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History Lesson Plan When Civilizations End Objectives

Students will discuss China's history and its dynasties; review facts about the Forbidden City; and research and highlight the symbols of five sites inside the Forbidden City.


Computer with Internet access Print and online resources about the Forbidden City Paper, pen or pencil When Civilizations End video !"! and "C# !"! player

$. %egin the class with a brief discussion of China's history and rulers. &'plain to students that China is the location of some of the world's earliest civili(ations, which developed around the )ellow #iver and the )angt(e #iver. *ave students find these rivers on a class map. +s, students why people might have settled there. (The valleys were fertile for farming.) -ell students that from ./// %.C. to $0$$, Chinese history can be divided into periods called dynasties. +s a class, define the word 1dynasty.1 (A succession of rulers from the same family.) +s, what the rulers in China were called. (emperors) +s, students to describe the emperor's power based on what the program featured. For e'ample, what is the 2andate of *eaven3 (The Chinese believed the emperor ruled with absolute power by divine right or by a !andate of "eaven.) *ow did this affect the interpretation of catastrophic events, such as flooding or famine3 (Catastrophic events were signs the gods did not approve of the emperor.) .. 4e't, as, students where China's emperors lived and ruled from $5./ to $0$$. (The #orbidden City) Show students animageof the Forbidden City. &'plain that this comple' of palaces was built in the $6th century by emperors of the 2ing dynasty (A.$. %&'()%'**) . Following this was the 7ing dynasty, which would be China's last, ending in $0$$.

8. #eview facts about the Forbidden City based on the program. *ow would students describe it3 (ornate comple+ magnificent vast) 9here is it3 (in the center of ,ei-ing) *ow do we ,now what life was li,e there3 (from millions of manuscripts about the emperor.s life found in the imperial archives) 9hy was it called the 1Forbidden City13 9ho or what was forbidden3 (/nly people related to the emperor.s rule could enter0 common people were forbidden entry. And some people such as the emperor.s wives were forbidden to leave.) 9hat were the significant colors and symbols used throughout the Forbidden City3 (1ellow stood for power red for good luc2 and dragons were to bring rains and ma2e the land prosper.) 5. -ell students that they are going to e'plore magnificent locations:halls, palaces, and gates:within the Forbidden City. +s they e'plore the locations below, have them choose five that incorporate significant symbols or colors. For each one, they should answer the following ;uestions< 9hat is the name of this location3 9hat was its primary purpose3 9ho used it3 9ere different people restricted in how they used it3 &'plain. o 9hat were some motifs, icons, or symbols here3 9hat did they represent3 6. *ave students use the following 9eb sites in their research. 4=-&< &ncourage students to select their locations from the first 9eb site below and loo, for supporting information and images at the other 9eb sites<
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-he Forbidden City>bac,ground, images, and detailed descriptions? -he Forbidden City< + "irtual -our>clic,able map with images? Forbidden City< @ate of Supreme *armony and *all of Supreme *armony>clic, through ne't ten images? A. 9hen students have completed their research, as, them to write a brief description of each location and highlight its symbolism.
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B. *ave students e'change their descriptions with another student. +fter students have read their accounts, as, them to share one symbol used in the Forbidden City, including what it stood for and where it was found. C. &nd with a class discussion about the Forbidden City. If students lived in China during the $0th century, would they want to live in the Forbidden City3 9hy or why not3 9hat would be the advantages3 9hat would be the disadvantages3 9hat are the sacrifices they would ma,e to live there3

Dse the following three:point rubric to evaluate students' wor, during this lesson.

Three points: Students recalled several ,ey details about the Forbidden City; participated actively in class discussions; showed thorough research about at least five locations in the Forbidden City; wrote comprehensive descriptions, clearly highlighting the symbolism at all five; shared more than one symbol from another student's descriptions. T o points: Students recalled some ,ey details about the Forbidden City; participated somewhat in class discussions; showed satisfactory research about five locations in the Forbidden City; wrote satisfactory descriptions, highlighting the symbolism at four or five; shared one symbol from another student's descriptions. One point: Students recalled few or no ,ey details about the Forbidden City; did not participate in class discussions; showed little research about fewer than five locations at the Forbidden City; wrote incomplete descriptions, which do not highlight symbolism; did not share any symbols from another student's descriptions.

"or #The Mu$$ies o% Peru# se&$ent: #eview facts about the Chiribaya with your class. 9here did they live3 (3eru 4outh America) 9hat was their environment li,e3 (high desert) 9hen was their civili(ation at its height3 (A.$. 566)%&76) 9hat have archaeologists found that give clues about how the Chiribaya lived3 (mummies) *ow were they so well preserved3 (by the desert salt) 4e't, as, students to recall the obEects that have been found with the mummies< wool clothing, Eewelry, ceramic pots, food, (corn potatoes and grain) , a small pot inside a mummy's chest, and coca leaves inside and with the mummy. +s, students to describe what each item reveals about the Chiribaya civili(ation. "or the se&$ents #'i$bab e: Lost City o% (%rica# and #)cra$ble %or (%rican Colonies#: *ave students use what they learned in the programs to write an essay about &uropean imperialism. -heir essays should discuss how &uropeans historically viewed +frican nations and the impact they had on +frican colonies. For e'ample, why didn't the &uropeans believe that +fricans had built @reat Fimbabwe3 (They believed that Africans were too inferior primitive uncivilized to build such a sophisticated city.) 9hat did early &uropeans do to the site3 (They destroyed much of it stripping it of its artifacts.) 9hat effect did &uropeans have on the +frican colonies they established in the late $0th century3 (They e+ploited the people and their resources creating wealth and power for their own countries.) 9hat was the purpose of the &uropean missionaries in +frica3 (They wanted to convert 8primitive8 Africans to Christianity.) !id they ma,e any positive contributions3 (They built schools and hospitals.) !escribe the influence of %elgium's Ging Heopold in Congo. ("e e+ploited the land and brutally forced people to harvest ivory and rubber.)


barbarian $efinition9 + person who is believed to be uncivili(ed and inferior Conte+t9 2ost Chinese believed that &uropeans were barbarians who should be ,ept out of the Forbidden City. dynasty $efinition9 Succession of rulers from the same family Context: &mpress Cu Ii ruled during the 2achu !ynasty from +.!. $A55 to $0$$. +o to $efinition9 In China, to show respect or submission by ,neeling and touching one's forehead to the ground. Conte+t9 -he %ritish ambassador Hord @eorge 2acartney did not ,owtow to the Chinese &mperor 7ianlong. Mandate o% Heaven $efinition9 -he belief by which Chinese emperors ruled, that they divinely selected. Conte+t9 +ccording to the 2andate of *eaven, if gods disapproved of the emperor, Chinese citi(ens would suffer flooding, droughts, famine, or other misfortune. opiu$ $efinition9 +n e'tract from the seeds of the opium poppy, containing narcotic substances; the drug made from the opium e'tract Conte+t9 9hen the Chinese emperors refused to trade with 9esterners, the %ritish smuggled opium into China.

The ,ational Council %or the )ocial )tudies>4CSS? has developed national standards to provide guidelines for teaching social studies. -o become a member of the 4CSS, or to view the standards online, go tohttp< www.socialstudies.org. -his lesson plan addresses the following standards< Culture People, Places, and &nvironments Individuals, @roups, and Institutions

Joy %rewster, curriculum writer, editor, and consultant

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