wall of any kind ; varip s (rt. PAR, to separate), the partition walls of a house ; mactrig a garden wall. Rome at first occupied the altae Bomae, "of stately Rome." Afterwards the Capitol'me, Aventine, Esquiline, Coelian, Palatine. Also the Pincian, Viminal, and Qu'irinnl hills were included. Vatican, and Jau'iculan- hills, on the Ktruscan side, were brought within the boundaries of the city under Aurelius.
:

Alba Longa was


After
its

Latin towns.

mums

Musa :

"T

Vergil, following the example of Homer, invokes the muse and whole plot to the gods. C'dlliopfi was the muse of epic poetry. quo numine lae.'io there are several ways of taking these words ; (i) some supply, impulsus fuerit, "by what offended deity was he (Aeneas) constrained;" (2) numine vol untate, "what
refers the
:

{yi_y^^
'"
i '

purpose (of Juno) being thwarted;" (^) quo = qua de cau^ta, "for what reason, her (i.e. Juno's) will being thwarted ; " (4) ob quam laesionem numinis, " on account of what affront to her purpose;" The last is (5) "for what offencs to the majesty of heaven." The first is objectionable because Juno has been probably correct.

mentioned as the offended


9
:

deity.

"or in what vexation;" lit. "resenting what." For Quidve dolens tot volvere casus: case of quid: H. 371, ill. ; A. & G. 237 b. " to run the round of so many misfortunes." For poetic use of infinitive see H. 535, IV. A. & G. 331, g.
;

10
/
.

the hero of the Aeneid is distinguished by the Insignem pietate epithet piits, which means that .hehad filial affeciion as well as religious reverence. He rescues his father from burning Troy (Aen. adire, "to face." also the gods (Aen. 2, 717). For case 2, 723) A. & G. 228, a. of labores see H. 386.3
:

11

Ivipulerit

& G. 334. animis, or (2) local ablative. irae, the plural, denotes the various manifestations of her pa.ssions : H. 130, 2 ; A. & G. 65, c.
:

indirect question
dative,

taken

(i)

H. 529, I. H. 387, A. & G. 231


:

A.

12

Urbsantiqua: said with reference to Vergil's own time. Karthage was founded probably about 853 B.C. Tyrii coloni: "settlers from Tyre ;" the Tyrians founded also Tunes and Utica, near Karthage.

NOTES.

51

13

Italiam

longe: longc may be taken (i) as modifying; the whole phrase,


against
Italy and the Tiber's moulhs afar;" or (2) longe "the far distant Tiber's mouths." Italiam contra: what H. 636, VI. What direction is Karthage from Rome?

"over
figure ?

distaiitia,

14

Dives opum: compare df't'es ; d&cYn\e ojnim. What adjectives govern sludiis: H. 424; A. the genitive? H. 399, i. 3 ; A. & G. 2i8, c. & G. 253: abl. of respect "in its passion for ;" see note on irae Vergil here, no doubt, alludes to the experience for plural, vs. II. of the Romans in the Punic Wars.
:

15

Quam coluisse

the Romans identified the Syrian Astarte (the Ashtaunam, "especially;" unus gives to roth of the Bible) with Juno. superlatives, or to words implying a superlative force {inagis quam omnes terras), an emphatic meaning; cp. (f; e'tg apLaroq "especially the best."
: : ;

16

Pfy'habita

hi

preference to Samos," lit., " Samos being regard:" H. 431, A. & G. 255. Herodotus (3.50) In scanning mentions a famous temple of Here (Jitno) at Samos.

Same: "in

in less

notice that the hiatus in Samo is relieved by the caesural This especially occurs when a long vowel is in the arsis of pause. the foot H. 708, 11. cp. v. 617.
this line,
:

17

Currus

Juno is rarely represented as a war goddess, though we have instances: cp. Horn. II. 720-3. hocfovetque: "the 5, goddess even now strives, and fondly hopes that this would be the seat of empire for the nations, if in any way the fates permit." hoc is attracted to the gender of the predicate H. 445, 4 ; A. & G.
:

some

195. 342.

sinant:
:

subj.

ot intermediate clause;

H.

529,

II.

A.

&

G.

jam t :m = etiam

turn

" even then,"

at that early period.

18

Snl enim (cp. alia yap), ellipsis for sed {metuit Karthagini) enim, Sec, "yet (she feared for Karthage) for she had heard a race was dud: H. 523, I. ; A. & G. 336, issuing Irom the blood of Troy."
present as

now
:

in the act of being accomplished.

20

Tyrias-arces

" which should hereafter overthrow her vrian tc^wers ." v."rteret destruction of T^ jiith n gR (146 B.C.) is i-eferred to. H. 491, i., A. G. 286. oUvi may everteret: subj. o't^^frnTpose refer to either the past or future ; here it refers to latter : properly "at that time." (fr. ollus, ille),

The

&

21

Hinc=a, qua progenii'. late rrgem = (by enallage]^ late regnanteTn H. 441.3, A. & G. 188, d: cp. the Homeric evpvKpsiuv. belloque superbum " tyrannous in war."

22

Excidio Libyae : "to destroy Libya ;" for the two datives see H. 390 Some read exscidio, but excidio is not for ezscidlo, A. & G. 233. cp. the forms ecfero, ecfari, ecfodio, but for ec-scidio (ec, scindo) volvere Parcas, scil. axtdlerat there is found in old writers. The Parcae (rt. PAR, "to reference here to the thread of destiny.
: :


52

g.
l.

Vergil's aek.

allot:" cp. pars, portlo, t'-To/j-oi') were ihe goddesses of Miili and three in munher, Nona, Dccuma, Morta, and so the death ari)iters of luinian destiny. They were identified with the Greek MoZ/jat {ueipo/iai, to allot), Clot ho, Lachesis, and Atropos, whose Ciotho colum retiiiet, Lachesis duties are included in the foil, line cp. Milton's Lycidas net, et Atropos occat
:
: :

" Comes the

And
l'.\

slits

blind Fury with the abhorred shears. the thin-spun life."

- Metuen s

"fearful of that ;" metuare . to dread with anxiety of some future evil ; tiiiiej^, to fear an impending danger ; vereri , a respect-veteris belli ful fear of some superior being ; formidare, to dread. Salurnia, soil. Jilia, or dea, according to the war against Troy. Here (Juno) was the daughter of Kronos the Greek thcogony.
:

identified

The Romans, however, by the Romans with Saturn. represent no relationship between Juno and Saturn.
:

24

-Ad Trojam
apud,

(i)=-aduersMS, " against," or (2)= here the town is put for the inhabitants=Here, or Juno, was worshipped Argivis, and this for Graecis. specially at Argos, one of the chief cities of Argolis. prima, " before all others," or some say, "long ago " cp. primus, v. 2.

ad may be taken
Argis
:

"at."

25

NecJum animo

"nor had the springs of her anger nor the bitterness : of her vexation yet gone out of her mind;" etiam = et jam. the motives of wrath ; the plural irae refer to causae irarum excidethe many manifestations of the passion; see note v. II. rant "had faded ;" distinguish in meaning excido, excldo.
:
:

26

Animo
463,
f.

in prose ex
;
:

animo
205,

H. 412.2; A. & G.
d.

I.

A.

&

G.

alta

243, repv.itum=al/e
;

b.

(171)

manet: H. mente re-

positum

"laid away in her mind ;" H. 425, N. 3


figure ?
:

A.

&

G. 258,

What

27

Paris was judge in the contest of Juno, Venus, Judicium Paridis see Tennyson's Oenone. and Minerva for the golden apple " and the insult offered to her slighted spretaeque formae M. 549, N 2 ; A. & G. 292 a. beauty ;" for obj. gen.

28

Genus invisam referring to the birth of Dardanus, the son of Jupiter and lilectra and founder of the Trojan line. (See genealogical tree,
:

p. 48.)

rapti, scil.,

ad caelum.

29

His

super: "fired with this, too," i.e. by what has been said in the super =i?isuper, "beforegoing lines: II. 416; A. & G. 245. aequore why sides," i.e. in addition to her anxiety for Karthage. H. 425, 11. 2 ; A. & G. 258, f. is the preposition in omitted?
:

30

Seliquias
131
;

G. A.

Danaum what words are used in the plural only? H. & G. j6. Danau7n the subj. gen. H. 396, H,; A. & 214. What words have um for oruin in gen. pi. ? H. 52.3 & Q. 40, e. Vergil calls the Greeks Danai, Graii, Ar^ivi,
:

A.

Pclasiji,' Archivi.

Achilli

decline


NOTES.


53

'SlLatio

H. 414, N.

i ;

A.

&

G. 258,

a.
still

32 33 34

Errahant: " (had wandered and) were 2; A. & G. 277, b.


Tantae

wandering
A.

;"

H. 469,

II.

erat

"so

vast a

work

it

was ; " H. 402

&

G. 214, d,

&215.

Vergil,
ill

following the usual method of epic poets, plunges the reader medias res (Horace A. P. 148), the earlier adventures being left The Trojans have now left for the hero to tell in Books II. & III.

The natural order for a connected the port of Drepanum in Sicily. narrative would have been Books II., III., v. 315, then Book I. "did they merrily set their sails seaward." laeti in altum

35

laeti, because they expected soon to end Vela dabant, scil., vends. observe the alliteration, "the their wanderings. spumas salis foam of the salt sea ;" sal ; cp. aAf 77. acre, the bronze keels of the ruebant=eruebant. vessel = a?eis carinis.
:

36

Quum Juno secum,

"when Juno, nursing the unscil., loquitur: dying wound in her heart, thus communes with herself." sub pectore, "in her heart," lit. "beneath her breast." The heart was the seat of intellect according to the Romans ; the lower organs cp. Burns' Tam O'Shanter, were the seat of passions. servans " nursing her wrath to keep it warm."
:

37

Mene

victam:

"What! am

to desist
inf.
:

baffled?"

The

539, III.; A.

&

accusative with incepto G. 274.

from my purpose, as one denotes indignation here : H. H. 413, N. 3 ; A. & G. 243, a.

38

Nee

regem:

" and

am

aside from Italy?"

Italia:

not able to turn the leader of the Trojans H. 414; A. & G. 258, a.

S9Quippe [=qui-pe)
epithet of

"because forsooth," ironical ; cp. 6t]kov. Pallas, Athene (Minerva), from (l) tvclIIslv, to brandish, ox (2) ndX^M^, a maiden. Ne^nonne: H. 351, i. ; A. & G. 210, a.
:

Argivum
40

see note on
:

v. 30.

Ipsos=avTovg

abi. either of

"the crew themselves," opposed to the ships. instrument or of place.

-ponto

41

Ob noxam

etfurias : either "on account of the guilt and frenzy," or ob noxam furiosam "on account of the guilty deeds (by enallarie) Ajax is said to have committed in frenzy." With Oilei, sci\.,Jilii offered violence to Cassandra, priestess of Minerva, daughter of For another account see Ajax (Proper Names). Scan this I'riam.

line.

42

Ipsa: " she with her own hand."


deities

who

Pallas and Jupiter were the only are represented as wielding the thunderbolt.

44

Pectore: abl. separation: H. 414, N. i ; A. & G. 243, b. turbine: abl. of means: H. 420, A & G. 248. sco^u/o : local abl. or dat. H. 425, N. 3 : A. & G. 260, a.
.


54
46


vi:iuiiL's

ai:n.
b.
i.

Ast

cjero : " but I who walk with stately tread, the q-.iecn of the gods, I, the sister and wife of Jove, with a single jieople so many The language of aH: archaic form of at. years wage wars." Note the majestic gait of Juno is epic poetry alTectcd archaisms. imitated by the spondaic character of the verse.

47

Et soror el conjunx : maiyi)fjTT]v alox^v H. 379, A. & G. 256.

te

Horn.

II.

i6, 432.

annos

48

Gero: " have been (and still am) waging :" H. 467.2, A. & G. 276, H. 457 A. & C. 105 h. quisquam implying a negative a. adorat others Distinguish quisquam, uUus and qaivis, quilibet. H. 485, A. & G. 268. read adoret
: ;

49

Practereaposihac: "hereafter."
:

aris:
f.

II. 386,

A.

&

G. 22S.

50 Corde
51

H. 425, N.

A.

&

G. 258

We

lines a lively personification of the winds. The winds place big with blustering blasts." Aquilo E., mentioned in the Aeneid are: N., Boreas; N.E Eiirus; S., Notas or Auster ; S.W., Africus ; W., Zephyrus ; N.W., Corns or Caurus ; N.N.W., /a^yx. Distinguish in mean-

have in the following

JjQca

austris:
loci.
in-

"a

ing loca,

52

Distinguish
beautiful
its

antrum: a cave or grotto, as a tense v^nit, venit. object with reference to its romantic appearance and specus, a gap with a longish opening ; cooling temperature spelunca, a cavity in a merely physical relation, with reference to
:

darkness or dreadfulness.

53

We have
ImjX'.rio

here a fine example of imitative harmony (onomatopoeia), the hissing sounds of the winds being well represented by the suc" the struggling winds and sounding storms." ce'jsive s's
:

54

" restrains beneath his sway and curbs them with The picture of the winds may have prison house." been suggested by the Indi C'ircenses, at which chariot racing was one of the chief features. Imperio H. 420 ; A. & G. 248. vinclis what et car cere =vinclis in carcere, or some sa.y = vinclis carceris
:

frenat

fetters in his

figure ?

55

Illifremunt "they chaffing, while the great rock roars responsive, Note the alliteration. magna cum. rage round the prison bars." murmure, a substitute for the ablative absolute.
:

57

Sceptra tenens = aKT]7tTovxoi: "sceptre in iras: "rage:" cp. v. 25, note. sions."

hand."

animoa:

"pas-

58

Ni

pres.

archaic form of nisi : see ast, v. ^?,.faciatferant verrant : the A. & G. 307, h.^rquippc, for impf. gives greater vividness Note, W;r(e< is intransitive, "sweep." "doubtless," ironical.
:

61

Molem

et

montes^^molem montium (by hendiadys)


:

"a mass

of woun-

tains." ?wa/*er

"on

the top of them."


62

NOTES.

55

Regemque

habeas: "and gave them such a king as knew, v/hea bidden (by Jove), by a fixed law either to tighten or to loosen the reins." quisciret, forsubj.: H. 497, I ; A. & G. 317. premere, scil., habenas or ventos.dare laxas^axare. jussus, sell., a

Jove.

65

Namque

in prose usually etenim, introduces a self-evident reason, : "seeing that." Here the particle assigns the reason of her coming "I have come to you, for, as you know," &c. divum to him rex Horn. II. 1.544 Trar^p avdpuv re deuv re.
:

65

Miilcere tollere=ut midceas tollas H. 535, iv.; A. & G. 331. g. vento must be taken with both mulcere and tollere. The ancients seem to have thought that some winds calmed, while other winds raised the sea.

67

Aequor

a kind of cognate accusative

H. 371.

II.

N. ; A.

&

G. 238:

cp. livai odov.

68

Ilium

Penates

the meaning seems to be that the conquered Trojans

and establish their religion. Ihe Penates are said to be victos, as their old home Ilium was destroyed. Penates, Roman household gods, of which each family had its own. These were worshipped with Vesta, the goddess of the hearth.
will in Italy perpetuate their race

Each city also had its Penates. Those of Lanuvium, the chief city Afterwards they of Latium, were brought by Aeneas from Troy. The root of pe nates is from pa, or, pat, were transferred to Rome. "to nourish:" cp. naTJjp, Koai.g (^=-6TLg), r5e(T-7rdr-;/f cp. pater, Eng. father. The word may therefore mean pasco, panis, penus the images of " the original founders" of the clan or gens.
;

69

Incute ventis : " rouse thy winds to fury ;" lit. "strike strength into the winds," as if by a blow of his sceptre. submersas "so that they will be sunken," a proleptic use of the participle (cp. v. 29)= obrue et submerge puppes : cp. Shales. King John, " Heat me those irons hot."
:

70

Diversos, scil., viros, scil., naves.

"the crew

far apart."

Others read diversas,

71

Corpore: abl.
Deiopea.
tive giwte

specifica tion

H. 419.

11.;

A.

&

G. 251.

72

If this

be the correct reading, Deiopea


is

attraction, i.e., the antecedent


:

is a case of inverted attracted into the case of the rela-

cp. vs. 573.

Others
:

Tea.d

Deiopeam.

73

Jungam, scil., tibi. conubio to get over the difficulty of scansion, consonant, i.e.=y. some take this word as a trisyllable, making propriam^perpetuam "and grant her to thee as your wife for

ever:" cp. Eel. 7.31.

75

Palchra prole
with facial

as, abl,

taken either means.

(i)

with pareniem, abL quality, or (2)


56
6

explorare:
optes


vkrgil's akn.
b.
i.

Tuus

"thine
'.

is

diooiest."

suhj. of

whnt thou task to determine dependent question: H. 529; A. &


the

G. 33477

Ta

realm this

note the emphasis : " '.tis thou who gavest me whatever " the sceptre and wliich I have." sceptra Jovemqxve the favor of Jove," or hy h&nAxniys sceptra Jovis, "the sceptre derived from Jove." All kingly power came from Jove.
:

tu tu

is

79

Epulis

decline this word. accumbere H. 535, IV.; A. & G. 331, g. Vergil here ascribes to the gods a custom prevalent among the Romans of his own day. The Greeks sat at meals as we do.
:
:

80
81

Potentem: "lord," see note on Penates 399.3; A. & G., 218.

vs.

68.

nimborum

H.

cavum latus "with spear-point turned that way, Dicta, scil. sunt. Note the allUeration. iJi.-,the hollow hill he struck on the side."
:

tinguish in

meaning latus and

latus.

82

Velut agmine facto', in.; A. &G., 248.

"as

in

banded array,"

abl.

manner: H.

419,

83

Data
For

terra perjlant "they blow a blast across the world." (est). case of terras, see H. 372., A. & G., 237, d.
: :

84

Incubuere mari

action of perfect, see

" they swooped down upon the sea :" H. 471, 11.; A. & G. 279 cp,
:

for

momentary

erreaKTiTpav.

85

Ruunt

86

scription.

the change of tense is supposed to give vividness to the de" the gusty south-west wind." creber proccUis Africus Africus cp. y-i'i>, as blowing from Libya ; called by the Italians
:
:
:

still

Africa, or Gherbino.
:

EtflncfMS

the successive spondees well described the measured

mo-

tion of the

heavy surges.

87

Insequitur

rudentum: "then follow both the shrieks of the crew and the creaking of the cordage. "^rjVwj/i what words of the 2nd deck have the gen. pi. in um instead of orum? H. 52.3 ; A. & G. md<ntes were the light hanging gear of a ship (roTreia), 40, a, while funes (axoivia), were the strong ropes to which the anchors were attached, and by which the ship was fastened to the land.
: :

88

Eripiuut

" suddenly the clouds blot from the eyes of the oculis dies, "light," probably the original 'irojans both sky and light." meaning of the word ; cp. div., " bright:" cp. 6lFog, At F6q (gen. of Zeif, god of the air), Juppiter (=DivpAter), Diana [ Div-ana,
:

the bright one), "the

moon."
Morris well translates
:

89

Incubat

"broods over."

" Night on the ocean

lies,

Pole thunders unto pole, and still with wild fire glare the skies. And all things, hold the face of death before the seamen's eyes."


atra
of
:


NOTES.

Of

"sable." Distinguish ater, denoting black as a negative opposed to aLbiia, white ; nUjer, black, as being itself a color, and indeed the darkest, opposed to candidus.
ail color,

90

Intonuere poll: "it thundered from po'e to pole;" lit. " the poles thundered" polus, (ndAog), the Latin term for Trd/lof is vertex, the end or axis on which, according to the ancient notions, the heavens "and the heaven gleams with frequent turned {verti). et aether aethe.r, the bright upper sky above the clouds (ald^p) flashes." Here the distinction is, however, unaer, the lower air [a/jp). observed.

91

Praesenlemque
stant death."

mortem

"and

all

things threaten the crew with in-

intentant, note the force of the frequentative.

92

Extemplo

from tempidum, dim. of tempus) "at once." ( = ea; tempulo, frigore, "with a chilling fear."

93

Duplices: not

"clasped," as this was not the attribute of prayer the Greeks and Romans, who extended the palms of their hands to the supposed dwelling place of the deity addressed, but "both": cp. the use of dLnlovq for a/j.(pu, 6vu Aeschylus, Prom. Vinctus, 971, liTjSk fiot din'Xag bSovg, UpoftTjdev, npoajidTirig. So also duplex, said for umbo, uterque, of things in pairs Aen. 7, 140 duplices parentes. palma, "the open hand": cp. 'Kakdjirj, "the blade of an oar :" root, pal, to spread ; ;7a^o?% "I wander," and pando, " I spread :" for d passing into I : cp. odor, olere ; dingtia, lingua ; SaKpv, lacrima.

among

94

Refert^dicit.

hidden 95

in his heart

The meaning may be he brings bach cp. Hom. Od. 5,309, et sqq.
:

to light thoughts

Quis contigit "whose happy lot it was." quis=quibus. accidit, of good or bad events it happens unexpectedly, said contigit, it happens, said of fortunate events evenit, it happens, said of events ante ora ; considered a happy lot, because expected, good or bad.
: :

their fathers

would see

their noble deeds.

96

Oppetere,

scil., mortem, to die, as a moral act, in so far as a man, if he does not seek death, at any rate awaits it with firmness: obire mortem, to die, as a physical act, by which one ends all suffering.

97

Tydide = Diomedes, who met Aeneas in single combat II. 5,297. "alas! that I could not have fallen on the Trojan dextra Tnene plains and gasped out this life beneath thy right hand " For the occumbere, scil., mortem, or morte, or case of me, see note, v 37. obviam morti. campis, local abl. =itt campis.

99

perhaps " terrible in battle :" cp. Homer's deivbg (laxvv. Saevus Aeneas himself is called saevus in Aen. 12, 107. Aeacides: Achilles is meant, who was son of Peleus, grandson of Aeacus.
:


58 Some

n.
i.

vehgil's aen.

render jacet by " fell," a Iii>t()ric present, because we learn from II. 1 6, 667, that the body of Sarpedou was conveyed to Lycia by Sleep and IJeath.

100

Simo'is

decline.

Name
"as he
A.

the other rivers in the Tread.


utters these

102

Talia jaclanti
ir., 4,

words :" dat. of reference : stridens procella either G. 235. ; 384, squall howling from the north," (Aquilone ^= ab Aquilone), or, squall howling with the north wind," abl. of accompaniment.
:

note 4

&

H.

"a
"a

Avertit, 105 Dat,


104

soil.,

e=aw6r<i<r (middle
:

force),

" swings round."

" the prow exposes the side (of the ship) to the insequitur mons : " close (on the ship) in a mass comes on a precipitous mountain billow." insequitur, sell., navem. cumulo, abl. manner, with insequitur.
soil.,

prora

waves."

106

Hi,

properly =i;jrj, "the crew," hut hy S!/necdoche=hae naves. his "to those the yawning billow discloses ground amid the Distinguish unda, a wave, arising from the ordinary waves." motion of water ; Jluctus, a wave, caused by some external force, as storms.

aperit

107

Furit arenis

"the seething

of instrument. together."

Conington translates

arenis : abl. flood rages with sand." " sand and surf are raving :

108

Abreptas torquet^=abripuit
latentia,

et torquet: "has caught and whirls." " hidden" by the overflowing sea in stormy weather ; in a calm they were visible.
is saxa quae medili in fiuctibus {exstantia) " rocks which (standing out) in the midst of the billows the Italians call Altars." The saxa referred to are probably Of these, the insula the rocks just outside the bay of Karthage. Aegimuri is the chief. Some say the Karthaginians priests used to offer sacrifices there to avert shipwrecks on the rocks, hence the Others say the Skerki rocks are alluded to, situated in term Ara. the shallow between Tunis and Sicily.

109

Saxa aras.

The order
:

Jtali vocant

Aras

110

Dorsum summo
:

"a vast reef rising to the surface of the main." dorsum, properly "a back" of an animal cp. x^P^C, properly a low, rugged rock rising like a hog's back on the surface of the local abl. Ab alto " from the high seas." ma7-i waves.
: : :

Ill

In brevia

"on the shoals of the et Syrteii=in hrevia (loca) Syrthim Syrtes." The Syrtes (so called from dragging in the ships j invb Tov avpeiv rag vyag, or from the Arabian word Sert, meaning a desert,) were two gulfs in Northern Africa, the Syrtis Major {Gulf II. 547 of Sidra), the Syrtis Minor (O'ulf of Khabs). visu
:

A.

&

G. 30 J,


NOTES.

"

59

114

Ipsius, scil., Aejieae. Ipse like avrSc is often used as a superior, as ipse dixit, said of Pythaof a leader, master, &c.: cp. avroQ hpa goras by his disciples. a vertice^=KaT' aKpr/g, " vertically," Scan
:

this line.

115

puppim.

What words have the accusative in im^or em ? H. 62 ; A. " the pilot is dashed away and G. 56, b. excutitur caput headlong is rolled forward." excutio, often used " to throw out" of a ship, chariot, or from a horse. pronus, cp. Trpijvfjq opposed to

&

supirius=^vTVTiog.

magister,
it

i.e.,

navis guhernator.

116

A^,

old form of at, and like the Greek drop, it joins a previous tRbught to a new and different one : " whils t on the spot thrice
(scil.,

the billow whirls

illam, or navein^^r'wing

it

round and

round."

WJEt vortex:
deep."
local abl.

"and the swift eddy engulfs it (i.e., navem) in the rapidus, root rap: cp. dpTT-d^o) (by metathesis). aequore,

Oy\\% The

sailors.

spondees describe well the labored movements of the struggling rari "scattered here and there.
:

\\%Arma vndas. The

shields

gazaOrjaavpdg, a prince's wealth.


120

for a while in the waves, or the p'cture

and spears may be referred to as floating may be merely mo;nentary.

Scan

this

line.

Tell

what metrical

figure is in

it

H. 608,

iii.

Decline Achates.
121

Qua=in qua 122 Hiemps. The p


:

local abl.
is
:

nounce

s after vi

merely euphonic, because it is cp. sumpsi. laxis^'atiscunt;

difficult to pro-

"through the
:

loosened fastenings of the sides, all (the .ships) draw in the unwelcome water and gape with (many) seams." imber properly rain water: here;=//ia?-e cp. Virg. Georg. 4. 115. riviis, abl. manner.
:

124

Interea:

refers to a matter of some duration interim: loathing merely momentary interea, includes the time occupied from the winds swooping down on the sea (v. 84) up to the present. We may translate, " while this was going on, Neptune greatly moved felt that the deep was disturbed with dreadful din." What figure
: :

in this line ?

125 Et-r-vastis

waters were forced up (to the surface) Servius takes stagna to mean the still waters at the bottom of the deep. vadis, al)l. of separation : H. coinmotun: "moved" in heart, though 414, N., I ; A. & G. 243. of serene countenance (/ilacidam caput.). a/fo pros2nnens may mean (l) " looking forth from the deep sea," where his palace was ;
:

"and

that the

still

from

their lowest depths."

abl. sep.

(2)

the space over

"looking forth which the view

is

o'er the deep," the abl. representing taken : cp. v. 81 : (more correctly


60

vekgil's aen.
b.
i.

his res^ard for the

jrrospkere takes an ace. in tliis construction, as in main," the dat.: H. 385, II., I ;
abl. of sep.
:

v.

155)

(3)

"

ir c.

A.

&

G. 227,

127 Urula
128

H. 414, N.

i ;

A.

&

G. 243.

Tolo

aequore
:

see note, vs. 29.

129

Caeli ruina
is

"by the wieck of lieaven." The violent storm of rain considered as the downfall of the sky itself.
:

130

Latuere^fratrem

"were unknown

to her brother :" with lateo

and

ace, cp. use oi /iavOdvu.


131

Scan

this line

and
:

tell

what metrical

figure

is in it

H.

608, in.

132

"has such confidence in your origin possessed Tantane vestri you ?" The winds were the sons of Aurora and the Titan Astraeos, so that they were on the one side of divine origin and on the other they were descended from a rival of the gods.

133 134

Numine

"consent ;" from nno, "to nod."


:

"such mighty billows." Tantas mohs audeo ? What others of the same class ?
ego, scil., ulciscar.

What kind
H.

of a verb

is

135 Quos
136

What

figure?

637,

xi.

3;

A.

&

G.

page 299.
Post^^postea
"hereafter." Non may be taken (i) either with with luetis ; the former is preferable: "you shall pay Commissa lucre another penalty for a second sin." cp.
: :

simili, (2) or

me
138

irenpayfxiva Aveiv.

Non datum
of ocean
trident."

empire,"

"not to him, but to me was allotted the stern trident literally "the empire of ocean and the stern saevum: "stern," as the sceptre is the badge of
:

authority.

139 Sorte

Juppiter, Neptune, and Pluto are said to have received their realms by allotment, a notion probably suggested by the Roman mode of assigning the provinces at the beginning of the year.
:

140

Vedras: referring to the whole winds, though directly addressed to Aeolus: "let Aeolus glory in his palace," literally ill" Eurus. " give himself airs."

141

Et

regnet : the winds."


citius
:

"and

let

him
:

reign

when he has

closed the prison of

car cere

abl. abs.

\i2Dicto

" ere the words were spoken :" H. 417, N. 5 ; A. & G. distinguish in meaning pldcare, placere ; j)erul^re, h.placat 247, pendert ; albare, albere j /ugare, fugere ; jacire, jacere ; sedare,
:

aldere.


NOTES.

1 ;

HlAdnixus,
1

sell.,

nnvihus

"pushing against the ships."

+5

Scopulo

Vergil does not seem to distinguish abl. of separation. cupulas, a high pointed cliff, affording a wide lookout (rt. scep ;
:

cp. CTKOTre/lof)

saxam, a huge rock of whatever form

cp.

nsTpa

rapes, a jagged cliff ; catites, a small rock levat, scil. naves. invisible to the sailors.

down

in

the water and

146

" he makes his way through." Syrtis see note, vs. 1 12. Aperit temperat: distinguish the meaning of this verb with (i) dat., (2)
:
:

ace.

H.

385,

II.,

I.

147

Levibus

The adj. is best taken : distinguish in meaning levis, levis. "and gently in his car he ^=lecUer, an adv., n\odiy\ng perlabltur votis: part for whole [mjnech glides o'er the top of the waves."
:

doche)-=carru.

148-150

arises,

as when oft in a throng of people striie multitude rage in their minds, and now brands and stones art fl.ying ; madness lends arms." One of the best known This simile reverses the order observed by of Vergil's similes. Homer. In 11. 2, 144, Homer compares the din of the assembly to Vergil here compares the sea pacified by Neptune that of the sea. " Man reminds to a violent mob swayed by some respected orator. the more pictorial poet of nature ; nature reminds the more philoinar/no in jiopulo lit. " in a vast throng." sophic poet of man." gnomic perfect H. 472.5, A. & G. 270, c. coorta est
velati
:

Ac

"even

and the

fierce

149

Seditio

derived from se, itio, "a going apart," i.e. "a riot :" for d animis : probably a locative ; cp. epenthetic : cp. redeo, prodeo. animi discrucior, animi aeger.
:

150

J^mque

implies the idea of a gradual pronimc, definitely the present. -faces et saxa were tlie arms of a Roman mob, as the carrying of arms was forbidden within the city.
:

gression

" and up to

at length

"

jam
;

a certain time

151-152

Turn, correlative with cum ; v. 148 "then if, perchance, they one revered for goodness and service, they are silent and stand by with attentive ear." pktate (jractm nc vieritis. Some quern: when is quis = aUquis? H. say thit Cicero is meant. 455. X; A. & G. 105, A.forlf, "perchance," takes the indie, so also foraan ; forlasse has once the indie, in Vergil, otherwise the subj. ; forsitnn has regidarly the the subj.
:

catcii sight of

152

Conspexere thought of
:

individuals composing the throng [vulgus) are hence the plural. The perfect is used to express momentary action. adstant " they stand by." Note force of orf.

the

l5iCunctusfra(jor
prospiciens
:

"

all

the uproar of the sea

is

at

once hushed."
vs. 126.

Decline pc/agus.

Di>tingui-.h in

"looking o'er

meaning the calm deep."

cecldit recidit.

aequora

See note


6'2

Vergil's
:

aen.
b.
i.

155

Ge,nilor^=NeptHnns pater seems to have been a general epithet of a river or sea deity; cp. pater Tiherlmis (Livy, 2.10); pater Oceanua (Virg. Georg., 4.382) pater Portiinus (Virg. Aen., 5.241). So also Homer calls Ocean 6euv yeDeaiv. It was one of the dogmas of the Ionic School of Philosoi^hers that water was the primary element of all things a doctrine evidently held by Vergil. aperto: "cleared" of clouds, i.e. "serene."
;

156

" and he lets his gliding chariot fly with Ctirruque secundo loosened rein," literally "he flying gives reins to his gliding chariot." cufru^=currui. secundo: i.e. "following" his steeds, hence "gliding."
:

157

Aeneadae

"followers of Aeneas;" so the Athenians are called Oecropidae, Thesidae, from their original leaders. quae litora : " the nearest shores ;" the relative here supplies the place of our article. cursu^rajikle, abl. of manner; cp. dpdjK^z^Taxv.
: :

158

literally " turn themselves." Vertuntur = vertunt se The passive endings in Latin arose out of the reflexive forms of the active by adding to the verbal stem with the tach vowel the ace. of the reflexive pronoun which was for all persons -se e final was afterwards dropped, and the remaining form sometimes clianges s to r

vertor^=verto-se ; vei'teris=vertesi-se A. & G. Ill, N. I.

vertitur:r=verteti-se

H. 465

159

Est

tion to

probably an imaginary place. Some refer the descripKartliago [Cartar/rna) in Spain ; others to Neapolis. " in a deep receding bay." Conington finely in secessu longo
locAis
:

Kova

renders these lines

Deep

bay an island makes haven by its jutting sides, Wherein ench wave from Ocean breaks, And, parting, into hollows glides. High o'er the cove vast rocks extend, A beetling cliff at either end Beneath their summits far and wide,
in a

In sheltered silence sleeps the

tide.

While quivering

forests

crown the scene

A
160
Objectu latcrum
:

theatre of glancing green.

"by
:

the shelter of

its

sides."

which
161

;"

abl. instr.

H. 420; A.

&

G. 248.

s, "against q uibu '* -'-

" and wave parts into the deep hollows of the Inque reductos bay." sinus, properly "a bosom," then "a gulf." Cp. the change of meaning of kSTltto^, Romaic y6A(pog, Eng. gulf. sciiidit
:

sese=: scinditur.

162

Hinc

scopuU "on this side and on that huge rocks and twin cliffs rt. MIN, "to tower threateningly towards heaven." minantur minae, properly the gable ends of a house. jut :" cp. mo)is
: : : :

IQ'iiLate

"

iar

and wide."


silent;

NOTES.

fi3

164

Aequora
sea,

"

the calm sea

lies

safe

and

still,"

lit.

"the calm

scaena: cp. cktjvi], the background of the Roman theatre, the circular form of the bay (sinus) having suggested the idea of the Distinguish sllva, a wood in a pit [cavea). silvis: abl. quality. nemus, a pleageneral sense, with reference to the timber=:5i/l7/ sant place, a grove = i'o//(5f.

" woods."

futa may, however, mean safe (from the winds), is still." safe for ships." turn coruscis : " then a background of waving

166

Fronte

"beneath the brow (of the cliff) facing (the entrance of the harbour) is a cavern (formed) of hanging rocks." with antrum supply est. scopidis, abl. of description.

antrum:
dulces

167

Aquae
"
salt

" springs of

fresh

water
:

water springs."

vivo saxo

;" opposed to aquae amarae, " of native (i.e. unhewn) rock,"

abl. of description.

168

Nonulla=^nulla.
dowed with
weary bark."
life
:

The calmness
fessas
:

the raging of the sea.


cp.

of the harbour is contrasted with the ships are spoken of as if enJuliet


:

Shaks.

Komeo and

"thy

sea-sick

169

Unco

morsu: "with its crooked bite." Vergil here is guilty of anachronism. Anchors were not in use in the Homeric ships, which had large stones (ewai, sleepers) to steady them.

170

Septem: the original number was 2o in all (vs. 381). The seven were made up oi three Jrovi the reef (vs. 108), three from the sand bank (vs. 110), and his own. --collectis "mustered." navibus abl. of accompaniment, or abl. abs.
: :

171

Subit : "enters." amore^desiderio: absent or wanting.

"longing," for

something

172

Egressi, scil., ex navibus: "having disembarked;" cp. EK^aivu, arena: what other case does potior often used with /c vz/of omitted.

govern? H. 410,
173

v. 3

A.

&

G. 223,

a.

Et

ponunt
:

" and they

stretch

on the shores
root as

their limbs

drenched

with brine
yj^r-Silici

:"

tah-es, tah-esco
flint ;"

same
:

r?//c-w

by

laliialism.

" from

for dat

H. 385.4

A.

&

G. 229,

c.

"and nursed the fire amid the leaves :" H. 420 ; 115 Siiscepitquefoliis "and besides he placed around (the A. & G. 248. atque dedit dedit may be by tviesis=: fire, i.e., ignem) dry chips ;" or circum circumdedit, scil., igni. The original meaning of dare (cf. with root DA, de in Ti-OTi-jj.i) is "to place."
:

n6 Rapuitqueflammam.

Servius says rap^dt 1= raptim fecit, "and quickly he started a blaze among the touchwood " Heyne makes


64


Vergil's
akn.
I3.


l.

rapuU=raplim

excrpit, proliably meaning tliat the fire started by rubbing together the dry pieces of wood and then quickly placing the fire around the tinder.

177 Cererem corruptam


vs. 215.

" the corn damaged ;" note the metonymy : so : " the vessels of Ceres," may refer to the Cerealia arnia hundmill (saxa), kneading trough, etc.
:

178

Ecpediunti "they fetch," out of the ships. fessi rerum, either "weary with the world," or rerum =^ eruiii adi!erm7~um, "weary with their misfortunes:" H. 399-3; A. & G. 218, c. receptun : "recovered" from the sea,

180

Scopalutn,
SPEC-cT/ce-,

properly, "a look-out j" by metathesis.

cp.

aK6Keh)g,

Lat.

Specula,

181

Pelago, see
in vision
:

note on alto, vs. 126 ; the abl. of the space moved over "o'er the deep." Antheavideat lit. "if he can see any Antheus," i.e., "if he can anywhere see Antheus " It may also be taken, " in the hojie that he may see some tempest-tossed (hark of Antheus." For Anthea quem^^Anthei quam (iiavem): cp. .^n. 2.31 1 ; jam proximus ardtt (Jcalegoii=jam proxima ardet domus Ucalegontis. For mood oiindeat: H. 529, u. i A. & G. Vergil is guilty of an anachronism here, as no 334, f.biremes such ships existed in the Homeric era.
:

183

Arma,
shine
:

shields arranged
cp. .^n. 8. 92.

on the stem which would

flash in

the sun-

184
185

Some have raised the question whether deer are found


Arm^nta
: :

in Africa.

properly, "ploughing cattle," i.e., "oxen," but often to horses (JEn. 3. 540) ; to apes applied to other kinds of animals (Pliny 7, 2) ; to sea monsters (Georg. 4. 395). jumeutum (=jug-

mentum)
186

"draft cattle."

Hie

distinguish in

meaning

hlc, hic,

190

Sternit

"he lays low." vulgus, said of beasts, cp. Georg. 3, 469 et turbam "and driving with his shafts the valgus incantam. whole herd (of deer), he disperses them amid the leafy woods."
:

192

Prius quam, denotes


aeqiiet
:

" nor

stays he

purpose: hence the subj. \n fundat. prlus till he stretches on the sod seven great victims
: :

and thus has a number equal to that of the ships." priu-i quam H. 520, 2 ; A. & G. 327, a. humi what other words are used in the locative ? H. 426, 2 ; A. & G. 258, d.
194
195
Partitur,
sci'.,

irraedam.

Vina

cadis onerarat, by hypallage=i)ino cados onerarat. Scan this line, and tell what metrical figure in it. join with keros.
dividit.

deinde
bonus,


NOTES.

65

196

Trinacria.

called hy the Greelcs BpiraKpia^ TpivaKpia, three promontories (rpcig a/cpa/i, and by the Romans Triqiietra. The promontories are I'elorus (Fuj o), Pachynum {Passara), Lilybaeuro {Bona, or Marsala).
Sicily
\\n<:

TpivaKpig,

from

its

198

Neqiie malorum: either " for we are not ii^norant of our former misfortunes," taking ante malontm^ruv vplv Kanuv or, " for we have not been formerly ignorant of misfortune," taking ante sumus
;

=7ra/\ai ea/uiv.

199

graviora "O ye who have suffered heavier woes."


:

200

Sci/llaeam rahiein (by eiiaUage)^Sci/Uain rabid a "the raging Scylla :" cp. Herculeus labor, (ih] 'HpaKh/eiT/. penitus sonantes "resounding through their caverns," or "deep sounding." The reference is to Charybdis. The onomatopoeia well imitates the hissing sound of the seething whirlpool.

20\ A ccestli^=accessistis "you drew near." For similar cases of syncope,


:

extinxem, extinxti, traxe, vixet H. 235.3 ; A. & G. 128, b. Cyclopea saxa, referring to the cave of Polyphemus. The usual quantity is Cyclopeus, not Vyclopeus cp. Aen. 3.569.
in Vergil
;

cp.

203

Forsan

juvabit "this, too, sometime we shall haply remember with delight;" eliptical for fors sit an ; lit., "the chance maybe whether," i.e., "perhaps," H. 485 ; A. & G. 311, a. See note on olim, here = aliquando in prose see note, vs. 20. forte, vs. 151.
:

204

Discrimina rerum=^res periculosas.


ing point
;

discrimen

properly, the turnKpivu.

root KRI,
scil., iter:

"to decide" or "to separate;" cerno

205 206

Tendimus,

"we

pursue our course."


:

" 'tis heaven's Ostendunt : "promise." fas est, will."/as " to declare": cp. fari, (prj/ii ; fatum, (pvju^. FA,

root

207 208

Durate=TXvTe

"bear up."

rebiis

dat.,

H.

384,

11.;

A.

& G.

225.

Distinguish

in

meaning

voces, vdces

refert, refert.

Morris rendei"s

this passage:

So spake his voice, but his sick heart did mighty trouble rack. As, glad of countenance, he thrust the heavy anguish back.

209

Spent simulat vuliu


instr.

"hope in his look he feigns." vuUu: abl. Distinguish simulare, to feign what you are not dissimulare, not to shew what you actually are. premit dolorcm: "he holds hidden deep in his heart his grief." corde : local abl.
:

210

Se accingunt

The

"busy themselves." lit, "gird themselves," i.e., toga of the Romans, hanging loose, had to be tucked up for an active task. Hence, succinctiis, accinctus, "active."
:


66
Jll

b.

Vergil's aen.

-Vergil was well versed in the ceremunial rites of the Roman religion. The minuteness of the description is paralleled by Horn. II., 1.458costis: abl. separation. vUcera, properly, the great internal 473.
organs, as the heart, liver, &c., but also applied to the flesh in general, or to anything beneath the skin.

212

Pars

secantfigunt
:

veribus
figunt.

abl.

instr.

what figure? H. 438.6 ; A. & G. 205, c. trementia, scil., Jig unt~ transviscera.

213

" the bronze pots." Vergil is here guilty of an Aena, scil., vasa anachronism. Homer's heroes knowing nothing of boiled meat. The hot water may have been for the bath taken before the meal
:

began.

214

Victu

vires: "stretched."
:

"with food thjy

repair

their

strength."

fusi,

215 Bacchi^vini

see note vs. 177 : H. 409, v. i A. & G. 248, C. R. see note vs. 158 ; H. 465 ; A. & G. ill. N. i.ferinae, scil., carnis: "venison:" cp. agnina, "lamb;" hovina, "beef;" vituUna, "veal." /era is etymologically the same as Gr. 6r]p, German thier, Eng. deer, which was once a generic term, as is each of its Aryan equivalents.

imj)lentur=:se implent

;'

216

Postquam epulis " after hunger was appeased by the feast." Decline fames and ejmlum. For tense of exemta est H. 471, 4 A. & G. 324. Vergil is thinking of the customs of his own day, when
:
:

the tables were brought in and taken out. shipwrecked Trojans had any tables at all.

It is

not likely that the

217

Amissos requirunt " they talk with lingering regret of their lost comrades in many words." requiro, to ask about something
:

needed.

218

in the Spent inter: anastrophe. dubii, "wavering." seu sive pre-Augustan period we find sive xive, seu seu, but after that crtdant : fl. 486, 11.; time we generally find seu sive, siveseu. A. & G. 334, b.

219

Extrema pati " to have suffered their final doom," a euphemism "and that they no longer hear when for moH. nee vocatos The reference is to the conclamatio, i.e. calling the dead called." by name, and also shouting vale, or have.

220
221

Orontei

decline this word.

Secwm

"by
:

himself," not in sight of his comrades.

222
223

Aethere
Finis
:

abl. separation

H. 413

A.

&

G. 243.

the end of the day, or of the feast.


NOTES.

67

i24

" hioking down upon." Oiheri reTiA dix/nciens, "l(ji>kDcspiciens ing abroad." veiivolutn : " alive with flittinjj sails."
:

225

Sic

const kit
:

"even

so took he his stand on


Sr/.

apeak

of heaven

;"

cp. use of
'226

Homeric

Kal, kqI

Regnis

" on the realms "


:

(dat. or abl.).

227

Tales euros

" such
:

cares

''

as

became

the ruler of the world.

228

Tristior=subtrlstis "sadder than was her wont :" & G. 93, a. oculos H. 378 ; A. & G. 240, c.
:

H. 441,

i ;

A.

230- -Fulmine the lightning that strikes the earih Kcpawog gleam of the lightning=:dCT-pa/r7.
:

-.

fulgur, the

231

Quid

orhls : " what sin so heinous could my Aeneas have committed against thee, what sin, the Trojnns, to v. hom, after suffering so many hardships, the whole orld is closed on account of Italy:" cunctus, for co-jtiiictus ox co-vinclu<. ob Italiam: to prevent their coming to Italy.

234

/er^e

distinguish cn-to, a parti :Ie of afTiiTnation joined with scio, : "surely," " certainly," and ci'vti', which moMlies a statement, "at least," joined to any verb Join with pollicitu.i, soil., es. hi}ic-

hitic

either a repetition, (2) or, there are two clauses : /wrac Romanos fore, hiiic durtores fore a samjutne Teucri. volveniibus annli : cp. Homer's TTEpi-'/Muevuv iviavruv.
is

(i)

236

Qui

tenerent:
:

"shall hold," imperf. subj. of virtual oblique nanai


;

tion

H. 493

A.

&

G. 286.

237 PoUicitus,
238

scil., es.

Hoc

" by

this," abl. of

means

referring to the promise mentioned

befoio.

239

" balancing fates by opposing fates ;" strictly Fafls^rejyendens contraria is an inverted epithet =co<rarJi^-. fatis the downfall of Troy is compensated by the hope of reaching Italy.
: :

240
242

Tot

ados

" harassed by so many woes."

^fedits Adiiris: "escaping from the midst of the Greeks." Sophocles represents Antenor as having escaped by collusion from Troy, the Greeks having s]iaied hi% life as he conco ted a jlan to deliver Troy into their hands. Some say he survived the fallen city, and founded there a new kingdom ; others, that he scitkd iruLibya.

243

Penetrare: "coasted along."


68
245 Per ora norcm

Vergil's
aev.


b.
i.

the '1 iinavus rises nlioiit n mile from its mouth at Between the four.lain of the river the hend of the Adriatic sea. and ilie outlet are several subtcrrancui ch.mnels, throut;h which the sail water of the sea is forced back by a storm, breaking out at the fountain through seven holes or crevices in the rock, and overflowing the channel of the river.
:

246

It

proruptuiyi

(l)

"the sea comes

bursting:

up;"

a dashing sea ;" (3) " it sea ;" pru7-uptum, a supine in this last. pehnjo, "surge." natural explanation.

Timavus)

rolls as

rolls to

(2) "it (the break upon the


is

The

first

the most

247

Tamen
VI.
;

"in

spite of all his dangers.'"'


f.

urhem Patavi: H. 396,

In Vergil's day Patavium (now Padua) was the fourth city of the empire in wealth, ranking next to Rome, The Veneti, or Heneti, are said to Alexandria, and Gades {Cadiz). have come from P.aphlagonia to Italy ; others say they were Kelts.

A.

&

G. 214,

248

Fixit

i.e.,

hung them up

in the

temple as a token of his wars being

over.

249

Nunc qtiiescit: " now


ponius
:

reposing, he rests in peaceful sleep."

com-

Some say that compostus referring to his toils being over. refers to Antenor's death ; cp. eKTitHvaicomponere, to stretch out a body for burial.
250
Nos,
i.e., Venus and her son Aeneas. adnuo : cp. Karavevu, to nod the head down, to give assent ; deniio dvavcvu, to nod the head caeli arcein : Aeneas was worshipped as one of the up, to dissent. Aen. 12, 794: Livy, 1.12. JL)ei indigetes
:

251

Infandum
unius
:

" Oh, horror unspeakable


of Juno.

:"

H. 381, A. & G. 240, d.

i.e.

252
25.3

Prodimur

"

are forsaken " by Juppiter,

Hie, agreeing with the predicate AoKOs to piety:" H. 445.4, A. & G. 195, d.
:

"is

this

the reward

shown

254 OUi =^iUi


255

H.
:

force of sub

186, in., i. ; A. & G. 100, d. cp. that of vtto\\\ VTroyeTidv.


to

Subride.ns: with the

The majestic spondees give dignity the look of Jove. 256 Scan and name the metrical figure in see note, 131. A. & G. 68, ytherea: adjective fem., 257 ^fe/u -metui H. 116
this line
it
:

vs.

iv.

from Cythera see note on Lavini, next line. Venus was so called because she was worshipped at the island of Cythera (now Cervjo). Her worship was probably a remnant of the old Phoenician worship of Astarte, who was afterwards identified with Venus and Juno.
;

"


69

NOTES.
258

Tibij
236.

ethical dative,

"according
(adj.).

to

your wish

:"

H. 389

urbem
vs.

et

moenia(hy hendiadys)

here; in

2: Ldvina

urbls moenia. Lavlni Such variations in quantity are

A.

&

G.

frequent in the case of proper names.

259

Sublimem
Hie

"on
:

high
cp.

:"

H. 443

A.

&

G. 191,
fiEyalrjrup.

260
261

Maqnanimum
siihactis
iates,

Homeric

fteyddvfiog,

" this one according to your wish for I shall declare : this anxiety torments thee, since and, unrolling the the mysteries of destiny at greater lengtli, I will bring them to light this one, I say, shall carry on a great war in Italy, and shall crush the warlike tribes, and shall give laws to the people, and shall build
towns,

until the third summer sees him reigning in Latium and tibi : three winters are passed after the subjugation of the Rutnli." quando = quandoquldem this meaning occurs see note, vs. 258. only in poetry and in post-Angustan prose cp. ote for on in Greek. volveiis: the metaphor is taken irom the unrolling of a book: cf vuliimen, properly an unrolling, hence a volume-. mores rdx^a Ouvai. moenia ponere cp. v6/xovg The two ideas were inseparable in the Roman mind, as the building of a city implied There is no real zeugma, as the the esiablishment of laws. difference in sense exists only in the English translation. viderit H. 519, II. ; A. & G. 328. Butidis subactis either (i) an abl. absol H. 384 4, IV., 3 ; A. & G. 235. or (2) dat. of reference hiberna, scil., castra tren hieinen lit. " winter camps," i.e. ternn winters. Note the use ot the distributive instead of the cardinal numeral with a noun having a pi. form only.
:

37

At:

the idea is "though the reign of Aeneas shall be short, still," &c.: see note, vs. 116. lulo : H. 387, N. i ; A. & G. 231 b.
:

26SStetit
III.;

for tense

H.

519,

i.

A.

&

G. 276,

e,

N.

regno

A.

& G.

H. 419,

248.

266 Maqnos orbes referring to the annual cycle in contradistinction to volvendis = volrcntibus, from the deponent the monthly revolution. H. 465, N. I reflexive volvor A. & G. 296. The gerundive has been the force of^ the present participle. meu.iibus abl. absol., or abl. inst., or manner.
;
:

270

Imperio
reign.

either

= wiperanrfo,
cp.

abl.

of

manner; or

dat.

"for

his

271

Longam Albam
Od.
II.,

Livy

l,

2.

For inversion

of

names

cp.

Hor.

2.3.

272

llic:
oi"

at

Alha.

jam:

the received date of the

"henceforth." ter centum: fall of Tioy, this would put

according
llie

to

Unme aluut 850 IJ.C, iuhleavl oi T^^ \>.G. dyna-ly shall last:" H. 301, i ; A. & G. 146, c.

founilalion

g,,ab'itur,

"the


70
2^:^


vekgm/s akn.
b.
I.

Hectorea:

lidae, A-ssaroriilne, Cecrojndae,

its greatest liero cp. Rornuor periiaps lliere is a rderence to regina sacerdos : it is difficult the warlike spirit of the Romans. 'i'he referto say which of these substantives is used adjeclively. ence is to Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor.

the race takes

its

nan e from

214:Pnrln: H. 419,
328.
-///((,

i.e.
:

Trojan

line

A. &. G. 248. rfa6(7: H. 519, li.: A. & G. of the family of IUh, one of the loiinciers of the Rhea Silvia is generally given as her name.
ill.;

275

Lupae Inetus " gay in the tawny hide him:" H. 416 A. & G. 245.
:
;

of the she-wolf that nursed

276

Exripiet

by succession ;" cp. eKdixsoHai. ^^avortia Mamers] was the patron deity of Rome, and universally vvorshi]:>ped by the Italian people. The word is from MAR, MAL, "to grind" or "crush." He is identified with Tlior Miolnir, i.e., Thor, the smasher, of Norse mythology.
:

"

shall receive

Mars

(old form

^faror<<

278

Metas rtrum, "limit of empire:" the meaning


have a universal and an eternal empire.

is

that

Rome

shall

279

Quin^qui

Distini^uish the meanings of ne : "nay even." used with the indie, the ^ubj., and the imper.

^wm when

281

"shall Consilia referet ing refert, rGfert.


:

amend her

plans."

Distinguish in mean-

282

Togalam: The Romans had


teristic

the toga, or "gown," as their characdress ; as the Gaiils had the hrarcne, or " trews ;" the Greeks the pallium, or "cloak." Hence (jmis togatu=Romani gens hraccata Galli gens pallinta^=Graeci. As the toga was tlie civil gown I'm contradistinction to sagtnn, the military cloak) Vergil may refer here to the civil greatness of the Romans as he may refer to their military piowess as lords of tl e world (re7-uin dominos).
;

283

^ic

placitum, scil., mihi est=sic mihi placet "such is my pleasure :' H. 301. 1 ; A. & G. 146, N. Ivstris lahentihus "as the yenrs glide by," ahl. abs. cp. volvendis iii('nsihu-<. -lustrum, properly the period between two successive purifications (Lli, " to wash ") cp. Greek "kovu. After the ccnxor had completeJ. his enumeration of the people [census) which was done every five years, an expiatory sacrifice (lustrum) was held.
:

284

Domus

Assaraci: "the line of Troy." The family of Aeneas is meant, being descended from -Assaracus (see table, p. 25). Phthia: a district of Thessaly, in which was situated Lai^issa, a town, where Achilles and Neoptolemus were bom. Mi/cenas: the royal city of Agamemnon, near Argos. A reference is made here to the subjugation of Greece in 146 B.C.


NOTES.
285
Viciis

71

Argis : "shall lord it over conquered Arj^os." Only in late In the best writers it writers doiiiinor governs a dative or genitive. For dat. H. 385, I. ; is construed in aliquem, or in aliqtca re.
:

A. & G.
286
Origine
:

227.
abl.

Decline Argis.

origin: H. 419, II.; A. & G. 51. Caeaar, i.e., His proper name was C. Octavius Tluninus, Init l>y the Julius Caesar, he was made hii heir, and conwill of his uncle, sequently took the name, C. Julius Caesar, adding Oc'aiHdiiiis, his own gentile name. Augiisliis (revered) was bestowed on him by the Senate and the people, 27 B.C.
Aiigti-''tti-<i.

287

subj. of purpose: H. 497, Qui termiiiet Oceano abl. means.


: :

I.;

A.

&

G.

317.

288

Caelo poetic=^cZ caelum in prose. Augustus in his lifetime was Hor. Od. 3.5.3. Orientis onustam. worshipped as a drity The reference is probably to the restoration of the standards taken from These were restored, Crassus at the battle of Carrhae, B.C. 53. Others think the poet refers to the return of Augustus B.C. 20. after the battle of Actium, B.C. 31.
: :

290 292

Hie quoque

i.e.,

Caesar, as well as Aeneas.

Cana: "untarnished."
golden age
is

The Romans

as Pudi/r, Furtunn, &c., to the rank of deities.

often exalted abstract qualities, The return of the

here prophesied.

293

Jura

impose laws." dirae portae "the gates of welded iron bars shall be closed." fcrro ei compagibus=/errati'i compagihus, by hcndiadys. The reference is to the closing of the temple of Janus, either in B.C. 29 or B.C. 25.
dahiait
:

"

shall

war grim with

closely

294

Impius: "unholy," as the cause of the civil wars of the Romans. These three lines are said to describe a picture by Apelles representing War fettered with chains, or a statue of Mars exhibitingj the god bound with chains and seated on a pile of arms.

295

Centum vinctits, .scil., inanus, implied in post iergum "his hands bound behind his back with countless fetters of brass." centum,
:

often used for an indefinitely great number.

297

Maia genitum

H. 415, li. ; A. & G. 244, Juppiter and Maia, the daughter of Atlas.
: :

a.

Mercury was son o'

'i^iUt pateant
299

H. 498,
:

i.;

A.

&

G. 331.

HospUio Teucris

both datives after pateant.

300

The historic present may Arceret: H. 497, 11.; A. & G., 317. take in form a present subj. (pateant), or an imperfect in respect of sense (arceret) : H. 495, li.; A. & G. 287, e.


72
30\ -7emir;io Ag. 52


I!.

I.

VKKOlIi's AEN.

Ae=;chylus, l,y the onrage oT his wirgs :" cp. TTTEpijuv epETfjo'taiv epeaaduevoc. The wings of the cap {petasiis) of Mercury and of liis saiulals (talaria) are aptly compared oWs "and qui: kly he alighted on to a ship's banks of oars. atciiiis predicate adj. with the force of an the coasts of Libya." adverb. -o?'iS local abl. cp. Milloii, Far. Lost, 5, 266
;

alarum: "

" Down

thither prone in nij;ht

He

.'peeds,

Sails

and through ilic vast ethereal sky. between worlds and woiids, etc."

ii02

-FacU pojuott

note the simultaneous order and result.


tit'Xovroq
:

303

Vnlrtite deo^=6eov
bf'iiii/iiain
:

" since the god willed

it."

in priniis

does the queen entertain a peacefid disposition and friendly mind toward the Trojans." Dido is represented as receiving these feelings from .Mercury. Distinguish aiiiniwi :=(h>/!6c, the soul as seat of the feelings; me7is=^p^v, the mind as the thinking faculty.
of
all

"most

305 306
307

VolvDis,
Voilo:

sell., in

animo

" revolving
light."'

in his

mind."
constituit.

Lux alma

" the kindly


stress of

exire,

governed by
:

"by
:

weather."
:

oras

explanatory of /occs

"to
in

what shores he has been borne by the wind :" gcjverned by ad H. 3S6. 3 A. & G. 170, a. i. The subj. is used acce.s.ser'd indirect questions H. 529.1 ; A. & G. 334:

in

309

Exacta

either (i) "the result of his enquiries;" exigere, is some: times used in the sense of, " to enquire:" so examen^exa<j-men, TreTrpayfieva "the beam of a balance," or (2) "the report of what he did :" "and to l)ring back the results of his enquiries to

his

comrades."

310

in convexo

vemorum : " within a vault of woods," i.e., " within tlie vaulted wnods, " the overhanging cliffs were formed into a cave by tlie action of the waves.

311

Clasae.m
V.

clausam occtdit=classem clausit


:

et

occulit

see

note

69.

312

Coiiidntiis:
b.

for deponents used passively: H. 231. 2 ; A. & G. 135, Achate this ablatixe of agent is rare, except with the pan. comdatus H. 415, I., 1 ; A. & G. 248.
:

313Bina: "a
quality
:

H. 419,
sese
:

pair:" H. 1742.4); A. II.: A. & G. 251.


-.

&

G. 95, d.ferm: ~~~

abK of.

314

Cui

" to meet him his mother crossed his tuUt ohvia H. 391. 1 H. 391. i ; A. & G. 228, b. ohvia, poetic A. & G. 191. media silva local abL H. 443 for ohviam H. 425.1 ; A. & G. 254.

maler

way." c'/j

NOTES.

73

i]50s habitumqne

"

the lool< and dress."

316

F^e^

Harpalyce: a condensed mode of saying, vel {talis virglnis) qualis Threissa Harpalyce {est quum) fatigat equos "or (of such a maiden) as the Thracian Harpalyce (is when) she out-tires the " presses sore." The Spartans were steeds." Others lake fatigat the Thracians were famous hunters. noted for their scanty drvss ;
: :
:

317

" oustrips the East wind :" for the case H. Praevertitur Eurum Some editors read Heiirum but (i) it A. & G. 170, a, i. 386.3 is no proof of .swiftness to outstrip a river in speed (2) the river Hebrus is not a swilt slrtrani. So others propose to read Eurum.
: ; : ;

318

Umeris:

dat. or abl. de more, scil., venatricum "after the man" the huntress had slung a ner of liuntresses." hahilnnvenatrii: light bow." The l)ow and sometimes the arrows were carried in the bow case {yupvrog) and slung over the shoulder.
:
:

319

Diffundere = ut difundereiif: H. 533,

11.,

A.

& G.

331, g.
:

320

Genu: H. 378; A. & G.


flowing folds collected
in

240,

c.

a knot

:"

H. 378

-nodoqueJluentes "with her A. & G. 241. i, c ;

321

Monstrate

" point out where she


is

is."

322
323

Quam

when

quis used for aliqids?


cp. Eur. Ale.

H. 455.1
:

A.

&

G. 105,

d.

Maculosae

lyncis

579

/iaTiiai

te XvyKeg.

324

Aiit prementem : "or with a shout closely following the track of the foaming boar," opposed to erraiitem, scU., per silvas : "sauntering (through the woods)."

325

Sic Venus,

scil.,

loquitur.

orsus,

sil., est,

from ordior.

S2QMihi

H.

388.

A.

&
is

G. 232,

after a perf pass,

and

a. The dat. of agent is often used the regular construction after the gerundive.

^27Memore7n
32S

subjunctive of doubt

H. 484, V.

A.

&
:

G. 268.

Hominem = humanum
A.

sonat: a kind of cognate ace.

&

H. 371,

11.,

N.

G. 237,
soror, 216.

e.

329

Phoebi
A.
:

i.e.,

Diana.

sanguinis:

partitive genitive:

&G.

H
:

397*

3306'w
331

H. 483

A.

&

guish in meaning l^ves,

" iHopitlous." Zewes G. 267./e/Zx leves. quaecunique, scil., ts.

distin-

Tandem: cp.if/Ta: "pray."


74

vekgil's akn.

u.
i.

eq^ihltnn. H35 -Venus, scil., loquitur. "'tis true, I consider myself worthy of no such honour :" H. 421, N. 2 A. & G. 245, a. She refers to the honour of being addressed as a goddess or nymph.
:

337 Purpurea
l)y

cotkurno the purple bushinwz.% hunters, horsemen, and actors.


:

worn high and generally

338

Punka
moenia

also

Pociiica

connected
of

For the dropping


:

with Phoenix : cp. munire the h, see Papillon's Comparative

Philology

p. 82.

339

Libyci. The original Karthaginian settlers did not throw o(T the yoke of the Libyan tribes till about the age of Camliyses of Persia, i.e., 530 B.C. (jeiius in apposition with the noun implied in Libyci.
:

340

Iviperium regit 341 Longa injuria


A.

" holds the sway," not "

rules over the

domain."

" tedious would be the


,
lit.

tale of

wrong

:"

H. 476,

&

G. 311,
:

c,

342

Ambages

"

details ;"
:

" round about ways

se(i7-erum I shall relate in se(]uar=^perseqnar. story. " suvima fastigia=:capita. Conington renders : " long. And dark the story of her wrong ;

" but

" ins and outs." order the main points of the


:"

To

thread each tangle time would


tale."

fail.

So learn the summits of the

343 Scan

this line

in these

two

also line 348. Is there lines ? ditis.sim ns agri

3 ; A. & G. 218, c. but a commercial people, some propose to read auri for agri. Vergil, however, is describing -Sychae'is, as he would describe a Roman of his day who^e chief wealth consisted in land.

any word varying in quantity " richest in land ;" H. 399, As the Karthaginians were noi an agricultural,
:

344

Et amore:

"and beloveil with (wife):" for the case of miserae note, V. 326.
:

great

affection
I
;

by the

H. 388,

A.

&

G. 232,

hapless a.: see

345

Intactam:
Ominibiis
:

" a maiden
in the

:"

had united her

first rites
:

often applied to wedlock

Priml'ique - ominibus : "and cp. a5<K-(5c. of wedlock." jungo: as ^evyvv/j.c is cp. conjuux, abcv^.

346

the consultation of the omens was regarded of great importance before the celebration of the marriage rites. Here ominibus Tyri local genitive. is put for marriage rite.s.

347

Scelere:
alii

H. 424; A. omnes
:

&

G. 253.

ante

alius omnes= major

quam

348

Qiwsfuror

"in the midst between them a feud came."

NOTES.

349

hnpius:
rin<j

"unnatural," because violnting

all

natural claims, refer-

to his disregard for his sister or (or the place, as well as to his

treachery.

350

Securos amorum: " regardless of his sister's love G. 218. Distinguish in meaning and derivation
:

;"

H.

599, 3

A.

&

secU7-ts, sScuris.

352 ~Malu.s=male, by enallage


355

" wickedly."

Sed ipsa
&c." mati
:

the idea : ipsa : *' of

'twas in vain that he deceived her, for, accord ;" cp. avT6r=avT6/uaTOC. iuhu" unburied ;" this may account for the unrest of the shade.
is
:

" but

its

own

356

Nudavit

" he revealed the cruel altars and shewed his a zeugma " the crime done to dotims scelus heart pierced with the sword." What kind of genitive ? the family."
: : :

357

Celerareui
414, N.,
I ;

celertl

H.
243,

535, iv.; A.
a.

&

G. 331, g.

patria

-.

H.

A.

& G.

35S 359

Auxilium

viafi in

apposition to thesauros.

Ignotum pondus
rest

"untold mass;" kept

secret

and apart from the

of his wealth.

360

Fugamparahat
companions."

" Dido began to prepare for flight and With socios, j)arabat=comparabat.
:

to collect

362
3G5

Pelago

abl. of

space

moved over

A.
:

&

G. 258,

g.

Devenere
:

locos, i.e,

devenere
:

venire cp. KaTayeiv, to to conscewlere, vs. 381

ad locos " they reached a spot." decome from the higli seas to land opposed
:

cp. avdyeiv.

367

Construe:

mercatique (sunt tanlum) soli quantum. Sec: "and they bought (us much) land as they were able to Surround with an ox hide." The Phoenicim name for a fort is Bursa (Hebrew, Bosra). It is probable that the confusion of the Phoenician Bursa with the Greek jivpca "a hide," gave rise to the story, according to which the Phoenicians cut up the hide into thongs and so surrounded possent a considerable portion of ground. virtual oblique narration implying the terms of agreement H. 528, I.; A. & G. 341, c.
: :

369

Qui,

soil., estis.

370

Quaerenti

vocem : "at her question he sighing and drawing his voice deep from his breast answered in these words :" with ille, scil., respondit. With quaerenti, scil., illi, i.e., Dido.

371

Sipergam

" if going back, I were to tell thee the story in full from the very beginning." Willi repetens or pergam, .scil., /amain.. For .subjunctive H. 509 A. & G. 307, b.
: :


76
S'Jii Varcl,
scil.,
:

VKKGIl/s AKN.

B.
I.

"you had time." nnnnles p'-operly the antibi were " yenr books " recounting the events of each year, and were kept by the chief officers at Rome hence, the story of
:

nalt's iibri

events, generally.

374

Avti'

Ohj inpo
lay the

"ere
:

(I

had finished

my

tale),

*he evening sta'

closing (the qate ot ) heaven." antc= vesper: cp. ante fineiii annal'iuiii "behold the end of my tale." rcot ra.s, "to dvvell," as the abode of the ea-epog, i.e., Fto-tfmg 701 xt. Oli/mpu-s, a high mountain (no%v Eliinbo) in cp. I'.ng. sun Thessaiy, the dwelling place of the gods according; to Homer, afterwards often in the poets used a.s a conventional term for heavzn.

would

day

to sleep,

ZlbTroia
i.

e.,

H. 412, join with vecloi^ has been heard ol by you.


:

li.;

A.

&

G. 258, a.~psr aures

376

Diversa either (i) "various," or from each other.


:

(2)

"distant,"

i.e.,

far separated

377

" by its own chance Fort^ sua as a substantive. here used


:

:" i.e.,

by mere accident

fora, only

378

Sum notua

this vainglorious

common among
raptos ex hoste
:

the ancients

method of announcing one's self was cp. Od. 9, 19 elfi' OSvcevg Aaepri:

d6r]g, Of TzacL 66/x>loi

'AvdpuTOiat /je?iU, Kai jiev k/^oq ovpavbv " rescued from the midst of the foe."

Ikei.

380

Quaero summo

"I am seeking Italy and my race (descended) With genus, scil., ortum. Dardanus, the from Jove on high." founder of the Trojan line, son of Jupiter and Electra, originally came from Italy. Aeneas seeks Italy to re-establish his line in its
:

ancient seat.

381

Bis

deriis

the distributive, rather than the cardinal,

is

used because

conscendi: ten are reckoned each time : H. 174, 2 ; A. & G. 95, c. " I climbed": the sea seems to rise as it recedes from the shore : or simply, " I embarked :" cp. note on vs. 365 : cp. Moiris (Life and Death of Jason): " And swiftly Argo climbed each changing hill, And ran through rippling valleys of the sea :" cp. avayeiv.

382

Monstrante
Ipse,

i.e.,

by a

star

Aeneas was led


:

to Italy,

Aen.:

2,

8ci.

383

tants, far

"unknown" to the inhabiopposed to the ships. ifjnotus from friends, as he was well known by report vs. 379.
:

384
385

The

reference to the three continents gives dignity to the story.


:

" beginning Plura qwrentem 6 A. & G. 276, b. H. 467,


;
:

to

complain further

:" conative part

387

" not an object ol hntrt-d, I wenn, to the power above Iluud rtrjiin you breathe the vital air inasmuch as you have come to the Tyrian


NOTES.

77
is,
it

city." Join haud w'lih invisus. will that you have reached here.

The meaning

is

by heaven's

J88

Qui culveneris
320,
e.
:

urbein, i.e.,

"seeing that you have come ad urbem.

:"

H. 517

A.

&

G.

389

"only go on." Perge modo meaning modo, mddo.

Conjugate pergo.

Distinguish in

390

Namque

" for I announce to thee the return of thy comnuntio the recovery of thy fleet." Make reduces predicative with and rades
:

esse understood.

)istinguish in

meaning rSduces, reduces.

391

Et

392

actam " and borne into a safe (place) by the shifting winds." Ni=nvii. frustra "in vain," disappointed hope of the subject:
: :

nequidquam

refers to the nullity in which (avis, a bird, root GAR the thing "to chatter :" hence ytjpveiv, garire) properly an omen from the notes of birds, but often used for an omen from any source auspiciinn {avis, a bird and spec to see) omens from the flight, or from an inspection "deceivers," i.e. impostors, vani of the entrails of birds.
:
^

"to no purpose," augurium has ended.

393

Venus here gives tidings of the missing

ships from the omen of the There are twelve swans as there were swans, her favorite birds. Some of those swans already settle on the twelve missing ships. land (terras capers\ others are on the point of settling on the land already occupied (captos despeciare): so the ships either now occupy the haven [portum tenet) or are entering it {-subit) with full sail. laetantes agmine : " in jubilant order : literally," joyful in line."

394

Aetheria caelo " which the bird of Jove, swooping from the height H. 427, 11.; A. & G. of heaven, scattered in a clear sky." plaga Distinguish in mea.mng jjldga, jjUlga. Jovis ales=aquila. 243, c.
:
:

aperto

caelo

abl. place

cp.

di' ipTjfiov

alOepog.

396
^,p^

Aut videntur
the ground,

"they seem

in a long array either to

be choosing

or to be gazing

downwards on the ground already

(jam) chosen by them."

397
3^

Ut dedere " even as these returning sport with whirring pinions and gird the sky with their circling flock, and give fonh their song." The swans were first scattered by the bird of Jove (as the ships have been by the storm) they have now united, and with whizzing wings and song they descend to earth. It appears that these worils should alis distinguish ala, a wing penna, naturally come after caelo. plui m, ihe smaller and the larger and harder feathers of the wing
:

softer feathers of the body.

ciiixere

completed action.
described.

cantus

dedere: the perfects express the absence oT fear, perfect security, is

399

Tuorwm for tua,

for the

sake of variety.


78
400

veugil's aen.
b.
i.

Suhit ostia

"are niakin<j an entrance :" II. .^86. 3 Note the verb agrees with the nearest nominative.
:

A.

&

G. 228,

a.

401

Perge modo

" only go on."


;

402

Averten-t:
i.e., lier

re/ulsit:

A. & G. "as she turned away:" H. 549. 1 " she flashed forth with the beauty of her

rosea, 292. rosy neck,"

rosy neck shone forth to view.

403

Ainhro-siae comae:

cp. afijSpoaini ;i:aira, Horn. II., r.529 : "immortal locks." In Homer ainbru.sia is commonly applied to the food of the gods, but it is also used for ointment and perfume.
in vs.

404

Veslis

320 she was dressed as a huntress.

She now appears

in the flowing robes characteristic of a goddess.

405

Et dea

" and by her gait she revealed the true goddess." incessus and incedo ar^ff ''ten applied to the dignified gait of the gods :
:

cp. vs. 46.

Scan

this line.

406

Adgnovit

distinguish in

meaning

adgnosco, cognosco, ignosco.

407

Tolies

exaggeration, as Venus had appeared only once to Aeneas tu quoque i.e., you as well as Jano.faltiis before: B. 2, 589.
:
:

imaginibus

" by empty phantoms,"


:

i.e.,

by assuming disguises.
words,"
i.e.,

409

Audire voces
out disguise.

"

to hear

and reply

in real

words with-

410

Talibus,
G. 189,

scil.,

verbis or vocibus
inczisat
:

"in

.such

words

:"

H.

441.

A.

&

b.

(in,

causa),

"he

chides her."

411

Acre:
&

aer (cp. a-i/p), the misty air near the earth, "a cloud," distinguished from aether (cp. aldr^p), the bright air above the clouds.

412

Circum fudit=circur)}fudit
G. 225
d.

What
:

by tmesis for const. other construction may be used ?


: : :

H.

384,2

A.

413
415

Molirive moram
Paphum
Venus.
altars
:

" or
in
:

to plan a delay."

Paphos,
subli'inis

Cyprus, was a noted seat of the worship of


aloft in air."

"

416

Templum

(where) a hundred breathe with the fragrance of garlands ever fresh." Cp. Paradise Lost, IV., 162 : " Sabaean odors from tlie spicy shore of Arabic the blest." In Hom. Od., 8.362, we learn that " laughter-loving Aphrodite " had one altar in Paphos.
{esl)
illi.

centumque

lialant:

"and

smoke with Sabaean frankincense and

Here via and i\8 Corripuere viam: "they hastened on their way." generally via is "a highway;" semiia semita are not distinguished (e, "aside," and meare, " to go ") "a by-path."
;

NOTES.

79
its

4X9 Qui imminet "which hangs M- 453-5 A. &. G. 200, d.


: ;

with

mighty mass over the

ciiy :"

420

Adversasque arces
towers."
tain

" and looks down from above on the opposing may mean that the towers rise up to meet the mounwhich gazes down upon them, or that they are over a valley
:

This

and so advcrsas.
421

Molem

to Aeneas, the city is a heap, a mass, of buildings, for he " once a cluster of magalia quondam gazes from a distance. mcKjalia is said Phoenician word applied to "huts." huts." to be a In some places it means " the suburbs " of Karthage.
: :

422

"and the hum" of the thronged streets. strata Strepitumque viarum " the paved streets :" cp. opaca viarum H. 397, N., 4 ; A. & G. 216, b.
: : :

423

Instant muros

" the eager Tyrians are ' . at work ; some to trace instant, scil., operi. the walls:" H. 533, i., i ; A. & G. 271 pars in app. to Tyrii, dacere muros cp. E?MvvEtv toIxov.
:
.

424

Moliri:

"to

build," with the idea of the magnitude [moles) of the

structure.

425

Pars optare
purposes.

out with a furrow." for single dwellings.

" some choose a site for their dwellings and mark it The plough does not seem to have been used The poet in tectum means the portion of the
that chosen for military

city selected for habitation, in opposition to

426

Jura senaium,:
among

" they appoint laws and choose magistrates and a

Vergil is here thinking of the custom prevalent the Romans in the establishment of colonies. There is a zeugma in legunt : i.e., the construction is jura constituunt magistratusque legunt.

reverend senate."

427

Theatris
B.C.

others read theatre. There is an anachronism here. No : theatre was built even at Athens till 500 B.C., and no permanent theatre was raised at Rome till B.C. 58 ; no one of stone till 55

429

Eupibus excidunt
G. 258,
a.

Distinguish

"quarry from the rock :" H. 414, N., I ; A. in meaning decora, decora, decora.
: :

&

430

Qualis labor

the full construction is : (talis est) labor (eorum) " (such) qualis exercet apes nova aestate sub sok per fiorea rura toil (is theirs) as engages the bees in early summer 'neath the sunshine throughout the flowery fields." The hive, awakened from its torpor by the warm sunshine of spring, displays unusual activity.
:

431

Cumifetus
race."

Distinguish

" when they lead out the full-grown young of in meaning educo, educo.

their


80
432

vekgil's aen.
b.

i.

Distinguish in derivation
:

llqiieiitia, liniientia.

4S3Stipant

"pack

:"

cp. areipu.

4M^Venkntumvenientium: H. facto: "in martial array."

Agmiru 2, A. & G. 87, d i(jnarum {in, gnavii-', (/imrus, con nected with uosco), "unskilful," i.e., " \a./.y."praesepidm: givt the different nominatives of this word.
158,

i'^ieFervet opus Ger. dorren

" hotly goes on the work


:

:"

with ferveo

cf.

depfu

Eng.

drij.

438

SuHjncit
hill.
:

" looks up A.
;

to :"

he has now reached the bottom of the

439 Dic^u
440
Vlris

H. 547 H.

& G.

303.

385, 3

visible to

anyone

:"

A. & G. 24S, a, R. neque uUi H. 388, 3 A. & G. 232, b.


;
:

"nor

is

he

441

Laethsimus umbrae
&G.
218,
:

" most luxuriant

in foliage :"

H.

399,

III.;

A.

c.

442

Quo loco
A oris
nam
:

primum signum
444,

inverted attraction : H. 445, 8 ; A. & G. 200, b. "the first sign," i.e., of rest from their toils.
:

sic, scil.,

"spirited," a token of their hold and active disposition. "for thus had she pointed out." monstrarat
:

445

Facikm

victu:

may mean

either (i)

"rich in provision," or
:

For the supine H. 547, A & G. 303. The horse points to warlike prowess and wealth, probably because the cavalry were supplied by the nobility, an formed an important The horse was an emblem of part of the Karthaginian army. Athens also.

(2)

"easy of maintenance."

44:5Sidonia

= Phoenissa
:

Sidon was the parent city of Tyre and, for

many
447

years, the chief city of Phoenicia.

Donis divae
Jerea
lit,:

a zeugma, "rich with gifts and favored by the presence of the goddess." The two notions are, however, closely connected.

448

limina:
" rose on
scil.,

trahes,

steps :"

"of which the brazen threshold crowned the steps :" H. 425, N. 3 A. & G. 268, f nexaeque " and its door posts plated with gradihus surgebrwt
;
:

Trahes are the door posts. ?iexcw, brass (crowned the steps)." Others read vixae (from nitor) aere=aeratae, plated with brass. and take Irabes to mean the roof or the architrave and translate : "its roof was supported on brazen pillars," or "its architrave was supported on jambs of brass."

449_In

reading this

line,

sound of the creaking doors./a?-i&i

note the frequency of r and a to express the aenis "the hinge creaked
:


NOTES.
on doors of bronze. "/ores
description of the
gratiii^'
: :

81

cp. dvpa Eng. door. Cp. Milton's noise of the opening of Hell's gates :

On
Th' infern
il

With impetuous
Harsh
thiuider.

a sudden, open fly recoil, and ja ring sound iloors and on their hinges grate
:

452 Atisus,
45.S

scil.,

not for in

adjlictia rebus.
;

est:

what verbs are semi-deponent

-?T/)iw

dative:

Luslrat

five years (lustrum),

originally applied to the priest puri/i/ivi/ tlie people every then used in the general meaning, "surveys ;"

H. 467, 4
4') I

A.

&

G. 276,
:

e.

Z)ra, join

with mlratur "while he was wondering." H. 529 ; A. & G. 334. dent question
:

sit:

depen-

454

Ariificiimque

miratur

rival (inter se)

"and was admiring the handicraft of the workmen and their toilsome labors." What figure in
:

manus ? what
458

in ojjerum

lahorcm

Ex ordine

cp. i^Eirjg

"

in detail :"

join

this

wtth pxKjnas.

The

question has been raised by Heyne, whether the poet meant to represent these battles as depicted in sculpture or in painting. The latter morle of representation would be more consistent with the The poet ascribes here to the Phoenicustom of Vergil's own age. cians the practice of the Greeks and Romans of his own time.

457 /am
45J

" by
:

this time."

Saevum

in refraining

from the war and


;"

in killing Hector.

460
461

Nostrilahoris

"of our sorrows

H. 399, 3; A. &(i., 218,

a.

En

favorite

The ransom of the body of Hector by Priam was a subject among ancient artists (vs. 484) su7it laudi "here, too, has worth Us own reward :" H. 449, 2 ; A. & G. 196, c.
Priamus.

462

Sunt rerumi
&
G. 217.

" (here)

there are tears for


--^

woes;" H.

396,

iii.

A.

463

Feretsalntem
fama,
sil.

" the fame of

this will

bring the sure deliverance."

Trojae.

4G4

Inani

unknown
466

because the persons represented are at the time of the Trojan war,
:

now

lost.

Painting was

Namque juventus
citadel here the

"for he saw, how warring round the Trojan Greeks fled, (how) the men of 'I'roy pressed in their see for themood of fugerent uti = quo modo rear." H. 529 A. & G. 334. Per(jama circum anastrophe, With Pergama cp. etymologically ~ipyoq "a citadel :" German hurg, "a town ;" berg. " a hii! ; " Eng. -burgh -bury : cf. ^din-bury, Edmunds-fewr^.
: :


82
467

Vergil's aen.
b.

i.

Hoc,

scil.,

parte
:

"

in this quarter."

468 Cunit

iiistaret

with criatatus

" pursued them with his car :" curru cf. Homeric Kopv8aio2x)c, ImrdKOfiog.

abl.

of means:

469 ^trew veils: "with canvas white as snow:" an anachronism, as The the Homeric tents (K?.iaiai) were planks thatclied with grass. Rhesus came from story of Rhesus is told by Homer (II. 10.474). Thrace, as an allay of Priam, with the oracular promise that should his steeds drink of the waters of the Xanthus, Troy would be imRhesus pitched his tent near the shore, was slain by pregnable. Diomede and Ulysses, his horses were captured, and thus the fate of Troy was foreshadowed.

470

Prima somno

either abl. (i) of time

"

in their first sleep,"

i.e.

in

their deepest sleep, or (2) of instrument to him by their first sleep."

after

prodita

"betrayed

472

Ardentesqiie equo : " and he turned aside his fiery steeds." One MS. reads albentes, a reading sanctioned by Horn. II. 10.437, in T^vKdrepoL x'l^ovog, in which the steeds of Rhesus are said to be 6eieiv 6" avi/ioiaiv Ojxoioi: so Virgil 12.84. castra, scil., Oraeca.
:

473

Gustassent

hibisxent

the subjunctive in virtual oblique


:

narration,

and indicating the purpose of Diomede


474

H.

520,

11.

A.

&

G. 327.

TroUus

the death of Troilus is mentioned (II. 24.25) as occurring Vergil may have derived before the time of the action of the Iliad. the story from other sources.
:

A15AchUli:
476

decline this word.

Curruque
227,
e.

inani

" and

lying

curru may be either

abl. or

on his back clung to the empty car." dat.=currui H. 385.4, 4 A. & G.


: ;

477

Huic

terram
;

' : '

ground."

huic:

H.

both his neck and locks are trailed along the 384.4, N., 2 ; A. & G. 235, a.

478
479

Hasta

the spear of Troilus.

Noil aequae=iniquae
TzaWka^,

" unjust,"

i.e.

unpropitious.

Pallndis
;

horn.

(i) iraTJiEiv, to brandish, i.e. the

"brandisher" of the spear

or (2)

"a

maiden."
:

4g0

Crinibus passis

passis from pando. the sacred shawl embroidered with figures representing mythological subjects was carried as an offering to Athene (Minerva) by the Athenian matrons in the public procession at the Panathenaea. Homer also represents a similar custom prevailing in
:

" with dishevelled locks."

peplum

{TTSir-log),

Troy

(II.

6.90).


Suppliritfir
N.,
;

NOTES.

83
pectora
:

481

their breasts :"

"in suppliant H. 378 A.


;

guise." -tunsae

&

G. 11

1.,

N.

for the tense

"healing H. 550,

I A. & G. 290, were signs of grief.

b.

iJealing the breasts

and tearing the hair

482 483

Aversa

"averting her face


:

:"

Rnptaverat
walls

Homer says that Hector was thrice chased round the and dragged to the tomb of Patroclus. Vergil here follows probably some Cyclic poet or Tragedian.
:

485

Exanimum

"lifeless."

What

adjectives
:

are heteroclitic?

Some

"thus made lifeless," as Vergil take exaiiiinum=ita exanhnatum seems to have represented He-tor as being dragged while still alive cp. Aen. 2.273 ''^oph- Ajax 1030 at the car of Achilles Cic. Tusc. 1.44.
:
'

4S5 Ingentem

emphatic: "then truly deep was the groan he utters from the depths of his breast." dat historical present.
:
:

486

Currus

i e. of Achilles. or of Priam.

It

may, however, mean the car of Hector,

487

Inermes: Eoan acics


of the
A'tdioTTig,

"unarmed,"
:

i.e.

suppliant.
iii.,

4S,%Principihas

abl.:

H. 419,

i.i);

A.

&

G. 248,

a,

R.

489

the Indian Aethiopians.


in

The

legends of
in

Memnon and
'ITuag /uKpd,

Amazons appear

post-Homeric poems, and other Cyclic poems.


:

4Q0Lunatis
istic:

peltis

"armed with moon-shaped


II.;

shields :" abl. character-

H. 419,

A.

&

G. 251.
she glows in the midst of

491

Medmgueardet:
thousands."

"and with courage


" having a golden
for case of

492

Aurea

mammae:
:"

exposed breast

mammae

girdle buckled on 'neath her H. 386 ; A. & G. 228.


:

4Q^Bellatrix

virgo : note contrasted position: "a female warrior and she dares to fight with men, a maid though she be:" cp. Homer's
'A//aCovaf avriaveipag.

494

Haec

" while these wondrous sights were seen by the Aeneae Greek dat.=a6 Aenea or " while these Trojan Aeneas things seemed wondrous to the Trojan Aeneas."
videntwr
:

;"

A^o Obtutuque

uno

struction of

dnm: H.

" and remained fixed in one (long) gaze :" for con519, I.; A. & G. 276, e.
:

496

Forma

abl. of respect

424, iv.

i ;

A.

&

G. 253.


84
497

b.
i.

Vergil's aen.

fnrr.txit

cnUroa:
fiti/iator,

magna expresses tlio dii^iiity of her walk cp. vs. 46. "a great crowd of youihs tluonging about her:" cp. "an altendunt."
: :

498

Qualis clioros

a condensed construction for (talii erat Dido) qua/is {enl) Diami [quiun) exercet choros in Eurotae ripis ant par juija Cyutlil Didra here; elsewhere Diana. exircet choros: " leads the d.ince."

499

Quam

governed by secutae.
:

500

Oreades

ilia

hunicro

fvom Oreas, " a mountain {6pog, "a mountain ") nymph." cf. lox^acpa, as an Homeric epithet of Diana.
:

501

Gradiensque omnes

: "and as she steps alony; she o'ertops all tlie H. 372 ; A. & G. 237, a. (other) goddesses :" for ace. dt'as
:

502

Pe7-tevi plant
Ferebat
:

"pervade."

Latona takes dehght

in the glory of lier

daughter, Diana.

503

"joyously she advanced."


:

504

Liiilans^uturis "intent on her work and on the (glory of her) A. & G. 228. realms yet to be:" for dat. H. 3S6
:

505

Temples, Furibus testudine local ablatives. Greeks, had generally three distinct parts
:
:

(vestlbiilum,

Tzpovaoq)

(2)

the inner court

" treasury {t/icsannis, OTjoavpog). Hy foribiui is the ceila, or inner court, which here was a vaulted roof (testudo) resembling a tortoise shell.

among the the outer court (celln, vaog) (3) the meant ihe duoru-ci/ of
at
lea--t

(l)

506

Armis^=nb

"and supported from fiolioqiie rcsedit firmatvi viris. beneath l)y a lofty throne, she took her seat." solium (rt. SKD, to alte alto, limiting solio, rather than sit), a high chair of slate.
:

resedit.

507

Jura
is

lerjesque
leijes

judge;
just

jura dare was said of a cf. d'uiijv, v6w)vq ridevai. Distinguish .1/, what dare was said of a lawgiver. and right in itself or what from any cause is binding (jamjo)
:
:

upon
508

us and-/e.c, the written (lego) statute or order.

Operumqve
the

trahcbat

work or divided

manner.
or

" she adjusted into equal shares the toil of by lot." partUms abl. of instrument or either for sortem unius cujusque trahebat, sorte traliebat
:

it

nomina vniuscujusque

sorte trahebat.

509

Concursu magno either (l) abl. of accompaniment=CM7n concursu magno, or (2) abl. of place=in concursu magno.
:

510 -Add son


tive

in Spectator, 273, iwint- out

the fact that Vergil

is

defec-

in characterization.

Gyas, Mnesili^us, Sergastus, and Cioaii-

NOTliS.
thus
are


85

all

of tliem

men

of

tlie

same stamp and character

for-

lemque Gynn, furtemque Cloanthum.


512

Podtus

averterat.

"far away." avexerat other readi 'ys are advexcral, For ace. oras H. 372 A. >t G. 237, d.
:
:

513 514

Perculsus

"was

struck duml)."

Otliers read percussws.

Avidi
lage.

ardebant=avideardebant

"they eagerly long," by enal-

516

Dissimulant, sell., Icietitiam metumque : "they repress their joy and Distinguish fear:" some supply .seaf/c.sse : "hide their presence." dlisimido, to conceal an emotion which does exist ; siniulo, to " an<l aitiicti exhibit an emotion which does not e.xist. et shrouded in a hollow cloud they see from a distance." amicti lit.,

" wrapped around


517

" (ainb

jacio).

Quae

viris, scil., sit:

dependent question: H. 529; A.

&

G. 334.

518 519

Navibus=:ex navibus.
Orantes veniam " to pray for the grace (of the queen):" the pres. part here=^ora<uri A. & G. expressing a purpose: H. S49.3
:

292.

520
521

Coramfandi
Max'nnus,

"of speaking openly

to you," with the queen.

scil., aetate et digiiitale. Ilioneus well befits his age.

The calmness of

the aged

522

Novamurbem

the v/o\<l

Karthago mtans "new town," probably

being contrasted with the parent city of Tyre.

523

"and with the restraint of justice to curb Justitiaque superbas the haughty triijes." juatitia, from rt. YUG=JUG: "that whicli binds states or communities together or that which restrains :" cp. genlcs: the African peoples. jungo, jus, relligio.
:

524

vecti: "by the winds borne over all the seas." Ventis H. 371, 11.; A. & 0^257. of the space moved over
:

maria:

ace.

525 526

Infandos = appTiToq
Pr-'.pius:

"unspeakable,"

i.e.,

horrible.

either (i)

"more

closely," or (2)

"more

propitiously

"=

praesentiuit.

527

Popidare = ad populandum: a Graecism. The so also in ca-;e of vertere. a purpose in Greek


:

infin. often

expresses

!i'29Av>mo:
aitiiiu).

either

(l)

dat.,

after

e-it

omitted,

or (2) local abl.

=1


86
^>:]0

'^HV
VlCliOlLS AEN.
B.

I.

~ Hcsp(-7-iam

The term Hesperia, meaning tlie cp. fia:vjna. " weslern land," was applied to Italy by the Greeks, and to Sp.iin by the Italians. S] ain was called also ultima /Icfiperia. "EoTrepoc, from root WAS or VAS, "to dwell;" vesper, faarv; i.e. Feawep'jg Eng. went probably the abode of the sun at night.
:
:

.")

I'i

Oeuotri probably Oenotria, the poetic name for Italia, meant vineVergil makes Italiis king of the Oenoiri, while Thucyland (olmg). The Latin Varro (R. K. 2.12) dides makes him king of the Siculi. as being rich in oxen. derives /t<i!in from tra^of, vitidus, " an o.\ " The prob.ibilities are that Rail, Vituli and Siculi are varieties of the same word.
:

534

HicJuit

" this (i.e., to this land) was our course." The This is the first of simpler reading liuc is given by some editors. According to accounts the fifty-eight lines left unfinished by Virgil. Augustus gave instructions to Varius and I'ucca, the literary testators of the poet, to publish the Aeneid with the lines unfinished.
:

535 Cm

Orion: "when suddenly arising o'er the billows the stormy Oi\on." ^Jiuctii may be either a dat. or an ahl. Orion in Latin : 'Qpluv in Greek. Orion rises about midsummer and sets early in

November.

"and afar by wanton win Is 536 -TuHt, scil., nos. penilusque dispulit and whelming brine o'er waves and trackless reefs scattered us." The sibilants well express the whizzing of the wind.
:

537

Superante salo either (l) " the briny deep overpowering us," or " the briny deep roaiing high."
:

(2)

538

Hue

oris
:

shores.

: "only a scanty remnant of us have drifted hither to your pauci has a negative meaning. oris H. 380.4 ; A. & G.
:

225, b.

539

Barbara

hospitality

ancients, and rudeness to strangers able by the vengeance of heaven.

was regarded as a sacred duty among the was a mark of barbarity punish-

540

Hospitio
to

arenas
i.e.

strand,"

we

are debarred the shelter even : are not allowed even to land, a right which

"we

is

of the given

shipwrecked men.
terra:

541

Prima
A.

"on

the brink of the shore:" local abl. II. 425

11.

&

G. 254.

543

At nefnndi

"yet expect that gods are mindful of right and wrong." Fiimli ne/andi are u?ed as genitives of the indeclinable /as ne/as. Operate exspectate in prose.

544

Emt

supposed second to none."


:

Iliuneus

Aeneas dead.

quo

alter

"in

justice

NOTES,

87
;

545

Pietate hello
Si

armis
i.e. if

ablatives of respect
is still alive.

H. 424; A.

&

G. 253.

546
547

aetheria

he

What

verbs govern the abl.?

Occubat: "lies low." G. 254.

umhris

local

abl.:

H.

425,

11.,

A.

&

548

Non

paenileat : "nor are you officio the first to vie in an act of kindness." paeniteat has nearly the force of a future,

metus,

scil.,

est

nobis.
vi'ere

likely to regret that

you

551

Quassatam
fleet

dassem: sell., nobis : "may we be allowed to land our shattered by the winds." With subducere naves : cp. aveTiHEiv rag vavg, opposed to deducere naves na-deTiKELv Tag vavg.
:

552

Et~ remos
for oars."

" and
silvis
:

to

shape forest trees into beams and


local abl.

stringere:

to strip

strip them them of leaves

and twigs.

553 Itatiam tendere,


way
554
555
to Italy."

i.e.

ad Italiam

iter

tenderet

"to pursue our

Ut, depends on
Sin
:

liceat (nobis)
si, vs.

deducere dassem.

opposed

to
:

553,
;

"but

if."

Teucrumi
e.

for the

form

of

genitive plural

H. 52.3

A. & G. 40,

556
557

Jam: "any
Freta

longer."

distinguish in meaning : freta, frtta. : StcHmae : elsewhere, sedesque paratas Sicdntae. "and abodes already built," i.e. the cities built by Acestes who was in Sicily as opposed to those they expected to build for themselves.

559

Talibm, soil., verbis dixit. ore fremebant; "murmured their applause:" cp. ETvevipr/fiyGav: literally "murmured applause with (one) mouth."

561

ViUtum

ace. of specification

H. 378

A.
:

&

G. 240,

c.

562

Solvite corde metumsolvite corda fear." secludite : " dismiss."

metu

"free your hearts from

563

Regni
moliri

novitas=regmtm novum: "to take such a course,"


:

"my
i.e.

youthful

realm."

ialia

to prevent the Trojans

from

landing.

565

Aeneadum

H. 40.3
their

A.

&

G. 36, d

a complimentary reference to

their chief.

566
507

Virtutes
Obtunaa

"

manly deeds."

"dulled," by their

own

calamities.


88
568

VliKGlL's AEN. D.
I.

aVoH

the meanings seems to be that we are not so far pule of civilization as to be ignorant of the manly deeds of the heroes in the Trojan war.

(am-

itrbe

removed from

llie

569

Sat urn id arva

Italy was often called Satm-nia, land of Saturnus," the sower (from satus, sero),
:

scil.,

tciTa,

" the

570

Eri/cis fines

" the realm of Eryx." Eryx a mountain (now, St. Here Gniliano) of western Sicily, noted for a temple of Venus. dwelt Acestes.
:

71
.)7'2

AuxUio

tufos, scil., viros

"(men) guarded by an escort."

VoUis regnis
comma.

The
est
;

Some remove the interrogation mari<, and place a sense would then require si before viillis.

573

Urhemavd^cLV

445.9; A.

&

inverted attraction =w>-6s, suhducUt G. 200, b.

quam statuo, vestra est H. "draw up on shore;" cp.


:

vavq

opposed

to

deducere naves,

to

launch ships

cp.

Kade?.Keiv vavg.

574

A(jetur : t\\.\\tv [i)=dirigtnr, "shall be governed," or (2) be regarded t/ceiMr," or (3) "shall be dealt with."

"shall

575

Ulinam
A.

afforet

what

is

the force in the tense here?

H. 483,

I.;

&

G. 267.
viros
:

576

Equhlem: "truly." cerlos, scil., men," oi=cretos, "picked men."


Lustrare
Si
:

"tried men," or "trusty

577 578

"to scour
:

;" see

note

vs.

283.
;"

errat
:

"

to see

The suhj G. 534, f H. 529, 11. i in prose

&

whether he wanders about would be ihe more A. & G. 334, b. ;

H.

common

529, II., I ; A, construction

579

Animiun

"roused in spirits :" H. 378 A. & G. 240, arrecti Janidiidamardehant: 11. 469.2 ; A. & G. 277, b.
:

c.

582

Sententia

" purpose."
Orontes, vs. 113.
:

584

Unus

i.

e.,

586 -Circuvifusa
587
Scindit par<jat,

"encircling."

apertum
scil., se

" parts and melts into the open sky." from the scindit se.
:

With

588 I?estiiit; "stood


589 O.s'
II

forth."

que

honores

inei-osqiie

ace. specification
:

"for

his

H. 378 A. & G. 240, c. najnmother herself had given her son gracelul
:
:


NOTES.

89

flowing locks and the ruddy glow of youth and inspired his eyes with a joyous lustre." Tiicre is a zewjDia in adjiarat. caesaries, long flowing hair (from caedo, as Kovpd from neipu). purpureum does not necessarily mean merely "purple," but embraces all colors

from

scarlet to

dark violet inclusive


decus
(est)

so also Tropcpvpeoq.
el/ori "such is H. 445.9; A. & G.
. :

592 Quale200,

decits

-.

{tale)

quale

his beauty as
b.

the craftsmen give to ivory:"

593

Parius

lapis, i.e., marble.

594 Cunctis, join with improvisua

"unexpectedly to

all."

595

Coram: "before
paralleled
jiivTOL oS"

you." The sudden announcement of Aeneas is by the declaration of Ulysses Od. 24, 321 ksIvoq
:
:

avrbg

iyo), irdrepj oti

cv /xeTaAXgg.
op.

597

Miserata
ipeiv,

and misereor,
:

distinguish miseror, to express pity in wordsto feel pity in the heart cp. eTieeIv,
:

oUre-

598
.

Quae
in

" thou who dost welcome us as partners in your city, orbeni your home, a remnant escaped from the Greeks, now worn out by all our troubles by land and sea, in need of all things 'tis not in our power to pay you worthy thanks, O Dido, nor can all the race of Troy scattered everywhere throughout the world." Danaum
:

see

vs.

30.
tibi.

tecum or
603

urbe doiyio grates ojns

local
:

ablatives.

With

socias,

scil.,

decline.

Sinumina:

"if any deities regard the benevolent." When is quis H. 455 i A. & G. 105, d. si quid est : "if Distinguish in meaning usquam justice in any place avails aught."

used for aliquis ?

and unquam.

Another readmg

is

justitiae.

605 Laeta:
607
,

"blessed."

Du7n

current : distinguish dum with the indicative and with subA. & G. 276, e: Note v. 314 rfam junctive H. 467-4> 513- 1 "while the shadows shall course along the slopes of the convexa mountains." montibus dat. of reference H. 384.4, i and 3 j &G. 235.
:
: :

iO^Dum pascet

according to the ancient philosophers (cp. Lucr. r, 231) the perpetual fire of the stars was maintained by the aether refined from exhalations of the earth.
:

610

Quaecumque=quaecujnque, tmesis:
page 298.

H.

636, V. 3

A.

&

G.

611

In scanning

this line, notice that e in Ilionea is

long

H. 577.5

A.

&Ci. 347- 5-


90
612
Post=postea.

Vergil's aen

b.
i.

alios,

scU.,

dextra petit

" he grasps the

right

hand of others,"
613

Primo:
Ccuiu

adverbial.

614

tanto "at so great misfortune ;" distinguish casus, a natural agent not the consequence of human calculation or known causes : fors, a kind of mythological being sporting with and thwarting
:

human
615

affairs.

immanibus Vis: not "power," but "violence:" cp. pia. " savage shores :" H. 385.4.1 A. & G. 225, b.
;

oris:

6)7

Vergil here
that

African tribes. Scan thi^ line. Note often left unelided {hiatwi), it is in the case of proper names : cp. vs. 16 : so also Aen. in. 14 ; III. What kind of a line is this? H. 608, 11.; A. & G. 667, et saepe.
refers to the wild
final

when

the vowel

is

359.

e.

t/fe= Greek
"fostering."

kKlvog,

"

that celebrated :" cp. vs. 379, 565.

618 -4^wa
619

Sidona: H. 380, li.; A. & G. 258, b. Teucer, after the Trojan war, was expelled from Salamis by his father Telamon, and soui^ht a home at Cyprus, where he built a second Salamis. lie is here
represented as stopping at Sidon to make terms with Belus, who was at that time master of Cyprus. venire: H. 537, I.; A. & G. Here venire is used for venisse. 288, b.

623

dicione

"under

his

sway

:" i.e.

sub dicione or in dicione.

623
624

Jam:

"even."

casus: "downfall."

Pelasgi : " the Greek," according to Glad.stone, the Pelasgi were a pre-Hellenic race, and formed the base of the Greek army in the Trojan war.
Ipse hostis
:

625

/erebat "he, though an enemy."

"used

to extol."

626

Se volebat and vellet


:

" would have


in

it

that

he was spring

:"

meaning.

distinguibh volebat

&2nTectls
628
029

H. 385.4.1); A.

&

G. 225, b.

Per multos

labores join with jactatam.

sirnilis

soil.

tuae fortunae.

-Demum

" at length," not till now : denigue, opposed to primum, "finally," " in short ;" tandem: "at last,'" after many efforts or disappointments: postreTno ; "last," in order of time.
:

632

Divuin

konorem " she proclaims in the temples of th gods a saciilice." i(/Jc/^ a technical word for ordering a religious observCaes. I>. G. 7.90 supplicatio indicitur. ance
:

NOTES.
91
nee minus, adds a Greek dative.
:

633

Nee

viimts interea

o'"teii

to the force of interea.

60ciis=ad socios
horrentibus

used in transitions
:

little

634

Mafjnorum

suum=magnos
:

centum

tergis

sues

by

synecdoche.

635 637

Munera
At
:

dei

"

the gifts

and cheer of the god,"

i.e.

Bacchus.

see note vs. ii6,

638

Splendkla, proleptically used (sic) inMruitur [ui) splendlta [hU). The atrium in a Roman house occupied the centre and was generally used for a dining- loom. The use of the present tense gives animation to the description.

639

Artesuperho

"skilfully wrought were the coverlets and of bright purple. ostro : properly the blood of the sea snail, which supplied the oncients with their rich, purple dyes.
:

640

" embossed:" i.e. on the goblets, vases, &c., were carved Caelata the deeds of their fathers.
:

641

Series gentis "a. very long, unbroken chain of feats continued by so many heroes from the early origin of the race :" a reference to Vergil had here in view the Ronxan the deeds of the Tyrians. customs prevalent in his own time.
:

643

Neque enim
his

menttm:
in hsLSte,"

"for neither did

his love as a father suffer

mind
:

to rest."

644

rapidum

"

)om with praemittit, although grammatically

connected with Achatem.

645

Ferat=referat : subjunctive of oblique narration: corresponding Jer in direct narrative.

to

6465^1!: "centres."
648
Ferrejubet,
dress.
scil., Achntem.^pallam, properly a long, seamless garment worn by women over the tunica, corresponding to our gown or

siijnis
:"

of gold

rigentem^signis aureis ligentem a hendiadijs.

"staff with figures

649

Cireumtexlum acantho "and a veil fringed vnth a border of yellow acanthus." velamen veils were considered a very important portion of a Roman lady's dress, and were of costly material and exquisite workmanship. Acantho abl. ofdescription the acathus (rt. AK, "sharp"), a thorny shrub, now called bear's foot.
:
: :

Q50 Mycenis

abl.:

in 2,577 as

H 4.12, 11.; A. & G. 258, a. Helen is mentioned coming from Mycenae, whereas she really came from


92


VERttll/s A IN.
Sparta, the royal city of Menelaus.

n
I.

Vergil eonfounds the

city of

Agamemnon
651

with that ol Menelaus.

Pergama

is called Perga mvs {n^pyafjog i]), av.d con)iected etymologically with irvpydg, a tower: German bury, a town berg, a hill Eng. burg, bury as 'Edin-burg ; Edmunds-/;M/'y. Inconcessoa Hipnenaeosi "unlawful wedlock :" scan this line H. 608, v.; A. & G. 359, f.
:

the citadel of

Troy

Perijavia

(ntpyaua

ra),

653

Sceptrum

: i.e. juhet Achn/em ut ferat sceptram. Ilione ried to Polymnestor, the treacherous king of Thrace.

was mar-

&5i Maxima,
monile
23S'
:

scil.,

natu: give the other degrees of comparison. " necklace :" for the dative H. 384, II., 1.3); A.
:

CoHo

&

G.

655

DupVtcem
rings,

coronam probably a crown formed by a circlet of two Others say of one ring, and one of gems and one of gold. translate, "a crown of blended gems and gold."
:

656

Haec celerans=vt kaec


these orders :"

celeriler
;

H. 549.3

A.

&

exsequafur G. 290. a.

"to execute promptly

657

At:

see

vs.

ii6.^aciem

ora:

H. 378; A.

&

G. 240,

cfades

(from /acio, the natural niai-e of the face, i.e., the countenance as expressing emotion by the mouth or by the eyes.

659

Donisque

iynem "and by gifts influence the queen to frenzy, anvl insinuate love's fire into her heart." fuientem proleptic use of vs. 70. the adjective
: : : :

660

Ossibus
feeling.

H. 386

A.

&

G. 228.

ossibus, often used for the seat of

661

Qui/ipe

see note,
literally,

vs.

39.

ambiguam domum

*'
:

the treacherous

house:"

"going round about" (amb., ago). bUinguea "double tongued," saying one thing and thinking another, referring
:

to the proverbial treachery of the Karthaginians.

662

Ui-it, scil.,

"at the
returns."

"harasses her with anxiety." mb noctem earn cura approach of night:" cp. imb vvktu. recursat "oft
:

664

Meae

solus:
;

i.e.

(qui es) solus

meae

vires,

mea magna potentia

H. 369.2
665
Patris

A.

&
:

G. 241,

a.

"who dost despise the sovereign father's bolts that temnls struck Typhoeus." The giant Typhoeus was slain by the lightning of Juppiter. Tlie poet here represents the undying power of love.
:

666- -iVumJTWZ

"divine aid."


NOTES.
QQ~^J<\(iter
"ill
est
:

93

Cupid an' Aeneas were sons ofVenu'?.- Ut = qiio modo what way:' jiitroducing an indirect question. nota = notum by a Graecism.
this line
:

668 Scan
670
671

H. 608, v.; A.

&

G. 359,

f.

Tenet,

scil.,

eum: "

detains him."

Vereor hospitia: "I am anxious how Juno's welcome dependent question H. 529 ; A. & G. 334.
:

may end

:"

672

Hand

-rerinn,
at

inactive
affairs :"

scil., Juno, from Junonia "Juno shall not be. such a crisis," literally "at such a turning point of H. 429 ; A. & G. 259, a.
:

673

Qiiocircn

" wherefore I purpose to anticipate her by craft meditor and to surround her with (such a) flame (of love)." The Romans borrowed many of their metaphors 'rom military affairs
:

074

Ne mutet

"that she may not be changed by any influence," i.e., any power but mine, or "by the influence (of Juno) in any way." see note, vs. 1 58. e mutet mutetur
:

676 Qa,
677 679

scil.,

ratione.
at the

accipe

"hear:"

cp. da, "tell."

AccUu
Pelago
343.

"

summons

:"

H. 416

A.

&

G. 253.
iv.

restantia:

"remaining from:"

H. 414,

I;

A.

&

G.

a.

680

Sopitum
are

"slumbering sound in sleep:" such pleonasms somno common. Note the alliteration. Decline Cythera.

681

Sacrata

sede

"

in

a consecrated spot

:"

either grove or temple.

682

Mediusve occurrere: "or

to interpose to prevent it."

Here medius

= obviam.
683

Tu dolo: " do you


for case o( 2
;
:

A.

&

H. 379 noctem G. 247, c.


:

counterfeit his looks for one night, no more:" A. & G. 256. avipliusi H. 417, iv. ;

685 686

Laetissima

"

at the height of her joy."

Laticemque Lyaevm

Lyaeum
poison.

cp. Ava'iog

"the cups of Bacchus." latex, poetic word. cp. Liber: " the one who frees {Xv-) men
:

from cares."

688

FaUasque veneno,

scil.,

earn:

"and may

beguile her with (love's)

689

Distinguish in meaning

/)are<, p&ret.


94

"

VERGILS AEN.
11.
1.

690 Exiiil
691

lie

doffs." P<

of lulus

:"

for inces.su:

/"/(' "and glaJ'y l.o walks with the step see note on incedo: vs. 46.
:

At:

cp.

vs.

116.

Ascanio

inric/at:

"sheds
:

like

dew calm

sleep

o'er the

limbs of Ascanius. " Ascanio dative of reference ; H. Inriijdt may refer to the dews of night, or 384.4 ; A. & G. 235, a more probably to perspiration : cp. Shaks. J. C. IL, I : "enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber."
:

692
693

Folum gremio

" her

fondling in her lap."

Ubi umbra
with
soil.,
its

" where the soft majoram, breathing forth fragrance blossoms and sweet shade envelopes him." With adspirans, odorem.
: :

696

Dvxe

Achate
a.
:

"glad

in

having Achates as a guide

:"

H. 431

A.

&
697-

G. 25s,

-Cum locavit

" by the time he arrives, the queen had already beneath the lich curtains taken her place on a golden couch, and hat! stationed herself in tlie centre." The historic present ten^e for cum If venerat were read, then we should have had comvenerat. posuerat. aulaeis may mean (i) " in a curtain," or (2) " neath a curtain (=sub aulaeis), or (3) "with a curtain,' i.e., contributing to the ease of her position.

'

608

Aurea

in scansion
Icctus.

Medius
3

12

.'


NOTES.

95

703

Quibus
store,

" whose care it was lo furnish in turn the lastinj;; and to worship the Penates." ordine=V fif-pei, referring to penum, and Penates are connected the division of the labour.

Penates:

PA or PAT: cp. nivoiiai, nsvrjg, Trevia, TrSvog. adolere Penates may mean no more than to keep up the fire for cooking. With adolere: cp. "magnify" in our ecclesiastical
etymolot,'ically root

writings.

706 707

Qiii

onerent

subjunctive of purpose.

Nee non

et : the negatives cancel each other, giving an affirmative sense: " moreover, too." liminia atria: synecdoche.

708
708

Toris

pictis=ad coenam convenire jussi.

Flagrantesque verba; "the glowing looks of the god and his feigned words." The poet here transfers the looks and words of
lovers to those of the

god of

love.

1 12 --Infelix

join

with

Phoenissa.

pesti futuiaex

"doomed
ofmentem

to

her

coming
713

ruin."

Expleri mentem A. & G. 240 c.


Ille

"

to satisfy her soul ;" for case

H. 378:

715

pependit

" when he hung on the

Aeneas:"
tinguish in
7ir>

abl. separation:

H.
:

meaning pendere

IV., pendere.
578,

embrace and neck of A. & G. 324. Dis;

Etavwrem: "and
tended father."

gratified

to the full the affection of his pre-

717

Haec

" she hangs on him with her eyes, she (hangs on him) haeret with her whole soul:" cp. Tennyson's Locksley Hall: "and her eyes on all my motives with a mute observance hung."
:

719

Insidat

deits

" how dread a god


:

is

lying in wait for her :"

i.e.

is

plotting against her

with

inside7-e cp. i'nsidiae.

720

Paulatim

"

spring, near

Acidallae referring to the Acidalian little by little." Orchomenos, in Boeotia, the haunt of the Graces.
:

721

Et

with a living affection to pre-occupy a and a heart long unaccustomed (to Others praevertere : explained by some^praeoccupare. love)." resides: decline.rfftszieto, scil., like it to mean, " to surprise." amori.
:

corda

soul long since

" and he dead

tries

to

love,

123 Postguam- epulis


in

soil., est

ox fuU.

Latin are heterogeneous?

Decline epulis. remotae, scil., sunt.

What words The tables


96
were

b.
i.

::

vekgil's aen.

began and were removed was over lience such phrase-; as mennam apponere, or opponere, and menmm auferre or removere.
literally broiii;lil in before ih' feast
:

after

it

721

Crnteras
VI.,

"they place the large mixers;" cp. Horn. Tl. sta/inint " thev crown the vina coronant 526: Kpnrfjpa an'/aac&ac. wine," may ineaii (l) as in Homer's Kpr/r^pag iireaTiipavro norolo " tliey fill to llie brim the mixers with wine," or {2) " they deck the bowls ol wine " with ivy or myrtle wreaths, as was certainly done
:

in later times.

72.')

/-'(V

"a hum arises throughout the halls." tectis^in tfctis 425.2, IV., 3; A. & G. 254, a.. vocemque atria: "and through the long halls they cause their words to re-echo." atria It was the atrium was the principal room in a Roman house. used as the reception room, and also as the place wliere the images derived hom nter, "black," i.e. blackof ancestors were placed entd by the smoke ol the hearth {focn ): cp. jieXadpov, from fifkaQ.
tcclis
:

II.

72G

Lychni

Night came on before they had finished their cp. ^vxvog. the small interstices (tocM-s) formed by the laquearibits meal. fret-work of the cross beams of the ceiling were decorated with H. 608, ill.; A. & G. 347, c. Scan this line guilding.
: : :

727--Funalia
728
729

a torch

made of stout

cords (furies) and covered with wa.x.

Hie: "hereupon." Mero


:

distinguish

in

vinum, simply, "wine:" temetum,

meaning merum, "pure, unmixed wine;" "a heady wine."

730

"sprang from Belus," or = ea; tempore Beli scil., orti soliti, scil, sunt vino implere. the time of Belus." It was customary to pour out a sm.ill quantity of wine with the usual prayer to the gods as the preliminaries of a feast.
Belo,
:

"from

731

ffos/ntibvsjura
as the guardian

" define the

rights of strangers ;" or "protect the

" rights of strangers

was worshipped gods of guests among the Greeks and Romans.


'Zevg ^eivioq (Juppitvr ho.spitalis)

733

Velis:

" may

it

be thy

hiijus, scil., diei.

rainores,

will :" distinguish


scil.,

in

meaning

veliH,

veUs.

natu

give the other degrees o(

comparison.
7.34

dator cp. Hesiod (Works and Days, 614) 6o)pa AutvvLaetitiae l/ojia Juno: Juno was the tutelary deity of cov TTolvy^'&eog.
:
:

Karthage.

735

" attend in throngs the gathering." coetum = Cueliim celeh-ate coitum {cum, e<t).fnveiues: " speaking words of^ood omen," or "keeping silence." Mspetial care was taken during an offering to

NOTES.

9?

the cjods or during any vc'i;;ion=; rile tliat no inaiT^picious or frivolous Hence the adinouilioii of the priests wortls should be uUcied. which we find at the beginning of a ceremony fautte limjuls animisque, ore favete, fave Unguis: cp. v<j)7//xelTe ; ev(p7/fio^ nag k<JTu
:

^wf,
736

ardfia avyiiXeiaag,

Laticem

honorem

"an

offering

of wine:" the

mensa being

re-

garded as the altar of Juppiter hospitalis.

735

Primaque
first in

ore:
e.

"and
tips

made, with the


rank.

she the first, when the libation had be>-n of her lips touched it." prima, as being the
:

Libato

Madvig, 429. A. & G. 260,


738
Dedit,
scil.,

impersonal, H. 431, iv., 2 ; A. & G. 255, b. ienus: for construction of tenus : H. 434, IV., 4,

deep:"

"with a challenge to drink poculum. in crepitans the Saxon, drinc hael.ilk pnferain: '"he quickly drained the foaming bowl." There is some humour in contrasting the act oif Butes with that of Dido.
:

cp.

739 740

Et

auro

" and

swilled himself with the full cup of gold."

crinitus: bards in Proceres, scil., simmantcm pateram hauseriini. imitation of Apollo are often represented with long hair: cp.
'An6?iAc,)i> aKEpaoKO/xrig.

741

Personat,
feasts

scil.,

and Romans,
with

atria: "causes the halls to reecho." The Greek as well as mediaeval nations, often enlivened their the songs of minstrels.
:

742

Errantem limam some say eclipses

the revolutions of the moon. lahorrs: such a theme was common among ancient Physical philosophy was a fruitful theme of the old Orphic bards. Cp. Lucretius and writers, as well as among the Roman poets. Vergil's Eclogues, passim.
i.e.,
:

744

Arcturum: 'ApicTovpog='ApKToFpov: "the watcher (Fop:

cp. Eng. ward, wary) of the bear (apicrog)." This refers to the Lesser Bear (Ursa Minor), cMed a.\so A ixtophy lax. Arcturus is often limited to the brightest star in the Lesser Bear ( Ursa Minor), called Bootes Hyadas the Hyades were seven stars at the head of (ox-driver). the Bull (Taurus), the rising of which (May, 7-21) was attended by showers of rain (vecv, "to rain"). geminosque Triones: two pair of stars, one at the end of the Greater Bear ( Ursa Major), and the other at the end of the Lesser Bear (Ursa Minor). The word trio=strio ; root sTAR, "to scatter;" hence, "the scatterers of light :" cp. Sanscrit trio=staras, " the showers of light ;" cp. Eng. Varro (L. L. 7, 73) says trio=bos star: Ger. stern: Lat. sterula. and connects it with tero cp. septentriones " the north ;" properly the "seven stars" of the Great Bear.
: :

r45

Qnid
7

properent

dependent question

H. 529

A.

&

G. 334.


98
746
:


Vergil's aen.
to jrroperent.
n.
i.

Tardia opposed 747Ingeminant plaiLsu:


their applause."

"applaud repeatedly:"

lit.

"redouble with

748

Nee non

et

see note, vs. 707.

749

Longumqueamorem:
468
;

"and kept drinking in a long draught ol love :" note the force of the imperfects in traheiat and bihebat : H.
A.

&

G. 277.
:

750

Multa
A.

muha
G. 344.
5c\\.,

&

note the emphatic position of these words This shows her desire to prolong the feast.

H. 561

751

Nunc,

rogitat.

quihusar7rns
: :

dep. quest.:

H.

"529

A.

&

G. 334.

AuroraeJilius
soil, essent

Memnon.
;

152 Quales,
753

H. 529

A.

&

G. 334.

quantus,

soil., esset.

Immo

"nay, come then :" often used to connect, or add emgive examples of irregudie phasis to what has been said before.
age
:

lar imperatives.

754

Tuorum
refers

who had perished at Troy : tuos septima : some writers, Weidner the case of Aeneas. amongst the number, conclude that Vergil died before he finally Vergil in Aen. V., 626, also settled the chronology of the Aeneid. says that seven years had passed since the fall of Troy, although a year must have elapsed between the time of the reception of Dido and the celebration of the games.
:

referring to the Trojans

to

INDEX OF PROPER NAMES.


ABBREVIATIONS.
Adj.

= adjective

N. =noun; n. =neuter;^Z. =plural;

sinr/.

=sinj:ular.

A.
Ab-as, -antis
Acest-es, ae t-^
;

m.: Abas: a Trojan, one of the companions of Aeneas.


Accstcs: m.: a Icing of Sicily,

who

hospitably entertained Aeneas and

his followers.

He was

the son of the river-god Crimisus and of a Trojan

woman

Egesta, or Sergesta.

Achates, ae

m.: Achates

the faithful friend and trusty

henchman

of Aeneas.

Achill-es, -is and i m.: son of Peleus and Thetis, and the most valiant of the Greek chieftains engaged in the siege of Troj'. His quarrel with Agamemnon caused his withdrawal from the war. The Greeks were in consequence of this withdrav al plunged into misfortunes and defeated in battle. The death of Patroclus, who fell by the hand of Hector, roused Achilles into action. He took the field and slew
;

Hector.

Homer

represents

him

as being slain in battle at the Scaean gate

latter

traditions, however,

make him

to have

been killed treacherously by

Paris.

Achiv-us,

-a,

-una;

adj.: Grecian.

ACidali-US, -a, -um adj.: of or belonging Venus and the Graces used to bathe.
;

to Acidalia, a fountain in Boeotia,

where

Aeacid-es, -ae

m.: a descendant of Aeacus,


pi.

e.g., Achilles.

Aenead-ae, -arum

m.

followers of Aeneas,

i.e.,

Trojans, or Romans, as

being descendants of the Trojans.

Aene-as, -ae
fall

a Trojan prince, son of Anchises and Venus. After the and his followers set out for Italy, where he arrived :ifter many wanderings. He married Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus and succeeded to the power of that monarch.
; :

m.: Aeneas

of the city, he

Aeoli-a, -ae

f.

Aeolia

the country ruled by Aeolus, the king of the winds.

The

insulae Aeolian or Vulcanuie, north of Sicily, comprise his domain.

A6l-us,
Afric-US,

-i;

m.: Aeolus: the god of the inds.


;

-i

m.: the south-west wind.

99

100
^C

Vergil's

a::x.

i.

Agenor,
calls

Karthage the city


;

-oris; m.: son of Ncprunc .-.u^X Mbya, king of Phoenicia. Vergil of Agonor, .since Did.) was descended from him.
m.: Ajax
:

(P..

1.338)

^^

Aj-ax. -acis

son of Oilcus, king of the Locrians.

He

is

described as of

small stature, biit of great skill in hurling the spear, and, next to Achilles, the

most swift-footed of the Greeks. Homer represents him as having been wrecked, on his return from Troy on the " Whirling Rocks." Ajax escaped and boiisted that he could escape without the aid of the gods. For his impiety Ajax was Vergil represents Ajax as being especially hated by swallowed up by the sea. Minerva, because on the night of the capture of Troy he insulted Cassandra, the priestess, in the temple of the goddess, whitlier she had fJed for refuge.

Alb-a, -ae

f.:

Kome
Alban-us,

It

Alba Longa, the most amient city in Latiura. and the parent city of was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, and never rebuilt.

-a,

-um;
m.
:

adj.: of, or

belonging to ^Z6a.

Alet-es, -ae

Aletcs
;

one of the companions of Aeneas.

Amazon-es, -um
the

t.:

the Thermoiion, in Pontus.

a fabled race of female warriors w^ho dwelt on the banks of They came to the aid of the Trojans in the war under

command
-i
;

of their

queen, Penthesilea.
:

Amycus,

m.: Amycus a companion of Aeneas. m.: son of Capys, and father of Aeneas. -ae Anchis-es. Troy, and accompanied Aeneas, but died on Aeneas' first
;

He

survived the

fall of

arrival in Sicily.

Anten-or, -oris; Antenor:


of the

ni.:

a Trojan: according to Homer, one of the wisest

Trojan elders.

Before the taking of the city he was sent to

Agamemnon

to

negotiate a peace, and concerted a plan of delivering the city into the hands of the His subsequent history is Greeks. On the capture of the city he was spared.
variously related.

Some say that he founded a new kingdom at Troy others that or Cyrene others, that he went with the Heneti to Thrace, and Libya to went he thence to Italy, where he founded Patavium.
;
;

Anthe-us,

-i;

m.: Anthexis: a follower of Aeneas.

Aquil-o, -onis
Arctvu'us,

m.: the N.E. wind

called ^opea^

by the Greeks.
called also

-i; m.: Arcturtis: a constellation near the Great Bear; Bootes, or Arctophylax.

Arg-i, -orutn.

ni.

A rgos
;

one

of the chief

towns in Argolis,

in the Peloponnesus.

Argiv

VIS, -a,

-um
;

adj

Aryive
:

of,

or belonging to Argos.

Ascanl

us, -i m.: Ascanius Troy and taken to Italy.


;

son of Aeneas and Creiisa, rescued by his father from

Ssia, -ae

f.:

Asia
-i
;

one

of the continents.

/C

Assarac-uS,

Assaracus
;

m.: a Trojan prince, son of Tros and father of Capys.


:

5.thama-s, -ntis

m.

At?Mmas

a follower of Aeneas.

INDEX OF PllOPKR NAMES.


Atla-s, -ntis
;

101

m.: Atlas
;

a Titan

who upheld
:

the heaven and stars.

Atrid-ae,

-arum

m.. the Atridae

descendants of Atreus, applied to

Agamemnon

and Menelaus.

Auror-a, -ae

t.: A urora : goddess of the dawTi, and WTfe of Tithonus. ; usually represented iu a chariot di-awn by four horses.

She

is

B.

Bacch-us,

-i

m.: Bacchus

son of Juppiter and Seniele, and god of wine.

Bellum,
Bel-US,
-i

-i

n.:

War
Belus

personified.

m.
;

king of Tyre and Sidon,


:

aut' 'ather of Dido.

Biti-as, -ae

in.:

Bitias

a Tyrian companion of Dido.


first built was called, in the Phoenician which was corrupted by the Greeks into

Byrs-a, -ae

f.:

Byrsa

the port of Karthage


i.e.,

language, Betzura or Bosra,

citadel,

Byrsa Oupo-a), i.e., a hide, and hence probably arose the story. formed the citadel of Karthage.

Afterwards

it

O
Caesar,
CaiC-US,
-8,ris
ni.
;

m.: Caesar
Caictts

a surname given to the Julian family at Rome.


,

-i

a follower of Aeneas.

Capy-3, -OS

(ace.

Capyn); m.: Capys: a follower of Aeneaa.


belonging to Ceres.

Cereal -is,

-e

adj.: of, or

Cl6anth-us,
Cupid-o,

-i;

m.: Cloanthus: a follower of Aeneas.


m.: Cupid

-inis

son of Venus and god of Love.


is

Cycl6pe-us,

-a,

-um

(the regular quantity

Cyclopeus)

Cyclopean : adj.

of,

or

belonging to the Cyclopes.

Cymotho-e,

-es

Cymothoe

a sea nymph.

Cyntli-us,
Diana.

-i;

m.: CyiUhus: a mountain in Delos, the natal place of Apollo and

Cypr-US,

-i

f.:

Phoenicians.

or Cypria.
l

a large island in the Mediterranean sea colonized by the was noted for the worship of Venus, who was often called Cypris The chief towns were Paphos, Citium and Salamis.
Cyprits
It
:

Cyther-a, -orum;
point of Laconia.

Cythera (now Ccrigo), an island off the south-western was colonized by the Phoenicians, who early introduced the Hence the goddess is often called Cytheris or Ci-theroa. worship of Venus. AccoiiUng to some traditions she arose from the foam of the sea near the island.
n., pi.:

It

Cythere-us,

-a,

-um

adj.:

Cytherean

of,

or belonging to Cythera.

102

veugil's aen. u.'ti-'^^'^'^

Dd.nS,-i,

-orum ; m., pi. Danai: a name given to the Greeks, as descendants Danaus, sen of Belus and twin brother of Aegyptus.
:

ot

Dard.S,nid-ae,
Trojans.

-arum;

m.,

pi.:

Dai-danidae: the descendants of Dardanua;

i.3^

Dard&ni-us,-

a,

-um
:

adj.:

Dardanian
:

of,

or belonging to Dardania or Troy.

V Deiope-a, -ae

diiion that he

f. Dciopca a sea nymph, whom Juno promised to Aeolus on oonwould aid her in destroyhig the fleet of Aeneas.

Av Dia.n-a, -ae f.: Diana daughter of Jupi)iter and Latoiia, goddess of the chase, the mooj., and archery. From root uiv, " bright :"=tZuna, "bright one."
; :

""

Did-o, -us and -onis Dido also called Elissa, the reputed founder of Carthage. She was the daughter of Bohis, or Antenor, and sister of Pygjaalion, who suoceeded to the crown of his father. Dido nKu-ried Acerbas, or Sychaeus, a priest ol Hercules and a man of great wealth. In consequence of the murder of her husband by Pygmalion, she sailed from Tyre, ami finally landed at Karthage. She purchased from the simple natives as much land as she could cover with an oxhide. Cutting the hide into strips she surrounded the spot on which she subse:

quently built Bursa (pvpaa, a hide), the citadel of Karthage. Vergil represents Dido as fa'ling in love with Aeneas, although an interval of fully three hundred years elapsed between the taking of Troy (1184 B.C.) and the foundinij of Karthage
(853 B.C.).

Diomed-es,

-is

m.: Diomede

who fought
direction did
;

at Troy.

He was

son of Tydeus, and one of the bravest of the Greeks the especial fav.i.ite of Minerva, and under her

many feats of bravery. He engaged in single combat Hector and Aeneas wounded ilars, Venus, and Aeneas ; with Ulysses, carried off the horses of Rhesus and the Palladium.

K
E6-US,
^"-

-a,

-um
;

adj.: of, or belonging to the East,

Eastern (^(is=ew9, " the dawn "\


of Sicily; near it stood

Er-yx, -ycis

m.:

Eryx: a mountain and town on the west

Egesta, or Segesta, the city of Arestes.

Europ-a, -ae
y,

f-

Euro2M

a division of the Eastern world.


,

Eurot-as, -ao

m.; Eurotas the chief river of Laconia (now Basilipvlamo), flowing through a narrow ard fruitfid vale into the Laconian Gull.
;

Eur-US,

-i; ni.:

Eur us: theS.E. wind

(eSpo;).

F.

Fides,

-ei

t.:

Faith personified.
/'ttri/

FCiror, -oiis; m.:

personified.

INDEX OF PROPER NAM liS.


G.

103

V
'

G3,nyined-es, -la ; m.: Ganymede : son of Tros, and the most beautiful He was carried off by the gods to act as cup-bearer.
Grail-,

of mortals.

-orum;

m., pL: the Greek: originally a

name

g^iven to the people in the

N.W.

of Epirus.

With

this tribe the

applied the terra Graii, or Graeci, to


their country Hellas.

became acquainted, hence they a people who called themselves Hellenes and
first

Romans

Gy-as, -ae (aoo. Gyan)

m.: Gyas

a follower

of

Aeneas.

H.

yC HarpS,iyc-e,

-es f.: Harpahjee daughter of Harpalycus, king of Thrace, noted her swiftness of foot and for her skill in martial exercises.
;
:

for

y
Vs,

Hebr-ua,

-i ;

m.: Hebrus
;

a river of Thrace,
:

now the

Maritza.

Hect-or, -oris
leaders.
test

m.

Hector

son of Priam and Hecuba, the bravest of the Trojan


the Greeks, and

when Achilles withdrew from the conhe drove the Greeks before him and burned their ships. The death of Patroolus aroused AchiUes to action. The two heroes met, and Hector fell. The conqueror, according to Vergil, attached the dead body of Hector to his chariot and dragged it thrice round the walls cf Troy but according to Homer he dragged it

He

long- baffled

away
dus.

to the

Greek fleet, then, for the space of twelve days, to the tomb The body was at last ransomed by Priam.
-a,

of Patro-

Hect6r6-U3,
Helen-a, -ae

-um

adj.:

Hectorean

of,

or belonging to Hector.

f.: Helena: daughter of Juppiter and Leda, and wife of Tyndarus, from whom she is called Tyndaris. She was the most beautiful woman of her time, and her hand was sought for by the most illustrious princes of Greece. She was Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, was married to Menelaus, king of Sparta. In consequence of an kindly entertained by Menelaus, at the Spartan court. elopement with Helen, Paris brought on the war against Troy. Menelaus after the war forgave her infidelity, and canied her back with him to Greece.
;

Hesperi-a, -ae
Hj-ad-es,

f.:

Italy

literally,

the land to the west

i.e.,

west of Greece.

f., pi.: a group of stars at the head of the constellation of the Bull They were the fabled daughters of Atlas, mourning the death of their brother Hyas {vtiv, " to rain ").
:

-um

(Taurui).

Hyraenae-us,

-i

m.:

Hymen

the god of marriage.


I.

idftli-a,

-ae

f.;

Idali-um,

-i

n.t

the favorite abode of Venus.

Idalia, ICalium a grove and height of Cyprus, There was also a town in the island, sacred to
:

Venus.
i\ Ili-ft,

-ae mother
;

f.:

of

Ilia another name tor Rhea Remus and Romulus.


:

Silva, a vestal,

who became by Mars

the

104
riI3,C-US, -a,

vekgil's aen. b.

i.

-um
;

Ilian

adj.: of, or

belonging to Ilium, or Troy.

Iliad 63,

-um

pi.:

women

of Troy

the Trojan

women.
of Polymnestor,

Uion-e, -es;
Thrace.

i.:

eldest daughter of

King Priam, aud wife

king

of

[lioneus,
lli-um,
-i
;

-ei
n.:

m.: a follower of Aeneas.

Ilium: another name


;

for

Tmja.

Tli-us, -a,

-um

Ilian
:

of,

or belonging to Ilium.
:

[llyrlc-us, -a,

-um

Illyrian

of,

or belonging to Illyria, a district north of Epirus,

along the Adriutio.


il-US,
-i;

m.: Ilus
;

a rame given to

(1)

the fabled founder of Troy; see geneological

table, p. 4S)

(-')

lulus, or Ascanius originally.

top-as, -ae
rtalia; ac,
Ital-us, -a,

a bard who sung at the entertainment given to Aeneaa.


Italy.

f.:

-um

adj. Italian.

Iul-U3,

-i

m- lyius

another

name

of Ascanius, son of

Aenea&

J.

JuU-US,
/x

-a,

-um
:

adj.:

Julian
:

the

nomen

of the Julian family.

Jun-O, -onis

f.-

Juno

the wife and sister of Jove, and daughter of Satumus. (For i>joui;io
:

She

aided the Greeks agaiiist Troy.

not

(iiu:

"to shine").

Junoni-US,

-a,

-um

adj. of, or belonging to Juno.

Juppiter, Jovis: m.: Juppiter: king


:

of gods, son of

Satumus and Rhea.


;

(For
light-

" father of light.") He represents the sky Djovis pater nine and physical phenomena generally proceed from him.

hence thunder,

TC'T

f.: Karthage: one of the most celebrated cities of the ancient founded about 853 B.C. It embraced the chief citadel (Byrsa), the port cCothon), and tlie suburbs (Magalia). It. was involved in long and tedious wars with the Romans for the supremacy of the ancient world. It was finally destroyed 146 B.C. It was rebuilt under Julius and Augustus under the uame ol Cv^ia

Ihag-O, -inis;
;

world

Karthago.

The ruins are near

El-Mariia.

^x

LCltin lis, -1 ; m.: Latinus : son of Faunus, and king of the aborigines of Italy. He kindly received Aeneas, and gave the Trojan leader his daughter Lavinia in marriage. After bis death Aeneas succeeded to the throne of Lalium.

INDEX OF PKOPEK NAMES.


Lati-um,
hilla
-i
;

105

n.:

Latium: a broad

district

south of the Tiber, and between the Alban


its flat

and the

sea.

Probably called from

character

latiis, cp. TrAariis,

Eng.

JUU.

Latdn-i, -ae

f.:

Latona

the mother of Apollo and Diana.


city of
Italy,

Lavini-um,

-i

n.:
;

Lavinium: a

founded by Aeneas in honor

of

Lavinia, his wife

now
;

Pratica.
:

Lavim-vis,

-a,
f.:

-am

Lavinian
:

of,

or belonging to Lavinium.
of Castor

Led-a, -ae;

Leda
;

mother

of

Helen and
:

and Pollux.
of Illyria,

Libum-i, -orum
Liby-a, -ae
f.

m., pL: the Libunii

a nation

inhabiting

modern

Austrian Croatia.
; :

Libya
;

district of
of,

Northern Africa.

Lobyc-us,

-a, -a,

-um
;

Libyan

or belonging to Libya.
:

LJae-us,
Liber
:

-um an epithet of Bacchus quia libcrat eiUeni a ciwis.


i, :

from Auaios, from

\vei.v,

" to free

" cp.

Lj^Ci-US,- a, -Tim; Lycian

of,

or belonging to Lycia.

""^Lyc-uSi-i

m.: Lgcus: a comrade of Aeneas.

jL^

M.
\ Mai-a, -ae:
f.:

Naia: daughter
;

of Atlas

the eldest of the Pleiades, and the most

beautiful of the seven stars

the mother of Mercury.


;

Mars,
of

-tis

m.:

Mam
-vim
;
:

the god of wars

son of Juppiter and Juno

the patron deity

Rome.
-a,
;

Mavorti-U3,

Mavoiiian
:

of,

or belonging to Mars, or Mavors.


;

Memnon,
came
to

onis m. Memnon a king of Ethiopia son of Tithonus and Aurora Tioy with a body of soldiers to aid Priam distinguished himself for his bravery was slain by Achilles.
;

Mercvlri-U3,

-i

m.: Mercury

son of Juppiter and Maia

messenger of the gods.

Mus-a, -ae
1

the Muses were daughters of Juppiter and Mnemosyne, and Hesiod states the names as Clio (history), Euterpe (lyric poetry) Thalia (comedy), Mclpomeni: (trairedy), TevjsUhofe (dance and song), Erato
;

f.:

Muge

orn at Pieria.

(amatory poetry), Polymiua, or Polyhymnia (sublime poetry), Urania (astronomy), Calliope (epic poetry).

Mycen-ae, -arum
Peloponnesus.

f.,

pL:

Mycenae

one

of

the chief cities of Argolis, in the

N.

Neptun-us,
N6t-us,
-i;

-i

m.: Ne2Jtune

the god' of the sea.

m.: Nottts: the south wind.


lOG
vekgil's aen.
n.
i.

Oenotr-us,
Italy.

-a,

-um

adj.:

Oenotrian

of,

or belonsfintj to Oenotria, an old

name

foi

Oile-us,

-i

m.
;

OUeus

a king of Locris, father of Ajax.

Olymp-us,
to

m.: a mountain of Northern Greece, near the Aegean Sea: according -i Homer, the abode of the gods ; hence often used for Caelum now Elimbo.
;
;

Orea-s, -adis

f.:

bclon<jing to the

mountain; hence, a m'^untain nymph

(opeiat:

from 6po?, a mountain).

Orien-S,

-tis

m.: the quarter where the sun rises (oriens)

lience, the East.

Orton, -onis:

m.: Orion: a cele'.)rxted hunter andg'ant; placed after his death as a conste'-lation in the heavens showers attended its rising and setting B. 1, 535.
;

Oront-es,
ironi

-is

and

Orontes
:

a leader of the Lycjana, shipwrecked ou his voyage

Troy to Italy

B. 1, 113, 220.

Pall-as, -adis ; f-: Pallas an epithet of Athene, or Minerva, the goddess of war and of wisdom. The epithet is derived from (1) either naWeiv, " to brandish," i.e., "the brandisher" of the spear (2) or from TroAAaf, " a maiden," i.e., the virgin
: :

goddess.

>

P&ph-os,

-i

t.:

Paphus: a

city

of

south-western

Cyprus, where Venus was

especially worshipped.

Parc-a, -ae f.: one of the three Fates or names were Lachesis (\a.y\iv<i.v, "to
;

Destinies.

allot");

Clotho

According to the Greeks their (Aiideii', "to weave");

Atropos
line
:

(a,

neg. Tpimiv, " to turn

").

Their duties are expressed in the fo'lowing

With the Romans Dccuma. Nona. The best derivation Morta, seems to woiship]ied as were these For the interchange of y and m: cp. be pariiip, "to allot;" cp. Moipai.
Clotho cuhiin retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat.
jxdAu^Jos,

plumbum.
;

Pari-S, -dis

m.: Paris:

also called Alexander, son of

/n

carried off Helen, wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, and thus He was slain by the arrows of Philoctetes. Trojan war.
favorite of Venus.

Priam and Hecuba. He was the cause of the He was the especial

X.

Pari-us,

-a,

-um
its

adj.:

Parian

of,

or belonging to Paros, one of the Cyclades,

noted for

quarries of marble.

P&tavi-um,

-i; m.; Patavium: a city of Gallia Cisalpina, founded by Meduaous Major and Minor (Brenta), now called Padua. the between

An tenor,

Pelasg-us, -a, -um; adj.: Pelamjian: of, or race who inhabited Graeci before the arrival
from
TreAAos
:

belongini; to the Pelasgi, an ancient


of the Hellenes.

The word

is

derived

cp. palidus, palleo

hence, dark, or ash-colored.

INDEX OF PKOPER NAMES,


I'enat-es,

107

-ium

m.,

pi.:

the Penates

deities

who

presided over the household and

The word seems connected with pa, "to feed" or "protect;" hence pater, janis, jienus ; jrdcris (=7rdTis), potens. They were probably deified founders
the state.
of thn faaiily.

Penthesile-a, -ae war of Troy.

t: Penthesilea:

queen

of the

Amazons, an

ally of

Priam

in the

PergS,m-a, -orum
Gennan,
burif
-i
;
;

n., pi.:

the citadel of Troy

connected with

jriJpyos,

"a tower:"

En<;. -borough, -bur^^h, -bury.


:

Phoeb-us,
shine
:"

m.

Phoebus: an epithet of Apollo: op.


<j>ao;.

^oi)3os,

"bright;" fa, "to

cp. ^aiviiv,

Phoenic-es,

-um

of the Mediterranean,

east by Syria.

pi.: Phoenicians: people of Phoenicia, a district on the east bounded on the south by Palestine, and on the north and The Phoenicians were the most celebrated navigators of antiquity,
;

m.,

and founded colonies alonjf the shores of the Mediterranean Tunis, Utica. Tyre and Sidon were their chief towns.
;

notably Karthage,

from mas. Phoenix Phoeniss-a, -ae f., adj.: a Phoenician woman Threissa, from Threx, a Phoenician woman. As a noun = Z)irfo.
:

cf.

Phryg-es,

-um
-a,

m.,

pi.:

the Phrygians, a people of Central Asia Minor.

Phrfgius,

-um;
f.:

adj.: Phriigian.

Phthi-a, -ae

Phthia: a

district in

southern Thessaly.

Achilles

was

bom

at

Larissa, in Phthia.

Poen-i,

-orum
,

m.,

pi.:

the Karthaginians.

Priam.us,

ni.: Priam son of Laomedon, and last king' of Troy. Hercules took -i Troy, and Priam, then called Podarces, was amony the prisoners. Hesoine, the sister of Priam, ransomed her brother, and he clianged his name to Priamus (irpia/j.at, " I buy," or " ransom ") He married Hecuba, tlje dau-jhter of Cisseus,
:

and had amon^'


(1184 B.C.)

his sons Hector, Paris, Polites

The conduct
of Achilles.

of Paris involved his


finally

father in a war with the Greeks, which lasted for ten years.

Troy was

taken

and Priam was

slain

by Phyrrhus, son

Punic-US,

-a,

-um
-is
;

adj.:

Karthaginian.
son of Belus, and king of Tyre
brother of Dido

Pygmalion,
murderer

Pygmalion

of Sychaeus.

Q.
Quirin-us,
-1;

Derived rom

m.: Quirtnus: a name given to Romulus after his ascent to heaven. rt. kur, " powerful i' cp. Quirites, icCpos, icuptos, K^ipai/os.

R.

Rem-us.-i;

m.:

Remus:

the twin-brother of Romulus.

Bh^a-us,
/\ /^
blain

m.: Rhesus king of Thrace, whose horses were captured and who wa4 -i by Diomede and Ulysses in the night attack.
;
:

108
Bora-a, -ae
;

vkkgil's akn.
f.
:

b.

i.

Rome

a city in Italy, on

tlie

banks of the Tiber


;

the capital of
flow
;"

tlio

llomaii world.

Derived: Koina=(s) Koina: root sru

cp. 'p'"

:" to

heiiue,

"the stream town."

Roman US,
R6.uiil-U3,

-a,

-um;

adj.:

Roman.
of

-i

Romidas
;

The founder
thu Rululi
:

Rome

son of Mars and Rhea

Silvia.

R&tul-i, -orUiH
ine:i* of

m.,

pi.:

a people of Latiuin.

They opposed the


their
kiii;;,

settle-

the Trojans in Italy.

They were defeated, and


S.

Turnus, was

slain.

Sabae-us,

-a,

-um;

adj.:

Sabaean:

of,

or belonging to Saba (the Sheba of Scripin the

ture), the capital of

Arabia Felix, situated

S.W. part of Arabia.

Sa.m-03,
Samos.
-'

-i

for a nia.L^nificent

island, S.E. of Chios, opposite Mt. Mycale. It was noted temple of Here (Juno), situated about two miles from the town The remains of this temple are still to bo seen.
f.:

Samos: an

Sarped-on, -onis; m.: Sarpedon: king war. He was slain by Patroclus.


Saturni-us,
-a,

of Lycia,

and an

ally of

Priam

in the Trojan

-umi;
;

adj.:

Satumian:

of,

or belonging to Satumus, Satumlan.

Saturn, according to the Konians, was the father of Juno. from sera, to sow hence ho was the god of agriculture.
i(

His name

is

derived

Scyllae-us,

-a,

-um;
m.

adj.: Soifllaean

of,

or belonging to Scylla, a monster

who

inhabited the rooky strait of Messina, between Bruttiuui and Sicily.

Sergest-us,

-i

Sergestus

a follower of Aeneas.

Sicani-a, -ae t.: another name for Sicily. The Sicani, from whom the island obtained its name, were an Iberian people, while the Siculi were an Italian tribe.
;

Sicul-us,

-a,

-um

Sicilian.
;

r Sid -on, -onis (ace. Sidona) f.: Sidon (now Saida): the most ancient of the PhoeniIt was eclipsed by its own "r^cian cities, and for a long time the most powerful
colony. Tyre.

Sid6ni-us,-a,-um
;

adj.: Sidonia/n: of Sidon.

Simo-is, -entis m.: ace. Simoenta (now Guinbrek) the Scamander {Mendere).

a river of the Troas

falling into

Spartan-US,

-a,

-um

Spartan
:

of,

or belonging to Sparta:

Sychae-us,
;

-i

Sychaeus

the husband of Dido.


: :

Syrt-is, -is f.; the Syrtes two gulfs on the northern coast of Africa the Syrtis Major (Gulf of Sidra), Syrtis Minor (Gulf of Cubes). The word is derived (1) either , from crupeti', "to draw," (2) or from the Arabian word scrt, a desert. Both were proverbially dangerous to sailors on account of the quicksands and their exj osure
to winds.

INDEX OP PROPER NAMES.


T.

109

Teuc-er,

-1

m.: Teiieer

(1)

an ancient king of Troy

(2)

a soa

of

Telamon, king

of

Salamis, and brother of Ajax.

Teucr-i,

-orum:
;

pi.,

m.: the Trojans.


of adj.

Threiss-a, -ae
Tiberin-us,
of
-a,

fem

Threx, Thracian.
belonging to Tiber, a river of Italy, on the banks

-um
ni

adj.: of, or
built.

which Rome was


-i
;
:

Timav-us,
name

Timavus (now Timavo)


;
.

a river of

Istria.

Trinacri-us,

adj : THnacrian of, or belonging to Trinacria, another The island obtained its name from its three promontories (rpeis cLKpa.:) I'eloruin (now Capo di Faro, or Peloro) Pachynuui {Capo di Passara) ; Libybaeum (Capo di Bona, or Marsala).
-a,
:

-um

for Sieilia.

Trion-es, -ura
=strio
;

m., pi.: also called Septentriones, seven stars (septem=seven ; trio root stri, " to scatter," hence, scatterer; of light, near the north pole.
;

Triton, -onis; m.: Triton: a


peter to his father.

sea-deity, son of

Neptune and Amphi trite, and trum-

Troil-US, -i ra.: Troilus was slain by Achilles.


;

son of Priam and Hecuba, remarkable for his beauty.

He

Troi-us,

-a,
;

-um;
f.:

adj.: Trojan.
:

Troj-a, -ae
.

Troy

also called Ilium, one of the

most noted

cities of

antiquity

situated in the north-eastern part of Mysia, in a district called Troaa.

It

was built

near the junction of the Simois and Scamander. It was taken by the Greeks after a siege of ten years, B C. IISI. Recently Dr. Schlieman has, by excavating the

ground, brought to light the remains of this once memorable

city.

Trojan-US,
Tro-S,
-is
;

-a,
ni.:

-um;
Tros:

adj.: Trojan.

(1)

son of Erichthinius, and grandson of Dardanus.

He

mar-

ried Callirhoe, daughter of the Scamander,

and had three sons Ilus, Assaracus,

and Ganymede

(2)

an adj. =Trojanu3.
of Diomedes.

Tydid-es, -ae ; m. : son of Tydeus, an epithet

Typhoi-us,
gi int,

-um ; Typhuian adj.: of, or belonging to Typhoeus, a monstrous Earth brought forth to war with the gods after the destruction of her giant progeny. He was destroyed by Juppiter and placed beneath Aetna.
-a,
:

whom
-a,

Tyri-U3,

-um;

adj.:

Tyrian:

of,

or belonging to Tyre, a celebrated city of

Phoenicia.

Tyr-U8,

-i

f.:

city of Sidon.

Tyre an ancient city of Phoenicia, founded by a colony from the olde It was noted for its famous purple.
:

Ven-U8, -^ris

Venxis the goddess of beauty and the mother of Aeneas. By ; f.: adjudging the award of the golden apple to Venus, when Minerva, Juno and Yenui were the competitors for this prize of beauty, Paris was promised the hand
:

110
of the

VERGIL'S AEN.

B.

I.

the war of Troy.

handsomest of earth's daii'^hters. He soon eloped with Helen, and henc( The iiillueiice of Venus in this coutust was always exerted on the

side of the Trojans

Veat-a, ae

f.:

V^esta:

the goddess

who

presided over the hearth orio).

She

syinboli/.ed the sanctity of the family ties.

In her temple at Koine, the attendant


fire.

priestesses, Vestal virgins,

kept alive the sacred

Xanth-US,

-i; m.:

Xanthus:

also called

Scamander, a river

rising in the defiles of

The Mt. Ida, and after receiving the Siniois, falls into the Hellespont. derived from the yellow color of its waters (fafdos) : now the Mendere.

name

is

ZephjT

US,
all

-i

m.:

Zcphyms

the western wind, (from ^oi^ot ifo^tdf

cp. M^o;,

nubeg,

referring to the dark region of the world).

ABBREVIATIONS.
a,

or act

abl

active. ablative.

neg
noni

negative.

aeo adj

adv
cf.

accusative. adjective. aih ei'b.

num
obsol

nominative. numeral.
obsolete.
ordiiial.

ord
p. or part

confer

coniiiare.

conj

conjunction.
dative.

dat

demonstr dep
f
fr

demonstrative. deponent. feminine. from.


f refiuentative.

pass perf pers pluperf plur

participle. passive. perfect.

person, personal. pluperfect.


plural. positive degree.
pos.sessive.

pos
J10SS

treq fat

future.
Kt'iutive.

prep
pres

gen

preposition. present.

Gr
imperf
ind. or
iiiilic

Greek.
imperfect.
iuciicative. inileclinable. indefinite. infinitive.

prob pron
rel

probably.

pronoun.
relative.

indcyi indef
inf.

sing subj

singular.

or infin

interj

interrog irr. or irreg

interjection. interrogative. irregular.

uncontr V. a
V. v.

dep

Lat
n.

Latin
nuusouline. neuter.
figures before v. a
is
,

n voc

subjunctive. uncontracted. verb active. verb deponent. verb neuter. vocative.

=
v.

equal ta

or neut

N.B.^The

dep.,

and

v.
is

n denote the conjugation of the verlx


of very uncertain or

Where the etymology

not given, the word

unknown

origin.

A
2*i-t.to->^>,^^^

-.

-^"^X ,,<y.Uj^^

tA^
9.

VOCABULARY.

n
prep. gov. abl. [akin to Gr. To denote the direction from which an object is viewed At, in a tergo, at one's back behind.
(a),
iir-o)
:

4b

welcome, 20^, 685 ; hear, 678. tally : to learn, vndersta id.


123
;

Men-

From.

mon
3,

acci-tus, tus, m. [accl-o, '* to sum"], a summoning, summons, call.

ab-do, dldi, ditum, dere. 3, v. a. [ab, "away;" do. "to put'"], to hide, conceal.

ac-cumbo,
v.
a.

ciibtli,

[for ad-cumbo fr. upon ;" obsol. cumbo, " to lie recline at a table, least, etc.
;

oibltum, cumbSre, ad, " on, di)wn "], to

ab-So,
".away;"
jiart.

Ivi

or

li,

Itum,
to

ire, v. n.

[ab,

o,

"to go"],

go aioay, de-

ab-6l-eo, evi or fti, Itura, 5re, 2, v. a. denoting " reversal ;" obsol. ol-o (=cresco), "to grow"], to banixh or remove an object from the memory, etc.
[ab,
V. 720.

a-cer,_cris, ere, adj. [for accer ; fr. ar, root of aKT), OLKMKr), cLKix-q, axpoi;, uirvf acus, acuo, acies, ocior]. In character: ardent, bold, spirited, etc. Of fear sharp, strong, intense.

acerb-US,
" sharp
;"

-a, -aim, adj. [root see acer], bitter, crud.

ak,

ab-ripio,

riptii,
;

reptum, rIpCre,
ab,

3, v.

a. [for ab-r'iplo

fr.

"away;"

ripio,

off; to

"toeize"], to seize and carry away, or draj, or carry forcibly atoay.


[ab,

ac-ies, ici, f. [ak, root of a,c-i1o; see acer] (" a sharp edge ;" hence, " order of battle;" hence) aVi army, host, fcn-ces, drawn up in line of battle.

ab-sisto, stiti, stitum, sistere, 3, v. "away from ;" sisto, "to stand"],
off,

n. to

actus,
ago.

perf. part. pass, of

ago; 8e Of a

leave

or desist
ffli,

to cease.

ab-sum,
;

from;" sum, "to one to 6 absent.

esse, v. n. [ab, " away be "J, to be invay from

acu.-tu.'>, ta tum, adj. [see acer]. rock, etc.: sharp, pointed, etc.

ad, prep. gov. ace. against, near to, beside, at.


:

to,

totoards

ab-sumo,
3, V. a. [ab,

sumpsi, sumptum, sumure,


take"],
;

to take

"away ;" sumo, "to away remove.

ad-do,
" to
to
to.
;"
;"

ac

dldi, ditum, dCre, 3, v. a. [ad, do, " to put "] (" to put to, or on hence), to add ; to give in addition,

see atque.

d<;anthus, i, m. [a.Kav9oi, " thornflower;" rt. AB," sharp" ai'9o<;, a flower], the plant bear's-foot, or brank ursine.
cessum, cGdOre, 3, v. n. [for ad-cedo ; fr. ad, " to ;" cedo, " to go "], to go to, or towards ; to approach.
cessi,

ad-eo, Ivi or Ti, Itum, Ire, v. a. "to;" 6o, "to go"] ("to goto" an
etc.
;

[ad, act,

hence),

to

approach,

encounter,
;

ac-cedo,

undergo.

ad-eo,

adv. [prob. for


(

ad-6om

fr.

ad,
o)

ac-cen-do,
ad-can-do;
fr.

di,

sum, dSre, 3, v. a. [for ad, in "augmentative"

" to or up to ;" com pron. is], so very, so.

= eum),

old

aca

T
u

force ; root can, akin to Gr. ca-io, ai'-io, " to light, kindle "], of persons, the passions, etc. ; to inflame with rage, exasperate, enrage.
cinxi, cinotum, cingSre, 3, fr. ad, " to or on to ;" ; cingo, " to gnrd "] : with per8on.al pron. in reflexive force ; with dat. : to gird one'g e{/ /or something ; i.e., to prepare one's self, get one's self ready /or.

adflictus; see afldictus. adflo see afflo. ad-for, fatus, sum, fan, 1, "to;" for, "to speak;" cp.
;

v. a.

[ad,
to

<^r)M'].

ac-cingo,

address.
gnOvi, gnotum, gnoscGre, "to;" gnosco, "to know:' root GNO, as A, "to know "], to recognise. ad hue, adv. [ad, " to, or up to ;' hue, old form of hoc, "this"], as yet.
3, V. a.

V. a. [for

ad-cingo

ad-gnosco,
[ad,

ac-cipio, cCpi, ceptum, plpGre, 3, v. a. [for ad-cipio ; f r. ad, " to ;" oapio, " to take "\, to receive, vs. 304, 434 ; let in, v.

ad-l6quor,
tus sum,
3,

V.

(ii'p.

lOqui, Klqm'itus, or loCM (ad, "to;" loquur,

"to speak"',
111

to

address.

112

VOCABULAnV.
nisus and nivus sum,
niti,'.

adnitor,
3, V.

"a;raiiist;" nltor, lean "], to exert nne's xcl/, etc. ; to forth one'n itretujth, etc.
(lop.
liVl,

"to put

fieqii-o, avi, 5tnm, Sre, 1, v. a. [aequ" equal 'J. to make equal, place on an equality, eqwlize.
U8,

aequ-or,
level "1, the

ad-no. navi, " to, or up to ;" to, or up to.

natuiii, nfire, 1, v. n. [.id, no, " to swim "], to swim

Oris, n. [aequ-o, " to make wateis of the sea; thesea, in

any condition.

adnuo
2, V.
a.

see annuo.
Oi (rarely
e\-i),

aequ-us, make even ;"


obsol.
:

a.

um,

adj. [root ik,


:

"to

ad-ol-eo,
[ad,

"up;"
term

(ul turn, ere, OL-o, "to

grrow

"], relisfious pitiate, etc.

to

honour, pro-

aequor cIkuj]. favourable, friendly. non aequ-us: unfavourable, unfriendly [akin to t^ans. eka.", "one"]. aer, aCris, m. [root av, " to blow :" cp.

cp.

6.1-

ad-6ro, oravi, oratani, Orare, 1, v. a. [id, "\s'ithout force;" oro, "to entreat"], to entreat, beseech; to address an entreaty
to.

r)p;

iHi',vi,

a Friiii. vapour.
of,

aura], the air;

cloud,
aer-is.

aer-eus,
"bronze"],

Ca,

Gum,

adj.

[aes,

or iiiadf of bronze; bronze-.

ad-pareo,
V. n.

parSre, parfli, paritum,

2,

[ad,

"to;" parOo, "to be

visible"],

to coine into sijht, be visible.

ad-pello,
a. (ad,
to.

" to

;"

pellGre, pCili, pulsum, 3, v. pello, " to drive "J, to dnve

aes, aeris, n. : bronze (an alloy of coi>per and tin, not brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc). Of vessels a prou' of bronze, a bronze-prow [akin to Ger. eiscn, "iron"].
:

aes-tas,
:

tatis,
;

f.

[root aed, " to

bum ;"

ad-plico
V. a. [ad,

see applico.
spirare, spiravi, spir.'itum,
1,

cp. aedes, aestus

al^u, ai&qp],

summer.

ad-spiro,

aes-tus,
or billow
;

"towards;" spiro, "tobrea he"],

tiis, m. Of the sea: a wave the sea in an agitated state

to breathe forth.

[see aestas).

(a-sto), stiti stitum, stare, 1, V. n. ad, 'by ornear;" sto, "to stand"], to stand by, or near, a person or thing.

ad-sto
I

aetas,

tatis,

f.
;

[tor aev(i)tas

fr.

aev-

um, "age;" aiioi/ root Aiv, a lengthened form of I "to go "J, time of life, age,
generation.
adj. [contr. aetfit-ernus ; fr. aetas, aetat-is], constant, lasting, eternal, everlasting.
fr.

ad-sum,
sum, "

[ad, "at;" fili, esse, v. n. to be "], tv be present, or here.

aet-ernus, ema, ernum,

ad-surgo,
tuni, :!, v. rise "1, to rise.

surgCre, surrexi, surrecn. [ad, " towards ;" sui-go, " to


ta, turn, adj. [for adol-tus

aether,

Gris,
;

m.

[see aestas], the ui>per

air, or ether

the sky.
la,

adul-tus,

fr. adol-esco, "to grow up"], groion up, full gruvm, adult.

ad-veho,
[ad,

vexi, vectum, vehcre, 3, v. a. "to;" vcho, "to carry"], to bear to


vCni, ventum, venire, 4, v. venio, " to come"], to come
sa,

or upper air"], pertaining to the upper air or sky.


aether-is,

aether-ius, "the
afflic-tus.

lum,

adj.

[aether,

ether,

ta, turn, adj. [for afflig-tus;

a place, etc.

fr. afflig-o,

"to dash, or

strike

down"],

ad-venio,
n. [ad,
to.

unfortunate, wretched, distressed.


af-flo, flavi, flatum, flare, 1, v. a. [for fr. ad, " upon ;" flo, " to blow, or breathe "], to blow or breathe upon an object; i.e., of a deity, to bestow on, or impart to, by breathing.
ad-flo
;

" to

;"

adj. [for advert8us; fr. advert-o], opposite; i.e., lying oner aguin.st, or in an opposite quarter coming in an opposite directum, or from an opposite qaarter.

adver-sus.

sum,

(af-for)

see adfor.

ad-verto,
v. a.

vertGre, verti, versum, 3, [ad, "towards;" verto, "to turn"],

to

turn towards.

gra, ing, troubled.

aeger,

grum,

adj.: sad, sorrow-

m. [root AG, "to drive ;" hence, where cattle are driven ; cp. aypd? ; German trift, pasturage, from treiben, " to drive ;" Eng. acre ; hence], land, landed property or estate.

ager,

agri,

ae-nus,
aes,
aei
;

na,

num,
a

adj. [for
"],

aemus
bronze

fr.

-is,

" bronze
n.,

of

or

ag-ger, gCris, m. [agger-o, "to bring, or carrj-, to" a place], a mound, pile, high or mighty heap.

copper

bronze-,
i.

copper-.
vessel or

As

subst.:

ag-men,

minis,

n.

[ag-o],

line,

aenum,

caldron of

bronze or copper ; a bronze caldron.

stream, train; a band, crowd, tnultUude. Of soldiers : a column, or troop.

VOCABULARY.
ag'n-us, i, m.: a lamb [aMin to omi'os, iamb;" root Av, "to please;" cp. oFit: ovis: Eng. ewe (probably the pet
".1

113
a,

Moipa

thing)].

iuPpomors, hence, liteially, "immortal"], lovely, pleasant, sweet, etc.


(rio5
;

ambrosius,
fr.

um,

a,

nag.

adj. [Gr. /noprds ; cp.

B.

actum, Sgere, 3, v. a.: to drive, drive abnut. Imperative: comp. aio, V. defect. : to say, to speak [akin to root ATH, " to say ;" cp. ad-ag-iuin, a
6gi,

ago,

am-icio,
[for

Ictli,
;

am-jacio

fr.

ictum, icire, am, " around

4, v. a. ;" jacio,

"to throw

"], to

wrap around,
m.
[amic-Io,

to clothe.

amic-tus,

tus,

"to throw

sajdng].

around"], clothiwi^Qarnient.
f.

ala, ae,

[for

a^da= axilla

see ager],
fr. al-a,

am-icus,
lo\e
"],

ica,

a wing.
al-e-S,
alltis, adj. [for al-i-(t) s
I,
;

loving,
i.

icum, adj. [am-o, " to /riendly. As subst.


:

n
e:

amicus,

m.: a friend.

"a wing,"
wing

root of e-o,
,

"to go;"

(t)

epenthetic letter

bird.

al-i-ger, g^'ra, gOmm, adj. [al-a, "a ;" (i) connecting vowel gOr-o, " to bear"], bearing xviiif/s, tv'nj/ed.
;

a-mitto, misi, missum, mittSre, 3, v. a. [a, "from;" mitto, "to let go"], to let go, slip, to fo.sf?. l^ass.: a-mittor, missus sum, mitti.

al-i-qui, qua, quod, gen. (alicu jus dat. alicui plur. aliijui, quae, qua, etc.), indef. pron. ;idj. [illi-us qui], some, any.
;
:

am-O, avi, fitum, am-or. Oris, m.


love,

are, 1, v. a.: to love.

[am-o, " to love "], affection. Versom^eA : Love, or


us,

Cupid.

ter,

al iter. adv. [,ll-is, old form of fil-iusan adverbial suffix; compare fortiter]:

amplexus,
fr.

m.
;

[for

amplect-sus
plak,

aniplect-or,
;

in

another
:

manner,
;

otlterwise.
i.e.,

baud
the

"to embrace;" cp. plecto:


plait

nKiKeiv
twist
"^,

Eng.

root

" to

iliter

not otherwise

just in

tame way.
al-ius, la, lud (gen. alius dat. alii), adj. another, other of many [akin to
;
:

an embracing, embrace, caress. ampli-us, comp. adv. adverbial neut.


|

of ampli-or fr. amplus, "extensive"]. Of time longer, farther, more.


;
:

J.L

aA-Ao?].

al-ligo, ligavi, ligatum, ligare, 1, v. a. ;" [for ad-ligo ; fr. ad, " without force
ligo,

am-pl-us, a, um, j)l-Oo, "to fill"', of


sive,

adj. [am, "around:" large extent, exten-

spacious.
conj.

"to bind").
:

Of an anchor as sub-

an,

make or holdfast. alloquor, liJquutus sum, Ifiqui, 3, v. dep, [for ad-16quor fr. ad, "to speali"],
ject
to
;

whether.
ivhether.

Or:[prob an.
ae,
f.

.an,

a pnmitive word], whether ... .or " to bend ;" Gr. dyKuir,

ancora,
cp.

[root a.vc,
;

to

speak

to, addre.ts.

al-mus, ma, mum,


nourish
aloft.
"],

adj.

''o,

"to

ancus, uncus, anguis ayKvpa, oyKO;], an anchor.

benijn, projiitiou-i.

anima,
breathe
life.
;"

imae,
cp.

f.

[akin to root an. " to


;

alt-e, adv. [alt-US, "high"], on high,

animus

due/xo^,

arnxt],

al-ter,

tc-ra,

turum

(gen. alterius

dat.

miothe): subst. m.: another person, another.


altCri), adj. [akin to al-ius],

As

tum, adj. [root .\L, ar, or OL, cp. opi'j'M', opo?, opfis ; ad-ol.-Vs alo], high, loity. subst. : the high heaven.- As altura, i, n. subst.: altum, i, n.: the deep; the main or open sea.

altus,
;"
;

ta,

" high esco

amaracus,
[a/ioipaKOs].

i,

comm.

gen.:

marjoram

animus, imi, m. [akin to anlma, mind, feeling, courage. annal-es, ium, m. [annal-is, " of, or belonging to a ye^r ''|, annual records. an-nuo, nfii, nutum, nuere, 3, v." a. [for ad-nuo fr. ad, "to or towaids ;" nuo, " to nod "], topromise. an-nus, ni, "ml Of time a year [akin to am, "to go;" annulus to Gr.
; : ;

eV-o9 = ei'-iauT05,

"a year "J.


:

f
V

amb-ag-es,
sing.,

complete

is (found only in abl. in plu.), f.[amli, "around;"

ante, adv. and prep. Adv.


previoiLsly, beforehand, sooner. gov. aec. before, in front of.
:

before,

Prep.

ag-o, " to rative.

go

"),

intricate details or narQa,

ant-iquus,

iqua,
old.
n.:

iquum,

adj. [ant-e],

ambig-uus,
"both;"
i.e.,

in

Oum, a^lj. [arabo, two directions; ago,

former, ancient,

antrum,
aper,
KCLTTp-O?].

1,

cave, grotto [ai'Tpoi'l.

" to level "], doubtjul, uncertain, not to be relied upon.

apri,

m.: a wild boar [akin to

arabo,
both.

ae, o, plur.

adj.

[Or.

a/i<^io],

a-per-io, fli, tum, ire, 4, v. a. [prob. ab, denoting "reversal;" root par, "to

114^
cover patxa
closed
seen.
"I, /0 ojtni, i.e., to
If
;

VOCABULARY.
mule
(i Tmi/, or previously

tlirnu'ili,

.sonieUiing

mSrum, n. plu. [root ar, " to fit;" f'p. ilp-ui, ap-api<TKui, dpOpof. artus,

ar-ma,

to dixcloxe to

view permit to be
:

articulus],

arms, ivenpons, utensils.

Apertus,
aperio.
less, clear.

a,

um

p.

perf.

pass,

of

ar-mentum,
plough
cattle],
;

Of the sky

unclotided, cloud-

menti, n. [a,r-o, "to hence, properly, ploughing " cattle in general. Of deer: a

herd.

a-p-is, is, f. [akin to root ro, " to drink ;" cp. po-to n-uw hence, " the drinker or sipper " of the dew, juice of flowers, etc hence], the bee.
; ;

'/ar-rigo,
[for

rexi, rectum, rlgC-re, 3, v. a. ;" ad-rCgo fr. ad, " up, upwards rfgo, " to keep straight"], to lift, or raise up. Of the ears to prick uv; i.e. (supp.
; :

panli, parTtum, pfirCre, 2, V. n. [for ad-parco ; fr. ad, "at;" pareo, "to appear "J, to come or be in sight, to be vuiible, to show otie's self, etc.

ap-pareo,

aures), to listen, be attciUtve

to rouse,

animate, encourage.
ar-s.
tis, f.:

art, skjjl,

gtratagem [root

AR, "fit"].

appello, pMi, pulsum. pellere, 3, v. a. [for ad-pello ; fr. a<l, "to or towards;" pello, " to drive "]. Of a storm : to drive
to.

art-i-fex,
fac-s;
fr.

tu is,

ars. art-is

conim. gen. [for art-i(ijc'i'iPCtiiig vowel

KAC, ro it of fiVc iij, cise" a caJUiny, rtr.],

appllCO,

plicfivi,

or

plicfti,

pliratum

ar-tiis, tus,
arnia].

"to make; to exeran artificer, artisan. m.: a joint a linib [see


;

[for ad-plico; fr. ad, "upon:" plico, "to fold "J, to force, or bring to, a place, etc.
1, v. a.

or plicitum, plIcAre,

ur-tus
close,

(arc-), ta, turn, adj.: narrou', cunfined [see arnia].


vi, n.

apt-O, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [root ap, "to work, or join;" cp. opus, opes,
apisci
:

ar-vum,
cp. apotLv
;

aralium
f.

[root ar, " to plough;" 0. E. ear], a /ield, ;


[see

oirTeti'], to

adapt, fit, adjust,

i>re-

plain.

pare, provide.

arx,
citadel.

arcis,

arceo],

castle,

apud,
with.

prep, with ace. : at, in, among,


ae.
f.

a-scendo,
:

aqu-a,
"water"].

water [akin to Sans, ap,

3,

V.

a.

ar-a,
altar.

ae,

f.

[root ar, see altus],


;

elevation for sacred purposes

i.e.,

an an

scando, climb, ascend.

scendi, scensum, scendere, ad-scando ; fr. ad, " up ;" " to mouut "], to mount up,
[for
1,

aspec-to,
[id', to

tavi, tfitum, tare, look at attentively.

v. a.

arbor. Oris, arbor-eus,


tree

f.:

tree.

aspec-tus,
adj. [arbor,
tree.

tus.

m.

[aspicio,

" to

see,

ea,

Cum,

"a

or look at," through root spec],


look.

glance,

"], tree-like,

rcsemblimj a

arc-anus,
chest
V. a.

ana,

anum,

adj. [arc-a,

"a

"] [see arceo], secret,

concealed.

fii (obsol. sup. itimi), ere, 2, (root ARK, " to protect cp. ap/ceu', area, arcanus], to confine, restrain, apKTi keep vjf\ drive away. At v. 300 supjily
;

arc-eo,

asper, Gra, erum, adj.: rough, rugged; cruel, bitter, violent, fierce. (Comp. : aspOr-ior.) Sup. : asper-rimus.
a-spicio, spexi, spectum, spTc6re, 3, a. [for ad-spOcio fr. id, " on or upon;" specie, "to look "J, to look upon, beliold, see. Mentally to consider, reV.
;
:

eos, i.e. J'eucros.

arsi, arsum, ardcre, 2, v. n. [root Alt, " to burn, or parch ;" cp. arena, areo, aridus], to burn with anj' passionate emotion to Ion;;, be eager.
;

arcus, ardeo,

lis,

m.

[see arceo],

a bow.

gard.

a-spiro,
V. n. [tor

ad-spiro

splravi, splratum, spTrare, 1. ; fr. ad, "upon;" spiro,

" to breathe "J. Of flowers : to send jorth scents, emit fragrance upon a perfaon.

avdesco,
V.

arsi,

no

n. lardeo,

" to burn
f.

sup., ardescCre, 3, "J, to become in-

as-surgo,
gCre,
rise "].
i, V.

surrexi,
|ad,

svuTectum,

sur-

flamed with

love, etc.
[see ardeo], sand, shore,

surgo, "to Of the heavenly bodies : to rise


n.

"up;"

nae, beach, utrand.

are-na,

up,

rise.
:

ast

see at.
:

enti, n. [root aro, "to be bright ;" cp. apyupos, arguere, argilla], silccr, silver vessels or plate.

arg-entum,

asto, are

see adsto.
n.
:

astrum,
scatter
;"

1,

a star [root star, "to


:

cp. aTopitfviJ.L

ar-idiis. ida, iduni, adj. [see ardeo",

dry

straiiien : stella=sterula, of light"]

sterno, stratus, " the scatterer

i
I

VOCABULARY.
at (ast), conj. [akin to Gr. ar-dp,
ater,
tra,
:

115

but

hut indeed, yet

"ImfJ.

[fi,

a-veho, ve.xi, vectuni, vChere, 3, v. a. "away;" veho, "to carry"], to cairy


-a.

tnim, adj.: black, dark.

atra:/.

at-que
que " and
;

fr.

"],

(contracted ac), conj. [for adad, denoting '"addition;" qu6, and also, and beside*, moreover,

avers-us,
averto
a.
:

-um,
i.e.,

perf.

part,

of

turned away,

unfavourable.

9.

and.

atrium, li, n. : a hall [from ater, "black," i.e., blackened by smoke; cp. neKa&pov, from /neAas]. atr-OX, ocis, adj. [ater, atr-i, "black"]. Of persons fierce, cruel, harsh, severe.
:

a-verto, verti, versum, vertere, 3, v. " away from ;" verto, to turn "J, to [.a, turn away. Pass, in reflexive force, also
for avertere se
:

a ortcre
self, etc.,

away

to retire,

to turn one's withdraw.

av-idus, Ida, Idum, adj. [av-eo, " to desire eagerly "J eayerly desirous.

n
e:

a. [for

tig], tactum, tingfre, 3, v. ad-tango fr. ad, "against;" tango, " to touch "J, to touch.

at-tingo,

at-tollo, no perf. nor sup., toUC-re, 3, V. a. [for ad-toUo; fr. ad, "up, upwards;" telle, "to lift"], to lift or raise up.

bac-atus,
berry;" adorned
icilh

ata,

atum, ad. [baco-a, " a


set

hence, "a pearl";, pearls pearl-.


;

or

ausus sum, auderc, 2, v. semidare or venture something, or to do something.


dep.
:

audeo,
to

barbarud,
bea-ta.s,
ta,

a,

um,

adj.

barbarian,

harbitruus [/3ap^apos].

tum, adj.
tricis,
f.

[be(a)o,

"to

or li, itum. Ire, 4, v. a. : to hear [akin to aus ( = ous), avT-d?, "an ear ; modem Greek avTiov : auris, ausIvi

aud-io,

make happy"], happy,


bella-trix,
bell-O,

fortunate, etc.
[bell(a)o,

"to

war"], a female warrior.

culto].

augur-ium, aula
aer:
ae,

root GAR, "to garrire], av/jury,


f.

[avis, chatter;" cp. yijpus,


ii,

n.

"a

bird;" ypaOs;
see

"war"],
fr.

avi, atum, are, 1, v. n. [bell-um, to wa'je war ; to war.


elli, n.

an omen. [root av, "to blow:"

b-ellum,

[old form, dQ-bellum;

da-o, "iwo"]. war, warfare


iiia:ii

the avKr\ of a Greek house, corresponding somewhat to the allium of the Koman, was open above], a palace.

ben-e, adv.
"good"],

aulaeum,

Comp. irreg. ben-i-gn-us,


gCu-iis;
fr.

[obsol. bgn-us=bOn-us, od way or manner; well. mjl.ussup. optime.


:

a,

um,

a<lj.

i,

n.:

tapestry [see aula].


aer].

[for b6n-i-

aura, ae, f.: the air [see aur-atus, ata, atum,


"gold"], ornnmented with
Ca, Cum golden[xoot is, ir, "to aueii': aurora, uro].

adj.
ijold
;

[aunmi,
gilt.

aur-eus,

made of
burn:" cp.
fr.

gold,
eOeii/,

bOn-us (=bonus), "good;" GE.s, root 'f gigno (in pass.}, " to be born"], Icind, friendly, benignant. bib-O, i, Itum, ere, 3, v. a.: to drink. Of love: to drink in, imbibe [root Bi ( = u-i in TTt'-fu), "to drink") reduplicated
.

aur-is,
ear.

is, f.

[for aud-is;

aud-io],

an

Aur-6ra, Orae, f. : ulwrora, the, goddess of the dawn [akin to Gr. aii-uJs=^-io?, ' the early morn ;" fr. root us, "to bum," and so ' to shine "].

bi-lingu-is, e, adj. [bi (=bis), "twice;" lingu-a, "a tongue"], doubletongued, i.e., hypocritical, deceitful, playing a double part.
bi-ni, nae, na, distrib. adj. plur. twice "], tico apiece ; a pair. ( = bis),
'

F
\

^;

[bi

birem-is,
oared;"
fr.

is,

t.

[birem-is,

" two-

aur-um,
aureus].

i,

n.

gold,

money

[see

bi (=bis),

"an

oar"],
(in

rcssi

"twice;" rcm-us. ivith two banks ofuar.t'


adv.

RS

au-ster,
;

aureus burning wind"].

wind [see auster means, therefore, "the


stri,

m.: the south

a bireme.

bis

composition
fr.

[for dais;

bi), num. diio, "two"], twice.


a,

T
u

aut,
either
.

con.
.

or : aut
or.

aut,

blandus,
fond, kind,

um,

adj.

of things

etc.
:

auxil-ium, ii, n. [prob. fr. obsol. adj. auxil-is ( = aug-sil-is; fr. aug-Oo, "to increase"), "increasing"], aid, lielp, assistance.
[root " to be pleased ;" cp. avere, ovis : agnus], covetous, avaricious.

bonus,
mC'iior
;

a, um, adj. sup.: optimus.

good.

Comp.
> '

brev-ia, ium, n. plur. [brgvis. "sho. hence, "shallow"], shallow piace.i, -sit
lows, xhoals.

av-arus,

ara,

arum,

adj.

av, see

brev-iter,
shortly, briejly.

adv.

[brev-is

" short

'],

116
C.

VOCAbULARY.
carpo,
a.:

carpsi,

to Iced,

cado, cfcldi, clsuin, c'ldfre, 3, v. n. to fall, in the fullest accfi>tation of the


word.
to

or
ra,
;

" to seize"].

carptum, earpCre, S, v. live itpon [akin to apir-a^uj,

Of victims:

to tall in

or offered. almte, subnidt, die aw<iy.

be slain

mr, I'lire ; Of sounds': to


esp.
for

ca-rus,
[for
iiiiior.
I.e.,

rum, adj.

beloved,

dtar
cp.

cam-rus

root kam, camor].

"to love;"

cadus,
caecus,
whether

i,

m.

jar,

wino

castra, trOrum, n. plur. [root SKAD, "to cover;" hence castra =scadtra cp.
;

imi, adj. : Mind, blinded, phj sically or mentally; hidden,


a,

ca.sa (=ca<lsa); cassis (=scadsis): Ger. schatten Eng. shade), an encampment,


;

cirniji.

concealed, urcret.
[caed-o, bhu'd shed in slauifhter, g-ire.
is,
f.

ca,-3us, sus,

[for cad-sus

fr.

cad-o],

caed-es,

"to

slay"],

a chance, accident, event; misfortune,


cdl'iiiiity,

luin.
ae,
f.:

caelestis, e, ven "], heavenly.


cael-O,
5vi,

adj. [see

caelum, "hea-

caterva,
of jitisons.

a crowd,

troop,

band

atum,
fr.

are, 1, v. a. [oacl-

cavillum: that wliieli to engrave in relief metals; and, later, to cast or found to chase ; to emboss.

uni, "afjraver;" hollows (cavo)],

ae, f. [rootsKU, "to protect;" (tkOtos, KeudcLv : cutis, scutum, obscu-rus], a cause, reason, viulire.
t-p.

causa,

caelum,
see ca^
hea<l
o|,

i,

n.

[root ku,

"to swell;"

Cav-O, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [cav-us, "hollow;" root ku, "to swell out:" cp. KoiAo?, Kvixa: cumulus, caelum (=cavillum)), to hollow out.

heaven.
arioi,
t.
;
:

caes-aries,
[eaedo,
tii,

the hair of the


cp.
Kovp-q,
fr.

cavus,

a,

urn, adj.
avi,

hollow.
are, v. a. [ceieber,

to

cut

celebro,

atum,

cal-eo,
hot.

no

sup., ere, 2, v. n.

to be

cclcbr-is, "much freijuented ;" hence, of a relijjfious ceremony, etc., to which great numl/ers of pei-sons resortj, to solemnize,

i, m. a plain [prob. akin garden "]. canistra, Oram. n. plur. a basket made from weeds [^dvaarpa].
:

campus,

ki'cpjestive or festal.

to KfjTTOi, ''a

cel-er, oris, ere, adj.troot kar, or hal, " to move ;" cp. k4\Xm, kcAt)? celox, currere A.S. hor-s), swift.
: :

cano, cCcini, cantum, c'lnero, 3, v. a.: to sing, celebrate in song or ceise [root
CAjf,

celer-o,

avi,

atum.

are, 1, v. a. [celer,

"to sound

;"

cp. Kavaxn; A.S. hana,

"swift"], to qui ken, to hasten, or speed mi or towards to accelerate.


;

a cock

(siiifrer)].

tus, m. [see can-o]. singinii, note, etc.


:

can-tus,

Of birds:

f. [root kal, "to hide;" Ka\ia, KaM^ oc-cul-ere : celiare cilium, clando, color; A.S. helan Eng.

cel-la,

lae,

cp.

ca-nus, na, nuni, adj. grey, hoary, ^nerable [akin to Ka-iu>, " to burn "].
''

healj, a cell.

capesso,
perform.

essC-re, 3,

essitum, v. a. desid. [capio, "to take"],


essivi
essii,

or

c^l-o, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a.: to hide, coi.ccal [see cella].

to

cGpi, captuni, cipOre, 3, v. a [root KAF, ' to take, or hold ;" cp. Kojir-q, KaiTTU), Kairrj : capulus], to take, in the widest sense of .the word to reach, arrive at, etc., a place ; to take, seize, choose.
;

capio

sum, adj. [root kar, "to Kapa cer-ebnim, collis, columna, culmus, culmen: A.S. holm,
ce!-sus,
:"

sa,

project

cp.

high, lofty.

centum, num.
dred.

adj.

Poetically for

any

indecl. : a hunindefinite lai^'e

number ; e.g., unnuriibered, [akin to Gr. i-KaTov].

countless

cap-ut,

Itis, n.:

a head [see capio].


:

career,
card-o,
')y

6ns. m.

a prison, prison-

hoitxe [Sicilian (capxap-oi'].


inis,

cerno, crcvi, cretum, cernere, 3, v. a. [root CER. "to separate, or divide ;" cp. Kpu'ui, Kpiaii, Lat. crimen], to perceive, discern, see, whether by the eye or the
mind.
cert-e, adv. [cert-us, asstiredly, certainly.
'

m.: the pivot

and
;

socket
'

which the doors of the ancients were .ixed and made to open and shut com;

sure
1,

"],

surely,
n. in-

monly rendered, hinge the turningpoint, main jiuiut, of matters [root kard, " to swinjf ;" cp. Kpabaeii; xapSia, COr. A.S. heorte Eng. heart].
;

certo,
tens.

tavi,

tatum, tare,

v.

CER, root of cer-no, "to flght ;" see cerno], to contend, vie with one in something.

VOCABULARY.
certus,
cer-iio,
ta,

117
outcry,
ra,

him,

adj. [cf.r,

root of

" to decide"], fixed, settled, sure;

kalendae], shouting.

clamour,
adj.

eonfiised

trugty faithful, etc.

cla-rus,

mm,

Of light

cer-vix, vicls, t. [rootKAR, "to pro;" cp. Kapa celsus, columna, collis, for cer-vehs (vehs "to cerebrum
ject
:

clear, brviht [probably for c(a)Iarus: same root as clamor], /ajncfus, famed, / cnowiied, illustrious.

carry
;

"],

iieck.
vi,

cer-vus,

m.

[root
:

hard cp. xepa^, xapvov Eng. hart, horn], a stag. ces-SO, savi, siltum, sare, v. n. intens. fr. c5d-o, "to go away"], to [for ced-so he remiss in anything.
;

" to be comu, carina kar,

classis,

is,

f.
:

for sea-service

the ships and the [See clamor].

Of persons summoned fleet, comprising both men serving in them.

clau-do,
clavis].

si,

shut, to shut uj), close in [KhU, " to shut ;"

sum, d6re, 3, v. a.: to ; to surround, shut


cp. xXeiu,
Aei's

(rare in sin^.), adj. the remaining. As subst. the other cetera, orum, n. plur. : the remaining things,
a,
;

ceterus,

um

Claus-trum,
fr.

tri,

n. [for clauri-trum

claud-o, "to shut"],

a
;

bar, or bult.

chorus,
cieo,

i,

m.: a dance [xoposj.

civi,

citum, ciere,

2,

v.

a.

("to

make

to [root Ki,

go ;" hence), to rouse, stir np "to stir up:" cp. kiw, iVvjuai:

coepio, i, tiim, ere and isse, 3, v. n. ajid a. (contr. fr. coftj^io fr. co (=cum), in "augmenfative" force; "to ai)io, lay hold of "]. Neut. to ba/in, commence. Act. to begin or commence
: :

citus. solli-citus].

something.
tus, m. [another form of coCo, "to come together;" " co = cum, together ;" root i, "to go," or" come "]. Of persons a rneeting, corn-,

cinxi, cinctum, cingere, 3, v. a.: Of birds: to wheel to iurroundrencircle. around in flight.

cingo,

coe-tus,
;

c6itus

fr.

cing-uliim,
a
girdle, bdt.

tlli,

n. [cingo,

"to gird"],

pany,

etc.

Of birds

flock, body, et

,-.

adv. and prep. [prob. adverbial ace. of circus, "a ring"] [root kar, " to curve :" cp. xvpTo^, kukAo?, piKos^ curvus, corona, colluni]. Adv. aruutid, round about, all round. Prep, with ace:

circum,

co-gno-men,
:

minis, n. [co

(=cum),

"together with;" gnomen=n6men, "a name "J, a family or surname. For nomen a name or appellation.

around,

etc. egi,

CO-gnosco,
3, v. a.

gnovi, gnltum, gnoscfire,

[CO

actum, agere, 3, v. " to drive " a. [circum, "around ;" ago, Of a ve*'el as object: to drive round, wheel around.

(=cum),

circum-ago,

gnosco, nosco, ' to become acquainted with "], to become thorowjhiy acquainted with ; to understand, learn.
force
;

in

"augmentative"
:

F
^:

circum-do,
a.

dudi,

[circum,

"around;"

datum, dare, l, do, "to put"],

v.

COgO.
[contr.

c6eg:i,

to

fr.

surround, encircle, enclose.


fndi, fusum, fundere, fundo, "to pour"], to pour aiound: to surround with, envelope in, a cloud, etc.
3, V.
a.

gether ;" compel.


colligo
:

cOactum, cogere, 3, v. a. cO-ago ; fr. co (=cum), "toago, " to drive "], to force,
a,

circum-fundo,
[cirruiu
;

coUectus,

um,

p.

pert pass,

of

gathered up, or collected.

AS
:

circum-tex-tus,
cum, "around;" woven around, or
all
f.
:

te.v-o,

tum, adj. [cir"to weave"', r und.


ta,

col-ligo, legi, lectum, ligere, 3, v. a. [for con-lego fr. con (=ciun), " together;" lego, "to gather"], to gather together, or uj) ; to collect.
;

T
u

cithara,
[Kiddpa].

ae,

a harp,

cithara

collis,

is,

m.
i,

hill [see cervix].


;

^ cit-O, adv. [cit-us, "quick"], quickly.

Comp.
in

clt-ius.

neck [see circum]. colo, cOlui, cultum, colore, 3, v. a. : to till, cultivate ; esteem, hold in favour, or
n.; the

CoUum,

Ci-tus,

motion
:

force

tum, adj. [cI-5o, " to put In adverbial swift, fiect. swiftly, quickly, rapidly.
ta,
"],

regard.

c6l-6mas,

oni,

m.
f.

[col-o,

"to inhabit"],

a^sejtler^ colon ist.

clam,

adv.
:

secretly,
:

stealth [for calam celo;. cp. KoAuTTTw

privately, by root kal, " to co\er ;"

columna.
[see c-ervix],

ae,

a column, pillar

coma,
m.
[root
:

ae,

f.

the hair of the head.


dej),

Clam-or,
call;"

Oris,

cp. Ka\ely,

/cAd'^u

kal, "to (c)lamentor,

c6mit-or, atus sum, ari, l, v, [cOmes, cOniit-is, "a companion "J,

to be

118
a co:npanion
P.
jierf.

VOCABUI.AKV.
to ; to nccom-jmwi, attend. pass, force : acc<'iiipaiiicd,
[for coinmitt-

in

con-do, dTdi, dituin, dSrc, 3, v. a. [con (=cuni). "together;" do, "to put'.)
to b add.

attended.

commis-'sum,
suni
sion.
;

si,

n.

a nation:

Of a state, etc.: to to fomid, establish.

found.

Of

fr.

coniiuitt-o,

"to commit" a
offence,

fault,

etc.],

a fault,

transgres-

con-fido, fisus sum, fid6re, 3, v. semidep. [con (=eum), in "intensive" force;


fldo,

" to

Com-mittO,
V.
a.
l(.'oin

misi, niissum, mittere, 3,


;"

entertain

trust "], to trust confident hope.


fugi,

strongly,

(=cuni), " together


"J.

mitto,
:

" to cause to go

Of a

fault, etc.

to

con-fugio,
V. n.

fugitum,

frigere, 3,
fiigio,

pcrjiitrate, cominit.

[con

= cum), "with;"

"to

flee "], tojlce

for refuge or succour.


siiui,
fr.

com-moveo,
2, V. a.

movi, mOtum, mOvCre,


V.

(com (=cuni) in "intc-usive force; mOveo, "to move"], tu dixHa-b,


the

con-gredior, gressus
dep. [for con-gnidior "together;" grSdior, fight, engage, contend.
;

grfidi, 3,
(

con

= cum),
to

VVitti respect to affect, disquiet, etc. passions, etc.: to rouse, excite.

"to
:

step"],

com-pag-es, is, f. [com (=cum\ "together;" rAO. root of pango, "to Of a structure a fantening. fasten "]. Of the sides, etc., of a vessel a joint, ncam, etc. compello, avi, atnm, are, 1, v. a. [conipollo (3, V. a.) in reflexive force, "to
:

congressus,
gether,

us,

m.

a coming

to-

match.

3, V. a.

con-jungo, junxi, jnnctuni, jungOre, [con ( = cum), " together;" jungo,


"], to

' to join

join together, unite.

bring one's self " to a person in order to ddress him ; hence], to address, speak
I,

conjunx [for conjung-s; fr. coNJid, root of conjungo, "to join to-gether"J,
a husband; a
wife.
ii, n. [con (=cum), "together ;" niibo, " to veil one's self," as a bride does; hence, "to wed"], marriage,

accost.

co-nub ium,

'^oOm-pello, pflli, pulsum, pell6re, 3, a. [com (=cum), in "strengthening" force; pello, "to drive"], tu drive, force.
V.

wedlock.

con-scendo,
dOre,
3,

scendi, scensmm, scen-

com-plector, plexus sum, plecti, 3, V. dep. [com ( = cum), "with;" plecto,


" to entwine
"],

v.

a.

[for

con-scando

fr.

con

to

embrace, clasp.

complexus, us,
fr.

m. [for complect-sus; couiplect-or, "to embrace"], an empOstli,

(=cum), in "augmentative" force, scando, "to mount";, to mount, ascend, olimb. With aequor, etc., as object to
:

navigate.

bracing, embrace.

con-sci-us, a, uni, adj. [con (=cum), "with;" scio, "to know"], conscious to
one's
self.

pOsItum, ponere, ;" pono, With accessory notion of "to put"]. arrangement, and with personal pronoun as object to recline on a couch at table, ("To Of the day: to end. close. etc. dress, or lay out, a dead body ;" hence), to bury, to inter; to calm, still, allay, appease.

cora-pono,

3, V. a.

[com (=cum), " together

scdi, sessum, sJdCre, 3, v. n. (con (=cuni), "together;" sido, "to sit down "], to settle, take up one's abode.

con-sido,

consfl-ium, li n. ium fr. consi"d-o, "to


;

[prob. for consQlconsult"], counsel,


3, v.

plan.

con-sisto,
n.

stiti,

stitum, sistere,
in

COncill-O,

avi,

atum,

are,

1,

v.

a.

[concili-um, "an assembly"], to make friendly, conciliate, procure the favour


of.

"strengthening" sisto, "to stand"], to stand still; force Of the mind to stop, remain. to be at
[con
;

= cum),

rest,

or eaae.
tiis, m. [conspIcTo, "to through true root conspec],

con-cludo,
V. a.

clusi,

clusum,

cliidere, 3,

conspec-tus,
look at;"
sight, vieu'.

[con (=cum), in
;

force
close,

"augmentative" cludo=claudo, "to shut"], to e7i-

curri (rarely cucurri), cursum, currCre, 3, v. n. [con (=cum), "together;" curro, "to run"], to rush together in battle, engage in combat,
fight.

mark out. con-curro,

con-spicio,
3, V. a. [for

spexi, spectum, spicCre,

con-specio ; fr. con ( = cum), in "strengthening" force; specio, "to see "], to see, behold.
3,

concur-sus,
fr.

sus,

m.

[for

concurrsus;

stltOi, stitutum, stitQCre, [for con-statfio; fr. con (=cum), "together;" statuo, "to set, r place"]. V.
a.
:

con-stituo,

concurr-o,

"to run together"], assem-

Mentally
etc.

to resolve,

determine to do,

blaye, crowd, concourse.

VOCABULARY.
con-tendo,
sive " force
inf.
: ;

119
rlpfti,
;

tendi, tensura or tentum,

cor-ripio,
a.

tendiire. 3, v. a. [con (=cuin), in

"inten-

[for con-rapio
;"

fr.

reptum, rTp5re, 3, v. con (=cum), " to:

tendo, " to stretch


strive.
tfgi,

"].

With

to

endeavour,

seize
over.

COn-tingO,
a.

taotum, tingCre, 3, v. and n. [for contango ; fr. con (=cum),

" to drag, or draw "], to to Of space traversed hasten through or along to jiass quickly
gether
ripio,

snatch.

in

"augmentative" force; tango, "to


"J.

cor-rumpo,
3, V. a.

riipi,

ruptura, rumpfire,
;

Act.: to take hold of, seize, lay hands on, touch. Neut.: to happen, fall

touch
out,

[for

con-rumpo
force

fr.
;

in

" intensive "


"],

con (=cum), rumpo, " to


[see celer],

come

to pass.
:

break

to spoil,

mar.

adv. and prep. Adv. on the other hand, in reply. Prep. gov. ace: of place over against, opposite.

contra,
:

c6rusc-us,
COSta,
rib.

a,

um,

adj.

in waving motion, waving, tremulvas.


ae,
f.

[cp.

French
m.
:

cote, c6t61,

contra-rius,
hostile,

rla,

rlum, adj. [contra],

e:

opposing, untoward.

cothurnus,
;

i,

COn-tundO, ttldi, tusum, tundCre, 3, V. a. [con ( = cum), in "intensive" force


tundo, to bruise or pound overpower, crush, destroy.
"],

boot, laced in front,


[/cotjopi/os].

a high hunting worn by the Greeks

to

subdue,

wine
vulsum,

con-vello,

velli

or

vulsi,

con. (= cum), in "augvellCre, 3, v. a. mentative " force ; vello, " to pluck "], to tear in pieces, shatter. ,

crater, Sris, m.: a bowl for mixing a goblet [icpaTijp]. ^^^ cre-ber, bra, brum, adj. [orb, root of
; :

to increase," see corpus], frequent, repeated. With abl. furnished abundantly with; abounding in, thick.
cre-S' o,

con-venio,
V.

v5ni,

ventum, vSnire,

4, a.

[con (=cam), "together;" venio, " to come "], to come together, assemble.
n.

cre-do,
Neut.
:

cally

didi, ditum, dere, 3, v. n. and to truxt, believe. Parentheticredo, / believe, suppose, imagine.
:

versum, vertere, 3, V. a. [con ( = cum), in "strengthening" " to turn "], to turn round, force verto,

Con-vertO,
;

verti,

turn.

fr. crb, root of cre-sco, "to grow"j, the hair of the head.

cri-nis, nis, m. [for crc-nis;

convex-um,
vex-us,
side, slope.

(mostly plur.), n. [con-

"concave"], a vault, arch;


;

hollow spot, a hollow, cavity

a sloping

together
quet.

con-viv-ium. ii [conviv-o, "to live "], a feast, entertainment, ban-

crin-itus, ita, itum, adj. [crin-is, "], with flowing hair, or locks. Crisp-O, avi. atum, are, 1, v. a. [crispus, "curled"], to whirl round, brandish. Crist atus, ata, atum, adj. [crist-a,
" hair

"a

crest "=cer-ista
ivith

see cervix],

WMfed,
_

plumed,
fron
"],

crest or

plume.

CO-6rior, ortus sum, 6riri, 3, dep. [co ( = cuni), in "strengthening" force; Orior, "to rise"], arise, break forth.
co-op-ia ; fr. CO (=cum), in "strengthening" force; (ops) op-is, "means" of any kind], means,

cro-ceus,

adj. [croc-us, "safsaffron-coloured, yellow.


Sa,

Sum,

'

C-6p-ia,

lae,

f.

[contr.

fr.

crud-elis, ele, adj. [root kru, " to be hard;" cp. Kpv6<;, xpuno;, KpucrroAAos
cnior, caro, crusta],
fierce.

cruel.

Of hatred

power, opportunity.
cordis, n.: a heart m,ind [see cardo].

cruentus,
;

a,
"],

um,, adj. [prob. akin to


bloody, gory.
:

cor,

the heart, or

cruor,

'

blood

MS
:

C-6r-am,
CO

adv. [contr.

fr.

co-or-am

fr.

cum, prep. gov. abl. Gr. ^vv (for K(Tvv), cruV].


cu-mulus,
cunctus,
mCUi,
a,

ivith [akin to

(=cum
cor-nu,

OS, oris,

"the

in "strengthening" force; face"], before one, in one's

m.

[see

cavo],

r
u

heap, pile, mass.

presence.

um, (most frequently


conjunctus, p. " to join, or
o

nus, n.: a horn [see cervus].

corona,
metal
(cOron-a,

ae, f.: a [see circum].


avi,

crown, or
are,

circlet, of

plur.), adj. [contr. from perf. pass, of conjungo,

c6r6n-0,

atum,

1,

v.

a,

"a

garland," see
6ris,

circuml^Of

unite together," or co-vinctus, " bound together " ], all, the whole, the whole of. As subst. cuncti, orum, m. plur all'.
: :

goblets: to fill to the brim with wine.^^

COrp-US,

make

"to n. [root kar, :" cp. KpaCvw, Kpiiov : Ceres, cresco,

creare', the body; case or corpse.

a dead body; a

car-

cur (anciently quor), adv. [contr. fr qua re, or cui rei the abl. or dat. of qui and res, respectively], why. cur-a, ae, f. [for coer-a fr. coer-o, old
: ;

form

of quaer-o,

"to seek

;"

root bku, "to

120
look;"
care, care,
cp. Kofeo),

VOC'ABULVKY,
cavfo,
;

"to search"],

anxiety. sMcitxuie

an

object of

next in order, after that. Of time : the next place, dflerwards, after that.

ti

a care.

curro. cricurri, cursum, currCre, 3, v. to run [see celer]. 11. CUIT-US, us' (dat. curru, v. 156\ m.
:

demis-SUS, sa, sum, adj. [for demittsus fr. demitt-o, "to send down"!, down-dst, bending downiviirds. Of genederived, descended. alogical descent
; :

[ourr-o, car.

"to run;" see


m.

ourro],

ihaiiot,
~~

de-mitto,
a.
ld('',

misi,

mlssum, mittCre,

3, v.

"down;"

mitto,

"to send"],

to

fr. cun-sus cur-sus, BUS, cun--o, "to run"], a voyage, course, hy

[for

send down.

sea, etc.
.

see cieo

cuspis, iilis, f. [root Ki, "to sharpen ;" a spear, lance, javelin. custos, 6(lTs, con.m. gen. [rootSKv,
,

dem-um, adv. [a lengthened form of the demonstrative particle dem in I-dem, tan-dom), at length, at Inst.
dec-ni

I
.

" to cover ;" see causa], a keeper, ;/uardCollectively : guards, an armed uin.
force.

de-ni, nae, na, num. adj. plur. fr. dCc-cm, " ten"], ten.
;

[for

dOre, 2, v. n. |de,

de-pendeo, no perf. nor sup, pen"down;" pendeo, "to

cycnus,
sing, or

l,

m.
;"

a swan D.

[root kan,

"to

sound

see cano].

With abl.: to hang down, or hang"|. depend, from.

deripio, ripfii, reptum, ripgre, 3, v. a. [for de-r:ipio ; fr. de, "away;" riplo, " to tear"], to tear away, or off.
desert-a, orum,
n.

da, pres. imper. of do. dap-s, is (gen. plur. seems not to a ii<fi feast, a marmificcnt occur), f.
:

plur. [desert-us,

"desert, solitary"], desert, solitary, or waste places ; deserts.

banqxK't [akin to &aw, root of Saw-Tia, " to

devour," and

5a7r-ai'i),

" ex))eiise

"].

ds-sisto,
[do,
self,

stitl,

"away from;"
stand
"],

dator,

toris, m. [d(a)-o, "to give "J,

a
:

stitum, sistCre, 3, v. n. sisto, " to set one's to leave off, give over, cease,
tavi,

giver, bestower.

desi4.

de, prep. gov. abl. from', dotvn Jrom.


after.
to.

Of local relations Of time: dlrc-tU/


:

despec-to,
intcns.

tatum, tare,

1, v. a.

Of origin,

etc.

from., accurdiitrj

[despicio, " to look through root spec], to look

down upon, down upon


spicere, 3,

intently from a height.

dea, ae, f. [akin to deus], a goddess. decor-US, a, um, adj. [decor, d^-coris,
" gracefulness
tiful.
"],

de-spicio, spexi, spectura,


V. a. [for

f/race/M/, elegant,

beau-

dO-specio; fr. de, "down npon ;" specio, "to look"], to look down upon from a height. ~-^

dec-US,

6ris, n. [ddc-et, "it is

becom-

ing"], ornament, decoration, splenlour. de-fetiscor, fessus sum, fGtisci, 3, v. fr. de, in dep. inch. |for de-fatiscor "strengthening" force; fatiscor, "to grow faint"], to become quite faint, or
;

de-sue.sco, suCvi/suetum, suescGre, 3, V. a. [de, denoting " removal ;" suesco, "to accustom"], to become accustomed. de-sup3r, adv. de, "from;" super, " above "J, from above.
V.

weary.
de-fi!?o,
[de,
lixi,

de-trudo, trusi, trusum, trudSre, 3, a. [de, "down;" trfido, "to thrust"],


down, or
i,

fixum, figere,

3,

v.

a.

to thrust

off'

from..

"down;"

figo,

"to

fix"].

Of the

deus,
bright
a. [de,
;"

eyes:

to fasten,

ward on some
de-fluo,
[dg,

or fix intently, downobject beneath.

[root Div " to be dies, divus]. cp. 6iFos, ^Aos

m.

a god

de-venio,

fluxi,

fluxum, fluere,

3, v. a.

"down;"

garment:

flow"]. Of a to fall in flowing fulds ; to


flao,

"to

"down

veni, ventum, venire, 4, v. ;" v6nio, "to come down"].


:

With
at.

ace. of place

to

come

to,

arrive
2, v.

descend, etc.

de-hinc,
"hence"],
then.
n. to

adv. [dc, " from " hinc, hereupon, afterwards, next,


;

de-v6veo,
a. [de,
:

vovi,

vOtum, vOvcre,

" from ;" v6veo, " to vow "J. In a bad sense to devote, destine, to some misfortune.

de-hisco, hTvi, no sup., hiscSre, 3, v. [de. "asunder;" hisco, "to yawn"], yawn, or gnpe, asunder. de-inde, adv. [do, "from;" inde,
Of succession
:

dextr-a, ae, f. [dexter, dextr-i, "right, on the right side;" root dek, "to receive," or dik, "to point out;" cp.
6exo/xai, &tiKvvjj.i
:

dico, index],

tlie

right

'thence").

ajterwards.

hand.

VOCABULARY.
dici-O, Oiiis, f. [perhaps fr. dic-o, " to say "J, dominion, power, authority.

121
to

"to drive"],
tions
;

dnve in
rui,

different direc-

to

disperse, scatter.
fr.

diCO, dixi, dictum, dicere, 3, v. a. [root DiK, "to point out;" cp. biiKvvjxi, SCxri : digitus, indico], to sny, tell, speak;
to relate,

dissimvil-O,
[for dissimil-o
;

atum, are, 1, v. a. dissimil-is, "unlike"].

declare; to
avi,

call,

ncme.
1, v. a.
:

Vvithout nearer object: to conceal, or hide one's self; to remain concealed, or hidden.

dic-O,

atum,

are,

<o set

apart, dedicate [akin to dico].

distendo,
tendere, 3, "to stretch
v.
"],

tendi,
a.

tensum or tentum,
"apart;" tendo,

(dis,

dic-tutn, comtnand.
dies,
deus].
ei,

ti,

n. [dic-o^,

a word, order,
f.)
:

to swell out, distend.

m.

(in sing,

sometimes

day, the liyht of day, the dayliyht [see

diu, adv. [adverbial, abl. of obsol. dius (=dies1, " a day "J, for a long time ; a long while. (Comp. : diutius sup.
:

diutissime.)

dif-fundo,
a.

fudi, fusum, fundcre, 3, v. [for dis-fundo ; fr. dis, " in different

div-a,
for not],

ae,

f.

a female

[akin to divus see deus, deity, a goddess.


:

directions;" fuudo, "to pour out"]. the loclis : to spread, or waft about.

Of

dign-or, atus sum,


etc.,

ari,

[dig-n-us, " wortiiy "], to deem,

1, v. dep. or hold one,

sa, sum, adj. [for divertdivert-o, " to turn in a different direction"), turned in a different direction, i.e., hither and thither; far distant.

divei"-sus,
;

sus

fr.

worthy
Of

of something.

dig-nus,
dico].
firojier ;

adj. [root : see things : suitnble. Jit, becomimi, that of which one, etc., is

na,

num,

: rich, or ditlor) ; sup. : ' ditissinius [akin to root div, to shine ;"

div-es, itis, abounding in.

adj.

With gen.
:

(Comp.

see deus].

worthy.
lectum, ligere, 3, v. a. [fordi-lego ; fr. di (=dis), "apart:" ICgo, "to choose "j, to value, or esteem hiyhly

di-vido,
Ic.vi,

visi,

visum, vidCre,
distribute
[di

3,

v. a.

di-ligo,

to

divide

out,
;

(=dis),

to love.

"asunder;" root viD, " to separate ;" cp. viduus, vidua Eng. widow]. div-inus, Ina, inum, adj. [dlv-us, " a
deity
"],

di-mitto,
a.

nilsi,

missum, mittere,

3, v.

divine, heavenly.
:

di (=dis), ''apart;" mitto, "to send"], to send about in different directions, or to different parts.

div-us, i (gen. plur. divflm), m. a deity, a god [see deus do, dedi, datum, dare, 1, v. a. to give
.

di-rigo,
[for di-rego

rexi,
;

fr.
;

ening "
straight

force
"J,

rectum, rigere, 3, v. a. di (=dis), in " strengthrfigo, " to keep or put


:

in the widest sense of .he word. Phrases: Dare vela (to give the sails to the wind

to guide, direct.

dims, a, um, adj. fearful, dreadful, hon-ible [proh. akin to SeiSui, " to fear"].
disco, didici, no sup., discere, 3, v. a.: to learn [root dik ; see dico].
minis, n. [for disoremeii; fr. dis erno, "to separate," through root CRE], distinrtion, difference ; rink,

Dare amplexus (to give embrace. Of sounds to give, or pour, forth; to allow, permit [root DA, "to give;" cp. Si-Su-iii, Sdcrts,
i.e.), to set sail.

embraces

i.e.),

to

F RS

iorrip

dator].
6re, 2, v. a. [akin to

discri-men,

doc-eo, ai, turn, dic-o, "to say"], to


form.

teach, instruct, in-

hazard, danyer.

dis-cumbo,
bCre, sides
3, ;"

cabal,
[dis,
lie

cabitum,

cumto
lie

itum, ere, 2, v. n. and a. or sorroiv. Act. to grieve or sorrow at, or over ; to lament,
ai,

dolao,
:

Neut.
etc.

to grieve,

v.

n.

"towards

different
"].

cumbo, " to

down

dol-or,

oris,

m.
:

[dol-eo,

"to

grieve"],
guile,

T
V

down by

stretching one's self out from one side of a couch, etc., to the other; to recline on a couch, etc. dis-jicio, jcci, jectum, jicere, 3, v. a. [for dis-jacio tr. dis, "asunder;" jacio, " to throw"], to scatter, disperse. dis-jungo, junxi, junctum, jungi-re, 3, V. a. [dis, denoting "opposition" or " reversal ;" jungo, " to join "], to divide,
;

grief, sorrow.

dol-us,

i,

m.

craft,

fraud,

deceit [S6\o?].

domin-or, atus, sum, ari, 1, v. dep. [donunus, "lord," "master;" root daji, " to conquer;" cj). Sa/xau}, 6a/iap domo Eng. tame], to bear rule, hold sway, have the dominion.
:

part, remove.
a.

dis-pello, pan, pulsum, pellgre, 3, v. [dis, "in different directions;" pello,

Ini, m. [either fr. dOm-us, " one pertaining; to the house ;" or, ruiher, from dom-o, ;i,,.l so, "the subduer," etc.], master, ruler, lord.

dom-inus,
so,

and

122

VOCABULARY.
i

domus,
abode,

and
;

us,

f.

a ilwrUing,
house,
line

6ge-nus,
in need"].

hnime

a family,

na, num, adj. [CgSo "to be With gen.: in need, or dssti-

tute

of.
fti,

donee,
root of
vulice
<lo.

conj.: tmtil, till at length.


ni,

eg-eo,
I)A,

no sup.,

Cre, 2, v. n.

to be

do-num,
(jijt

n.

(for

darnun

' to tfive "J. yift. present or ojfci-iug to a deity.


orsi,

fr.

needy, or in need (root aou, "to be in

want

;"

cp. axrjv].

d-orsum,
sum
;

n.

[contr.

fr.

fr.

de,

"turned"].

" ilowtiwards;" Of rocks a rid<jc.


:

devorvorscm,

eg'O, gen. niei (plur. nos, gen. nostrum, or nostri), pron. pere. I.

dfib-ius,
fr.

la,
;"

lum, adj.
lialieo,

[for du-hibius

duo,

"two

'to hold Ijy two," i.e.,


ful "],

"to move;" i.e., "to hold doubt-

e-gredior, gressus sum, grC-di, 3, v. dep. [for C-gr'.dior fr. 6 ( = ex), "out;" gr.'idior, "to step"], to disembark, land, from a vessel.
;

e-gregius, a
" from
;

um,

adj.
"],

[e

doubtfiU, uncertain.
duxi, ductuin, ducCre, 3, v. a.; to construet, erect; io derive
tdris,

"

grex,

" a flock

(=ex), eminent,

duco,
to

famous.
e-jicTo, joci, jectum, jicore, 3, v. a. cjacio fr. e (=exj, "out;" jicio, "to cast"], to cast, or throw out. P. perl', pass.: wrecked, shipwrecked, cast ashore.
[for
;

lead;

one's orij^in, etc.; de.scend.

due-tor,
a leader.

m. [duc-o, "to lead"],


:

dtilc-is, e, adj. beloved [usually yAvKv?].

sweet in taste ; dear, considered akin to

[e

e-labor, lapsus sum, labi, 3, v, dep. (=ex), "out, or away from;" labor, "to glide"], to slip away from, to

conj. akiti to diu], ivhile, whilst, durinrj the tiiw that ; until that, until.

dum,

escape

e-mitto,
a. [u

mlsi,

missnm,

niittCre, 3, v.

du-plex, pllcis, adj. [for duplic-s fr. du-o, "two," plic-o, "to fold"], two-juld,
;

(=ex), "out;" mitto, "to send"], to send out, or forth ; to let go.

double.

Plur.
avi,

both.
are,
:

en,
1, v.

interj.

lo !
:

behold

dur-O,
" hard
3tC.

atum,

n. fdur-us,

"J.

Of persons

endure, hold out,


:

conj. indeed; for.

enim,
e-o,

truly, certainly, surely,


v.

durus, a, um, adj. hard in nature, itc; unforttinate, adierse.

[root

I,

ivi or li. Stum, ire, akin to Gr. i-tVort],

n.

to

go

eodem,
place.

adv.

dux,
duc-o,

dilcis, coinni.

pdde

"to lead"], a a leader, commander.

gen. [for duc-s, fr. leader, conductor,

sing, of idem,

"the same"],
adj.
[ijios,

[eomdem=eundem, ace. to the tame


"the dawn"],
-

eous,
.^eastern.

a,

um,
i,

E.

_,
n. plur.
;

j^

see ex.

^.epulum,
f.
:

epulae, arum,
,
;

fea-it,

bangiieL^

ebur, Oris, n.: ivory. e-duco, duxi, ductuni,


[e

(=ex, " out

;"

duco,

ducere, 3, v. a. " to lead "], to

lead out, or forth.

adv. (for ec-quldem fr. demonstrative suffix ce, changed before the k sound into ec quidem, " indeed "], indeed, verily, truly.
:

e-quidem,

eflfero, exti'ili, glatum, efferre, r. a. irreg. [for ex-fCio ; Jr. ex, "out;" furo, " *o bear"], to bear, carry, or bring out or forth : to raise up, or nhift ; to uplift.

equ-us,

i,

m.

a horse
AK,

[akin to Gr.
cp.

lKK-os=i7r7r-os ; loKus : aquila].

root

"swift;"

ergo, adv.
consequently.

ef-ficio,
[for ex-facio

feci,
;

fectum,
ex,

fr.

ficere, 3, v. a. "out;" facio, "to

itself, incline"],

[akin to verge, "to bend therefore, in consequence,

make
[for

"J,

tojorm, irrodnee.
fOdi,

e-ripio,
3, v. a.

rlpfti,
;

ef-fodlO,
ex-fodio
"], to diji

fossum, fSdere,

[for e-rapio
set free.

fr.

reptum, ripere, 3, v. a, (=ex), "away;" rapio,

dig

ex, ; out, or
ffuli,
;

"out;" f6dio, "to up ; to excavate.


fusum. fundere, 3, v. ex. "forth;" fundo,
:

"to snatch"], to snatch

away ;
l,

to deliver,

ef-fundo,
a. [for

ex-fuiido

fr.

erro, wander,
AK8, to
ingi,

avi,

atum,

are,

v.

n.

to

rove, stray.
oris,

" to pour"].

Of

life

to resiyii, yive u//.

err-or,

m. (perbaps=er8or

fr.

egens,
destitxUe.

ntis, p. pres. of

egco

needy,

move quickly ; hence, a wander

a wdnJering,

VOCABULARY.
e-rumpo,
V.

123
hausi, haustum, haunre "out;" haurio, "to draw"

rOpi,

niptum, rumpere,

3,

ex-haurio,
4, V. a.

(=ex), "ouc;" nimpo, "to break"], to break out from, to sally forth fnjm.
a. [e

[ex,

et, oonj.
[akin to Gr.

and

and : et et, hoth, and too, and moreover ;


. .
.
:

"moreover"]. etiara, conj. and also, furthermore,


T-i,
;

to drain a person of resources, drink up, exhaust ex-igo, egi, actum, Igere, 3, v. x. [for ex-ago fr. ex, " out;" ago, "to drive "J. Of time to pass, spend, lead ; to weigh accurately in the mind.

water

^,

etc.; to

moreover, likewise
Lat.
a. [e
et].

even [akin to

iri

[ex,
to

ex-imo, "out "


remove.

Cmi, emptum, imCre, 3, v. a. or "away ;" emo, "to take ''J,


4, v. a.

verti, versum, vertCre, 3, v. (=ex), " out ;" verto, " to turn ''J. Of the waters to upheave, aaitate.

e-verto,

ex-ped-io, Ivi or ii, ituni, iii, [ex, "out of ;' pes, pCd-i.'j, "the
to prej are, get

foot"],

prep. gov. abl. out of ; away /rom. from amonij, from the midst of

ex

(e

ready, etc.
pello,

expello.
a. [ex,

piili,

of.

Of time
:

from,

after.
p.

"out;"

pulsuin. pellCre, 3, v. "to drive"], to diive

exactus,
exigo
:

a, ji^ecine,

um,

accurate,

subst. exacta, rate things, i.e., precise or exact infor:

perf. passs. of exact. As accuOruui, n. plur.

out, expel.
periri, 4. v, [ex, in "intensive' force; perior, "to try"], to prive, piut to the test. In perf. tenses : tn experience ; to know or

ex-perior. pertus sum,

dep.

mation.

ex-anim-us, a, um, adj. [ex. denoting "negation;" anim-a, "life"], without,


or devoid
of, life ; lifeless,

dead.

ex-audio, audivi or

audii,

auditum,

prove by experience. ex-pleo, plcvi, pletum, plere, 2, v. a. [ex, in "strengthening" force;" pl6o,. "to fill"]. Of time: to complete, finish,

audire, 4, v. a. fex, "without force;" audio, "to hear"]. Without nearer object to hear.
:

etc; to Satisfy. ex-pl6ro, ploravi, plOratum,


1, V. a. [ex,

plor.Tre,

ex-C8do,

cessi,

n. [ex, "forth;" c?do, abl. : to go forth, or leave.

cessum, cedSre, 3, v. "to go"]. With depart from ; to


;

in " intensive " force ; ploro, call out "], to search out, seek to-dis cover, ascertain. /

" to

[ex.
fr.

ex-sero, sCriu, sertum, sercre, 3, v. "out or forth;" sfiro, "to put"],


ex-spiro,

a.

to

excid-ium,
ec=Gk.
stroy
[for
"],
e<c,

ii, n. for ecscidium intensive scindo, " to destruction, overthroiv.


:

be bare, unC'iveretl, naked.

de-

1, V. n. [ex,

ex-cido,
ex-cado
fall "], to slip

cidi,
;

no sup., cidcre, 3, v. n. ex, "out;" cldo, "to out, escape, from the mind,
fr.

spiravi, spiritum, spirare, "forth;" spiro, "to breathe"], to breathe forth, or out.

ex-templo,
tempulo
;

adv.

[contr.

fr.

"old

ex-

memory. ex-cido,
[for

ex-caedo

cut "J,
a. [for

cisum, cidre, 3, v. a. ex, " out ;" caedo, " to to cut or heiv out.
cidi,
;

" immediately after ;" temptilum, a dimin. form of tempua, " time "], fmihivith, at once.
fr.

ex,

fr.

ex-cipio,

cepi,
;

ex-capio c&pio, " to take

fr.

ceptum, cTpCre, 3, v. ex, "without force ;"


take, receive.
3,

a, tmi, sup. adj. (" outerfurthe.it, exhence), of piaee treme. As subst. extreraa, orum, n. In quality or l)lur., the furt he-it parts. extreme, utmost. As subst.: degree

extremus,

most;"

BS

"], to

ex-trem-a, orum,
things, limits.
v.

n.

plur.,

extreme
v.
a.
:

ex-CUdo,
a.

ciidi,

ciisum, cudOre,
;

[ex,

"out;" cudo, "to


or

strike"],

to

exuo,
put
doff:

I'li,

iitum,

I'lere,

3,

to

f
V

strike forth, striking.

out

to

produce

by

off

from one's

self

to

lay aside

vsex-cutio,
anything.

cussi, cussum, cQture, 3, v. a. [for ex-qiiatio ; fr. ex, "out;" quatio, "to shake"], to sh.ike out or off from

\ex-uro,
[ex,

ussi, ustum, urere, 3, v. a. denoting " completeness ;" Ore, " to burn"], to burn iip, consume by fire.

ex-eo, ivl or ii, itum, ire, v. n. [ex, "out;" eo, "to go"], to go out or forth from a place. ex-erceo, ercfli, ercTtum, erccre, 2, v. a. [for ex-arcOo; fr. ex, denoting "opposition ;" arcuo, " to enclose"], to einpUyy,

fac-ies, iei, f. [prob. fr. fSc-Io, " to make"], make, form, figure, countenance.

through

koei.

fac-ilis, lie, adj. [facio, "to do;" root FAC], easy, prosperous suitable, adai-ted.

124
facio,
fooi,

VOCABULARY.
ferin-a, ae, f. [fCrTn-ns, "of, or belonging to, a wild animal ;" hence, with
especial reference to stags], venison.

factum, faeSre, 8, v. a. : to the widest sense of the term. With (loul)lc ace. to mnke an object that which is denoted by the second ace. to do [root akin to KU, "to be" in a causative sense op. fu-i ; -bam, in inipf. of active verb ^liw].
miike, iu
:

jo strike.

ferio, no pe rf. nor sup., ~--


toll,

Ire, 4, v. a.

.^

fero,

latum, ferre,

v.

irreg.

to

fac-tum,
fal-lo,
to deceive
;

ti,

n.

a deed, act

[see faoio].
3,

fefelli, falsuin, fallCre,

v. a.

imitate or assume for the purpose of deception [root spal or spa;;, " to fall or tumble ;" cp. <T<^a.KKu', (T-rraipdv, irakK^iv; sperno, pellSre, pulvis,
to

bear, carry, bring, convei/ ; bear one's self along ; present one's self ; say [roots are fer and tul. The second roct'has the form of TOL, TLA, or tal. The supine latum=tlatum is derived from this latter root cp. TAaio, ToiAai'TO', <t>ipo} : toUo,
;

sus-tul-ij.

populus (poplar)].

ferox,
p.

falsus, a um,
deceptive, false
;

perf. pass, of fallo

spirited.

ocis, adj. In a good sense In a bad sense fierce, violent.


:

supposed, as opposed to
f.

true or real.

ferrum,
fer-veo,
Eng. dry].
be cairied

i,

n.

iron,;

a sword;

the

iron head of a spear.


[root
fari,

fama,
cp. <^t)jii, report.

ae,

<<)aTis;

fa, "to fabula],

say;"

fame,

biii,

no sup., vCre,
; :

[cp. depu), tSepos, tJepjaos

Of a work

fa-mes,
root BUAO,
fagus].

niis,

"to

f. [for fag-mes], hunger eat;" cp. (/)r)y6s, <^ayetv ;

on warmly

2, v. n. febris : torreo to glow, i.e., to or briskly.


;

a female servant or fa.mu.la, ae, f. attendant [for fac-mula, from facio, " to
:

fat-isco,

fes-sus, sa, sum, adj. [for fatsus fr. "to grow weary"], wearied, worn

out.

do

"J.

famulus,

aii,

m.

servant, attend[f(a)-or,

ant [see famula] fa-ndus, nda, ndum, adj.

fe-tus, tus, m. [fe-o, "to produce"], progeny, offspring, young. fe-tus, ta, tuni, adj. [id., root fe, " to

"to

speak"], rliiht, %>roper, etc. As subst. n. : i-ighX ; that which is i,

produce ;" see ing in, etc.


fid-es,
sonified
:

felix], filled

with, aboundtrust"].

fandum,
rightful.
Jit,

ei,

f.

[fid-o,

"to

Per-

fas, n. indecl. [see fandus], a lawful. or right thing.

Faith as a goddess. fiduc-ia, tae, f. [obsol. fiduc-us or


trust,

fidux,

fastlg-ium, ii, n. [fastisr-o, "to make pointed"], a projecting puiiit, or the highest elevation of a building, etc. ; a
pinnacle,
events, etc. the head.
;

ficuc-is, "trusting"], fidence, assurance.

con-

battlement. Of naratives, the leading or m,ain point


1, v. a.

fid -us, a, um, adj. fid-o, trusted, trustworthy, to be faithful.


fix,

"to

trust"], relied on,


v. a. to

f igo, fixi, fixum, figere, fasten [op. (rAiv-vw,

3,

"to

bind

fatigo,
weary,
:

avi, atum, are, tire out, fatigue.

to

tight"].

yawn

fa-tisco, no perf. nor sup., tisoCre, 3, v. n. to gape open, yawn asunder [prob. akin to x^i root of xa-"'w, " to gape, or
"].
ti,

filius, li, m. [root dha, "to milk," or BHU, "to be "J, a son.

finis,
findo,

nis, m. [prob. for fidnis; fr. "to divide;" through root fid],

fatum,
destiny,

Fates

fate. the goddess of destiny.


favi,

n. [f(a)or, "to speak"], Plur., personified : the

end, termination, conclusion. Plur. borders of a country territory, land, country.


;

an

flagrans,
2, v. n.

ntis,

p.

pres.

of

flagro:

fav-eo,

fautum, favere,

glowing, impassioned.

to be favourable.

fa-x, cis, f. a torch [root fa, " to shine ;" cp. ^a-etVio, <^oo; fenestra].
: :

flag-ro, ravi, ratum, rare, 1, v. n. to flame, or blaze; to b\im [flag, "to


:

burn

"

cp.

<i>Kyei.v

fulgeo,

flamma

(=flagma)].
fe-lix,
cp.
<j>voi:

licis,

adj. [root fb," to fui, let\is],fortu7iato,


f.

produce;" happy.

flam-ma, mae,
of

f. :

aflame;
fr.

fe-mina, miuae, a woman.


fer-a, ae,
deer],
f.

love

[for

flagraa;
avi,

i^Ae'y-w

[see

feli.x],

a female,
:

the flame ; see


1,

flagro].

flamm-o,
*^p
;

atum.

are,

v.

a.

a wild

[op. beast.

ferus

Eng.

[flamm-a, "aflame"], to injiame ; set on fire, whether actually or figuratively.

VOCAfeULARV.
flav-US, a, um, adj. [jnob. for flair-vus, same source as flamuia; seu llainiiia',
yellow.

155

f.jrtuna-tus, ta, turn, adj. [fortnn(a o, "to make fortunate"], ha./ipi/, lucky, fortunate. Assubst.: fortuiia-tus, i. ni.:
a hapiy or fortunate person.

flecto,
to

flexi, flexuni, flectCre, 3, v. a.

hind, turn, turn rvund [prob. akin to TrAeV-o), " to plait or twist "
.

foveo,

fOvi,

fotum, fOvJre,
to

2, v. a.:

to

flor-eus,
flos,

Ga, 6iim, adj. [flos, floris,

"a

Aowei "], Jlowery, decked with Jlowers.


floris,

m.

" to flourish ;" cp. (^Ae'etf A.S. bloom, blood].


fluc-tus, tus, m. flflo, through root wave.

flower [root BUL.i,


:

clasp ni warm emenfold warmly in the bosom, etc. Mentally, with objective clause to hirish a desvjn, foster a hope or an intention.
cherish, foster; brace, etc. to
; :

florere, fluere;

[for flugrvtus; fr. I'LUov], a billow,

frag-or, oris, m [frango, "to break," through root frao), a crushiiuj, as when something is broken to pieces a crash ; the din or roar of the ocean.
;

flu-men,
a stream,
flood.

minis, n.

|firi-o,

river.

Of

teara

"to flow"], a stream,

frag-ro, ravi, ratum, rare, 1, v. a.: to emit a smell, whether good or bad ; to be
fray ant.
I

fluo,
thin;;s

fluxi, fluxum, fluere, 3, v. n. Of not fluid to flow, stream [root


:

frango,
priyvvixi.,

fregi,

fractum, frangfire,
to

a.: to break,

dash
m.
:

Vhv,

ttAoioi'

" to flow, to swim pluo, pluvia]. ;


I

3, v. to pieces [akin to Gr.

;"

cp.

TrAe'i,

and root fkag, "


tris,
tli,

break

"].

Q.H

frater,
;

brother.
ere,
3,

fluv-ius, ii, m. for flujjv-ius fr. fluo. ' to flow," through secondary root FLUQV see fluo], a liier.
;

frem-o,
to

ituui,

v.

n.

to

minmur ; make a

low,

murmuriny
cp.
lipe/jLoi

foedus.
trust"],
''
((

sound, whether in approral or otherwise


[root BiiRAM, fremitus].

Oris, n. [for fid-us

fr. fido,

"to

"to sound;"

lea'jue, treaty,
ii,

compact.

fol-ium,
to

n.

produce

:"

a leaf [root fu or fe, see facio[.


:

freno, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [frenum, "a bridle"], to curb, hold in check
to iiovcrn, restrain.

f6v-eo,

fo-mes, "to
fon-S,

mitis, m. [for fov-mes ; foster"], iourhwood, to


flint.
;

f r.

re-

ceive the spark struck out from a


tis,

m. [prob. for fund-ts fr. fund-o, "to pour forth"]. Of a river: the source, sprinj-head [root QHtJ, " to pour ;" cp. x"""! XVt xi'Mos f undo Eng. ijush].
:

ifrequens, ntis, adj. root farc, " to cram ;" op. faicio]. Of persons in yreat numbers, numerous fretum, i, n.: a strait, frith ; the sea.
:

frig-US,

Oris, n. [frlg-eo,

Nj(for). fritus sura, fari, 1, v. dep. ITithout nearer object: to speak; to speak, \ say, utter [see fania].

cold ; a cold shudder produced [root FRIO, " to shudder ;" cp.
frigidus].
'<.

"to be cold"]. by fear


piyo?
:

frond-eus,
frond-is,

ea,

eum,
:

adj.

[Irons,

fore (=futurum
for-is,
is, f.:

esse), fut. inf. of

sum.

"a

leaf "|, leafy.

a door [akin to Gr.

t>i/p-a,-

Eng. door].

forma, mae, f. [for fer-ma,- fr fCr-o], form in the widest sinse of the word
shape, contour, flyure; beauty.

f. the fore part or Jmiit of anything [root bhlir, "to move ;" ciuic'!ily furere, fervere c]). 6-0pus, ivptiv: Kng. broiv, brew].

frons,

front-is.

fine

Jvim,
fr.

frustra, m\v. [akin


to

to fraudo],

t vain,

no

I'liCi o-:e.

fors,

abl. forte,

f.

[prob. for ferlis,

frustuxa,i,

n.:

piece, bit, of food.

f6r-o, "to bring "I, chance, bial abl.: by chance.

hap.

Adver-

fors-an, adv. [elliptically for fors sit an, "whether there be a chance"], perchance, perhaps.

(mostly plur.), f. [for fr. fr.or, in etymological meaning of "to e.it " thiough root I'liuo], fruits of the earth, corn, yrain.
frngis

frux,

fucus,
fug-a,

i,

m.: a drone.
f.

forte

see fore.
:

ae,

[frig-io,

"to

flee"],

courayeoiis, brave, (Comp.: fort-ior) sup.: fortjissimus bold. [cp. dapaelv ; Eng. dare],

for-tis, te, adj.

fleeinj, jVnht.

fugio. ffij^i, fugTtum, fi'igere, 3, v. n. and a. Kent. to flee, take to fli iht.
: ,

fort-una, unae, f. [fors, fortis], forPersonified: te. whether good ar bad.


the yoddess Fortune,

Act.:
[root

to flci
BII' fJii

from,
to

to

escape by flight
;"

bend or turn

op.

frrvyetft fu^arc]

126

VOCABULARY.
gen-itrix, Itricis, f. rg5n-o, old form "to bring forth"], a mother.

fiig-O. Svi, Stnm, Hre. 1, v. a. [^^p:-a, "Uijflit'J, to cau.tf to jli'e : to jnit to fliijht ; to drive or chime tiw.iy.

(if ^ri^fixi),

gen-s.

tis,

f.

IgCn-o,

"to beget"].

01
to

ful-men, fulg-eo, "to


ning flush, a

minis, n, |(or fiilsfineii fr. flash; see flagro"j, a lightthunderbolt.


;

persons: aiiatvon; a country, rtgion.

a knee [root gen, " erenu, us, n. bend ," cp. ydi/u, ytVus genae].
:

fulvus,

a.

um,

adj. [root biiaro,


;

"to

fuigeo, fulshine ;" cp. <i)Key(i.v, <JAof gur, fiamnia (=flag-iiia)], redUixh yellow,
t

gen-US,
descent, race.

eris, n. [akin

to gen-s], birth,
etc.
:

origin.

Of

persons,

awn y.

'

fujial-e, is, n. [funal-is, "pertainin to a cord or rope"], a wax torch,


torch.

funda-mentum, menti, n. [fund(a)-o,


" to found
"],

german-a, ae, f. [germati-us, " full, own," as applied to brothers and sisters ; root OKS, 'to beget"], a full m(er, i-e., from the same father and mother.

a foundation.
f

german-us,
i.e.,

fundo,
to
I

fudi,
:

Qsuni

undere,

i, m. [id], a full brother, from the same father and mother.

3, v. a.

Of several persons, pass, in reflexive force to spread abroad, scatter


" to scatter
;

our out.

gero,
to

gessi,

bear, wear.

gestum, gerCre, 3, v. a. Of war to carry on,


:

them,seloes [root ghc,


xiu>,

" cp.

wage.

xuat?

fons].
:

gesto,
death [root
biia,

tavi.

tatum,
;

tare,
,

2,

v.

a.
;

funus,
l<ill ;"

eris, n.

"to

cp. pdi'os, <J>eVw].

intens. [for ger-to to hirs.

fr.

g5r-o

to

carry

[fur-o,

fiir-iae, liirum (rare in sing.), f. plur. "t) rage "J, rage, fury, violent

gigno
bear,

(old

tum, gignCre,
give

passiijn,

madnens. fur-O, t'li, no sup.,

form geno), gSnai, genlto bring f/rth, a. 3, v Wita abl. of birth to.
:

ere, 3, v. n.: to rage,

rave, be out of one's mind, anger or love" [see frons].

whether from

"origin:" sjjriing from-. glaeba, ae, f. Icp. globus; Eng.


the
soil, layid.

clod],

fur-or,

rage, fury,

(leity,

m. [far-o, "to rage"), angry pussion, etc. Rage, as the companion of Mars.
oris,
;

g]6mer-0,
a compact
dep.
:

avi,

atum.

are,

1,

v.

a.

IglOmiis, glOmCr-is,

assemble or mass
body.

ball" of yarn], to together ; to form into


gradi,
3,

"a

grarlTor, gressus sum,


to step,

v.

walk.

gal-ea,
[root K,\L,

eae, f.:

a helmet, head-piece
;"

"to hide

see cella].
2, v.

grad-us, us, m. [grad-Ior, " to step"]. Plur.: the steps of a building.

gaudeo,
" to rejoice
joice
'

gavisus sum, gaudere,


;"

n. senii-dep.: to rejoice, delight [root

gau,

grand-aev-us,
grat-es

a, ura, adj.

[grand-is,

cp.
li,

y7)i>e<o].

"great;'' aev-um, "age"], of great age, aged.

gaud-ium,
"],

n.

gaud-eo, " to re-

joy, gladness, delight.


ae, f. s lid to
:

gaza,

[yd^a,

be

trea-nire, riches, wealth, originallj' a Persian

word].

(usually found only in the ace. ; the abl. gratibus is found in Tacitus), f. plur. [grat-or, "to manifest joy ;" root gra, "to be glad ;" cp. \aLipu>: O." H. German grierig], thanks.

nom. and

ge-minus,
!

for

gc'ii-minus,
,

mina, iiilnum, adj. fprob. gen-o, " to bring fr.


itus,

forth"
,

Iwin-born, twin; double, two.

heavy, ponderous, grav-is, e, adj. With respect to character: premant.


:

of weiiht, or authority; grievous [akin


to /3ap-vs].

gem-itus,
groan '"], or norrow.

m. [gem-o, " to a groan, groaning ; cry of pain


;

grav-iter, adv.

[grav-is,

"heavy"],
bosom.
;

vehemently, strongly, violently.


fr,

gem-ma,
gen1,

mae, f. [for gen-ma "to bear"], a jewel, jem.


itum,
ere,
3,

gremium,

li,

n.: the lap,

'

gem-O, fii, mourn lament,


of

v,

a.

to

bewail, bemoan.
;'

m. [for grad-sus gres-SUS. gi-ad-ior, " to step "], a stepping, step.


sOs,

fr.

'

gen-itor. itoris, m [gun-o (old form "to beget"], a Jalhcr [root '.,'iirno), OKN\ "to beget;" cp. v^'"?! yiyvoii.ai: genus Eng. kin].
;

gurges,
.

Itis,

m.

a whirlpool ; an
-i'"
-

iddgin:/ stream.

gust-o,

iivi, ;"

"a

tasting

are, 1, v. a. fgustus, cp. yeuco, yao-rijp], to taste.

atum,

VOCABULARY,
H.
this.

127

Of cause, soiirce, etc.: from, this vrrg s-iurce, from this cause, hence.

h&be-na,
hab-eo,

nae,
:

f.

[liai)L-o,

"to hold"],

riur., of horses
tli,

,tha reins.

itum, ere, 2, v. a.: to h'tve> to in the widest acceptation of the term


;

hold.

homo, Tnis. comni. gen. [Sans. oii.\m, " the earth ;" cp. x^m"" humus hence, "a son of earth"]. Sing.: a person, or man generally a human being. Plur. persons, men.
: ; ;

hab-ilis, He, adj. [hah-So, "to hold"],


suitable,
fit,

honor
rcij^ect.

(honos),
;

oris,

m.

honour,

etc.

esteem

an honour,

dig^iity, etc.;

itus, m. [hab-So, "to have in a particular condition], dress, bearinr/, Inok.

an

hab-itus,

made

offering or thanksgiving to the gods, in their honor.


:

one's self"

honos
;

see honor.

adv. [adverbial abl. fem. of hie, "this"], in this place, on this side, here.

hac,

horre-ns, ntis, p. pres. of horr8\ Pa. (horrC'-o, "to stand on end," as hair, etc. hence, "to be of a rough or frightful appearance ;" hence, "to be terrible"], terrible, dreadful, fearful, horrid.

haer-eo,
n.
:

haesl,

haesum, haerere,
_^
1.

2, v.

to clixfj,

remain fixed.
atuin,

are, breathe out, or forth ; to scent, be fragrant.


"ivi,

halo,

v.

n.

to
to

horreo,
shaggy.

tii,

no supine,
;

emit a sweet

stand on end, as hair

ere, 2, v. n. to bristle, be

haren-a, ae, f.: the sand [see arena], hasta, ae, f.: a speur or javelin.
hast-ile.
His, n. [hast-a, "'a spear"],

horr-idus,

Ida,

idum, adj. [horr-So^^

sec horreo], terrible, grim.


visitor

spear, javelin.

baud,
not.
a.

adv.

not at

all,

by no means,
4,

m. : a guest, friend, entertainer ; a stranger [perhaps for hospet-s akin to Sans, root Gil AS, "to eat ;" Lat. pet-o, " to seek"].
]iitis, ;

hospes,
a

liost,

haurio,
:

hausi, haustum, haurire,

hospit-ium,
v.

ii,

n.

[hospes, hospit-is,
hostl-o,

" a host
strike"],

to

drain, drink up, empty, a sfoblet,


ae,
f.

"J,

hospitality.
ae,
f.

etc.

hosti-a,

[obsol.

"to
for

herb-a,

[akin to 4)ip?m, " to


;iras.<<,

victim,

as struck

down

sacrifice.

that is feed "], comprehended under the English expression of " green food."
herbage,
all

and

her-os,

ois,

m.: a hero [Gr.

Tjp-ws].

hos-tis, tis, comm. gen.: an enemy or foe of one's country. In collective force the enemy, the foe [prob. akin to Sans, " root GHAS, to eat "].
:

heu, interj.: nh! alas! heus, interj.: hoi ho


holloa
!

there

hark

hue,
I

adv. [for hoc, adverbial neut. ace.


'

of hie,

this "], to this place, hither.


a,

hib-ernus, ema, ernum,


;

adj.

[for

huin-anus,

vm,

adj. [for

hCmin-

hiOm-ernus fr. hiemps, Mem-is " winter"], As subst. of or belonging to winter. hib-ernum, i, n. (xc. tempus), tvinter
time, winter.
h.ic haec, hoc (gren. hujus
;

anus; fr. h6mo, hOmin-is], of ov belonging to a man or inen ; human.

humi
ground

see

humus.
f.
:

hum-US,
dat. huic),
this.

i,

the

ground

'Sansc.

GHAM, "earth;" akin to xMa', "ou the


"].
i,

pron. dem.

As
.

s'lbst.

ni

thi'se

:
:

thij> thing Neut. Fem.: heec to pronominal root i, aspirated with c (=ce), demonstrative suffix].
:

hi ... she.

hi.

a. Masc. these .... those.


:

hy-menaeus,
Vfiifalos],

m.

wedlock

[Gr.

(akin

hie, adv. [hie, "this"], in this place, here: hie. ...hie, here. ...there.

ibi-dem, adv.
suffix

[Ibi, with demonstrative dem], in the same place, in that

hlem-ps,
" snow
;"

is,

ep

f. (Sans. Hinia-hxya,

snow:"
pest.

x^'M"^''].

iiiM, HiMA. " house of winter; a storm, tem-

very place.

i-dem,

e.udem,

idem

gen. ejusdem

h-in-C, adv.
hi-e
;

[for h-ini-c

fr.

hi.

im. locative suffix, ce].

base of Of place

dat. C-idem), pron. dem. [pronominal root I ; suffix dem], the .lame. As subst., m. the snme m'ln or i>erson.

from

this pice, hi nee ; on this side, here hjnr .... bine, "n this nida ... .on t/Tat tide. Of time : from this wry time, after

in-gnarus

i-gnarus, gnara, gnarum, fr. in, "nut;"


; :

adj.

[for

gnarus,

"knowing"]. With gen. not knowing, unacquainted with, ignorant of.

128
1-gnavus, cnSva, piavum,
in-pn;kvus
dolent.
;

VOCABULARY.
adj.
(for

fr. in,

"not;" giiavus. "busy,


lazy,
slotli/til,

niaiid "],

irap6r-ium, li, n. [impCr-o, "to coma command, order ; dominion,


;

dilistenf'J,

inactive,

in-

sovereignty

realm, empire.
pigra,

im-piger,
is,

if^nis,

m.

p grum,

fire ; lightniny

flame

plger
quick.

fr. in,

"not;"
pla,

adj. (for inplger, "indolent"],

of

loiv.

i-gnobilis, CTJuhlle, adj. (for in-;,'nobUis; fr. in, " noTT pioliliis ( = nolillis), "well known "]. low, baxi-horn, v/iioble.
in-griMiis;

impius,
ira-pleo,
(for in-plCo

pla,

plus ; fr. in, "no';" plus, unholy, wicked, impioiis.


plevi.
;

plum, adj. (for in"holy"],


2, v.

gnOtum. adj. [for "not ;" gnotus (=nOtus), "known"], nut known, unlniotrn.
i

gnotus,

frnota,

plotum, plcre,
\Vith
al.l.

a.

fr. in,

fr.

in, in
fill "].

"augmentative"
:

force

pleo,

"to

to fill

illTus, but, at v. 16, dejuonstr. ]>ron. [for is-le fr. is], person or thing. As subst., of both nunil)t'rs and all gendei-s: thinj that perwn or With ; lie, nhe, it. accessorj' notion of reputation, etc. that well-known, that famous or famed.

il-le, la,
; ;

lud (gen.
illi),

illlus

dat.

that,

quite full v^h. Pass, in reflexive force, with gen.: to fill one's, etc , self, i.e., to sati-\fy or regale one's, etc., self icith something ; to satisfy or gratify

up,

make

some

feeling.

plico, tli. (also avi, atum), are, 1, v. a. [for in, "in;" plico, "to fold"], to enfold, involve, wrap.
V. a. [for

im

Hum

illic, adv. [pron. place, there.

illic,

"that"J, in that
3,

il-lido,

lisi,

lisum, lidcre,

v. a. [for

in laedo ; fr. In, "upon;" laedo, "to strike or dash "], to strike or dash upon

pCsTii, pOsitum, ponCre, 3, in-pOno fr. in, " upon ;" pono "to put"], to put or pace something upon an object.
;

im-p6no,

im-provisus.

or

a'jaini>t.

[for in-prOvIsus; fr. in,

provisa, prOvisum, adj. "not;" prOvisus,


adj.

im-ago, aginis, f. : form, appeirance, image, an apparition, phantom [root lil,


aiiin to jii^-eojxai, " to imitate"].
"

"foreseen"], unexpected.
: lowest, deeplowest; i.e., the loivest part, or bottom of that which is repiesented by the subst. to which it is in attribution. Poss. infernua ; conip. :

imus,

a,

um, sup.

est;

where a thing

is

imber,
;

],cit n-i

w iter

or xtonn ; water sea [akin to hiJ.^po<;].


e,

bris, .shuiver

m.

a heavy rain; a
;

sea-

inferior.

adj. (" not to be niea* im-ma-nis, sitred;" heuce),vast, hxtrje; cruel, savage.

Conip.

"not;"
jitTpof,

iiumSn-ior (for in-manis f \ In, root ma, "to measure;" cp. n^rr), modus, metior, metare,
;

in. prep. gov. abl. or ace. With abl. ; in the case of, with respect With ace.: irito, within; towards; to. upon ; against ; for ; among.
in, zvithin

Eng. month]. no perf. nor sup., minere, ;" fr. in, " over 2, V. n. ifor in-mineo r>jt .MiN, to project; cp. minae, mon],
niensis
;

inanis,

e,

adj.

empty, in the fullest

immineo,

sense of the word.

in-cautus,
" not
;"

cauta. cautum, adj. (In, cautus, " cautious"], incautious,

overhang, hang overhead. im-mitis, mite, adj. [for in-mitis fr. Of persons: in, "not;" mitis, 'miJd"].
t-/
;

heedless, o]f one's guard.

in-cedo,
n. [in, " in
;"

cessi,

cessum, cCdOre,
"],

3,

v.

cOdo, " to go
etc.
:

to proceed,

cruel, fierce, inexorable.

immo,
means, nay
in-mOtus

adv.
;

yes indeed ; by immo, age, nay, come.


:

all

advance, tvalk, notion of dignity

to
li,

With accessory walk majestic.


n.

incend-ium,
[for

[incend-o,

"to
:

im-motus,
;

mota, motum, adj.


in,

burn

"I,

a burning, conflagration.
di,

fr.

"not;"

inolus,

Of unchnngeable.

"moved"].

the fates: unchanged,

in cen-do,

sum, dere,

3, v. a.

to

set on fire, burn. Of lamps, etc. : to light. P. perf. pass.: Ivihted, burning;

im-par,
fr. in,

gen. im-paris, adj. [for m-par; "not;" par, "equal"], not equal,

to

inflame with any emotion, esp. love

[root CA.v, akin to (ca-u,

"to

bum

"J.
;

unc'iual.
pGli, pulsum, pellCre, 3. v. in-pello; fr. in, "against;" pello, " o drive"], to drive, thnist, or push someihing against an object; to invite, With inf. : to force on, urge, impel. compel to do.

im-pello,

a. [for

incaptum fr. incipio, "to begin," in, without force; " " capio, to take or "begin "], a design,
ti,

incep-tum,

n. (for

purpose, etc.

inces-sus,

sfis,

m.

IncOd-o, " to walk

"],

[for inced-sus walk, gait.

fr.

VOCABULARY,
In-cIpiO, cepi, ceptuni, clp6re, 3, v. a. [for in-capio ; fr. in, " in ;" capio, " to take "], to begin, commence.

129

in-fero, in-tOli, il-latum, in-ferre, 3, v. [in, " into ;" fSro, " to bear or bring into a place. With personal pron.: to betake one's, etc., self; to go, walk, proa.

in-COgrnitus, cognlta, cognitum,


[in,

adj.

ceed.

"not;"

cognitus,

"known"], un-

known, not kmywa.

infiffO,

fixi,

fixum, figSre,

3, v. a. [in,

"into;"

figo,

"to

fix"],

to

impale, or

in-concessus,
adj. [in,

"not;"

concessa, concessnra, con-cessus, "allowed"],

drive into.

in-gemino,
geminare,

gSmIna%i,
in

unlawful, forbidden.

1, v. n. [in,

gSmlnStum, "augmentative"

increp-ito,
n.

Itavi, Itatutn, Itare. 1, v.

[increpo, '' to make a noise "], to call or cry out to one in an encouraging
iiitens.

force; geniino, "to double"], to be redoubled, to increase.

in-gemo, gomQi, gSmltum, gemere,


3, V. n. [in,

way,
bavi,

etc. ; to call upo)i,

challenje.

"without force

;"

gCmo, "to

groan"], to lament.

in-Cubo,

cubui, cQbitum (rarely cQ-

cabatum), cfibare, 1, v. n. [in, Of cabo, "to lie down"]. to settle upon, hang night, with dat. over, overhang. in-ciiltus, culta, cultum, adj. [in,

in-gens,

"upon;"

" a race, or kind

gentis, adj. [in, "not;" gens, "], hufe, vast, immense.


ta,

in-hunia-tus,
" not
;"

turn,

adj.

[in>

hum(a)-o, " to bury"], unburied.


imlca,
fr.

"not;" cultus, "cultivated"], wot culti^vated, uncultivated, untilled.

inimicus,
In-3,niicus
;

imicum, adj.

[for

" friendly
things
:

"],

" not ;" amicus, unfriendly, hostile. Of


in,

/^in-cumbo,
3, V. n. [in, lie
to_
''

cabal, no sup., cumb6re,


;"
'

hurtful, injurious, destructive.


Iqua, iquum, adj. [for In-

down"].
settle

upon obsol. cumbo, to With dat.: Of the winds: upon; to fall or rush violently
avi,

in-iquus,
;

upofC

sequus fr. in, " not ;" aequus, " favourable "], unfavourable, adverse, hostile.

J.U

in-CUS-O,

atum,

are, 1, v. a. [for

injuri-a,
right "
],

incaus-o; fr. in, "against;" causa, judicial process "], to blame, chide.

"a

ae, f. [in, iiijury, wrong.

"not;"

jus,

in-ciitio, cussi, cussum, catfire, 3, v. in, "against;" fr. a. [for in-quatio ; quatio, "to shake;" hence, "to strike"]. With ace. of thing and dat. of person : to strike into, to inspire in one.

in-piger, pigra, plgruni, adj. [in, "not;" piger, "indolent"], quick, active. inquara or inqiiio, v. defect. to
:

say.

i-n-de,
:

adv.

Of time

from

that

in-rigo, rlgavi, rigatum, rigare, 1. v. " without force " rigo, " to [in, moisten "], to bedew.
n.
;

F
^'

time, after that, afterivards [pronominal root I n. epenthetic ; suffi.K de (=9e or Oev, "from")]. in-diCO, dixi, dictum, dIcSre, 3, v. a. dico, "to [in, in " augmentative" f^rce say ;" hence " to declare "], to proclaim, announce, appoint.
;

scl-o,

iu-SCi-U3, a, um, adj. [In, "not;" "to know"], not knowing, un-

awares in-scribo, scripsi, scriptum, scribgre, 3, V. a. (in, " upon ;" scrlbo, "to write"],
to

make marks upon, tnark. in-sequor, sequutus sum,


[in,

sSqui, 8, v.

RS

V.

in-di&nor, dignatus sum, dignari, 1, dep. [in, "not;" dignor, "to deem
"], to

dep.

"after,
"J,

"to follow
In

worthy
to

be indignant or disdainful.

order

or

upon;" sCquor, follow after, pursue. succession : to succeed,


close
to

T
y

in-diio, dili, datum, da6re, 3, v. a. put on, asuum^ the appearance, etc., of another [ivSvia]. in-erm-is, is, e. adj. [for in-arm-us; fr. in, "not;" arm-a, "arms"], without

folloio.

in-sido. sedi, sessum, sldSre, 2, v. n. fr. In, " upon ;" sgduo, "to [for in-sedeo sit"], to sit down upon, settle upon.
;

arms or weapons unarmed. In-fandus, fanda, fandum, adj. [in, "not:" fandus, " to_be_aiioken of"], un;

insid-iae, larum, f. plur. [insldgo, "to take up a position in a place "], artifice,
plot, snare.

in-sign-is,
urn,

e,

adj. [in.

"upon;"

siiekhahle, unuUei'dble, abominable. noin neuter sing. as an exclamation


,

In
:

"a mark"],

remarkable,

signdistin-

1 I

guished.

horrible or dreadful thing or, adverbially, horribly I

horror
;"

in-felix, felicis, .-.dj. |in, " not " happy "J, unhiippy. miserable.

felix,

in-spiro, splravi, splratum, spirSre, I, a. [in, "into;" splro, " to breathe "]. Of a passion, emotion, etc. : to inapirt^
V.

produce, excite, kindle.

130

VOCABULARY.
invi-SUS,
fr.

In-sto, stiti, stTitum, sUlre, 1, v. n. [In; " to sUiid "] (III, " on or upon "J, to press onwards or linrd.
sto,

so,

sum, adj

(for invldus;

invld-eo, " to hate

"], luiteii,

liaUful.

in-struo,
8,

struxi,

a.

[in,
"J.

" to build
fit

structum, strfifire, " without force ;" strflo, Of a bouse to furnish,


;

in-vi-us, a, um, adj. (in, " not ;" vl-a, " a way "], that affords no way ; impassable,

impenetrable.

up.
f.

1-pse, psa,
ipsius
;

In-SiU-a, ae,

rtor

in-sal-a
"],

fr.

In,

fr.

psum (gen. ipsiusat v. 114 dat. ipsi), jTon. dem. [for is-pse is; suffix pse], self; very. As subst.,
;

"

in ;" siil-utn,

'

the sea
[in,

an

island.
;"

of all persons

and both numbers


anger, vrrath, raae.

/, etc.,

in-super, adv.
Buper, " above head.
"],

" on or ujion

myself.

on the

top, above, over-

ira, ae,

f.

Plur.

angry passions, wrathful


tions of rage.
a.

feelings,

emo1, v.

in-tac-tus, ta, turn, adj. [for in-tagtus; fr. In, "not;" tango, "to touch;" through root tag], jiuie, chaste.
intens. [for intend-to ; fr. intend-o, " to Btretch out against " in a hostile manner],
to threaten,

ir-rigo, rlgSvi, rlgitum, rlgSre, [same as inrigo).


i-S,
C-a,
:

id (i?en.

inten-to,

tfivi,

tatum,

tare,

1,

v. a.

dem.

this,

ejus ; dat. ei), pron. that person or tiling. As

menace.

subst., of both numbers and all genders the pnrson or thin;] just mentioned ; he, she, it. =talis: o/ such a kind ornatwt

inter, prep. gov. ace. : between. Of time during, in the course of; among, amidst, in the m.id.'st of.
:

such [akin to pronominal root


i-ter, root ij,
tlnC'ris,

i].

n. [eo,

a way, road ;
J.

"to go," through a journey, course,

inter-dum,
intervals of ace. of dies times.
inter,
;"
;

(prob. inter, ''at dum, contr. fr. dium, old see diu], occasionally, some-

adv.

etc

ja-ceo,
; :

ctii,

persons to lie fr. inter-ea, adv. [for inter-eam " between ;" 6am, ace. sing. fem. .beneath or below. Of time of is]. meanwhile, in the ^^*"jac-tO, tavi, tatum, tare, 1 v. a. intens. mean time. [jac-io, " to throw "J, to keep throwing or tossing ; to toss to and frn^ to drive (inter-for), fatus sum, fan, 1, v. dep. hither and thither. Of words, etc. to finter, "during;" (for), "to speak"], to toutt^r, pr,u: jiirth ; to resalMA, turnover, break in upon, or interrupt, the converetc., in tlieTlftiind. Wih personal pron. sation, etc.
:
:

citum, cSre, 2, v. n. Of dead. Of places : to lie

inter-ior; lus, comp. adj. [obsol. " within "], inner, interior ; the inner part of that denoted by the subst. to wbuch it is in attribution. Sup.
intOr-us,

in reflexive force : to conduct ont's etc., self in a proud and haughty manner ; to

hshave haughtily.
[jacai-um, launch.

intimus.

jaculor, atus sum, ari, "a javelin"], to

1, v. dep. hurl, cast,

intimus, a, nm, sup. adj.: iyinermost the innermost part of that denoted by the subst. to which it is in attribution.
'.^
y.

jam,
of
is,

jam
in-tono,
n.
[in,

tOnfli,

no supine, tCnare,
;"
'^^"^

1,

" without force


to

tono, " to

thunder "],

thunder.

at one time ..at another time ; now ... no^v ; at that time, then. Strengthened by tum at that very time, even then.
. .

adv. [prob. =eam, ace. sing. fem. "this, that"], at this time, now jam, at this time at that tim.e;

With ace.: wit/im. in-tractabnis, tractabile, adj.


intra, prep.

[In,

" not

;"

tractabilis,

indomitable,
t^ibdued.

" to be handled "]. unconquerable, not to be

adv. [jam, "now;" dtidura, "not long since"], now at once, instantly, forthtvith.

jam-dudum,

j-am-pridem,
long time past.
to order,

adv.

[jam

prTdem,

"long ago"], long ago, long

since, for

gredi, 3, V. dep. [for intro-gradior ; fr. intro, within;" gradior, "to step"], to step withiv to enter.
,

intro-gredior, gressus sum,

jubeo, jussi, jussum, command, bid.

Jflbere, 2, v. a.

intus, adv.: within, in the insidt or


interior [akin to Gr. evrdy].

in-veho. vexi, vectum, vghfre, 3, [in, "upon;" veho. "to carrj/"], ride on or upon ; to be carried upon.
a.

v.

to

judic-ium,Ii,n. judic-o, "to judge"], sentence or decision of a judge; a judgment. jug-O, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [jOg-um, " a yoke "j, to join or give in marriage ; to marry.

VOCABULARY.
Jdgr-UXQ,
join
"],
i,

131
"],

n. [JDo,

root of
rid'jc ;

a mountain
jieak.

Juni,'o, " to a Iwii/ht,

hollowed out
ceiling.

a sunken panel
adj.:

in

the
co-

summit,
a.':

larg-U3,

a,

um,

abundant,
"J,

jungo,
jugumj.

junxi, junctum, jungSre, 3, v. to join, unite ; to harness horses [see

pious, pleiit ful.

late, adv. far and ivide.

[lat-us,

" wide

widely,

ju-S, ris. n. [root JU," to bind"]. Plur.: laws, ordinances.


jiif
fr. jus-sum, si, n. (for jub-sum jabuo, " to order"], anjtni&r, co mmand
;
.

Qi, Itum, ere, 2, v. n. and a. Act. : to to lie hid, be concealed. tie hi' I or be concealed from ; to escape the iidlicc of [akin to AaS, root ot \a.vB6.v(a,

lat-eo,
:

Neut
" to

just-itfa,
justice.

itiae,

f.

[just-us,

"just"],

lie

hid

"].

latex, latus,
sprcadiiig

icis,

jus-tus, ta, turn. adj. [for jur-tus ; fr. jus, jur-is, "lay;"], just, fair, equitable.
jiiven-is,
is,

m.: any liquid or fluid. um, adj. wide, extendtd, far and toide [root plat, "to
a,
:
;

youthful. As a youth, young

adj. comm. gen. subst. : a young

youn'j.

extend

person;

;" cp. n-AaTu;, n-AoTavos, jrAanj planta, latus (i.e., platus), platessa].

man.
f.

latus,
"young"],
youth,
i.e.,

Oris,

n.

the side,

whether ot

juven-ta,
youth.

tae,

fjtiven-is,

persons or things [prob. akin to latus).

laus,
tutis,
f.

laudis,

f.:

irraise,

commendation
cp.

juven-tus,
young men.

[id.],

[for (c)laus,
KK-iifiv
;

root CLtJ, "to hear;" clueo, gloria (=:clu-oria)


a,

juvi, jutum, juvare, 1, v. a. and Act.: to aid, assist. Neut.: to please, delight, gratify.

JUVO,

laxus,
loosen
slack.
;"

um.

n.

cp.

Av'u),

adj. [root Lu, "to solvo (=se-luo)], loose,


legfire,
v. a.

lego,
L.
lab-or, oris, m. labour, toil. Of the sun an eclipse [akin to root labh, " to
: :

legi,

lectum,
etc.:

.S,

Of

J.L

magistrates,
elect.

to

choose,

apj: -nt,

acquire;" Gr.
take"].

Aa(3,

root Aa^jSara),
labi, 3, v.

"to

[len-is,

len-io, Ivi or li, ;tum. Ire, 4, v. "mild"], to appease, assuage.


lev-is,
e, adj.: light,

a.

rapid [akin toGr.

'\Kd

labor,

laps\is

sum.

or mroop downwards LAMB, " to fall "].

dep. : to [aJAn to root


1,

i-Kax-v';].

labor-O,
labor],
to

avi,

atum, are,

v. a. [1.

atum, are, 1, v. a. [lev-is, to lilt, or raise up ; to lighten, relieve, alleviate.

leV-O,

avi,

"

light

"],

laboriously or with toil to work something labor ioiislij.

make

lex, read "

legis,
,

f.

[for leg-s

fr.

leg-o,

" to

aAaw
bri,

or cn-ictment.

F RS

lacriraa,
tear,
Soico?].

ae, (old

form dacrima),
;"

f.

liber,
libo,
etc.,

m.

a book.
are, 1, v. a.
:

[root dak,

" to bite

cp. &a.Kviu,

avi,

atum

Of wine,
<

lacrim-o,
[h'lcrira-a,

"a

are, 1, v. n. tear"], to shed tears, weep.


avi,

atum,

for religious purposes to Vike nd pour out in honour of a deitj- ; to ke a lib 'tion of: Gr. Aei^o).

laedo,

laesi,

laesum, laedere,
f.

3, v. a.:

licet,
all meed,

to displease, offend.

flit, itum, Cre, or permitted.

2,

v.

n.

i'

laet-itia,
joy, gladness.

Itlae,

[laet-us, "joyful"],

li-raen, minis,
llg o,

"to

n. [for lig-men ; tie or fasten "], a threshold.

fr.

T
u

laet-or, atus sum,


to rejoice, delight.

ari, 1, v.

dep.

[id.],

linquo,
a.
:

to Ic'ive

lictum, linquOre, [akin to Gr. AeiTrw].


llqui,

3,

v.

laetus,
pleasini].

a,

um,

adj.

joj/M, glad,
full

liquor, no
Jhiid,

perf., qui, 3, V. dep.:

to be

With gen.: abounding in;


a,

or liquid [akin
.

to root

u, "to

of laev-US,
left side.

smear over"

um,

adj.
:

left, i.e.,

on the
f.
:

left

hand

As subst. .-laeva,

laeva,

ae,

the

on ihe

left

hand or

li-tus, tOris, n. [prob. li, tfiot of li-no, "to overspread"], the sex-shore, bench, strand.

side [\aiF-6';].
lS,-pis, pidis, m.:

loco,

i,

m.

avi,

atum,

are,

v.

a.

stone [cp. Aa-as,


Saris, n.

[locus,
one'f:

" a stone "].

place"], to place, set; to take place or seat.

"a

laqu-eare (-^r),

(akin to

I4c-u8, In etymological force of

"a

thing

n.),

locus, i, m. (plur. loci, m., and loca, a place, spot.

13:

VOCABULARV.
mag-is, comp.
more.
adv. [akin to magnus],

long-B, adv. (loii2f-us, "lonj;"), 'i '""'7 U'ly oi/\ afiir off; i.e., to a dhtance ; al a dulitncc.

mag-ister,
iiiagnus].

istri,

m. [root maq
:

of.

long-US
l6qu-or,
speitk.

a,

uin,

adj.

Ions;,

in

the
:

Of a vessel

the steersman.

fullest sense of the word.


iitus

magistr-atus,
i,

sum,

3,

v.

dep.

to

magistr-ij,
us,

atus, gistrate.
a,

m. [magister,
adj.
"),

magn-anim-us,
ri,

um,

[magngreit-

16-rum,
horses.

Plur.

the

reins of

" irreat ;"

anim-us,
na,

" soul

.^oukd, mignanimoxts.

luctor,
struggle

tatus sum,
i,

tari, 1, v.

dep.

to
I

mag-nus,
:

nam,

adj.: great, i.e.,


:

luc-us,
general.

111.

wood or grow

in

mighty. Of sound Joifd, nuiiierous, noble. Of persons, with re.s))ect to age advanced. Coinp major
r,/c, Sijticious,
:

lusum, liidere, 3, v a. and ludo, Act.: to iiuilce sjiort n. [ludus, "play"). Neut. to vUiy, of, i.e., to jnuck, deceive.
lusi,
:

(i.e.,

inagGr. ixiy-a<;. Sans, inah-a, great " f r. root maii (ori^'-inally magh), ' to be great ; to be
niug-lor).

Sup.:

maximus
to
.

(i.e.,

simns: [root

m.^o,
'

akm

sport.

liOiVerful ").

lu-men,
lvic-6o,
'

minis,
"],

n.

to shine

UjM

(for lucnien ; aw eye.


fr.

fr.

in:!ll-us, a,

um,

adj.:

frrid

of its kind
:

lu-na, nae, f. [for luc-na; " to shine "J. the moon.

luo-co,

luna-tus. ta, turn, adj. [lun(a)-o, " to bend like a half-moon or crescent"], haijinoon shaped, crescent shaped.

injurious, hurtful; ir ckcd ; evil; unfortunate. Assubst.: malum,!, n. ^n Comp. pejor sup. evil, misfortune. pessimus [akin to Gr. /oieAos. "black"].
:
;

mamma,
man-eo.
hand
teor/c,
"),

ae,
si,

f.

a breast.
ere, 2, v. a.: to re-

sum,
telis,

luo,
a.

(o

IQitum or lutum, lilOre, ?., v. Of punishment, etc. : to pay, suffer; atone for, exidate, a fault, etc.
lOi,

miin, continue

l/iec-io].

man-tele,

n.

[miln-us,

"the

a napkin,

towel,
:

lup-a,
o^-,

a she-ivolf [like Gr. Au'kae, f akin to Sans. LUP=Lat. RUP, " to break
:

or tear

"J.

nus, f. a hmd ; h mdyworlnmnsldp, work [akin to root ma, " to measure ;" see immanis),

ma-nus,

lUStr-O. avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [lustrum, " an expiatory offering "], to review,
search, traverse.

mar-e,
die,"
i.e.,
:

morior
five

n. : the sea [root mar, " to that which kills cp. mors, MopTd9 = 3poTd5 also cp. Sans,
is,
;

lu-strum,
or expiate"], lustrum.

stri, n. [in-o,

a space of
f.

"to wash out years, a


luc-So,

main
all

Slav,

more
;

Celtic

mor
;

Lith.
;

marios, mares

lux,
shine
Ill

luois,

[for luc-s

fr.

" to

meaning MAR, means


marmor).

Goth, marei Ir. muir "sea." Others say thf rt.

"bright;"
f.

cp.

/j-apixaipw,

"],

light,

dawn.
[lax-us, "dislocated").
:

lux-US, us, m. a good sense

mater,
fr.

tris,

Of persons: a mother.
;

splendour, magnifi,:

Of animals: a

cewe.

lyclinus,
[root LUC,

i,

a
;"

" to shine

Ivjht, lamp, cp. lux].


[vviJ.<fir)\.

torch

[akin to Gr. fi^-xjjp a root ma, in meaning of "to produce ;" and so " the producer"],

dim

matur-O, atum,
us, in

fire,

1, v. a.

[matur-

meaning

of

"quick"],

to hasten,

lymptia, ae, f.: l5mx, cis, comm.

water

s^jeed.

gen.: a lynx [Au'yf ].


to

med-itor,

itatus

sum,

itari, 1, v.
;

dep.:

PL.

think or rejlect upon meditate about [akin to care for"].

to

muse or
"to

ixeS-o/j-ai,

osum, adj. [mucrda, macul-osus, " a spot or blemish ;" hence, " a spot or mark" on the skin, etc.], full of spots,
osa,

spotted, dappled.

maerens

med-ius. ia, lum, adj.: m,iddle. mid (where a person or thing is in the middle; i.e.), the middle, or med.H of that denoted by the subst. to which it is in
attribution mid-ius).
[cp.
|J.e<ro^;,

part. pres. of maeres.


:

jae<r7;yi/s

di-

maer-eo, erp to be sad. maest-us. a, um, adj.: sad. magalia, Turn, n. plur.: little
lings, huts, woird).
etc.

mel,
dwel-

mellis, n.:
i,

koney [akin to
n.
:

iieki].

membrum,
[for menmim, cp. fxepiiui].

a limb,

mevilier

[said

to

be a Punic

root mar,

"to divide;"

VOCABULAUV.

133

I
mS-min-i,
mEn-i mens],
;

isse,

v.

defect, [for
;

men-

reduplicated fr. root men see to bear in mind; to remember,


6ris, adj.

recollect.

nee minus {and no less, i.e.), and in like manner, likewise. mu'a-bilis, bUe, adj. [mir(a)-or, "to wonder at"], that mmj or can be won-

meinor,
ful
of,

With gen.: mindOf anger


:

dered at

wonderful, marvellous.

rememberiitj.

unfor-

getting, vindictive.

mii'a-ndus, nda, ndum, adj. [mir(a)or, "to wonder at"], wonderful, marvellous, extraordinary,

memor-o,
n. (inOmor,

declare.

avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. and "mindful"]. Act.: to relate, With double ace. to call an
:

object somethirig.
declare, etc.

Neut.: to speak, say,

mir-or, ratussftm, rari, 1, v. dep.: to wonder, or marvel at ; to admire, regard with admiration [akin to Sans, root smi, "to smile"].

tis, t.: the mind, as being the seat of thought; notion, idea, thought; disposition, .leeiijigs [Lat. root men ; fr. root MAN, ''to think;" cf., also, Gr.
/u.ei'-o!].

mens,

mirus,
misccre,
abl.: to

a,

um,

adj. [mir-or,

"to won-

der"], wonderful.

miscSo,
etc. stir
;

miscui,
to

mistum or mixtuin,

men-sa,

ae,

f.

[metlor,

"to measure,"

to

through root mk-, found in part perf. meu-sus], o table; food; dishes; an
entertainment, etc.

or mingle. With mingle with or amongst persons, throw into confusion, disturb ; to
2, v. a.:

mix

up, excite, rouse [akin to Gr. /mVy-iu, ixty-vvixi, "to mix"].

men-sus, p. perf. of metier. " to measure"], a month, as a measure of time.


dep. [merx, merc-is, "merchandize"], to buy, purchase. mer-itum, Tti, n. [mer-eo, " to deserve "], a service, kindness, benefit desert, merits.
ari,
1,

men-sis,

sis,

m. [root men; whence

mis-er, era, emm, adj. [prob. akin to niaer-eo, " to be sad ;" maes-tus, " sad "], ivretched, miserable. As subst.: miser, eri, m. a wretched one, a poor wretch.
:

merc-or, atus sum,

v.

misera-bilis, bile, adj. [miser(a)-or, " to pity "], worthy or deserving of pity ;
pitiable.

miser-or, atus sum,


[miser, "

ari,

l,

v.

dep.

mer-vim,
V

wine
end,

i.e.,

i, n. [mSr-us, 'pure"], jjwrc not mixed with water.


f.

wretched "], to pity. mit-esco, no perf. nor sup., esccre, 3, V. n. [mit-is, "mild"]. In character, etc.: to become gentle or softened.

7^ met-a,
'

ae,

[met-Ior,

"to measure"],

mitto,
to send.
of, cast
off.

raisi,

missutn, mittere,

3, v. a.:
(jet

iiiiiit,

ternnnation.

Of

fear, etc.: to dismiss,

rid

mCtui, mStutum, motuere, 3, V. a. [metus (uncontr. gen.), mctd-is, "fear"], to fear, dread, be a/raid of. metus, us, (old dat. metu, 257), m.: fear, dread. me-US, a, um, pron. poss. [me], of or -belonging to me ; my, mine.

metu-O,

adv.: only, merely. perat.: just, now.

modo,
etc.

With im-

F RS

modus,
luay,

di,

m.: a manner, method,


akin to root ma, "to

[prob.

measure measure
cations,

;"

whence

;"

also Lat. me-tlor, " to Gr. ixi-rpov, "a measure"].

'

^>SvaiC-0, fli. no sup., are, gleam, spqjMe.

I,

v. n.: to

moen-ia, lum,
town; a

n. plur.: walls, fortifi-

rampaits, of a city; a walled

mill-e, num. adj.


[akin to Gr. x'^-'oi].

indt-cl.:

a thousand

city enclosed by fortifi'-alions [root MUN, "to ward off;" cp. Gr. i-uu.-u) " to ward off '].

min-Qo,

m. [m. referred to and so ''an inferior" [or to man-us, " a hand," and so "one at hand, an attendant "J, root min, "to lessen ;" cp. fnvvdia, jneicoi' minor].

min-ister, "to

istri,

moles,

is,

an immense

lessen,"

a huge pile of buildings ; labour, trouble'. mol-ior, itus sum, iri, 4, v. "dep" [mol-es, -'power, might 'j, to undertake,
set about, betake one's self to ; to build erect, construct; to make, cause, occa-

structure

T
V

servant, attendant.

ministr-O,

avi,

atum,

are,

1,

v.

a.

sion.

[minister, mlnistr-i, "a servant"], to provide, furnish, supply.

minor, atus sum, ari, jut forwards, project.


:

1,

v. dep.: to

southe.

itum, ire, 4, v a (moll-13, "soft"], to mollijy, pacify, soften '


Ivi
li,

moU-io,
mollis,

and

Hunor, us, comp. adj. see parvus. man-US, comp. adv. [adverbial neut.
of

grind

;"

e, adj. : soft [root mal, " to cp. /laAoxd?, naAdtraeiv : malva,]

minor, "

less "J,

in a

less degree,

less

nipn-ile, ilis, n.: a jewelled ornament for the neck ; a necklace.

134
;

VOCABULAltV.
nata,
"she that
tae,
is
f.

mon-S, tia, ni. (for min-s fr. min-Co, " to project "], a iiwuntain. Of thi- s^ea a towerinj mass
monstr-o,
uvi,

[na-scor,
"J,

" to be born,*
;"

born

natus,

ti,

.Itum.

are,

o daughter. m. [id.] ('he that is born


Igatum, Igare,

1,

v.

a.

[monsti-um, "that which show, p"int out.

hence), a son.

warns"],

to

nav-ig'O,

I-avi,

mora,

ae,

f.:

delay.
firi,

[navis, " a ship


1,

1, v. a.

"], to

sail over, navigate.

mor-or, atus sum, [mOr-a], to delay, drtain.

v.

dep.

navis,
" to swim

is,

;"

f. : a ship, vessel [root ma, cp. i-aOs, nare.]

mor-s, tis, f. [mOr-lor], death. mor-sus, bus, m. (for mord-sus


mordco,
Jlulce.
'

ne, ne,
;
:

conj.:

that not,

lest.
:

enclitic

fr.

and interrogative particle


indie,

to bite
ale,

"].

Of an anchor

in direct questions with verb in

it

mort-alis.
to

a./j.
;

subject to death, mortal

[mors, mort-is], of or belowiinij


for me-os;
;

men.

m-6s.
nie-o,

Oris,

m.

[prob.

fr.

" to go
:

throws force and emphasis on the word to whi(;h it is attached, pointing it out as the principal one in the clause or sentence in this force it has no English equivalent. In indir.et questions with subj. whether: ne ne, whether
; :

"J, usafie,

cuntoin

a law.

<yr

whether.

a.

mOvi, niotum, niOv-ere, 2, v. Mentally to shake, toss about, agitate; to move, influence, affect; to tell,

moveo,

nebula,
nee,

ae,

f.

mist,

vapour

NOB, " to cover

[root

;"

cp. vejio^, nubes.


;

reveil

necdum
; ;

see neque.

mulceo,

raulsi,

mulsum

or mulctum,

necnon
nectar,
the gods

see neque.
:

mulcere, 2, v. a.: to soothe, pacify, allay, soften, appease.

iris, n. nectir. the drink of at v. 433 applied to honey as

mult-um,
niult-us, "
Sinjf.

adv.

much "J, much, mul-tu3, ta, turn, adj.


:

[adverbial neut. of r/reaUy.


Sing-.:

being something exquisitely delicious [ne " not ;" KTAN-, " to kill :" aa conferring
immortality).

many
sup.,

a.

I'lur.

many.

much. Comp.
to

necto,
to

nexfii,

nexum, nectGre,
lie,

3, v. a.:

plus

plurlmus [perhaps akin


Ivi

bind

toj'dn,

or fasten together.
adj.
fne,
i,

n-oA-us].

ne-fa ndus, nda, ndum,


or
li,

mun-io,

Itum,

Ire,

i, v. a.

" not

;" f(a)-or,

" to speak of
:

"],

iminou^,

[see inoenia], to rvall, fortify.

munus,
sound
ninr],

Ji-is,

n.:

execrable. As subst. n.: imj/iety, wickedness.


:

ne-fandum,

gift, present.

mui-mur,

Oris, n.

[prob. the natural

murmur ;

a low mvttcrinq sound; a a roaring sound, a roar.


i,

nem-us, Oris, n. feedinfj-land amongst woods; a wood with open glades; a


grove [root nem, "to feed
;" i.e.,

the feed-

mur-us,

m.: Ihe wall of a city [akin


:

ing-ground

cp. yo/ios, fiiinv].

to root MIR, " to encircle"]

ne-que
The Muse
[ne,

(conti.
;"

Musa, ae, /. a whom Virsri! invokes

Muse.

at v. 8 is Calliope, the Muse of Epic I'oetry [root mon, " to advise ;" ixov(Ta.=ij.6v-cTa moneo].
:

mu-to, tavi, tatuin, tare, 1, v. a. freq. [for niov-to: fr. mOveo, "to move"], to change, alter. With personal pron. in reflexive force: to change one's self ; to change one's mind ; to alter in feeling,
etc.

Adv. not. and not, alsn vol, neither:neque neque (nee;, neilher nor : neo dum (also written as one word, necdum), and not yet nee non (also as one word, necnon) (r.nrf not not, i.e.), and
"].
:

" not

nee), adv.

que, " and

md

conj.

Conj.: (nee)

also,

and

besides, moreover, further.

ne-queo,
v. n. [ne,

" not

quivi or quii, quitum, quire, ;" queo, " to be able "], to

be unable.

N.
V.

ne-SCio,
a.

\ni,

sclvi or scii, scltum. scfre, 4, "not;" scio, "to know'H,

nam.
que), /or.

conj.

for.

not to kn

iv ; to

be ignorant of, or unac[nescl-o,

nam-que,
na-scor,
:

conj. [nam,

"for;" suffix

quainted with.

nesci-us,
to

a.

(old form g-na-), tus sum, sci. 3, V. dep.: to be horn. With ahl. of origin to he born of or from [root o.n-a, another form of root oen (=Gr. ytr), cp. vi-y(f)>'o^at gens, gigno).
:

know "I.
of,

um, adj. With g;en.


:

mt

"not

Icnowing,

ignorant

uiuicquainled with.

neu
It'll,

see neve.

ne-ve

(contracted neu), conj.:

and

nor[ne, "not;" ve, "and "J.

TOCABULARY.
ni (old form nel), conj. ndentical with ne, "moi"J. As a concUtional particle: ^ if not, uiUess.
**^*niger,
ra,

135

nun-c, adv. : now nnno nuno, now now; at one tim4....at another
time [see novus].
novnovus, "new;" veu-io, "I earry or bring a message or intelligence about ; to announce,
ven-tio
;

rum, adj.:

J^lack,

nunti-O,
fr.

avi, .atum, are, v. a. [for

nihil, indecl. subst. [ne, "not," hilum, " a mark," or filuin, " a thread"], nothing. nimb-OSUS, Qsa, osum. adj. [nimb-us, " a storm-cloud "], ft'rmy. tempestxious, attended toith many storms, eto.

come "],

to

nutrimentum,
nutrix,

menti,
fire
:

n.

[nutrl-o,

nimb-us,
nitens,
shining.

i,

m.

a black rnn-cloud,

"to nourish"]. Of a which feeds the flame.


cis, t. [id.],

fuel, as that

a thunder-cloiid, nubes].
ntis
:

gtorm-cloiid
bright,

[see

a nurse.

glUstening,
v.

ae, f.: a nymph ; a demigoddess, inhabiting either the sea, rivers, woods, trees, or mountains [Nti/x^q].

Nympha.

niteo,

tii,

no
ea,

sup., ere,
;

2,

n.:

to

thine or be bright

to glitter, glisten.
nivis,

O.
O, inter]. :

niv-eus,
"snow"],

adj. [nix, snow-white, snoioy.

eum,

no, 5vi, no sup., are, 1, v. n. : to swim [root NA, " to swim ;" cf. navis, nauta, natare vaOs, vdeif, i-ai's, i-oias].
:

6b, prep. gov. ace. To indicate object or cause on account of, in consequence o/[akin to eir-t'].
:

nodus,

i,

m.

a knot. a name;

nomen,
non, adv.
:

minis, n. [no-sco],

renoion; reiiutation, fame.


not [for ne-unum, "not one").

objec-tus, tiis, m. (for objactus fr. "to cast before," ob, "in front of;" rt. JAC, "to throw"], a castir^g or placing before or in the way ; an oppos;

objiclo,

ing, opposite position.

nos-ter. tra, trum, pron. poss. [nos, plur. of ego], of or belnngimj to xis ; our.

ob-ruo,

rfii,

no-tus,

ta,

tum, adj.

know "], known, well-knmon.

[no-sco, .,_

"to

" without force with violence "],

riltum, rOere, 3, v. a. [ob, ;" rQo, " to throw down to overthrow, overwhelm^
ra,

ob-scu-rus,
[ob,

rum,

adj.: dark,

dim

novem, num. adj. no vitas, Itatis,


neivness.

indecL: nine.
[nSv-us,

"over;"

root

SKir,

"to

cover:"

f.

"new"],

scutum].
ob-StX>, stiti, statiim, stare, 1, v. n. " over against ;" sto], to withstand, oppose, present an obstacle.
[Ob,

nov-us,
no\'us].

a,

um,
;

nominal root mr

adj.: ntti, >resft [procp. '0', reTos. nunc,

ob-stipesco,
cfire, 3, V. n.

nox,
perish :" nocerej.

noctis, f.: night [root nak, "to cp. veku's, vexpo^ : nex, necare,
ae,

stlptli, no sup., stipesinch, [ob, " without force ;"

stipesco,

"to become amazed"], to become amazed, to be struck with amazement.


sa, sum, adj. [for obtudobtundo, " to beat against ;" " hence, to blunt "]. Mentally blunted,
8U.S
;

F RS

noxa,

"to nub-es,

nOc-eo, hurt"], a fault, offence, crime.


f.
;

[for noc-sa

fr.

obtu-SUS,
fr.

is, f.:

a cloud [root xabh, " to


:

neswell ;" cp. i'(()05, i>e<l>eXrj, o^tcfiaAds bula, nimbus, iniber, umbilicus, umbo].
avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [nudus, " naked "], to make miked or bare; to lay bare, expose to view.

dull, insensible, etc.


tiis, m. [obta-gor, " to look a look, gaze. ob-vi-UB, a, um, adj. [ob, " towards ,-" ^^-o, "to go on one's way, to trav^"], going or coming to meet ; meeting, falling in with.

obtu-tu3,
"J,

nud-O,

at

nud-us,
covered.

a,

um,

adj.

naked, bare, un-

T
u

n-ullus, uUa, ullum


nulli),

adj.

[for ne-ullu3
"J,

ullus, "

any

(^en. nulllus ; dat. fr. ne, "not;" not any, none, no.
;

occa-sus,
occid-o,

siis,

m.
;"

[for

occad-sus

fr.

" to perish

through root cad],

overthrow, ruin, destruction.

nu-men,
command,

minis, n. [na-o,

" to nod
:

"),

oc-cubo, no
n. 'for cflbo,
;

perf. -nor sup., are, 1, v.

divine Of the gods godhead, divinity ; a trill or j'vwcr ; deity, whether a god or goddess. num-erus, eri, m.: a number [root NKM, "to allot;" cp. ve/ieiy, coftos: nemus,
will.

ob-cabo fr. 6b, " without force ;" " to lie down "[, to rest or repose
Oi,

with the dead.

oc-cul-o,
cai-o
;

fr.

6h,

tum, ere, a, v. a. [for ob"over;" root cal (see


lu

riuninms].

cel-o),

"to cover "J,

hide, vr conceal.

136
occultus,
den,
st'eret.

VOCABULARY.
a,

um

[see ocmlo), hid'

ciibltum, ciimbCre, 8, V. n. (for ob (.-umbo fr. ob, "without force ;" obsol. cunibo, " to lie down "J, to lie doim in death to/all, perish.
cCibili,
; ;

oc-cumbo,

pressi, pressum, primCre, ob-premo fr. Oh, "against;" " prCmo, to press"], to crush, overivhdin.
8, V. a. [fo!
;

op-prlmo,

oc-curro,
currCre,
3,

curri
n.

and

op-S, is (nom. sing, does not occur dat. is found perhaps only once), f. [prob. for ap-s; fr. root ap, whence apiscor,

cticurri, cursuni,
;

ob-curro "towards;" curro, "to run"], come in the way a/.


v.

[for

fr.

ob,

"to obtain"], power, might, means or resources of any kind


riches.

ability;
;

weoUh,

to

meet,

6c6anus,
ociilus,

\\ op-to,
^ih

i,

m.: the ocean otKeavo^}. m.:

tlli,

an

eye [akin to Gr.

oK-o!, root AK, " to see"].

odium,

li,

n. [Od-i,

"to hate"J, hatred,

tavi, Utum, tire, l,v. a.: to for, desire. With inf.: to wish to do, etc.; to choose, select. I'ass. op-tor titus sum, turi [akin to root ap, "to desire to obtain"].
:

hate, ill-wUl.

6p-ulentus,
:

tilenta,

tUentum,
abl.:

od-or, oris, m.: a scent, odour [root od; akin to Gr. oiw ( = 66crw) also Lat. 61-eo, "to emit a smell"; to "smell of"].
oflFero, obtcdi, oblatum, offerre, v. irreg. [for ob-fero fr. ob, " towards fero, " to bring"], to present, shew.
;

[opes, " wealth -J. wealthy with or tn.

With

adj. rich, or

opus,
ora,

Cris, n.:
f.

work, employment.
:

a. ;"

ae,

Of the land

coast, sea-

coast; count )-y.

of-fic-ium,
(ops), op-is,

li.

"aid;"

n. [for fac-io,

op-facium ; fr. "to perform"],


;

a kindness, favour, courtesy. ol-im, adv. [for oU-im fr. oll-e, old form of ill-e]. Of future time in time to come; at some time or other, here:

orbis, is, m.: a circle, orbit, orb : orbis terrarum, or orbis alone (the circle of lands, i.e.), the world, the earlh. Of things that return at a certain period of
time
:

circuit.

after.

olli, old

form of

illi,

dat. of

ille.
;

ordior, orsus sum, oidlri, 4, v. dep.: to begin, commence. ord-O, Inis, m. [ord-ior, " to weave "] arrangement, order; a row. Km; order,
succession.

minis, n. [ f. r or-men f r. 6r-o, " to speak "], a prognostic, or omen of any kind. In the poets, sometimes marriage, nuptials, as being alwajs preceded by the taking of auguries and the
iioting of the

6-men.

oriens,

ntis.

As

subst.: the
rises.

the quarter where the sun

East as
'

omens.
pOt4ntis, adj. [omn-ij,
;

omn-i-potens,

6r-igo, Iglnis, I. [Or-Ior, " to arise ;" "to begin"], a beginning, commencemcnt, origin; birth, descent,
hence,
lineage.

" rll ;" (i) connectingr vowel pOtens, "powerful"^, all-potcerful, omnipotent.

omnis,
persons,

e,

adj.: all, every.

omnes, mm, comm.


all.
a\'i,

gen.

subst.: plur. : all

As

6r-ior, tus sum, Iri, 3 and 4, v. dep.: Of birth to spring, or descend from [prob. akin to op-rv/ai, "to stir
<"

me

up "].

atom, are, 1, v. a. [onus, oner-is, "a burden"], to burden, load. Of liquids, with abl. to stow in. onus, eris, n.: a burden, load.

6ner-o,

adurn "

oma-tus,
',

tus, m. [orn(a)-o, dress, attire, apparel.

"to

6t-0,

avi,

atum,
"],

"the mouth

.Ire, 1, v. a. [os 6r-is ' to bej, imjlore, entreat.

onus-tus,
fr.

to, turn, adj. [for

oner-tus

Onus, Oner-is, laden, etc,

"a

burden"], loaded,

companions

Orontes, is, (gen. Orontei, v. 220), : Orontes, a chief of the Lycii, one of the

Una, imum, adj. :op-s), plur. op-es, " wealth "], wealthy, rich.

op-imus,

mouth;
OS,

of ^neas. OS, oris (gen. plur. not found),

n.

the
'

opperior,
penri,
petere,
4,

perltus and pertus sum, v. dep.: to wait /or.


petivi
v.
;"

at v. 245 the the face, countenance.


ossis, n.

mouth

of

a riverto
:

bone [akin
n. [for

Or.
fr

op-peto,
3,

and

petii,
;

petitum,
fr.

a,

[for

ob-peto

go to "], to go to Tneet ; to encounter. With ellipse of mortem (which is sometimes e.vpressed),


to

" towards

peto, " to

Ob,

os-culum,
08, or-is],

cfili,

or-ctUum

kiss.

encounter death,

Le.,

to

die,

fall',

perish.

tendi, tensum, tendere, 3, for obs-tendo; fr. oba (=ob), "before or over against ;" teudo, " to stretch
V. a.

os-tendo,

out "J, to show, point out

VOCABULARY.

13^
;

Vost -irSt-ium,
thing
;

li,

n.:

the

mouth

of

any-

Collectively
others.

some

pars .... pars,

oi

an entrance
i.

[os, oris,

mouth].

OStrum,

n.

a purple couch,

i.e.,

a purple dress, purjik ; a couch covered with

part-is,

part-ior, itus sum, Iri, i, v. dep. [pars, " a part"], to divide, portion out,
-^
-

purple hangings.

apportion.

P-

par-feus, tiis, m. [p3.r-Io, " to bring forth "], a bringing forth, a birth.
par-9,
:

pabulum, bOli, n. [pa-sco, "to feed"].


Of animals
;"
:

food, fodder.

[rt rv, " to -uit, ere cp. punio, iroiv)], " it repents ;" purify me paenitet : / repent.

paenit-et,

par-VUS, va, vum, adj. [prob. akin to "a part"], small, little. (Of persons "young;" comp.: "younger, less in age ;" hence), as subst. minor-es, um, comm. gen. plur. descendants, pos:

terity.

Comp.: minor

(sup.: minimus).
:

or loose drexi, worn especially by women in the poets sometimes assigned to men.

palla,

ae,

f.

[see pelta for root], a robe,


;

"

to

pall-idus, Ida, idum, be pale "\, pole, pollid.


f.

adj.

[pall-eo,

[root pal or pat, palma, ae, cover," or " to spread :" see pelta pando], the palm of the hand.

"to

and

to pa-SCO, vi, stum, scere, 3, v. a Pass, in reflexive force, of animals: feed. to graze, browse, feed [akin to root pa, "to nourish;" cp. Trar^p, notns, irdr^ca pater, panis, penxis Gotliic fadar ; O.H.G. y- fatar ; Eng. father].
: ;

A),

pat-eo,

Oi,
lie

pando,
pandOre,

panai,
a.:

pansum and passum,


to

'pandol, to evident.

no sup., ere, open; to be


'

2,

v.

n. [see
,

man ifest
:

or

open, thri/w open. P. pert, pass., of the hair: dishevelled [root P.AT, "to spread;" cp. jreTdi-i-vM', ire'ToAo', Trarai/t/ patere, paiulus, pandoj.
3, v.
:

pa-ter,

tris,

m.

[see pasco],

o father,
fathers,

as one who protects. forefathers, ancestors.

Plur.

par,
giinilir.

p4ris, adj.: equal, corresiwndiffj,

Par-ca, ae, f. sin^.: one of the (three) I'lur. . the Fotes goddesses of /"te. their Latin names were Xona, Decunia, Morta , their Greek names Clotho, Lacho" to bring or sis, Atropos [prob. root par.
put
80,

pat-era, 6rae, . [pat-eo, " to lie open ;" hence, "to spread out, extend." see pando], a broad fiat dish, especially used in making ofterings a bowl for
;

libations.

whence par-o, " to prepare ;" and " she who brings or assigns " ones
;"

patior, passus sum, pati, 3, v. dep.: endure ; to permit, allow, suffer [root spa, span, "to increase or to
to suffer, bear,

pain

;"

TreVop.ai

a-deLv, spatium ; -acrx"), JroSos, putientia, penuria].


:

lot;

cf.

Gr.

Moip-a,
fr.

"the Allotter or
in force of

Apportioner,"

/leipofiai,

patr-ius,

la,

lum, adj. [pater,


.

patr-is],
;

" to allot"]. parc-O, peperci (less frequently parsi), parcitum or parsum, parciire, 3, v. n. " rare "], to o-Trapfos, cp. [=sparco
;

of or belonging to a father ; a father's paternal. As subst. patri-a, ae, f. fatherland, native country.

tpare a thing; frain from.

i.e.,

to

abstaiii

or

re-

land

a, um, adj. [patri-a, "fatherof or belonging to on^s fatherI'nd, or native crruntry ; native.

patri-us,
"],

comm. gen. [either for par-io or fr. obsol. par-o = beget to bring forth"], a parent, whether a father or mother.
par-ens,
ntis,

paucus,
(sing.:

a,

-jm,

adj.

Of

number

pari-ens, fr. par-Io, "to

"smaU"], plur.: few. paul-atiin, adv. [paul-us, " little "], by little and little ; by dejrees, gradually.

parens,

ntis, p. pres. of pareo.


ati,

par
Parca].
briitr/

eo,

Itum. ere,
:

2,

v. n. [see

pax,
or PAG,
quillity.

pacis,
:

f.

[for pac-s
;"

fr.

root pac,

T
V

With dat. to obey. pario, 6re, peperi, partum,


jorth.

" to bind

whence Tn^yyvm,

TratrcroAos
v.

paciscor, pagus], peace, tranOris,

a,

pectus.
adv. [par, "equal"], equally; time, together.

n.

t?ie

breast; heart;

par -iter,
at the

mind.

name

pec-us,
[see pax].

Oris, n.

animals in general
:

panna,
a

ae, f . : a small target [Gr. irap/ii)].

round shield

par-o, 5vi, atum, are, 1, v. a.: to m^Uce or get ready ; to prepare. par-S, tis, f. [see Parca], a part, piece,
portion, etc.

pec-us, Qdis, f. (sing. " a single head of cattle "X plur. cattle in general [see pax].
:

pelagus,
sea (either

i,

n.

the sea, esp. the

Of persops

a part,

etc.

from root plak, "to^u;

138
i.e.,

VOCABULARY.
to glide through; tn pass udth glidii^ motion almtg ; to slrim almg.

" the beatinp thinp ;" cp. 7rA^<rcrtc, nAjjy^: platig-o, plaji.i, plecto, or from irAaf, TrAttTi)? : "flat;" cp. aequor, fr. aequus).
pello, pOpQli, pulsum, pellere,
to drive
irdpo;,
3, v. a.:
;"

per-misceo,
mixtum,

miscCii,
2,

mistum
v.
a.

and
[per, "], tn

miscCre,

nut or aivdi/ [root par, " to go

hence, " to

cause

to

ro
:

;'

cp.

nepdu},
;

TTOpCfid?,

trope via

porta, portus

"in thorouj;h/are "]. pelta, ae, f. a pclta, i.e., a target or small liiiht shield (in the shajie of a halfmoon) [root PAL, " to cover ;" cp. irdWa
Eng.
fare,
:

" thoroughly ;" misci'o, " to mix mingle together, intcrminile. per-mitto, mlsi, missnm, mittSre, 3, v. a. [per, " through ;" mitto, " to allow to go "], to grant permit, suffer, eta

per-solvo,
v.
a.

solvi,

sOlutum, solvere,

3,

[per.

pellis).

pay"]. return, render.

"completely;" solvo, "to Of a recompense, thanks: to


sOmli, sOnltum, sOnare,
1,

pendeo,
V. n.: to

pGpendi, no sup., pendcre,


;

2,

harvj doxon ; to be suspended be uplifted in the air ; to overhang.

to

per-sono,
v.
a.

"without force;" sono, "to sound forth ;" hence, " to pour forth in
[ptT,

pen-etro,
V.

etrSvi, etratum, Otrare, 1,

song,"

etc.], to fill

with song.

n.

[root

" entering,"
penetrate.

PEN, denoting the idea of " the interior "], to enter,

pen.itus,

wUhin ;

adv. [id.], deeply, far wholly, thoroughly, completely.


i,

temptavi, temptitum, temptare, 1, v. a. per, " thoroughly ;" tempto, "to handle;" heuce, "to try"], to pervade.

per-tempto,

jjenus, us and
food, provisions.

m. and

f.

[see pater],

go

pe.S, pfidis, _m. : o foot [root pad, "to ;" cp. TTarelv, jroSs, itcSt] : Eng. foot].

peplum.

i,

n.,

and peplus,

i,

m.

pes-tis,
perd-o,

tis,

f.

[see peltal (.the robe of state of Jlinerva

"to destroy

[prob. for perd-tis ; fr. "], destruction, ruin.

at Athens, with wliich her statue was solemnly invested every five j'ears, at the festival called Panathenaea hence), a splendid or sumjituous upper robe or
;

!<eek,

Ivi or li, itum, Sre, 3, v. a.: to proceed to or toxoards ; to desire, to ask for ; to endeavour to obtain ; to

peto,
to

garment ; a robe of state. through. per, prep. gov. ace. ca.se throuf/h, throughout, during ; Of time
:

atrive

after

[root
:

Tri-TTT-etv, TreVo/iai

pat, "to fly;" cp. penna (=pet-na), im-

pet-us].

all over, throv/jhuut, along.

pharetra, ae, f.: a quiver ['jyapirpa., "a quiver," as being "that which carries"
arrows].

per-aerr-o, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a, [per, " through ;" uger, agr-i, " a field "], to wander about, or through; to traverse.
'

a.

per-cello, c-ali, culsum, cellCre, 3, v. per in "augmentative force;" cello, "to impel"!, to strik:, whether physically
I

pic-tura, turae, f. [for pig-tur; fr. pi(n)g-o, " to paint ;" through root piq ; cp. TTot/ctAot: pictus], a painting, picture, whether in painting, mosaic, or any other mode of delineation.
pi-etas,
etatis,
f.

or mentally.

[pl-us;
;

see plus],
affection,
;

perciitio,
intensive
;

cussi, cussum [per, qualio, "to stiike"], strike.


Sre,
tfdi, latum, ferre, v. a. " without force ;" ffiro, " to

piety with respect to the gods dutifulness, love, tendei-ness pidrlotism.


a.

loyalty,

per-fero,
irreg.
[per,

bear"].

With
:

per.-onal

pron.,

in

reself.

flexive force

to

bear or betake one's


flatum, flare,
flo,

pi(n)g'0, pinxi, pictum, pinggre, 3, v. (" to paint ;" hence, of needlework), to embroider.

pingiois,
per-flo,
[per,
flavi, 1,

e, adj.:

v.

a.

"through;"

"to blow"],

pi-us,
:

a,

um,

a<1j.

faU Of persons

piovu,
;"

to

blow through.

devout, just [root pa, " to purify TTvp parus, putare].

cp.

per-go, rexi, rectum, gSre, 3, v. n. [for per-ri-gii ; fr. per, " quite ;" rfgo, "to make
straight"], to proceed,

plac-eo,
please.

ili,

goon.

Impers.

itum, Sre, placitum


:

2, v. n. : to (est), if lias

In speaking : Of one who has not yet spoken : to begin and go on ; la proceed.

pleased (me)

; i.e., it is

my

will.

plac-ldus,
" to
ful, idacid.

Ida,

idum,
calm,,

abj.

[pliic-eo,

i>lease "\, gentle,

mild, peace-

perl-culum,

ctlli,

n.

[obsol. perl or,

" to try "], danger, i^eril. per-labor, lapsus sum, Ifibi, 3, v. dep. [per, "through;" labor, "to glide"],

plac-O,

avi,

atum,

are, 1, v. a. [prob.

akin to plac-eo, "to please"], to pacify, appease, calm.

VOCABULARY.
il&gSi, ae,
ttAcitt),
f.

139
pOposci, no supine, poscCre,
3,

x.ict [root PLAT,

Of the sky "to extend ;"


:

a region,
V.

posco,

op. n-Aaxus,

AaTOS, jrAararos (=platus), platessa].

planta,

latUS

a.: to ask for, demand; to reqiiest [root park, " to ask pray for ;" cp. prox, precari, procus: posco=porsc-ere,

plau-sus, sus, ni. [for plaud-sus fr. plaud-o, "toclap;" hence, " to applaud "], applause.
;

postulare].

pot-sum

ple-nus,
fill "],

na,

filled, full.

full of [root
/it,

num, adj. With gen. PAL, "to fill ;"


TToAus
:

[pl6-o,
:

"to

filled with,

posse, v. irreg. for pot-is, " able ;" sum, " to be"], to bi able. With inf.: (I, etc.) can, could, etc., do, etc., something.
pOttii,
I

possum,
;

fr.

7rA)9(u

TToAi?,

cp. b-iV-ttAt)plere, plebs,

post, adv. and prep.


wards, hereafter.

Adv.

after-

po-pul-us, aniplus].

Piep. gov. ace: after.

plus, pluris, (plur. plures, plura), comp. adj. (see miiltus), contr. and pal, root of ple-o, changed fr. ple-or "to fill;" comparative suffix "or"],
;

lore, several, very

su|>. adj. (see tnultus) [PLB, root of plOo, "to fill "J. Of size : very great, very large, vast.
riiiia,

plu-rimus,

many. rimum,

hitbrii, hrdiitum, habere, "after;" habCo, "to have;" hence, "to hold or deem"], to esteem or re /iird less ; to consider of less impuvtance.
2, V. a. [post,

post-habeo,

adv. [post, ace. fern, of qui, " who, after that, ivhen.

post-quam,

quam,

" after ;" which "],

rain " or "

plu-vius, via, vium, adj. swim ;" root phi


pluit,

nXvveiv.
flood],

plorare,

[plQ-o, "to cp. n\v(iv, pluir.a; Eng.


;

rainy ; attended with or bringing


cQli,
n.:
;"

potens, ntis, (part. pres. of possum, but used only as) adj.: piowerful, mighty. With gen. having pcwer over; ruling over ; muster or rulei of,
;

rain.

p6tent-ia,
a cup,
goblet
:

lae,

f.

[potens, pctent-is,
4,

po-culum,
poena,
ae,

" powerful
[pot-is,

"],

might, force, power.


v.
:

[root PC, " to drink potio, bibo).


f. :

cp. niveiv, Trdtrts

pot-ior, itus sum, Iri, "powerful"]. With

dep.
to

abl.

get

offence committed see pius].

satisfaction for an ;" [root pu, " to purify


llceri, 2, v.

or take possession of.

praecipu-e,

adv. [praecipu-us, "espef.


:

cial "], especially.

poUiceor,
a.

licltussum,

dep.

praeda,
Xa(,v)S-di'etv

ae,

booty, spoil,
;

plunder

[for pot-liceor ; fr. inseparable prefix p6t, "much; liceor, "to bid" at an auction], to hold forth or promise a
n.

and

prey taken in the chase, etc. prae-hend-a root ohad, " to


;
:

game
;"

(for

seize

cp.

hed-era, prehendo, praebere


misi,

thing.

polus, i, m. [root pal, " to go hence, "the turning thing;" cp. ttoAo;, no\eu>], heaven, the heavens,

;"

( = praehibsre]. prae-mitto,

missum,
;"

mitt'ire,

3,

V.

a.

[prae,

" befofe

mitto,

" to

pond-U3,

pend-o, " to weigh

pono,

[for pend-us a weight. pOsui, posltum, ponere, 3, v.


Sris,

n.

fr.

send"], to send before or forwards ; io send in advance.

"],

prae-m-ium,
a.:
fr.

li.

n. [for

prae-em-Ium

to put, place, In I/; to lay aside; to assign, set; to put or liydoim,; to cast off. Of walls : to build. Laws, etc. : to enact.

"before;" em-o, reward, recompense.


prae,

"to take"],
adj.

praerup-tus,

ta,

turn,

[prae-

pontus,
p6pul-0,
U8,

i,

m.

the sea

a sea-wave,

ru(m)p-o, " to break off in front"], abrupt, precipitous, steep.

RS

hillou' [irdvTOs].

5vi,

atum,
to

5re, 1, v. a. [popul-

"a

people

"],

lay waste, devastate,

prae-S-ens, entis (abl. usually praesente of persons, praesenti of things), adj. [prae, "before;" s-um, "to he"}, present,
at hand, instant.

pot?.

po-piSl-us, i, m.: a people, nation; the people of a particular country, etc. [prob. for pol-p61 us fr. ttoAu?, "much;" plur. "many;" see plenus].
;

praesep-e,
fence in front
71), adj.
"].

is,

n.

Of bees

[praes:-p-io, : a hive.

"to

praesta-ns,

ntis (abl. praestanti, v, [praest(a)-o, "to stand before;"

por-ta,
city,

tae,
;

f.

house

an

[see pello], a gate of outlet, passage, etc.

a
to

hence, "to be superior"], superior, surpassing, distinguished.

por-to,

tfivi,

tatum,

tare, 1, v. a.

carry, convey [see pello].

prae-sto,

stiti,

stitum and

statum,

por-tus,

tus,

m. [akin to

por-ta],

harlxrur, haven, port.

stare, 1, v. a. [prae, " before ;" sto, " to stand"], to be superior; to surpass. Impers.: prae-stat, is ig better.

140
praetfer-ea, adv.
fr.

VOCABULARY.
[for

prueteream

praeter, "beyond;" earn, ace. sing, '"' this "J, hereajter, morefeni. of pron. is,
over, further.

cello,

procul, aiv. (raoctiL, a root of pro"to drive forwards"). Of place:


off.

at a distance, fir

pro-do,
verti,

versuni, vertgre, "before;" verto, "to V. a. [pra.-, S, turn "], to pre occupy, to take possession

prae-verto,

[pro,

ditum, dCre, "forth;" do, "to put"],


didi,

3,

v.

a.

to

betray

perfidiously.

profic-iscor, fectus sum,


V.

ficisci, S,
;'l

qf beforehand.

dep. n. inch, [pro, " forwards

fic-Io,

prae-vertor, versus sum,


dep.
speed.
[piae,

verti, 3, v.

"before;"
to

self"], to

outrun;
prcssi, reins: to

"to turn one's surpass, outstrip in


prC-mfire, 3, ti/jht ; to cover, etc., does; to the (.-iLose ; to

" to make "], to set out, go, proceed. pro-for, f.itus sum, fari, 1, v. dep, [pro, " forth, out ;" (for), " to speak ''j.
to s^ieak

out or jorth; to say.

premo,
V. a.

pressum,

Of overwhelm,

draw
flood,

as

a
in

jursue

closely

war,

pro'.ug-us, a, um, adj. [prOfOglo, "to flee forth or awa\ "], fieein<i from one^t country. As subst. protug-us, i. m.: a fugitive from ont^s country ; an exile.
:

oppress, weigh down ; to check, hold in check, restrain curb; to suppress, conceal, hide.

pro-fund-us,
wards;"
high.

a,

fund-us,

um, adj. [pr6, " for"the bottom "), rfeep,

pridem,
EufBx.

adv.: for

lon:i time.

[prl(=

prae)) "before;" dem., a Jemonstrative

progen-ies, lei, f. [proglgno, "to beget, or bring forth," through root obn, " to produce "], offspring.

prim-um, adv. [adverbial neut. of primus], firstly, in the first place, first
for the first time.

pro-Mbeo,
V.
a.

[for

prOhabeo

hibai, hibltum, hibfire, 2, ;" fr. prS, " before ;

hUbgo, " to hold


sup.
adj.
:

pri-mus, ma, mum,


prae-mus;
fr.

[for

With

"], to ward or keep off. abl.: to exclude, shut out, keep av>ay

suffix mus], first, primis (also as

prae, "before;" with sup. Phrase In the first. one word imprimis), amo7ig the first, i.e., chiefly, especially; the first to do something ; the first thut
the first part of that denoted subst. to which it is in attribution. prior.

from. pr-61-es,
" forth
;"

is, f. [for pro-ol-es ; fr. pro. OL, root of ol-esco, " to grow ;" Of persons: offspring, prosee altus].

geny.

by the Comp.
I

pro-luo,

iQi,

latum, I06re,
;"

3,

v.

a.

pro, " without force

Ido,

"to wash"],
3,
"],

to swill, drench.

prim-cap-s; fr. p.-imus, "first;" cip-Io, "to take"], Hrr,, foremost, chief, most eminent or

prin-cep-s,

cipis, adj. [for

promitto,
V.
a.

[pro,

mlsi, missum, mittere, "forth;" mitto, " to send


adj.

'

As subsc m. a chief, 'dii'inguished. lender, leading or principal person.


:

to

promise.

adj. [for prae-or ; fr. pri-or, prae, " before ;" with comp. suffix or], previous, former, prior often to be rendered first: BO, at vv. 321, 581. Sup.:
u,

comp.

Of things inbending forwards, headforemost, headlong [irpTji/^'s].


:

pronus,

clined

a, um, doumwards,

proper-o,
haste, be quick.

avi,

atum,

are,

1,

v.

n.

[prOperus, "hastening'], to hasten,

make
neut

primus.
prius quam (or, as one word, priusquam), before that; heforet'xme, previously.
of pri-or],' before, sooner
:

pri-us, comp. adv. [adverbial neuter

prop-ius, comp. adv.


of prOpI-or,

" nearer
a,

"],

[adverbial nearer.

proprius,

um,

adj.:

iwt in comLe., hi,

mon

with others; one's


ae,
f. :

own;

pro, prep. gov.


of,

abl. case

before, in

her, its owti.

front of; for, on behalf of; for, iiutead in the place of ; on account of [akin to
Gr. TTpo].

prora,

the
rupi,
;"

prow

or Iiead of a

vessel [Trpu>pa].

pro-rumpo,
acis,

proc-ax,
uanton.

adj. [see posco], bold,

3, V. a. [prO,

"forth

ruptum, rumpSre, rumpo, "to break"],

to break or burst forth.

ae, i [pr6cell o, "to drive for\vard ; see celer], a violent cind, storm, tempest, hurricane, pro-cer, ceris, m.: a chief, chieftain, loble [prob. pr6, "before;" ckr; see

procell-a,
dash

prospec-tus,
look out
;"

"to see ;" prospect.


3,

tus, m. [prosplcio, " to pro, " forward ;" root spbc, see scopulum], a dintant view,

elensj.

pro-spicio, V. n. aud a.

spexi, spectmn, eploiii-e, [for pro-epteSo ; A. pro,

VOCAfiULARY.
"forwards;" spScIo, "to look").
to look forwards, forth,

Ul

Neut.:
Act..: to

or out.

queis = qiiil)us, abl. pi ur. of qui. queror, questus sum, queri, 3, v. dep.
to

discern, descnj, espy.

complain o/T
qui,

proximus.
prop-simus
nearest.
;

a,

um,

fr.

obsol.

sup. adj. [for prOpis, "near "],

bewail.
rvho,

__^

to

complain, lament,
:

pii-bes,
the youth,

bis,

i.e.,

f. [prob. akin to pu-er], yourig men.


:

Relative quae, quod, pron. which. At the beginning of a clause instead of a conjunction and demonstra-

pu-er, eri, m. " to beget " cp.


;

a boy, lad [root pa, naU, wwAos : puer,

puella

Eng-. foal].

nae, f. [puo, "to strike;" root of pungo], afyht, bittle.

pupr-na,

and this, etc. With subj. (a) to denote a cause or reason as, inasmiuh as, because, since ; (b) to point out a purpose, etc.: for the purpose of ; thnt : in order to or that; to. quod., neut.: In as much as ; restrictive force=:quantum
tive pron.:
: : :

as far

chra, chruin, adj. [for polcher; fr. p61-io, "to polish"], beautiful, Comp.: pulchr-ior; sup.: pulcherfair.

pul-cher,

what.

Interrogative wlio, Indefinite anyone, any.


"S.
: :

which,

qui-cumque, quae-cumque,
cumque
cumque)
suffi.x

quod-

'at

rimus.

61C, in tmesis, quae pron. rel. [qui, " who ;" indef.
v.

me

pillvis,

eris,

m.: dust.

cumque], whoever, whosoever; whatetis, f.: rest,

puppis,
ship, v esfd,

is (ace.

puppim,
'
i

v. 115),

f.

a
a.

ever, whatsoever.

qui-es.
1, v.

repose,

from any;

pur-go,

gavi,

gatum, gare,

thing [akin to root


sleep
;"

Rl,

"to
lie

[pur-US, " clean

"], to

clear, clear oicay.

Gr. Kti-jiac, "to


fr.

down down "].


lie

to

purpur-eus, 6a, gum, adj. [pur piir-a, " purple "], bright coloured, purple.

[for quiet-SCO

escere, 3, v. n. quies, quigt-is, "rest;" root Ki, see quies], to rest, repose.
;

quie-sco, evl^ etum,

quiet-us,

a,

um,

qua, adv. [adverbial abl. fem. of qui see qui]. Relatively: M'/ipre. Ind Initelj': wherever: in whatever wa>i or manner ne qua, that in no way whatever ; in any way, by any means, luterjogatively in
:

be quiet ;" through root quiet, calm, peaceful, etc

adj. [quie-sco, " to ki, see quies],

what manner, how.

quaero, quaeslvi, quaesItum,quaerSre,


3, v.: to

qui-n, conj. [for qui-ne ; fr. qui, abl. of relative pron. qui, "who, which;" ne = non]. With subj. : that not, but that, without, from. To corroborate a statement : but indeed, verily, of a truth.

seek; to usk, enquire.


le,

.^
:

quinqu-a-ginta, num.

adj. indecl.

qua-lis,

adj.

what

sort or ki7id. Hort or land as ; such as.

Interrogative of Relative r/ such a


:

(" five tens ;" hence), fifty (for quinque-aginta; fr. quinque, 'five;" (a) "connecting vowel ;" ginta=(coi'Ta=" ten ].
'

qui],

adv. [adverbial ace. fem. of After comparative adjectives or adverbs, or words involving the idea of comparison or difference (alius, aliter), tlian prius quam, sooner than ; before

quam,
how.

conj. [for qui-pte ; fr. o"i, able of relative pronoun qui suffix ptej, inasmdch us, because. In an ironical sense certainly indeed, forsooth.
;
:

qui-ppe,

that.

quando,
qua-lis],
as.

conj.: because, since.

qua-ntus, nta, ntum, adj. [akin to how great: as great as; as much
qua-re, adv.
abl.

fem. of qui, and of

res].

Interrogative:
:

on what account f Relative for which reason, wherefore.

from what cause? wherefore ? why ?


1,

quas-so,
intens.

sa\i,

satum, sSre,

v.

a,

shake

knock about. qtiater, adv.. four times. and : que que, enclitic con j. as; partly and; as well que, 6o(/i
:

[for quat-so ; fr. "], to shatter, batter,

quat-Io,

"to

quis, quae, quid (gen. cujus dat. cui), pron. interrog. what person or thing? what sort of a person or thing? who f which oiie ? what ? Adverbial neut. Ace: quid, why f wherefore t [tl<;, "who? which?"]. quis, no fem. quid, pron. indef. anyone, anybody; anything: ne quis, that no one : neu quis, and that no one [ti?, " anyone "]. qui-squam, quae-quam, quic-quara or quid-quani, pron. indef. [quis, "any;
:

RS

T
V

one

quam], any, any whatever. anyone, anybody As subst., masc. Neut. anything.
;"

surtix

quis-quis, no fem., quod-quod or quidqid or quic-quid, pron. indef. [quis


reduplicated], whatever, whatsoever, per-

,pnrtly.

142
son
err

VOCABULARY.
thin^r.

As

subst.,

masc.

who-

n. intens. [for

ever, whosoever. soever.

Neut.: whnteier, what-

quo,
que-m,
or

adv. (for quo-m, old ace. of qui]. Of place

form of
to wliich

tch'it

place
:

whither,

where.

Of
fr.

plans, etc.

in

whit

return again and again. I'ed-do, d:di, ditum, dere, 3, v. a. [red (=re, with d for de demonstrative), " back ;" do, " to give "], to give back, return in answer.
"J,

nm

recurr-so;

fir.

recurr-o,

"to

back

to

direction, whither.
;

redoleo,
(re,

Clrii,

no sup.,

olere, 2, v. n.

quo-circa.

quom

adv. [for quom-circa

(old form of f)tieni), ace. sing, niasc. of qui; circa, "with respect to"], /or

with d or dc denaon. ; oleo, " to emit a scent"], to diffuse a scent; to be redolent.

which reason or cause, where/ore.

re-duco,
a. [re,
;

quondam, quoin, old foi m


suffix

adv. [for
;

quom-dam

fr.
;

of quern ace. of 1, qui dam], at a certain time; at one time, once upon a time, .formerly.

" back ;" or conduct back.

duxi, ductum, ducSre, 3, v. dfico, " to lead"], to lead


a,

reductus,
retired
;

um,

pa.
;

Of
deep.

locality

deeply situated

quoque,
" how

eonj.: alxo, too; placed after


adj. plur, indecl. [quOt-us,
,

the word to be emphasised.

redux, rcdOcis, adj. [for reduc-s rOduc-o, " to lead back "], returning.
[rZ,
;

fr.

quot, num.

many " how many ; qu6ve=^uo, ve v. SJiL


;

as

many as.

re-fero, tflli, latum, ferre, v. a. irreg. " back ;" furo see fOro], to brir./j or carry back or backwards; to bring back word; to report, announce, mention.
v.

quum, adv. and conj. [for quom, old form of quem, ace. of 1, qui]. Adv. when. Conj. as, dnce; seeing that.
:

re-fulgeo, fulsi, no sup., fulgere. n. [re, "back;" fulgeo, "flash"],


back or
reflect

2,

to

fla,^h

the light

to shine

brightly, etc.

re-fundo.
rab-ies, lem,
occur), f. [rab o, violence.
seize,"

fudi,
;"
:

(other eases do not " to rave "], rage, fury,


ie

a. [re,

" back

fusum, fundere, 3, v. fundo, " to pour "]. In

reflexive force

pour back.

rap-idus, ida, Idum, adi. [rap-Io, " to "to hurry onwards'"]. Of fire: fierce, consuming; hurrying onwards;
sunft, rapid.

reg-alis, ale, adj. [rex, reg.is, " a king "], of or belonging to a king ; kingly, royal, regal ; worthy of a king', spleiidid,
magnificent.

reg-ina,
ere, 3, v. a. [root to snntch, seize; to

Inae,

f.

[r6g-o,

"to

rule"],

rap-io, _ai, tum, rap: op. apn-diiu],

a queen.
reg'-ao, ionis, f. [reg-o, " to diaect"], a portion of vhe earth, etc., of indefinite extent; a territory, tract, region.

carry off or away ; to xilunder, ravage, etc. Of fire, etc., as object: to hasten for wards, promote, increase.
tavi, tatum, ture, 1, v. a. intens. [rap-Io, " to drag alonj,' "], to drag
!.'?'

.rap-to,

reg-ius, la. lum, adj. [rex, reg-is, "a king "], of or belonging to a king ; royal
princely, splendid, magnificent.

violently or hurriedly along.

rarus,

a,

um,
:

adj.:

here

and there;
ship [prob.

'^Tegn-o, avi, atum, num], tu reign, rule.

are, 1, v. n. [reg-

scattered about.

reg-num,
baric, vessel,

ni,

n.

[reg-o,

"to

rule"],

ratis, is, f. a akin to remus].

duminion, kingdom, realm.


hence,

sovereignty,

rule;
:

a
to

recens,

ntis, adj.

fresh.

ceptum, cipSre, 3, v. a. [for ro-capio fr. re, " back ;" cilplo, " to taki- "J, to get back ; to recover.
re-cipio,
cCpi,
;

rego, rexi, rectum, rSgere, 3, v. a. rule, govern, have supremacy over.


leave

reliqu-iae, Urum, "\, the remnant.


li,

f.

[reli(n)qu-o,

"to
,

re-cludo,
a.

clusi,

[ro,

denoting

clQsum, clfidCre, 3, v. " reversal ;" cludo=


to

ramigium,
the oarage.

n. [remlg-o,

"to row"

claudo,
reveal.

"to

shut, close"),

disdooe,

re-mordeo, no

perf.,

morsum, mor-

re-condo, condldi, eondltum, condOre, 3, a. a. [re, "without force;" condo, " to hide "], to hide, conceal.
rec-tus, ta, tum, adj. [for reg-tus ; f r. reg-o, " to lead straight], right, correct.

dure, 2, v. a. [rk, " without force ;" mor. duo, " to bite"], to vex, torment, disturb.

re-moveo,
V.
a.
[I'O,

movi, motum, mOvere, 2, " back ;" m6v6o, " to move "],
mi, m.
:

to

remove, withdraw.

re-mus,

recur-so, no

perf.

nor sup.,

sare,

1, r.

ret-mus. akin to

e-per-fio;,

an oar iprob. for "an oar," aa

VOCABULARY.
shine
:"

143
vOciW, v6catum, v6care, " back ;" voco, '" to call "], recall ; to restore, renew,

'''the
ro'.v ;"

rowing

thiii;r ;"
tv^-i

fr.

ipecrait,

" to
1,

re-v6co,
V. a.

throuffh

or

t'peT].

[re,

V.

re-pendo, pendi, pansum, pendere, 3, a. frc, "back again;" pendo, "to


repent-e,

to coll etc.

b'lck,

weigh"], to balance, counterbalance, compensate.


adv.
ptivi
a.
[r6,

rex,
rule
stiff
"],

regis,

m.

[for reg-s; fr. reg-o,

"to

a Idnj.
tii,

[repens,

repent-is,

rig-eo,

no
f.

sup., ere, 2,

v. n.

to be

"sucfden
petere, force of
etc.

"],

on a sudden, suddenl;/.
or
p6tii,
;"

\oX\n to ptyeu)].

re-peto,
3,

pCtrtum,
pC-to,

v.

"to

in fetch "J, to recount, detail,

" again

ri-ma, niae, ri(n)g-or, "to senn, etc.


ripa,
ae,
f.:

gape
the

[peihaps for rig-ma; fr. Of a vessel: a "J.

bink

of

river.

re-pono,
a.

posQi, pOsitum, ponCre,

3, v.

[rS

pono,
"',
"],

"to put or place"]


to reinstate; [re,

[iG,

robur,

rGbOris, n.: oak; strengh.


Itavi,

" back again


or away
3,
V. a.

"aside

to I'y or store tip.

re-quiro,

quaero. ask or enquire after.

qulsivi, quisltum, quircre, [for rciqiiaero. fr. re, "again;" "to seek"], to seek to know; to

Icatum itire, 1, v. a. " to asK "], to ask frequently or repeatedly ; to keep nsking.

r6g-itO,

freq. [rog-o,

ros-eus,
rose
'], roinj.

ea,

eum,

adj.

[r6s-a,

"a

rot-ci, ue,

res,

rei,

f.

tinn'j,

affair, circunustince. the state, commonwedth,


pe-tt),

matter, event, For res publica

"to drive
Plur.
:

;"

f. : o ivheel [root ra or ar, cp. ratio, rota, rotundus].

etc
;

[akin to

/^ rudens,

" to say or

ntis, m. : '/ rope, line, cord. the cordaje or rigging of a vessel

tell

''].

^-reses, Idis, adj. [for rCsids fr. resideo, " to remain behind ;" hence, " to be
or inactive"], sluggish, etc.
idle
[re,

ru-ina, inae, f. [ru-o, "to fall down"], a tumbling or /ailing down; a fall.

idle,

inactive, inert,

ru-O,
bottom.

i,

tum,

6re, 3, v. n.

and

a,

Neut.:

re-sido, sedi, no sup., sldere, 3, v. n. "without force;" side, "to seat one's
to seat one's self,

to fall with violence ; to rush, hasten, Act. : to cast or throw up from the etc.

self"],
sit

tke

one's seat,

doivn.
atiti,

re-si3tx3,
[re,

" back

;" sisto,

no sup., sistere, 3, v. n. " to stpnd "], to stand


tatum, tare,
l, v. a.

rup-es, is, f. [rumpo, " to break," through root RUp], a cliff, steep rock. rus, riiris (in plur. only in nom. and
aca), n.: the country.
Plur.: the fields.

still, halt, .''top.

respec-to,
tion
to, etc.

tavi,

Intens. [respicio, "to look at," through root spec], to regard, pay heed or atten-

sacer-do-s,
da-(t)s
;

tis,

comm.

gen. [for sacer-

re-spondeo, spondi, sponsum, spon dere, 2, v. n. [re, " in return ;" spondeo, " to promise soleinnl.v "]. With dat. : to
correspond or unswer to; agree or huriitonize vnth.

" sacred," see sacro DA, root of do, " to give "], a priest ; a
fr.

sac(e)r-i,

priestess.

sacr-i,

re-sto,
[re,

sttti,

no

"behind;"
left.

sup., stare, 1, v. n. sfcind"], to sto, "to

sa-cro, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a, [sicer, " sacred " to consecr te [root sag, "ti fasten;" hence, "to bind" by a religious ceremony cp. sancire, sanctus:
, ;

RS

cr<iTTii',

crdyna],
i

rem'iin, be
[re, in

saecLilum,
suplna,

[root sa,
;

"to sow;"
fr.

re-supinus,
the face upwards.
g;ere,

suplnum,

adj.

hence, a nenerjtion, age


cut, as
Kei'po)].

"intensive" force; sQpinus, "lyiii^' on the back "), lying on the back, or icith

tempus,

fr.

re/xi/w,

or or

seco, to
fr.

T
u

icoLpos,

saep-e, adv.
quent saep-io, round.
"
si,

surrectum, sur" again ;" surgo, " to rise "], to rise again. re-tego, texi, tectum, tegere. 3, v. a. denoting " reversal ;" tego, " to [re,

re-surgo,
3,

surrexi.

saep-is, [obsol. "], Jrcquenthj, often.

"freto suT'

v.

n. [re,

ptum,

6re,

3, a.

cover"), to disclose, reveal, discover.


[re,

saev-io, li, Itum, Ire, 4. v. n. [saev-us, fierce "], to be fierce ; to rage.

re-ViSO, vlsi, visum, "again;" viso, "to


revisit.

visere, 3, v. a. visit "j, to visit

again,

saevus, a, um, sA].: fierce, savage In a good sense : spiHted, daring, cruel. bold, valiant.

144

VOCABULARY.
sec-o,
canalis].
fti,

cp.

S&gitta, ae, f. [root sak, " sharp ;" saxum, secare], an arrmc. sal, silis, m. (rarely n.): the salt wntrr,
the briny ocean [akin
lenst,

tum,

are,

1,

v.

a.

[root SAK or SKA,

to cut

"to cut;"
:

cp. e.>t^, '

the sea, oA-os).

to oA?,

seciSlum,

i,

see saeculum.

saltern, adv.: at amihow.

at all events,

sal-um,

i,

n.:

the sea [Gr. aA?].

iindum, adj. [for sequ-undus, fr. sequor, "to follow"! favourable, prosperous, fortunate. Of a chariot speeding along, rapid, swift.
:

sec-undus,

und.a,

Salu-S, tis, f. [for salv-ts, fr. salv-eo, " to be well or in pood health "], safety,
welfare, profjieriti/, deliverance.

_^se-cur-us,

a,

um,

adj.

without; cur-a, " Qa.re"], without care, unconcerned, regardless.

[se

(=sine),

sanc-tus,
render sacred

ta,
;"

tum,

adj. [sane lo,

see sacer].

" to Of persons
:

sed,

coiij.

[an abl. of se:

sed], but, yet.

by itself" '

venerable, aitgust.

sangu-is,
stock, race.

tois,

blood; family,
;"

sedeo, sedi, sessuni, sedere, 2, v n to sit [akin to Gr. f ^o^ai (=5<roMat), Sans.'
root SAD,
'

to sit
is,
f.

"J.

sa-tor, toris, m. [sero, " to beget throu h root sa], a father.

sedes,
sed-ne,
etc.

[sCd-eo,
n.

"to
a

dwelling-place, abode.
ills,

sit "J,

saxum,
scaena,
root
SKIT,

i,

n.

[for

s^ag-sum

fr.

sak,

[id.],

teat,

bench,
fr.

"sharp;" see
ae,

sa<rittal,

huge

roujh

stone OT fraijment of rock.

ssditio,

"to background.

[Gr. Vk^'u'ij, " a tent ;" cover ; see scutiim], a stage;


f.

scelus,
wickedness.

eris, n.:

a wicked deed ;
:

guilt,

of eo, " to go ;" and so, "a going apart;" ace. to others fr. se, "apart ;" do, " to put ;" and so, a puttin-r apart, a separating"], insurrection, sedition.

(=sine), " apart

or.is, f.: [ace. ;" i, root

to

some

sed

sceptrum, i, n. a royal staff, a sceptre; kingdom, sovereignty, dominion, rule [aKTiTTTpov, "a staff," as that on wliieh one leans or supports one's self.
scilicet, adverb
:

se-mi-ta, tae, f. [for se-me-ta ; fr. se, aside;' me-o, "to go"], a by-way; u path, footpath.

forsooth,

you m,ust

scissum, scindere, 3, v. With personal pron. in reflexive force: a. to divide, separate, part asunder [root scii), "to cleave;" cp. o-xi^ui ; caedo, aielura (=caedlum, " a chisel "), caemenscidi,

know [scire, SCindo,

licet].

semper, adv.: ever, always, at all times [root sam, from pronominal sa, together with ;" cp. a^<x, bti.6^, 6/iioios
simul, semel, similis, singulij.

sen-atus,
old

atiis,

man "],

m.
;

or assembly
[for sex-ni

the senate of elders.

i.e.,

[senex, sSn-is, the council

tuin].

se-ni, nae, ni, num, distrib. adj. plur fr. sex, " six "], six. ;

scintilla,
amvBrip].

ae,

f.

a spark [akin to

sentent-ia,
of thinking;
r^olve.

lae,

f.

[for sentlent-Ia

sclo, scivi and scli, scitum, scire, 4, v. to know, perceive, have kn avUdge of.
,

sentiens, sentient-is,

an

" thining "J, a way opinion; purpose, will. sen tire,


4,

fr

With

inf.

to Imuio
i,

how
:

to do.

SCopulus,
spectare].

m.

a projecting point

^
'

of rock ; a rock, cliff, crag froot spar, " to see ;" cp. (jKen-rOfiai, (TKottos ; specio

sentio, sensi, sensum, to perceive, observe ; to


or

a.-

aware

become sensible
indecl.
:

of.

sept-em, num.
[eiTT-a].

adj.

seven
ord.

SCU-tum,

ti,

n.

a shield of oblong

shape, covered with leather [root sku, " to cover ;" cp. axevr), (tkOto^, KiuSeii'
cutis, oliscurus].

Septimus,

Ima,

Imum, num.

adj. [sept-ein, "seven"], seventh.

sequ-or, utus
sui.

se, ace. and abl. of

dep.
the
;

secessus,
rirCfiS.

sOs,

m.

[for seced-sus

example

{or sec-) sum, 1, 3 v to follow, follow after; to follow


of,

fr.

imitate;

to

8eced-o, "to retire, withdraw"], a retreat,


clusi, clusum, clOdure, 3, v. "apart;' cU'ido (=claudo), " lo shut"]. Of cares, etc.: to dismiss, exa. [se,

si-cludo,

to detail or narr:te in succession ; to follow in pursuit ; to pursue (root SAK, "to follow;" cp. eVo/iat.
cTrer)?, oirAo;'
;

narration;

follow in

secundus, socius].

seren-o,
[seren-us,

avi,

ciaje.

atum,
I

are,

"clear"

.a.

root

swar,

"to

VOCABULARY.
shine ;r cp. oei/tuK, aeXwt, o-cA^jtj ; soL: En^. swart, sultry), to clear, eU <r up.

145

ser-ies, lei, i. (sr-o, "to joinl, a tvceetsUm, $eries,

at-i. Unm, ire, 1, v. a. (sodus, friend, oooipanion, etc.], to join with one^s gelf, eic ; to uttiie, axsodate.

sdci-O.

"a

ser-mo, monis, m. roontmonly


ferred to sOr-o,

re-

SOCIUS, li, m.: a friend, companion, eomrude (see sequor].


sol,
sulls,

"to connect "I


n.
raer-o,

talk, eoti-

m. :

t}ie

sun

(see sereno].

venation, diieoune.

ser-tum,
entwine
"
,

ti,

" to

iriait

or

a ffurland, wreath.
Itfi,

s6l-eo, ItoB sum, ere, 2, v. semi-dep. n.: to be aeeuttomed or leont.

serv-itium,

n.

'serv-os

"a

slaTe**], slavery, tervitxide,


1, v. a. [root cp. oA-o$, salvos, servos, salvni, solus], to preserve, protect; to keep, retain, etc

EAR or SAL, " to keep

servo,

avi, atiim, are,


;"

sdlium, Q, n. [prob. akin to sol-om see solum, a seat; a chair of state, thrune, etc.
SOlor, atos sum, ari, comfort solace console.
1,

r.

dep.

to

sol-um,
in sed-C,

i,

seu

see sive.

" to
a,

n. [pn.tb. sit"), the

fr.

root
;

sol^sed
soil.

ground^

si, conj.: if.

solus,

nm,

(gen. solius

dat

soliX

^^

ei-C [apocopated from a-ce; i.e., si, udn to hie,, is, ita ; demonstrative suffix oe], in thi* manner, in gueh a manner, In introducing a statement : tn $0, thus. the following loay, as foUowt. In condoding a statement: t/iU manner, thw, in the foregoinj icay ; to exieh a

adj. : along ; the only on,^

so-lvo. hi, Intum,


sS-lQo
;

fr.

se,

" apart

Ivere, 3, v. a. [for

loosen

to render powerless from the effects of cold ; to paralyte. Of fear : to ditmist, get rid of, cast of.
'1,

Iflo,

" to

degree, to

much.

som-mos,
s6n-0,
Neut.
:

ni,

m.
;

sUep

a dream
root svap.
n.

sid-iiS, cris, n. [see serenoj, a ttar.


statue,

[akin to Gr. Hv-roi " to sleep "J.


Oi,

sopor,

fr.

" silent "H. a being

signura, i, n. a tol-en or sign ; a image ; a pjure, device. aOent-iura, Q, n. (silens, gUent-is,


:

itum, are,

1,

v.

and

a.

tilent ; silent, stid-

to.sound, resound. Act : to qioe forth the sound of anything (akin to root SVAS, "to sound T.

sonor-us,

a,

nm,

adj.

[san-o,

^-eo,
tilent.

tli,

no

sop., ere. 2, v. n.
v.

to be

"sound"], resounding, loud sounding,


roiring.

sQex.
L),

Icis (abL alid, a JUnt, jtMrStCTte.


f.:

174X m. (rarely

silv-a, ae,

a teood
:

s6p-io, ivi or itum. Ire 4, v. a.: to jmt or luU to fleep ; to cause to sleep [akin to root SVAP, "to sleep"].

[vX/'-ijJ.

Tm

Tlia, Oe, adj.


:

Hie

[see seiuper].

soror,

oris,

t: a sitter.
is

Sim-ul, adv.
semper].

at the

same time
1, v. a.

[see

sor-s, tis, L: a tot by which a thing determined lot, Le.,fate, destiny.


;

simulo,

avi,

atom, are,

[for

sparge,
V. a.

spaisi,
:

simllo; fr. simlLis, "Uke"], to asaume the aippearanee of ; feym, counterfeit.

Of persons

sparsum, q>ar^'cre, 3, to disperse, scatter.^


ari, 1, t.
"],

speciSl-or, atus sum,

" if ;" ne, " not "I, however; hut if.


^X\&, prep.

Sl-n, conj. [shortened


>/

fr.

si-ne

fr, si,

on the contrary ; if

[spcc&l-a, " a look-out place for, observe, watch

dep.

to look oui

si>eliinc-a,

ae,

gov. " tigaiX'^ withmct,

abL [akin to

s^
spemo,
a.
:

cave,

eavem

sm-grulixs, gfila, gfilnm (mostly plor.X hs adj. : one by one, one after another, sabet. singula, onim, n. plur.: individMol things; each thing [see semper].
:

V.

sprevi, gpretom, q>emere, 3, to despise, aight, contemn [root SPEE or SPEE, akin to root SPHt-E, "to Gr. (rs-a^Kuro-ta, "to tear, rend," destroy

etc. J.

^no,

flivi,

dtom,
:

sinere, 4, v. a.

to

aOov, permit, tufer. the hangirtg fold of sinus, OS, m. a dress ; a 6ay, fiarbour, gulf. si-ve (contr. seu), oonj. (si, " if ;" ve, sive (seuX "or"l or if; sive (seu) or wh e ther. ..or; whether

sper-O, avi, atum, are, l,y.sL.: to hope for; to expect; to bear something in

mind ; tobi aegured of fomething.


spes,
spi,
f.

;for sper-s

fr.

sper-o

the word, in some old writers, being found in the forms speres and speribusj, hope, expectation.

146
spiro,

VOCABULARY.

\
.Iv.i,

atniTi, are, 1, V. a.

lo give

one's self,"
suit.

etc.],

eagerness,

eager pur:

forth, emit, exivde.

Co,

splend-ldus, Ida, Idum, adj. [splend"to sliiiie or be briffht"], hrilliunt,

stiip-eo,

fli,

no sup.,
;

Cre, 2, v. n.

to

uplendid, shining.

spol-ium,

li,

n.

arms, armour,

etc.,

stripped off a fallen foe; spoil, booty, plunder. sponda, ae, t.: a couch, etc. spu-raa, mac, f. [spO-o, " to spit "], foam, whether of the mouth or of the
sea.

be amazed or astounded [akiu eitlier to Or. tutt-to), " to beat;" root tup, "to hurt" or to root STiniBFi, " to stupefy "]. be struck anhast
to

SUadeo,
a.:

suasi, suasum, suadCre, 2, v. to advise, recommend, etc. [akin to


"].

root svAD, " to please

spum-O,

avi,

[spum-a, "foam"],

.atum, are, to foam,.

1,

v.

n.

prep. gov. aco. and abl. : under, beneath. Of time at the approach of, towards ; v. 662 [akin lo Gr. inr-d].
:

sub,

adj. [st{a)-o, sta-bilis, bile, stand"], firm, endurinii, etc.

" to

Sta-gnum, fjni, n. [id.], a piece of standing water; n pool, -pond, swamp, Plur.: twier* in general. fen.

sub-diico, duxi, ductum, ducCre, 3, a. [siib, "from below;" duco, "to draw "]. Gf the vessels of the ancients to dram or hatil up on land. sub eo, Ivi or li, Itiim, Ire, v. n. and a. [sub; eo, "to go"]. Neut: [sOb, "toV.

V Statuo,

wards

"],

to

proceed,

appjroach.

Act.

statOi, statutum, stattiCre, 3, V. a. [status, uncontr. g-en. statu-is, "a standing- position"], to plice put set ; to build, erect.

[sub, " under"], to enter a place.


egi, actum, Igere, 3, v. a, sub ago fr. sQb, "under;" ago, "to put in motion'], to subdue, vanquish. subit-o, adv. [saWt-us, "sudden"], suddenly, on a sudden. high, on high, sublimis, e, adj.

Sub-igO,

[for

stratum, .stemere, 3, V. a.: to spread, sprend out; to hrinrj to the ffiound, prostrate, ovtrlhrow [root STR.\ akin to 6r. o-ropcVimjui : stratus].
stravi,
;

Sterno,,

Stip-O,
togetlter,

p ';
race,

to

avi, atum, are, 1, v. a.: to press compress; to surround, encomraccompany, attend upon.
is,

aloft.

sub-mergo, mersi, mersum, merggre,


3, V. a.

plunge"!,

[sub, to
;

" beneath ;" mergo, " to plunge another beneath


nectfire,

Stirps,
Sto,

L (rarely m.), a stem,

stock,

something
3, V. a.

to

sink or overwhelm.
necto, "to bind

hneage.
stSti,
:

statum, stare, 1, v. n.: to sttnd. Of care, for a person to stand in, he centered in ; to stand firm, remain stMnding[ak\n to Gr. crra-ai, i-(rTT)-;ui].
[stemo, " to spread ;" hence, "to cover"]. Of roads, etc.: the

sub-necto, noperf., nexum,


[sub,

"beneath
tie,

;''

or tie

"], to

bind,

or fasten beneath or

below.

Stra-tum,

ti,

n.

pavement:
roads.

strata viarum (the pavements


i.e.^,

of the ways,

the

paved ways or

subnixus, a, um, p. perf. of obsoL verb, subnitor [fr. sub, "beneath;" nitor, "to lean upon "J. With abl.: supported b'j, reclining or resting on.
sub-rideo,
a.
(silh, little ; to sm,ile.
i"lsi,

no

sup., ridere, 2, v.

strep itus, make a noise "]. a

Itus,

[atrep-o, noise, din.

m.

"to

denoting "diminution;" nd6o, "to laugh"], to laugh somewhat, or a

strid-eo, i, no sup., ere, 3, v. n.; also Strid-O, i, no sup., ire, 3, v. n. Of a to creak. Of a stonn to whistle, hing-e Of the wings of birds to howl, roar.
:
:
:

volvi, vOlutum, volvgre, 3, [sub, " without force ;" volvo, " to roll "], to roll, roll along.
v.
a.

subvolvo,

whirr, rustle.

m. [strldeo, "to make a harsh or grating sound "]. Of the cordage of a ship a creahing.
Stridor,
:

oris,

stringo,
S, V. a.
:

strinxi, strictum, stringfire, to cut down, lop off, in order to


xi,

cessum, cedere, 3, v. sub cedo, " to go ;" sQb, "below"]. With dat. : to go beloie [sub, ." towards or up to "]. or under, With dat. : to go towards or up to ; to approach, draw near to.
cessi,
;

suc-cedo,

n. [for sub-ccdo

fr.

make. stru-O,
or pile

SUC-cingO,
V. a. [for

cinxi, cinctum, cingCre, 3,


;

sub-gingo
girt.

fr.

ctum,

Cre, 3, v. a.

to

heap

up;" eingo, "to gird"].


girded or
V. n. [for

sub, ' upwards, Pass.: to be

up ;

to set

to Gr. arop-fvvviiL

in order, arrange [akin ; see stemo].


n.

suc-curro,

curri,
;

Stiid-ium,

li,

[stQd-eo, " to

busy

sub-curro

fr.

cursum, currere, 3, sub, " towards or

vocabulakY.
up
to ;" curro,

h;
;"

"to run"],
fudi,
;

to aid, assist,

" upwards, up
or direct
"],

rOgo,

"to lead
a hog

straight
[Gr. 5v,

tuccour.

to rise arise, etc.

aub-fundo fr. sub, " beneath ;" funilo, "to pour upon"], to overspreid,
V. a. I^for

suf-fundo,

fusiim,

fundSre,

3,

SUS,
" a hog
a.

stiis,

comm.

gen.:

"J.

suffuse.

sui (dat. sibi ; ace. and abl. se, or reduplicated sese), pron. pers. sing, and plur.: of himself, herself, itself, or themselves.

cepi, ceptuni, ciiere, 3, v. subs-capio ; fr. subs ( = siib), "without force;" cSpio, "to take"], to
[for

SUS cipio,

take, receive.

sulcus,,

i,

m.: a furroiv [Gr. oAkos].

With dat.: frti, esse, v. n.: to be. to belon:j to one [root as, " to be ;" in perf. tenses and in fut. part, akin to root Biiu, "to be "].
Adv.: in adwith ace. or abl. With ace: (a) over, (b) upon, on the With abl. top of, (c) above, beyond. respectinj, concerning, about [akin to
adv. and prep. dition, inoreover. Prep.,

sum,

pendi, pensum, pendere, subs pendo fr. subs (=sfib), "beneath ;" pcndo, " to hang"], to hang up, to sus]:end.
3, v. a. [for
;

suspendo,

su-spicio,
fr.

spexi,
to look
spirrivi,

spectuni,

subs (=sab),

"from beneath
up
to

;"

spIcCre spCcio,

" to behold"],

or

at.

super,

su-spiro,
1,

splatum,
;

splrare,

[for subs-spTio fr. subs (=sQb), "fiom below;" spiro, "to breathe "], to dr^iw a deep bre th; to heave a sigh ; to
v. n.

sigh.

suum,
superb-ia, lae, f. [superb-us, "proud"],
pride, hnughtiness

gen. plur. of sua.


a,

SU-US,
ing

um, pron.

poss.

[stt-i],

belong-

super-bus,

ba,

bum,

to himself, his
is, f.:

own.

adj.

[siiper,

"above"], proud,

hiujhty,
perf.

arroijunt

syrtis,

a sand-banJc in the sea.

splendid, gorgeous, superb.

super-emineo, no
gmincre,
2, v. a.

nor

sup.,

[super,
to

"above;" emlnCo,
above or higher stand higher
are, v. a.

"to project"],
than something;
th
'U.

rise

to over-top,

tab-eo, no peff. nor sup., ere, 2, v. n.: to pine or tvaste away [perhaps akin to T)jK-w, Doric TaK-co].

super-o,
[super,

avi,

atum,

and

n.

^^ tab-ula,

"over"]. Aec. : to pass over, cross; to overcome, overpower, destroy. Neut.: to have the upper hand; to be overpowering.

tllae. f.: a board, plank, [prob. akin to ran, root of Te/ji-t'u>, " to cut ;" and so, " the cut thing "].

tac-itus, ita, itum, adj. be silent "], silent, still, etc.


:

[tac-Co,

" to

super-sum,
remiin, survive.

fQi,

esse, v.

n. I'sflper,

"over and above;" sum, "to be"],

to

Super-us,
"above"], that

a,

um,
above,

adj.

[snpJr,

ta-lis, le^, adj. of such a Idnd, stich. subst. : talia, ium, n. plur. such things, s7tch words Iprob. akin to demonstr. pron. root to, "this," and Gr.

As

on high. As subst.: superi, orum (um, v. 4), m. plur.:


is

article to].

the gods above, the celestial deities. Sup.: a, um highest, loftiest ; the highest or loftiest part of that denoted by the subst. to which it is in attribution the top of; S'upreme ; mightiest; most import int ; main, principal. Comp. sfipOr-Ior also another sup. suprcmns.

tarn, adv. [prob. akin to


adj.: so, so very.

talis].

With

summus,

tamen,
of tarn],

tandem,

adv. [prob. a lengthened form for (dl that, notwithst mdinij, adv. [tor tendem tarn,
;

"so;" with demonstrative suffix dem], at length, finally ; pray now; I, etc., proy thee.
ta(n)g'-0, tetlgi, tactum, tangcrc, 3, v. to touch. Of the feelings: to move, excite, affect [root tao, akin to diy--^di'M].
a.:

T
u

Supplex,

icis,

oomm.

gen. [sup[ile.x,

"suppliant"], a suppliant or supplicant.

supplic-iter, adv. 'supplex, supplicis, " suppliant "] (after the manner of the
supplex; hence), suppli'mtly, ax a supsappli nt, or as suppli-nts ; humbly, submissively.

tant-um,
so

adv. [tant-us,

"so much

"],

sura,

ae,

f.

tfie

calf of the leg.


3,
;

adj. : so much ; so great or large in size ; so great or im-

much, so gre itly. tant-us, a, um,

portmt.
v.

rectum, gcre, sur-go, contr. fr. sur-rego, for subrC-go


rexi,

n.

tar-dus,
dus
;

da,

dum,

fr.

sub.

fr. tr3,h-o],

adj. fprob. for trah slow, tardy.

148
taiir-inus,

VOCABULARY.
t6nus,
abl.:

in, Imim, adj. [taurus, bull"), of or belu/iginy to a bull; a hull' 6; bull.

"a

prep, (put after as far as, up to.


[tres,

its case),

gov.

ter, num. adv.


inserted),

tr-ium (with
thrice.
iris,
:

taurus,
tec-tum,

i,

m.:

a bull [Gr. ravpoi;

" three"], three times,


i,

akin to Anjflo Saxon "steer"].


ti,

" steor
;

;"

Enif.

tergum,
back.

tergus,

n. [for
;

tep-tum

fr.

tC^'O],

For a tergo, see ab. hide of an animal.


:

n. : the the skin or

the roof o( a building building.

a house, dwelling,

tergus, Oris see tergum. termin-o, avi, atum, fire,

1,

v.

a.

teg-men,
:

minis, n. [tugo, "to cover"].

Of animals tollus, una, L: a land, country. telum, i, n. a weapon, whether lor hurling or for close combat [usually re:

a skin, hide.

!teniiin-us, " a bound, or boundary "], to Unit, circumscribe, bound.


[tres,

ter-ni, nae, na, num. distrib. adj. plur. tr-Ium (with e inserted), "three"].
tres
:

For

three.
;

ferred to Gr. T>)Ae, "far off ;" but rather for tend-him, fr. tend-o, in force of "to launch nr hurl a weapon ;" and so, " the thing launched or hurled "].

temno,
V.

a.

to

tempsi, no sup., temncre, 3, despise, scorn, make light of,

contemn (akm to Gr. riy-via, "to cut;" and so, " to cut, or cut off "]. temper-O, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a.
[prob. for temp6r-o
is,
;

(/le rae, f.: the earth, as such earth, soil, iiruund ; a laud or country. Orbis trrarum, or simply tcrrae {the circle of lands ; the lands ; i.e.), the earth, the world, the globe [prob. akin to Gr. repo-oMttt. "to be or become dry;" ro >t trish (tarsh), "to thirst").

ter-ra,

terr-eo,

ili,

Itum, ere,

2,

v.

a.

to

fr.

tcuipus, tempOr-

frighten, terrify [akin to root [trab, tremble;" and in causative force,

"to "to

etymological meaning of " a section, portion "], to rule, regulate, govern, rein

cause to tremble

"].

strain^ etc.

tlum, adj. [tres, tr-ium (with e insterted), " three "], third.
tia

ter-tius,

tempes-tas,
fr.
:

tatis,

l.

[for

temper-tas

test-udo,
of animals),

udinis,
n.

f.

[test-a,
iii

"a

shell,"

tempus, old gen. tempor-is, as proved by existing adverbial abl. tempfiri]. Of weather in a bad sense storm, tempest.
pli, n. a temple, as a place dedicated to some deity [akin to Gr. Tt>-ru., " to cut ;" hence, buildings or lands allotted for religious purposes.

an

arch, vault,
i,
:

buildings.

theatrum,
ing sights],

o theatre [eiarpov

" that which serves for seeing or behold-

tem-plum,

ttiesauxus,
[Sijtrai-pos].

i,

m.

treasure

thymum,
tim-eo,
tim-or,
iii,

i,

tem-ptis,

a
\
N[-^

pCris, n. [akin to templum], portion of time; a time,- season ; time

m.: thyme [du^o?]. no sup., ere, 2, v.


of.

a.:

to

fear, dread, be afraid


oris,

in general.

m.

[tIm-eo,

" to fear

"J,

tendo,

tetendi,

/'tendere, 3, v. a. out or forth; to extend;


:

tensum or tentum. and n. Act.: to stretch


turn, bend, or With course, etc.
to

fear, dread, terror.

tinguo,
a.
:

tinxi, tinctum, tinguSre, 3, v.

direct one's steps, to strive, endeavour, objective clause use exertion or e/ort that something be to bend one's way or Neut. done. course ; strive, endeavour [akin to nv, root of TetVw]. ten-eo, fli, tum, ere, 2, v. a. [akin to ten-do], to hold, keep, have; to hold or keep 2Jossession of; to reach, gain, or arrive at a place ; to hold fast ; to hold back, detain. With iter, etc.: to hold on one's course, betid one's way, proceed.
:

With personal pron. in reflexive force to plunge one's sei/ [reyyio].

tog-atus, ata, atum, adj. [tog-a, "a toga ;" the outer garment worn by Roman citizens in time of peace^, provided vnth or wearing a toga; toga-wearing : gens, togata, the toga-wearing nation, i.e., the

Roman

people.

NJ- tollo, sustali, sublatum, toUSre, 8, v. a.: to lift up, raise, uplift [root tol, akin

to root TUL,

"to

lift;"

Gr. tK-om,

"to
2,

ten-to,
intens.

tavi,

tatmn,
to

[tdn-fio],

tare, 1, v. a. try, attempt, essay,

* tondeo,
v. a.
;

"i^ar"].

totondi,
torsi,

tonsum tondere,

L^
\

to shear, clip.

endeavour.

torqu-eo,
li,

torsum and tortum,

tentor-ium,

n. [tendo,

"to stretch

out ;" through obsol. tentor, tentor-is, " a stretcher-out" of something], a tent.

torquere, 2, v. a. : to whirl around ; to fiing with force or violence ; to hurl [akin to Gr. repir-m, " to tUm "J.

VOCABULARY.
torreo,
.

149
Ida,

tornii, tostuni, torrere, 2. v. Of corn, etc. : to roast, to hxtrn.


i, m.: o couch [=(s)tor-us see hence, " the covered thing "].
;

tum-idus,
" to swell
"],

Mum,

adj.

[tilm-co,

su'clUmj, su-ollen.
tfitudi,

parch.

tu(n)dO,
;

torus,
sterno

^|v. a.: to strike, ("tud, "to strike

tunsum, tMiidCre, 3, beat, smite [akin to root


:

"J.
f.

tot, num. adj. indecl.: so

many.

turba,
thronj [Gr.

ae,

croicd,

multitude,

tot-idem, num. adj. indecl. [tot, "so many"], just so many, or as many. tot-ies, num. adv. [id.], so manij, so
often.

rOp^Tj].

turbo,
to

d stm-b, agitate, confuse;

disorder
ta,
:

avi, atuni, are, 1, v. a. [turba], to throw into or coi'ftisivn.

turn (gen. tOtius dat. tiiti), hence, the ^vhnle or entire ; the adj. loholc oj [akin to root Ti', in meaning of " to increase "J.

to-tus,
;

violently
l9ii-o<;,

turb-o, mis, m. [1, turb-o, "to move "J, a whirtwind, hurricane.


tii-s, ris, n. : incense, frankincense Oi-eiv, "to sacrifice"].
[ttt-iior,

trab-S,

is,

f.

a beam [akin to
tractum,
;

trpdn-

tu-tus, ta, tum, adj. tect"), safe, in safety.

"to proti'i-i],

traho,
a.:

traxi,

to

drag away, or alow/;


to
jcci,
;

trithCre, 3, v. to draff or

tu-us,

a,

um, pron.

poss. [tu,

pull along gej]t\y

draw forth.
3,

tra-jicTo,
a.

jectum, jicCre,
fr.

v.

thy, thine; your. m. plur. : thy follou'ers.

Assubst.: tui, Orum, or your friends or


v.--.

[for

tra-jacio
;" j.1cio,

" through

tra ( = trans) " to cast "], to pierce.


ii,

tyrannus,
power contrary
[rupafros].

i,

m.

originally,

a mon-

arch, sovereign,

who

obtained sujjreme

trans-eo,

ivi

or

itum,

ire,

v. a.

to the institutions of his

irreg. [trans, "beyond; eo, time : to pass by, elapse.

"to go"]. Of
ferre, v. a. carry"], to

country; opposed to ^aeriA^.s, an hereditary possessor of royalty; a despot, tyrant

trans-fero,
[trans,

tnli,

Iritum,

"across;"

foro,

"to

u. uber, eris, n. (" a teat, etc.; hence), fertility, frxiilfulness, richness (akin to Gr. ovt^ap cf. Eng. "udder '.
;

transjer.

trans-f igo,
[trans,

fixi,
;"

fixum, figere,
figo,

3, v. a.

" tlnough
pierce

piercing, transfix.

"],

to

" to fix by pierce through,

u-bi, adv. [akin to qu-ij. Of time tvhcn ; as soou as. Of place where.
:

sup., mCro, 3, v. n.: to tremble quiver, etc. [akin to Or. rpe'-w].

tre-rao,

mfii,

no

ubi-que, adv.
sultix],

[Qbi, no. 2
it

wherever
la,

may

que, indef. be; anywhere;


;

tres,
Tpeisj.

tria,

num.
ntis,

adj. plur.

three [Gr.

euergwiierc.

Ul-lus,
masc. [tridens, "having

tridens,

adj. [foruti-lus;
:

three teeth or tines"],

three-tined spear,
plur.
indecl.

a trident. tri-ginta,
I

non ulliis, m. any man, anyone.

(gen. ulllus ; dat. ulli), Qn-us, "one"], any: 7iot any, none, no. As subst.,
fr.

lum

num.

adj.

umbra,

ae,

" three :" gtnta = Kovra " ten " (" three tens ;" i.e.), thirty.
tres,
tri-a,

shade, spirit, person.

f. : shade, shadow; the or ghost of a departed

tri6n-es,-uin,
vs. 744].

the

wain

[see note,

timect-o,
moisten,
wet, sudoi-, sudus].

are, avi,

atum,

1, v. n.: to
ijeiv,

_^
te,
:

bedew
i,

[connected
Jj/jios,

tris-tis,

Comp.

trist-Ior

sorrow/tilsup. trist-isslnms (proba<:lj.


:

sad,

umer-us,
shoulder
"],

m. [akin to

"a

akin to root TiiAS,


literally,
tli, tfii (plur.

"to tremble;" and "trembling"].


thou,

the shoulder.

so.

"one"],

un-a, adv. [adverbial abl. of un-us, at one and the same time,

pron. pers.
T.;].

vos, vestrum or vestri), you [av, Doric form,


sum,
eri,

together.

unc-us, a, um, adj. [unc-us, "a hook"],


hooked, bent, curced.

tu-eor,
look, behold

Itus
;

2, v.

dep.: to

unda,
u-nde,

ae,

f.

to protect, defend.

" to wet or moisten "j.


rel.

water [akin to root und,


;

tuna
series
:

to

adv.: at that time; then. In a then, in the next place [prob. akin deraonstr. root to Or. tqj.
;

" who, which

"].

adv. [for cu-nde fr. qu-i, Of persons or things


:

from whom

or which

whence.

i.-.o

VOCABULARY.
a,

un-US,
but at
V.

uin

(yren.
;

41 UTiIiis

;at V. 329 tributed"]. peraon, one

or

itself,

wilh Assubst., m.: one man, o>ic almiK, nhif/lf, by one's self, : apart J rum others [akin t.o e's,

generally iinlus dat. uni), adj. one gcti. of "thing dis:

vela-men, minis, n [vel(a)-o, " to cover"] ("that which covers;" hence), a garment, dress, clothing, etc.
velitn, pres. subj. of volo.

tv-6<;].

urb-3, is, f. [prob. urb-o, "to mark out with a plough "J, a city, a tcalled
town.

yel-i-v6l-us, a, um, adj. [vchim, " a sail;" (i) connecting vowel; vOl-o, "to fly"), sail -fly ! ny ; winged with sails; an epithet of both ships and the sea.

vel-um,
uisi,

li,

n. [prob.
:

vehlum;

fr.

urgueo,
a.
:

sup., urguCre, 2, v. to drive, force, ptish, imjjcl.


a.
:

no

Of ships xanvas, covering, etc


"].

" to carry

a sail. Of
[vul,

vCh-o, tnt8

tiro, ussi, ustuin, urcre, 3, v. pall, fret, chafe, vex.

to

vel-ut, (-uti), adv. " as "J, e ven a s, j ust as,

" even

;"

ut,

like as.

u-s-quam,
inserted,
.-iiid

adv. [akin to qui, with


,

(s)

veluti
hunt
"],

see velut
trlcis,
f.

suffix <iu.im

anywhere.

venatrix,

[ven (a)-or,

"to

at, uti, adv. and conj. Adv.: when; how; as; as soon as. Conj.: that; in
order that.

a hu>Uress.

iiti-nam, adv.: oh! that; would that; I wish that.

ven-do, dtdi, ditum, dure, 3, v. a. [vcn-um, "sale;" do, "to place"], to sell, vend.

Utor, usus sum,


abl.
:

uti, 3, v.

dep.

With
Of

words

to use, make use of, eviploy. to address, etc. :

ve'ne-num, i, n. [for v5-nec-num fr. ve, inlensive particle; nOc-o, " to kill ";, charm, seductive jiower.
:

V.
vftco, avi. atum, Sre, 1, v. n. impers. with clause as subject vacat. : there is
time,
X'
leisxire,

ven-ia, lae, f. : favour, indulgence, kindness [akin to root van, " to love "J.

venio,
to cnine
;

vgni,

ventum, ventre,
;

4, v. n.:

to do,
i,

etc.

vad-um,
validus,
vallis,

n.

[vado,

"to go"], a

at v. 22, with dat., denoting purpose of intention cf. [Oscan and Unibrian root BES ; akin to Gr. pa-ivut ; root GA, "to go, to come"].

shallow, shoal.

idum, adj. [vai-fo, "to be strong"], strong, poweifal, mighty.


ida,
is, f.r

vent-US, i, m. the vnnd. Plur. the winds [akin to Sans, root VA, " to blow," through part. pres. vant].
: :

valley.
[for

verbum,
vacuus
:
;

i,

n.:

word

[pea>, prina.].

vanus.
vaco],
:

a, uni, adj.
iiile.
:

op.

vereor,
[opdu),

en, Itus sum,


cp. Eng.
i,

vain,

As

subst.

vana,

"to see;"
Ore,

v. dep. fear ward, wary].


:

drum, n. plur. idle or frivolous thiujs. Of persons false, deceptive.

verro,

sum,

v. a.:

sweep.

var-ius,

ia,

lum, adj
:

various,

mani-

Of conversation varied, varying, fold. of different kinds [akin to /SaAios].

verso, are, avi, resolve [verto].

atum,

v. a.:

turn over,

vertex
verto,
turn.

[see vortex].
Ore,
i,

vast-O, avi, atum, are, 1, v. a. [vast* us, "waste"], to lay waste, devastate, pillage.

sum,

v.

a.

turn, over-

vastus,
ve,

a,

um,

tc; hence), vast,

("empty, waste," huge, immense.


adj.

enclitic conj. : or, choice free be'ween two or or things.

leaving the more persons

Veru, us, n.: spit. verus, a, um, adj.: true, real. vescor, i, v. dep. feed upon (a dlgammated fonii of escor rt ko, " to
: ;

eat;" ep. esca, edo,

iSut].
:

vexi, veotum, vChC-re, 3, v. a.: to carry, convey. I'ass. : to sail in a vessel [root vah, " to carry "].

veho,

-Oris, m. tJie evening star " to dwell ;" hence, " the dwelling place of the sun "J.
[rt. v.\s,

vesper,

vel, conj. [akin to val-o ("wish or choose;" hence), or if you will; or:
vel
vel, either

vester. tra, trum, adj. : your. vestis, is. fem.: a garment, dress [rt. VA.s, "to clothe;" cp. evvv/jii. ( = Fcai'vfii)].

or.

veto,

are, ni, Itum, v. a.

forbid.

VOCABULARY.
via,
fr.

151

ae, fern.

a way, road
m.
:
:

[f'>r

veha-

vOho, " to carry "\


oris,

tailling [a1<in to Gr. |8oX, root of p6X-o/aot (=/3o(u)A-o/iiai), " to wish "].

victor,
1 coH'juer].

a conqueror
vivo].
v. a.
:

[vinco,

victus, us, m. food [see Video, ere, vidi, visum,


Eiig. wit]. vetus, Oris, adj. Tos, "a j'car"].
[e'lSoi'
:

to see

volt-US, Ha, ra. [volo, " to wish, as expressive of emotions or desires"], the face. vol-ucer, oris, acre, adj. [vOl-o, " to
fly "], Sivift,

rapid.

ancient, old [Gr.

vir, viri, m.: man [rt. ova, "to swell, or grow ;" cp. vireo, virjfo]. vis, veni, vi, f. [see vir], force, might.

v6lu-tO, ta\i, t.atum, tare, 1, v, a. intens. [for volv-to; fr. volv-o, "to roll"].
Of the voice: to cause to roll, roll along, Mentally : to tiira over if the spread. mind ; to revolve, ponder, etc.

villus,
cloth.

viginti, cont.: twenty. m. tvft of hair; nap of i,


:

volvo,
and
;

volvi,

volutum, volvere,

3, v. a.

n.

Act.
:

to roll, roll along.


:

Of

vincio.
bind
(rt.

Ire,

vinxi,

vinctum,
;"

v. a.: to

vi,

" to bind

cp' vieo, vitis,

Enjr. withe, willow].

misfortunes to undergo, be involved i7i, Mentally to etc. tfi_iinMd, reveal. re vol ve'ipii nder, conxiaer, weigh, etc. Neut. Of time to roll onward or along, Of the Fates : tojrsiJli.Jilon to revolve.
:

vinco,
quer.

ere, vici, victura, v. a.: to con-

.^

hnnd [see vinculum, i, n. vinum, i, n.: wine [Fotro?].


:

/ a

vincio].

Virgo,
vir].

-inis,

f.

maiden, virgin
valour, virtue.

"to roll"]. to atum, are, 1, v. a. devour, swallow up, etc. [akin to Gr. ^l^p-looKu), "to eat;" /Sop-a, "food;" Sans, root qri, " to devour"].
[akin to Fc\k-ii>,

v6r-0,

avi,

[see

^ vort-ex,
vert-o,

virtus,
Vitalis,

iitis, f.

e,

adj.:
"J.

of

life

(=vivtrilis;

fr. icis, m. [for vert-ex "to turn "] ("the turninp; thing ;" hence), a whirlpool, eddy, etc
;

vivo, " to live

vo-tum,
"to
60,

ti,
'

n. [for

vov-tum

fr.

v6v-

vivo,
live
;"

ere, xi, turn.: to live [rt. viv, cp. ;8ios, ^loiu].


a,

" to vow

],

o vow. " to

vivus,

um,

adj.

living,

un-

VOX, vOcis, f. [for voo-3 ; fr. vOc-o, call"], the voice; a sound, a word.
VUlg-O,
"the
avi,

wrought [see vivo'. vix, adv.: scarcely. v6c-0, avi, atnni. are, to call ; to call by name.

atum,

are, 1, v. a. [vulg-us,

common people"],
i,

1, v. a.

and

n.:

m.ilie

to spread abroad, widely or generally known.

volnus volgus;
VOlO,
Of
rapidly.

see vulnus.

vulgus,

m. and

n.

the

common

see vulgus.

avi, atum, are, 1, v. n.: to fly. things: to fly, i.e., to pass swiftly or
vSltii,

people; the multitude, populace. Of animals: the throwr, crowd, mass, etc. [sometimes referred to Gr. oxAos, .(Eolio oxAos, Cretan ttoAxos ; cf. Ger. volk ;
Eiig. folic].

VOlo,

velle,

v.

irreg.

to be

vuln-us,

Sris, n.:

a wound.

i^-V:

'/

"-^1^1

/XT

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i^--*<:

/
-'

^/i

/y^T- r-6c^

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^^^z^^^

>

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