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CONTENTS TITLES Introduction Safety and Health Procedures Objective Apparatus Procedures Result Discussion Questions Conclusion PAGES 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

INTRODUCTION
Unlike some substances for example water which changes from solid to liquid at 0C bituminous materials do not have a definite melting point. Instead, as the temperature raises these materials slowly changes from brittle or very and slow flowing materials to softer and less viscous liquids. For this reason the determination of softening point must be made by affixed, arbitrary and closely defined method if results are to be comparable.

Being very simple in concept and equipment the ring and bell has remained a valuable consistency test for control in refining operations particularly in the production of air blown bitumen. It is also an indirect measure of viscosity or rather the temperature at which the given viscosity is evident. The softening point value has particular significance for materials which are to be used as thick films such as joint and crack fillers and roofing material. A high softening point ensures that they will not flow in service. For bitumen of a given penetration determined at 25C the higher the softening point the lower the temperature sensitivity.

SAFETY AND HEALTH PROCEDURES 1. Always wear safety glasses in the shop. 2. Do not set up or operate any machinery unless an instructor is in the shop. 3. Do not operate any machine unless authorized to do so by an instructor or under an instructor's supervision. 4. Use the proper tool for the job. Many cuts in the shop occur because a wrench slips and a hand hits a sharp cutting tool. 5. Check tools before use to assure they are safe to use. 6. Do not leave tools or work on the table of a machine even if the machine is not running. Tools or work may fall off and cause a toe or foot injury. 7. Put tools away when not in use. 8. Place all scrap pieces in the correct containers. 9. Never handle chips with your hands or fingers. Chips are extremely sharp and can easily cause cuts. 10. Use a brush to remove chips -- not hands, fingers, or rags. 11. Never wear gloves or use rags to clean the work piece or any part of a machine that is running. Rotating tools or parts can grab gloves and rags and pull you into the machine. 12. Never use compressed air to clean any machine. 13. Never use compressed air to clean your clothes or yourself. 14. If using compressed air to clean a part, point the air hose down and away from yourself and other persons. 15. Do not run in the shop, there should be no "fooling around" in the shop at anytime. Don't be a "wise guy." 16. Get first aid immediately for any injury. 17. Get help for handling large, long, or heavy pieces of material or machine attachments. 18. Follow safe lifting practices, lift with your leg muscles, not your back. If you do not know how to lift safely, ask an instructor to show you. 19. Aisles should be clear at all times to avoid tripping or other accidents

OBJECTIVES The objective of this experiment is to determine the softening point of bitumen. Hard bitumen has a high softening point different from soft bitumen that has low softening point. When the temperature risen, the bitumen characteristic will change from solid to liquid form means that the hardness of bitumen are reduce.

APPARATUS

Beaker Brass Ring Steel Ball Ball Guide Ring Holder

Magnetic Stirrer Thermometer

PROCEDURE 1. The bituminous was heated and stirred until it reached it softening point for not more than 30 minutes. Any air bubble on the heated samples was avoided. 2. The brass ring were heated and were placed on flat plate that been poured with talc. 3. The samples were poured on the each of brass ring until full and leave it cooled in room temperature for 30 minutes. 4. The top of brass ring was flatten by using spatula that been heated. 5. The brass rings, ball guide, ring holder and thermometer were placed in the beaker in depth of 102mm till 108mm or 50mm above the brass ring surface. 6. The temperature of water in the beaker was monitored constantly at 5 for 15 minutes by using ice. The steel ball was place at the center of the ring by using holder. 7. The water temperature rose at rate 5 +/- 0.5C per minute by heated the water and the stirrer was switched on. 8. The water was keep heated until the bitumen softens and the steel ball fell at the bottom of ring holder plate. 9. The temperatures when the bitumen sagged and the bitumen softens are taken noted.

RESULT

Sagging Temperature Samples Temperature (C) A 37 35 Average 36 B 38 36 37

Softening Temperature A 40 40 40 B 40 40 40

DISCUSSION
Based on the results that we obtained from the experiment, the temperature of bitumen to become soft for test number 1 is 40C while for the test number 2, the temperature is also 40C. Besides that, the average temperature of softening point that we calculated is 40C The theoretical value of the optimum temperature of bitumen softening point is between 48C to 52C according to Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) standard. The temperature than we recorded is not according to the theoretical standard. While doing the experiment, some safety measures have to be follow. Be alert and make sure your hand doesnt touch the hot burner while taking the reading as it may cause minor severe burn. After the experiment, the apparatus are washed using hazards chemical. Ensure that you wash the apparatus in a fume chamber with your gloves on.

CONCLUSION
To conclude, the final temperature of the softening point is 40Cwhich didnt match the theoretical value which is 48C to 52C . The objective of this experiment however was achieved. During conducting the experiment, there are some errors that occurred which will affect the final result. In order to prevent this from happening, there are methods to improve the experiments result. Before doing the experiment, make sure the Ring holder does not hold the Ball guide in stationary. Adjust the ring until the ball can pass through freely.

In addition, to get good results, ensure you conduct the experiment in room temperature condition. The purpose of this test in the industry is to estimate viscoelastic properties of both asphalt and a paving mixture especially in road design. This is to test the consistency of bitumen.

QUESTION
What is means by softening point of bitumen? Softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a particular degree of softening under specified conditions of test.

State the factors that affect the differences of test result? i. The bath temperature not maintained for 15minutes. ii. The bath temperature is not in the 5C 2 range. iii. Surrounding temperature may affect the water temperature.