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Title Three CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER Chapter One.

REBELLION, COUP D ETAT, SEDITION AND DISLOYALTY Article c"''itte( Article Article c"$p Article c"$p ( Article e'pl"+ee# Article Article Article Article Article 13 . Re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n % h"&

p$!licati"n an( $nla&,$l $tterance# Article 1**. Alar'# an( #can(al# Article 1*-. Deli6erin0 pri#"ner# ,r"' :ail Chapter Si;. E7ASION O8 SER7ICE O8 SENTENCE Article 1*.. E6a#i"n ", #er6ice ", #entence Article 1*/. E6a#i"n ", #er6ice ", #entence "n

13 )A. C"$p ( etat % h"& c"''itte( 13*. Penalt+ ,"r re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n "r ( etat 13-. C"n#pirac+ an( pr"p"#al t" c"''it etat, re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n 13.. Di#l"+alt+ ", p$!lic ",,icer# "r 13/. 131. 1 2. 1 1. 1 3. Incitin0 t" re!elli"n "r #e(iti"n Se(iti"n % h"& c"''itte( Penalt+ ,"r #e(iti"n C"n#pirac+ t" c"''it #e(iti"n Incitin0 t" #e(iti"n

the

"cca#i"n ", (i#"r(er#, c"n,la0rati"n#, earth<$a=e# "r "ther cala'itie# Article 1*1. Other ca#e# ", e6a#i"n ", #er6ice ", Sentence Chapter Se6en. CO44ISSION O8 ANOT9ER CRI4E DURIN5 SER7ICE O8 PENALTY I4POSED 8OR ANOT9ER PRE7IOUS O88ENSE Article 1-2. >$a#i) reci(i6i#'

Chapter T&". CRI4ES A5AINST POPULAR REPRESENTATION Secti"n One % Cri'e# a0ain#t le0i#lati6e !"(ie# an( #i'ilar !"(ie# Article 1 3. Act# ten(in0 t" pre6ent the 'eetin0 ", the A##e'!l+ an( #i'ilar !"(ie# Article 1 . Di#t$r!ance ", pr"cee(in0# Secti"n T&" % 7i"lati"n ", parlia'entar+ i''$nit+ Article 1 *. 7i"lati"n ", parlia'entar+ i''$nit+ Chapter Three. ASSOCIATIONS ILLE5AL ASSE4BLIES AND

Article 134. Rebellion or in !rrection " ho# co$$itte% Ele'ent#? 1. There i# a p$!lic $pri#in0 an( ta=in0 ar'# a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent@ 3. The p$rp"#e ", the $pri#in0 "r '"6e'ent i# ) a. t" re'"6e ,r"' the alle0iance t" the 0"6ern'ent "r it# la&# Philippine territ"r+ "r an+ part there",, "r an+ !"(+ ", lan(, na6al, "r "ther ar'e( ,"rce#@ OR !. t" (epri6e the Chie, E;ec$ti6e "r C"n0re##, &h"ll+ "r partiall+, ", an+ ", their p"&er# "r prer"0ati6e#. Re!elli"n i# '"re ,re<$entl+ $#e( &here the "!:ect ", the '"6e'ent i# c"'pletel+ t" "6erthr"& an( #$per#e(e the e;i#tin0 0"6ern'ent. In#$rrecti"n i# '"re c"''"nl+ e'pl"+e( in re,erence t" a '"6e'ent &hich #ee=# 'erel+ t" e,,ect #"'e chan0e ", 'in"r i'p"rtance, "r t" pre6ent the e;erci#e ", 0"6ern'ental a$th"rit+ &ith re#pect t" partic$lar 'atter# "r #$!:ect#. The cri'e ", re!elli"n "r ", incitin0 i# !+ nat$re a cri'e ", 'a##e#, ", a '$ltit$(e. Act$al cla#h ", ar'# &ith the 0"6ern'ent, n"t nece##ar+ t" c"n6ict the acc$#e( &h" i# in c"n#pirac+ C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 14

Article 1 -. Ille0al a##e'!lie# Article 1 .. Ille0al a##"ciati"n# Chapter 8"$r. ASSAULT UPON, AND RESISTANCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO, PERSONS IN AUT9ORITY AND T9EIR A5ENTS Article 1 /. Direct a##a$lt# Article 1 1. In(irect a##a$lt# Article 1*2. Di#"!e(ience t" #$''"n# i##$e( !+

the

Nati"nal A##e'!l+, it# c"''ittee# "r #$!c"''ittee#, !+ the C"n#tit$ti"nal C"''i##i"n#, it# c"''ittee#, #$!c"''ittee# "r (i6i#i"n# Article 1*1. Re#i#tance an( (i#"!e(ience t" a per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r he a0ent# ", #$ch per#"n Article 1*3. Per#"n# in a$th"rit+ an( a0ent# ", per#"n# in a$th"rit+ % &h" #hall !e (ee'e( a# #$ch Chapter 8i6e. PUBLIC DISORDERS Article 1*3. T$'$lt# an( "ther (i#t$r!ance# ", p$!lic "r(er % t$'$lt$"$# (i#t$r!ance "r interr$pti"n lia!le t" ca$#e (i#t$r!ance Article 1* . Unla&,$l $#e ", 'ean# ",

&ith "ther# act$all+ ta=in0 ar'# &ith the 0"6ern'ent. It i# n"t nece##ar+ that the p$rp"#e ", the re!elli"n !e acc"'pli#he(. 5i6in0 ai( an( c"',"rt i# n"t cri'inal in re!elli"n.
Rebellion Le6+in0 ", &ar a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent ($rin0 peace ti'e ,"r an+ ", the p$rp"#e# in Article 13 Al&a+# in6"l6e# ta=in0 $p ar'# 6#. the 0"6ern'ent Tre& on Le6+in0 ", &ar a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent, &hen per,"r'e( t" ai( the ene'+@ a(herence t" ene'+ 4a+ !e c"''itte( !+ 'ere a(herence t" the ene'+, 0i6in0 hi' ai( "r c"',"rt

9f Art! 01 were applied, and murder were not comple/ed with rebellion and the " crimes were punished separately, the e/treme penalty could be imposed upon him, e en in the absence of a single aggra ating circumstance! )hus, said pro ision, if construed this way, would be unfa orable to the accused! )hus, Hernande. remains binding doctrine operating to prohibit the comple/ing of rebellion with any other crime! )he S, ruled by a ote of %% to : that the information filed against the petitioner does in fact charge an offense! )hat indictment is to be read as charging simple rebellion! Ponce Enrile vs. Amin )ogether with the information charging Enrile with rebellion comple/ed with murder in the R), of ;,, prosecutors filed another information charging him for iolation of P!$! No! %1"# in the R), of <akati! 9t is alleged that on $ec! %, %#1# at $asma =illage, Enrile, ha ing reasonable grounds to belie e or suspect that E/2 ,ol! Gringo Honasan has committed a crime, obstructed, impeded, frustrated or delayed the apprehension of Honasan by harboring or concealing him in his house! Enrile apparently ga e Gringo food and comfort in the $asma house, despite knowing that Gringo is a fugiti e from 8ustice! 9s the alleged harboring or concealing by Enrile of Honasan absorbed in the comple/ed rebellion charge against Enrile *in Enrile s! Sala.ar+> HE'$( ?ES )he rebellion charges filed against Enrile in ;!,! were based on affida its e/ecuted by " employees of a hotel who stated that Gringo and some %&& rebel soldiers attended the mass and birthday party held at the Enrile residence in $ec %, %#1#! 3ased on this testimony, the prosecution concluded that Enrile@s talking with the rebel leader Gringo in his house in the presence of %&& armed soldiers, it can be inferred that they were co2conspirators in the $ecember coup attempt! )hus, the factual allegations supporting the rebellion charge include the ery incident which ga e rise to the charge of the iolation under P!$! %1"#! Necessarily, being in conspiracy with Gringo, Enrile@s alleged act of harboring or concealing was for no other purpose but in furtherance of the crime of rebellion thus constituting a part thereof! 9t was moti ated by the single intent or resolution to commit the crime of rebellion! )he decisi e factor in political crimes is the intent or moti e! 9f Enrile is not charged with rebellion and he harbored or concealed Gringo simply because the latter is a friend and former associate, the moti e for the act is completely different! 3ut if the act is committed with political moti es, then it should be deemed to form part of the crime of rebellion instead of being punished separately! 9nthis case, the act or harboring or concealing Gringo is clearly a mere component of rebellion or an act done in furtherance of rebellion! 9t cannot therefore be made basis of a separate charge! All crimes, whether punishable under special law or general law, which are mere components or ingredients, or committed in furtherance thereof, become absorbed in the crime of rebellion and

Enrile vs. Salazar A warrant was issued on an information filed by a panel of prosecutors, charging Senator Enrile, the spouses Rebecco and Erlinda Panlilio and Gregorio Honasan with the crime of rebellion with murder and multiple frustrated murder allegedly committed during the failed coup attempt which took place from No ! "# to $ec! %&! HE'$( )he written and oral pleas for the defendants *Enrile et al!+ presented the S, with three options( -irst, abandon Hernande. and adopt the minority iew e/pressed in the dissent that rebellion cannot absorb more serious crimes, and that under Article 01, rebellion may be comple/ed with common offenses! Second, hold Hernande. applicable only to offenses committed in furtherance or as a necessary means for the commission of rebellion, but not to acts committed in the course of a rebellion which also constitute common crimes of gra e or less gra e character! )hird, maintain Hernande. as applying to make rebellion absorb all other offenses committed in its course, whether or not necessary to its commission or furtherance thereof! %% members of the S, oted against abandoning Hernande., while " felt the doctrine should be re2 e/amined! 3ecause of this, the ruling remains good law, as no new challenges are presented in this case persuasi e enough to warrant a complete re ersal! )his iew is reinforced by the fact that President A4uino, e/ercising her powers under the %#15 -reedom ,onstitution, repealed P!$! No! #0" of the former regime which sought to nullify Hernande. by enacting a new pro ision in the RP, to the effect that 6when by reason, or on the occasion, of any of the crimes penali.ed in this ,hapter, acts which constitute offenses upon which gra er penalties are imposed by the law are committed, the penalty for the more serious offense in its ma/imum period shall be imposed upon the offender!7 )he president has then in effect reinstated Hernande. as binding doctrine with the effect of law by legislati e fiat! )he court unanimously oted to re8ect the second option! )he consensus was that the arguments were not sufficient to o ercome the thrust of Hernande. to rule out the comple/ing of rebellion with any other offense committed in its course under either of the aforecited clauses of Article 01!

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cannot be isolated and charged as separate crimes themsel es! People vs. Dasig Ane afternoon, Pfc! <anatad, Pfc! )i.on and Pfc! ,atamora were tasked by their commanding officer to man the traffic at " streets of <andaue ,ity! Bhile on duty, ,atamora saw 1 persons, including accused Nune., acting suspiciously! He noticed one of them gi ing instructions to two of the men to approach <anatad! ,atamora followed the two men, but sensing that they were being followed, the men went to the middle of the road and engage ,atamora to a gun battle! ,atamora then heard a series of shots from the other group and afterwards, he saw <anatad sprawled on the ground! ,atamora sought refuge at a nearby building from where he saw " persons take <anatad@s gun and fired at him to make sure he was dead! )he group then fled the scene! 'ater on, " teams of police officers were tasked to conduct sur eillance on a suspected safehouse of members of the NPA sparrow unit in ,ebu ,ity! Bhen they reached the place, the group saw Rodrigo $asig and Nune. trying to escape! )he two men were apprehended, and their firearms were confiscated! $asig confessed in the hospital that he and the group of Nune. killed <anatad and that he and Nune. were members of the Sparrow unit! He was found guilty of murder with direct assault! HE'$( $asig should be prosecuted for rebellion! Appellant not only confessed oluntarily his membership with the Sparrow unit, but also his participation and that of his group in the killing of <anatad! )he Sparrow unit is the li4uidation s4uad of the NPA with the ob8ecti e of o erthrowing the duly constituted go ernment! 9t is therefore not hard to comprehend that the killing of <anatad was committed as a means to or in furtherance of the sub ersi e ends of the NPA! As such, appellant is liable for rebellion and not murder with direct assault upon a person in authority! Acts committed in furtherance of rebellion though crimes in themsel es are deemed absorbed in one single crime of rebellion! )he act of killing a police officer, knowing too well that the ictim is a person in authority, is a mere component of rebellion or an act done in furtherance of rebellion! 9t cannot be made the basis of a separate charge! People vs. Lovedioro Aff2duty policeman SPA: Cesus 'ucilo was walking along a street when a man suddenly walked beside him, pulled a gun from his waist, aimed the gun at the policeman@s right ear and fired! )he man who shot 'ucilo had : other companions with him, one of whom shot the fallen policeman four times as he lay on the ground! After taking the 'ucilo@s gun, the man and his companions boarded a tricycle and fled! )he accused2appellant was charged and was con icted of the crime of murder! HE'$( 9n deciding if the crime committed is rebellion, not murder, it becomes imperati e for our courts to ascertain whether or not the act was done in furtherance of a political end! )he political moti e of the act should be conclusi ely demonstrated! 9f no political moti e is

established and pro ed, the accused should be con icted of the common crime and not of rebellion! 9n cases of rebellion, moti e relates to the act, and mere membership in an organi.ation dedicated to the furtherance of rebellion would not, by and of itself, suffice! Appellant@s contentions regarding the reason for the killing of 'ucilo are couched in terms so general and non2specific that they offer no e/planation as to what contribution the killing would ha e made towards the achie ement of the NPA@s sub ersi e aims! )hus, in the absence of clear and satisfactory e idence pointing to a political moti e for the killing of SPA: 'ucilo, the trial court correctly con icted appellant of the crime of murder!

People v. Silongan 200!" )he R), con icted appellants Abdila and <acapagal Silongan, Awal, 'amalan, Alon, <anap, and Pasawilan of the crime of Didnapping for Ransom with Serious 9llegal $etention for ha ing abducted at gunpoint and detained businesman Saldana and : others! Saldana was made to write a letter to his wife to pay a ransom in the amount of P%" million! He was separated from the others and was transferred from one hideout to another! He was detained for 5 months! Appellants then surrendered as <9'- and <N'- rebels! )hey argue that the fact that they are rebel surrenderees precludes con iction for the common crime of kidnapping! ,iting People ! Hernande., they contend that common crimes are absorbed in rebellion! )herefore, the trial court erred when it con icted them of kidnapping for ransom! HE'$( )he argument that the crime was politically moti ated and that conse4uently, the charge should ha e been rebellion and not kidnapping is without merit! )he ,ourt cited the case of Office of the Provincial Prosecutor of Zamboanga Del Norte vs. CA, where it was held that the political moti ation for the crime must be shown in order to 8ustify finding the crime committed to be rebellion! <erely because it is alleged that appellants were members of the <oro 9slamic 'iberation -ront or of the <oro National 'iberation -ront does not necessarily mean that the crime of kidnapping was committed in furtherance of a rebellion! )he e idence adduced is insufficient for a finding that the crime committed was politically moti ated! Neither ha e the appellants sufficiently pro en their allegation that the present case was filed against them because they are rebel surrenderees! )his court has in ariably iewed the defense of frame2up with disfa or! 'ike the defense of alibi, it can be 8ust as easily concocted! People v. #liva 2001" Ali a alias 6Da Ambo7 and Salcedo alias 6Da )ony7 and " others came to the house of <agbo8os! )he ictim was then hogtied and was brought to the mountains! )he ictim was ne er seen ali e again! )wo or three years after, one )ubieron told the ictim@s brother where the ictims@ remains were buried by his abductors! )he R), con icted Ali a alias 6Da Ambo7 and Salcedo alias 6Da )ony7 guilty of murder *not kidnapping with murder+ for killing <agbo8os! Ali a asserts that he should ha e been charged with rebellion instead of 6kidnapping with murder7 considering that he is a member of the ,ommunist Party of the Philippines and a ,ommander of the NPA! He claims that

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the killing was committed in furtherance of rebellion, hence, it should be absorbed in rebellion! HE'$( Ali aEs contention that he should ha e been charged with and tried for rebellion lacks factual and legal basis, hence, bereft of merit! )rue, one can be con icted only of rebellion where the murders, robberies and kidnapping were committed as a means to or furtherance of rebellion! ,orollarily, offenses which were not committed in furtherance of the rebellion, but for personal reasons or other moti es, are to be punished separately e en if committed simultaneously with the rebellious acts! 9n the instant case, there was no e idence at all to show that the killing of Cacinto <agbo8os Cr! was in connection with or in furtherance of their rebellious act! 3esides, it was not indubitably pro ed that Ali a was indeed a member of the New PeopleEs Army! Ali a and Salcedo was found guilty of of the crime of Homicide and not murder, the trial cout ha ing erroneously appreciated the 4ualifying circumstance of treachery!

3.

The participant# )

a.

An+ per#"n &h" participate# "r e;ec$te# the c"''an(# ", "ther# in re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n@ !. An+ per#"n in the 0"6ern'ent #er6ice &h" participate#, "r e;ec$te# (irecti"n# "r c"''an(# ", "ther# in $n(erta=in0 a c"$p ( etat@ c. An+ per#"n n"t in the 0"6ern'ent #er6ice &h" participate#, #$pp"rt#, ,inance#, a!et# "r ai(# in $n(erta=in0 a c"$p (B etat. P$!lic ",,icer '$#t ta=e acti6e part, t" !e lia!le@ 'ere #ilence "r "'i##i"n i# n"t p$ni#ha!le in re!elli"n. Chen the re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n "r c"$p ( etat #hall !e $n(er the c"''an( ", $n=n"&n lea(er#, an+ per#"n &h" in ,act (irecte( the "ther#, #p"=e ,"r the', #i0ne( receipt# an( "ther ("c$'ent# i##$e( in their na'e, "r per,"r'e( #i'ilar act#, "n !ehal, ", the re!el#, #hall !e (ee'e( a lea(er ", #$ch re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n "r c"$" ( etat. It i# n"t a (e,en#e in re!elli"n that the acc$#e( ne6er t""= the "ath ", alle0iance t", "r that the+ ne6er rec"0niAe( the 0"6ern'ent. Th"#e &h" =ille( per#"n# in p$r#$ance ", the '"6e'ent t" "6erthr"& the 0"6ern'ent are lia!le ,"r re!elli"n "nl+.

Article 134'A. co$$itte% Ele'ent#?

Co!(

%)

et&t

"

ho#

1. O,,en(er i# a per#"n "r per#"n# !el"n0in0 t" the 'ilitar+ "r p"lice "r h"l(in0 an+ p$!lic ",,ice "r e'pl"+'ent@ 3. It i# c"''itte( !+ 'ean# ", a #&i,t attac= acc"'panie( !+ 6i"lence, inti'i(ati"n, threat, #trate0+ "r #tealth@ 3. The attac= i# (irecte( a0ain#t the ($l+ c"n#tit$te( a$th"ritie# ", the Rep$!lic ", the Philippine#, "r an+ 'ilitar+ ca'p "r in#tallati"n, c"''$nicati"n net&"r=#, p$!lic $tilitie# "r "ther ,acilitie# nee(e( ,"r the e;erci#e an( c"ntin$e( p"##e##i"n ", p"&er@ . The p$rp"#e ", the attac= i# t" #eiAe "r (i'ini#h #tate p"&er.

The cri'e ", c"$p ( etat 'a+ !e c"''itte( &ith "r &ith"$t ci6ilian participati"n. Article 13*. Pen&lt+ ,or in !rrection or co!( %) et&t rebellion-

Per#"n# lia!le ,"r re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n "r c"$p (B etat?

1.

The lea(er# % a. An+ per#"n &h" pr"'"te#, 'aintain# "r hea(# a re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n@ "r !. An+ per#"n &h" lea(#, (irect# "r c"''an(# "ther# t" $n(erta=e a c"$p (B etat@

I# there a c"'ple; cri'e ", re!elli"n &ith '$r(er an( "ther c"''"n cri'e#D NO. En0a0in0 in &ar a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent nece##aril+ i'pl+ e6er+thin0 that &ar c"nn"te#? re#"rt t" ar'#, re<$i#iti"n ", pr"pert+, c"llecti"n ", ta;e#, re#traint ", li!ert+, (a'a0e t" pr"pert+, ph+#ical in:$rie# an( l"## ", li,e. Chen an+ ", the act# a!"6e are c"''itte( a# 'ean# t" "r in ,$rtherance ", #$!6er#i6e en(#, the+ !ec"'e a!#"r!e( in the cri'e ", re!elli"n an( cann"t !e re0ar(e( "r penaliAe( a# (i#tinct cri'e# in the'#el6e#. EThi# i# the 9ernan(eA r$lin0, later reiterate( in Enrile 6#. SalaAarF Gillin0, r"!!in0 etc. ,"r pri6ate p$rp"#e# "r pr",it, &ith"$t an+ p"litical '"ti6ati"n, &"$l( !e #eparatel+ p$ni#he( an( &"$l( n"t !e a!#"r!e( in re!elli"n

P"litical cri'e# are th"#e (irectl+ ai'e( a0ain#t the p"litical "r(er, a# &ell a# #$ch c"''"n cri'e# a# 'a+ !e c"''itte( t" achie6e a p"litical p$rp"#e. The (eci#i6e ,act"r i# intent "r C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 1%

'"ti6e. A cri'e $#$all+ re0ar(e( a# c"''"n Ee.0. h"'ici(eF 'a+ !e #trippe( ", it# c"''"n character i, perpetrate( ,"r an+ ", the p$rp"#e# ", re!elli"n. Article 13.. Con (ir&c+ &n% (ro(o &l to co$$it co!( %) et&t There i# c"n#pirac+ t" c"''it re!elli"n &hen t&" "r '"re per#"n# c"'e t" an a0ree'ent t" ri#e p$!licl+ an( ta=e ar'# a0ain#t 0"6ern'ent ,"r an+ ", the p$rp"#e# ", re!elli"n an( (eci(e t" c"''it it. There i# pr"p"#al t" c"''it re!elli"n &hen the per#"n &h" ha# (eci(e( t" ri#e p$!licl+ an( ta=e ar'# a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent ,"r an+ ", the p$rp"#e# ", re!elli"n pr"p"#e# it# e;ec$ti"n t" #"'e "ther per#"n "r per#"n#. Article 13/. Di lo+&lt+ o, (!blic o,,icer or e$(lo+ee Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. B+ ,ailin0 t" re#i#t a re!elli"n !+ all the 'ean# in their p"&er@ 3. B+ c"ntin$in0 t" (i#char0e the ($tie# ", their ",,ice# $n(er the c"ntr"l ", the re!el#@ "r 3. B+ acceptin0 app"int'ent t" ",,ice $n(er the'. O,,en(er '$#t !e a p$!lic ",,icer "r e'pl"+ee The cri'e ", (i#l"+alt+ ", p$!lic ",,icer# pre#$pp"#e# the e;i#tence ", re!elli"n !+ "ther per#"n#. I, the p$!lic ",,icer &h" c"''it# an+ ", the act# in thi# article i# in c"n#pirac+ &ith the re!el#, he &ill !e 0$ilt+ ", re!elli"n. Article 130. in !rrection. Ele'ent#? 1. O,,en(er ("e# n"t ta=e ar'# "r i# n"t in "pen h"#tilit+ a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent@ 3. 9e incite# "ther# t" the e;ec$ti"n ", an+ ", the act# ", re!elli"n@ 3. The incitin0 i# ("ne !+ 'ean# ", #peeche#, pr"cla'ati"n#, &ritin0#, e'!le'#, !anner# "r "ther repre#entati"n# ten(in0 t" the #a'e en(. Incitin1 to rebellion or

In pr"p"#al an( incitin0 t" re!elli"n, the cri'e ", re!elli"n #h"$l( n"t act$all+ !e c"''itte( !+ the per#"n# t" &h"' it i# pr"p"#e( "r &h" are incite(. I, the+ c"''it the re!elli"n, the pr"p"nent ", the "ne incitin0 !ec"'e# a principal !+ in($ce'ent in the cri'e ", re!elli"n.
Pro(o &l to co$$it rebellion In !"th cri'e#, the ",,en(er in($ce# an"ther t" c"''it re!elli"n It i# n"t re<$ire( that the The per#"n &h" pr"p"#e# ",,en(er ha# (eci(e( t" ha# (eci(e( t" c"''it c"''it the re!elli"n re!elli"n The act ", incitin0 i# The per#"n &h" pr"p"#e# ("ne p$!licl+ $#e# #ecret 'ean# Incitin1 to rebellion

Article 132. Se%ition " ho# co$$itte% Ele'ent#? 1. O,,en(er# ri#e p$!licl+ an( t$'$lt$"$#l+@ 3. O,,en(er# e'pl"+ ,"rce, inti'i(ati"n, "r "ther 'ean# "$t#i(e ", le0al 'eth"(#@ 3. P$rp"#e i# t" attain an+ ", the ,"ll"&in0 "!:ect#? a. !. T" pre6ent the pr"'$l0ati"n "r e;ec$ti"n ", an+ la& "r the h"l(in0 ", an+ p"p$lar electi"n@ T" pre6ent the nati"nal 0"6ern'ent "r an+ pr"6incial "r '$nicipal 0"6ern'ent, "r an+ p$!lic ",,icer ,r"' e;erci#in0 it# "r hi# ,$ncti"n# "r pre6ent the e;ec$ti"n ", an a('ini#trati6e "r(er@ T" in,lict an+ act ", hate "r re6en0e $p"n the per#"n "r pr"pert+ ", an+ p$!lic ",,icer "r e'pl"+ee@ T" c"''it, ,"r an+ p"litical "r #"cial en(, an+ act ", hate "r re6en0e a0ain#t pri6ate per#"n# "r an+ #"cial cla##e#@ T" (e#p"il ,"r an+ p"litical "r #"cial en(, an+ per#"n, '$nicipalit+ "r pr"6ince, "r the nati"nal 0"6ern'ent ", all it# pr"pert+ "r an+ part there",.

c. (. e.

Se(iti"n, in it# 0eneral #en#e, i# the rai#in0 ", c"''"ti"n# "r (i#t$r!ance# in the State. The $lti'ate "!:ect i# 6i"lati"n ", p$!lic peace. Se(iti"n 'a+ n"t !e c"''itte( !+ "ne per#"n "nl+, !eca$#e the &"r( Ht$'$lt$"$# 'ean# that it i# ca$#e( !+ '"re than three per#"n# &h" are ar'e( "r pr"6i(e( &ith 'ean# ", 6i"lence.

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 1&

Are c"''"n cri'e# a!#"r!e( in #e(iti"nD NO, acc"r(in0 t" :$ri#pr$(ence.


Se%ition The p$rp"#e 'a+ !e p"litical "r #"cial It i# #$,,icient that the p$!lic $pri#in0 '$#t !e t$'$lt$"$# Rebellion The p$rp"#e i# al&a+# p"litical There '$#t !e ta=in0 $p ", ar'# a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent

Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. Incitin0 "ther# t" the acc"'pli#h'ent ", an+ ", the act# &hich c"n#tit$te #e(iti"n !+ 'ean# ", #peeche#, pr"cla'ati"n#, &ritin0#, e'!le'#, etc.@ Ele'ent#? a. O,,en(er ("e# n"t ta=e (irect part in the cri'e ", #e(iti"n@ !. 9e incite# "ther# t" the acc"'pli#h'ent ", an+ ", the act# &hich c"n#tit$te #e(iti"n@ an( c. Incitin0 i# ("ne !+ 'ean# ", #peeche#, pr"cla'ati"n#, &ritin0#, e'!le'#, cart""n#, !anner#, "r "ther repre#entati"n# ten(in0 t"&ar(# the #a'e en(. 3. Utterin0 #e(iti"$# &"r(# "r #peeche# &hich ten( t" (i#t$r! the p$!lic peace@ 3. Critin0, p$!li#hin0, "r circ$latin0 #c$rril"$# li!el# a0ain#t the 0"6ern'ent "r an+ ", the ($l+ c"n#tit$te( a$th"ritie# there",, &hich ten( t" (i#t$r! the p$!lic peace. Utterin0 #e(iti"$# &"r(#, p$!li#hin0 an( circ$lati"n #c$rril"$# li!el# are p$ni#ha!le E#ec"n( an( thir( t+pe ", incitin0 t" #e(iti"nF, &hen? 1. The+ ten( t" (i#t$r! "r "!#tr$ct an+ la&,$l ",,icer in e;ec$tin0 the ,$ncti"n# ", hi# ",,ice@ "r 3. The+ ten( t" in#ti0ate "ther# t" ca!al an( 'eet t"0ether ,"r $nla&,$l p$rp"#e#@ "r 3. The+ #$00e#t "r incite re!elli"$# c"n#piracie# "r ri"t#@ "r . The+ lea( "r ten( t" #tir $p the pe"ple a0ain#t the la&,$l a$th"ritie# "r (i#t$r! the peace ", the c"''$nit+, the #a,et+ an( "r(er ", the 0"6ern'ent. I=n"&in0l+ c"ncealin0 #$ch e6il practice# i# an"ther &a+ ", 6i"latin0 thi# article. Thi# i# "r(inaril+ an act ", an acce##"r+ a,ter the ,act, !$t $n(er thi# article, the act i# treate( an( p$ni#he( a# that ", a principal. It i# n"t nece##ar+ that the &"r(# $#e( #h"$l( in ,act re#$lt in a ri#in0 ", the pe"ple a0ain#t the c"n#tit$te( a$th"ritie#. R$le# relati6e t" #e(iti"$# &"r(#? o Clear an( pre#ent (an0er % &"r(# '$#t !e ", #$ch a nat$re that !+ $tterin0 the' there i# a (an0er ", a C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 1(

People vs. Ca'rera A constabulary soldier died as a result of an encounter with a policeman! His death engendered a desire for re enge against the police force on the part of the constabulary soldiers! )he ne/t day, constabulary soldiers escaped from their barracks with rifles and ammunitions and di ided into groups for an attack upon the city police force! )hey fired indiscriminately along the streets of ,alle Real, killing a policeman and wounding ci ilians, including se eral passengers of a passing streetcar! )hey attacked the 'uneta Police Station and the office of the secret ser ice! HE'$( )he crime committed was sedition! Sedition, in its more general sense, is the raising of commotions or disturbances in the State! )he Philippine law on the sub8ect makes all persons guilty of sedition who rise publicly and tumultuously in order to obtain by force or outside of legal methods any one of fi e ob8ects, including that of inflicting any act of hate or re enge upon the person or property or any official or agent of the 9nsular Go ernment or of a Pro incial or <unicipal Go ernment! 9t is not necessary that the offender be a pri ate citi.en and the offended party a public functionary! )he law makes no distinction between the persons to which it applies!

Article 143. Pen&lt+ ,or e%ition Per#"n# lia!le ,"r #e(iti"n? 1. 3. The lea(er ", the #e(iti"n@ an( Other per#"n participatin0 in the #e(iti"n.

Article 141. e%ition

Con (ir&c+

to

co$$it

There '$#t !e an a0ree'ent an( a (eci#i"n t" ri#e p$!licl+ an( t$'$lt$"$#l+ t" attain an+ ", the "!:ect# ", #e(iti"n.

There i# n" cri'e ", pr"p"#al t" c"''it #e(iti"n. Article 144. Incitin1 to e%ition

p$!lic $pri#in0 an( that #$ch (an0er #h"$l( !e !"th clear an( i''inent o Dan0er"$# ten(enc+ % i, the &"r(# $#e( ten( t" create a (an0er ", p$!lic $pri#in0

under Cue. de ,uchillo all the Ro/as people who are in power!7 HE'$( )he essence of seditious libel is its immediate tendency to stir up general discontent to the pitch of illegal courses or to induce people to resort to illegal methods in order to redress the e ils which press upon their minds! A published writing which calls our go ernment one of crooks and dishonest persons infested with Na.is and -ascists, and which re eals a tendency to produce dissatisfaction or a feeling incompatible with the disposition to remain loyal to the go ernment, is a scurrilous libel against the Go ernment! )mil vs. Ramos -A,)S( ,AP,A< got a tip that a member of the NPA Sparrow Gnit *li4uidation s4uad+ was being treated for a gunshot wound at the St! Agnes Hospital, Roose elt A enue, ;!,! Gpon erification, it was found that the wounded person was Rolando $ural, a member of the NPA li4uidation s4uad, responsible for the killing of " ,AP,A< soldiers! $ural was positi ely identified by eyewitnesses as the gunman who went on top of the hood of the ,AP,A< mobile patrol car, and fired at the ,AP,A< soldiers seated inside! $ural was then transferred to another facility, under ,AP,A< super ision *basically, he was arrested+! $ural 4uestions the legality of his arrest, ha ing been made without a warrant! HE'$( $ural was arrested for being a member of the NPA, an outlawed sub ersi e organi.ation! Sub ersion being a continuing offense, his arrest without warrant is 8ustified as it can be said that he was committing an offense when arrested! )he crimes of rebellion, sub ersion, conspiracy or proposal to commit such crimes, and crimes or offenses committed in furtherance thereof or in connection therewith constitute direct assaults against the State and are in the nature of continuing crimes! As stated by the S, in an earlier case( 6)he crimes of insurrection or rebellion, sub ersion, conspiracy or proposal to commit such crimes, and other crimes and offenses committed in the furtherance, on the occasion thereof, or incident thereto, are all in the nature of continuing offenses which set them apart from the common offenses, aside from their essentially in ol ing a massi e conspiracy of nationwide magnitude! )he arrest of persons in ol ed in the rebellion whether as its fighting armed elements, or for committing non2 iolent acts but in furtherance of the rebellion, is more an act of capturing them in the course of an armed conflict, to 4uell the rebellion, than for the purpose of immediately prosecuting them in court for a statutory offense! )he arrest, therefore, need not follow the usual procedure in the prosecution of offenses which re4uires the determination by a 8udge of the e/istence of probable cause before the issuance of a 8udicial warrant of arrest and the granting of bail if the offense is bailable! Ab iously, the absence of a 8udicial warrant is no legal impediment to arresting or capturing persons committing o ert acts of iolence against go ernment forces, or any other milder acts but e4ually in pursuance of the rebellious mo ement! 9f killing and other acts of iolence against the rebels find 8ustification in the e/igencies of armed hostilities which is of the essence of waging a rebellion or insurrection, most assuredly so in case of in asion, merely

Se(iti"$# $tterance# are pr"hi!ite( !eca$#e the State #h"$l( n"t !e c"'pelle( t" &ait $ntil the apprehen(e( (an0er !eca'e certain, !e,"re it can pr"tect it#el,. Unla&,$l r$'"r '"n0erin0? C"''itte( !+ an+ per#"n &h" #hall ",,er, p$!li#h, (i#tri!$te, circ$late an( #prea( r$'"r#, ,al#e ne&# an( in,"r'ati"n an( 0"##ip, "r ca$#e the p$!licati"n, (i#tri!$ti"n, circ$lati"n "r #prea(in0 ", the #a'e, &hich ca$#e "r ten( t" ca$#e panic, (i6i#i6e e,,ect# a'"n0 the pe"ple, (i#cre(it "r (i#tr$#t ,"r the ($l+ c"n#tit$te( a$th"ritie#, $n(er'ine the #ta!ilit+ ", the 5"6ern'ent an( the "!:ecti6e# ", the Ne& S"ciet+, en(an0er the p$!lic "r(er, "r ca$#e (a'a0e t" the intere#t "r cre(it ", the #tate. EP.D. N". 12F
)S vs. *olen+ino A theatrical work entitled FDahapon Ngayon at 3ukas@, written by Aurelio )olentino, was presented by him and others on <ay %0, %#&: at the )eatro 'ibertad in <anila! HE'$( )he crime committed is inciting to sedition! )he publication and presentation of the drama directly and necessarily tended to instigate others to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes, and to suggest and incite rebellious conspiracies and riots and to stir up the people against the lawful authorities and to disturb the peace of the community and the safety and order of the Go ernment! )he manifest, unmistakable tendency of the play, in view o, +-e +ime. place. and manner o, i+s presen+a+ion, was to inculcate a spirit of hatred and enmity against the American people and the Go ernment of the Gnited States in the Philippines! Esp/elas vs. People Petitioner Ascar Espuelas had his picture taken, making it appear as if he were hanging lifeless at the end of a piece of rope suspended from the limb of a tree, when in truth and in fact, he was merely standing on a barrel! After securing copies of his photograph, Espuelas sent copies of same to se eral newspapers and weeklies of general circulation for their publication with a suicide not, wherein he made to appear that it was written by a fictitious suicidal, Alberto Re eniera and addressed to the latter@s supposed wife and children! )he letter narrated that the reason why he committed suicide was because he was not pleased with the administration of Pres! Ro/as! 9t also contained a re4uest to his wife to write to President )ruman and ,hurchill, and to tell them that the Philippine go ernment is 6infested with many Hitlers and <ussolinis!7 As if out of desperation, he ended the letter by saying that he sacrificed his life because he has no power 6to put

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 20

sei.ing their persons and detaining them while any of these contingencies continues cannot be less 8ustified7

a. !.

Article 143. Act $eetin1 o, the bo%ie Ele'ent#?

ten%in1 to (re5ent the A e$bl+ &n% i$il&r

O,,en(er $#e# ,"rce, inti'i(ati"n, threat# "r ,ra$(@ The p$rp"#e ", the ",,en(er i# t" pre6ent an+ 'e'!er ", C"n0re## ,r"' ) o atten(in0 the 'eetin0# ", the C"n0re## "r ", an+ ", it# c"''ittee# "r c"n#tit$ti"nal c"''i##i"n#, etc.@ o e;pre##in0 hi# "pini"n@ "r o ca#tin0 hi# 6"te.

1.

There i# a pr":ecte( "r act$al 'eetin0 ", C"n0re## "r an+ ", it# c"''ittee# "r #$!c"''ittee#, c"n#tit$ti"nal c"''i##i"n# "r c"''ittee# "r (i6i#i"n# there",, "r ", an+ pr"6incial !"ar( "r cit+ "r '$nicipal c"$ncil "r !"ar(@ 3. O,,en(er, &h" 'a+ !e an+ per#"n, pre6ent# #$ch 'eetin0# !+ ,"rce "r ,ra$(. Article 144. Di t!rb&nce o, (rocee%in1 Ele'ent#? 1. There i# a 'eetin0 ", C"n0re## "r an+ ", it# c"''ittee# "r #$!c"''ittee#, c"n#tit$ti"nal c"''i##i"n# "r c"''ittee# "r (i6i#i"n# there",, "r ", an+ pr"6incial !"ar( "r cit+ "r '$nicipal c"$ncil "r !"ar(@ 3. O,,en(er ("e# an+ ", the ,"ll"&in0 act#? a. 9e (i#t$r!# an+ ", #$ch 'eetin0#@ !. 9e !eha6e# &hile in the pre#ence ", an+ #$ch !"(ie# in #$ch a 'anner a# t" interr$pt it# pr"cee(in0# "r t" i'pair the re#pect ($e it. The c"'plaint ,"r (i#t$r!ance ", pr"cee(in0# 'a+ !e ,ile( !+ a 'e'!er ", a le0i#lati6e !"(+. One &h" (i#t$r!# the pr"cee(in0# ", C"n0re## 'a+ al#" !e p$ni#he( ,"r c"nte'pt !+ #$ch C"n0re##. Article 14*. i$$!nit+ Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. U#in0 ,"rce, inti'i(ati"n, threat#, "r ,ra$(# t" pre6ent an+ 'e'!er ", C"n0re## ,r"' atten(in0 the 'eetin0# ", C"n0re## "r ", an+ ", it# c"''ittee# "r #$!c"''ittee#, c"n#tit$ti"nal c"''i##i"n# "r c"''ittee# "r (i6i#i"n# there",, "r ,r"' e;pre##in0 hi# "pini"n "r ca#tin0 hi# 6"te@ Ele'ent#? 6iol&tion o, (&rli&$ent&r+

3. Arre#tin0 "r #earchin0 an+ 'e'!er there", &hile C"n0re## i# in re0$lar "r #pecial #e##i"n, e;cept in ca#e #$ch 'e'!er ha# c"''itte( a cri'e p$ni#ha!le $n(er the C"(e !+ a penalt+ hi0her than pri#i"n 'a+"r. Ele'ent#? a. !. c. (. O,,en(er i# a p$!lic ",,icer ", e'pl"+ee@ 9e arre#t# "r #earche# an+ 'e'!er ", C"n0re##@ C"n0re##, at the ti'e ", arre#t "r #earch, i# in re0$lar "r #pecial #e##i"n@ The 'e'!er arre#te( "r #earche( ha# n"t c"''itte( a cri'e p$ni#ha!le $n(er the C"(e !+ a penalt+ hi0her than pri#i"n 'a+"r.

It i# n"t nece##ar+ that the 'e'!er ", C"n0re## i# act$all+ pre6ente( ,r"' atten(in0. Parlia'entar+ i''$nit+ ("e# n"t pr"tect 'e'!er# ", C"n0re## ,r"' re#p"n#i!ilit+ !e,"re C"n0re## it#el,. Un(er the 11/. C"n#tit$ti"n, 'e'!er# ", C"n0re## are e;e'pte( ,r"' arre#t, &hile C"n0re## i# in #e##i"n, ,"r all ",,en#e# p$ni#ha!le !+ a penalt+ LESS T9AN PRISION 4AYOR.

Th$#, $n(er the C"n#tit$ti"n, a p$!lic ",,icer &h" arre#t# a 'e'!er ", C"n0re## &h" ha# c"''itte( a cri'e p$ni#ha!le !+ pri#i"n 'a+"r E#i; +ear# an( "ne (a+, t" 13 +ear#F i# n"t lia!le Article 1 *.

T" !e c"n#i#tent &ith the C"n#tit$ti"n, the phra#e J!+ a penalt+ hi0her than pri#i"n 'a+"rJ in Article 1 * #h"$l( !e a'en(e( t" rea(? J!+ the penalt+ ", pri#i"n 'a+"r "r hi0her.J

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 21

Ille1&l Po P!ni h&ble &ct 1.

R.A. 0424 e ion o, 7ire&r$

Unl&#,!l M&n!,&ct!re- S&le- Ac8!i itionDi (o ition or Po e ion o, 7ire&r$ or A$$!nition or In tr!$ent U e% or Inten%e% to be U e% in the M&n!,&ct!re o, 7ire&r$ or A$$!nition % an+ per#"n &h" #hall $nla&,$ll+ 'an$,act$re, (eal in, ac<$ire, (i#p"#e, "r p"##e## an+ lo# (o#ere% ,ire&r$, #$ch a# ri',ire han(0$n, .3/2 "r .33 an( "ther ,irear' ", #i'ilar ,irep"&er, part ", ,irear', a''$niti"n, "r 'achiner+, t""l "r in#tr$'ent $#e( "r inten(e( t" !e $#e( in the 'an$,act$re ", an+ ,irear' "r a''$niti"n. Pr"6i(e( that n" "ther cri'e &a# c"''itte(. 9i0her penalt+ #hall !e i'p"#e( i, the ,irear' i# cla##i,ie( a# hi1h (o#ere% ,ire&r$ &hich incl$(e# th"#e &ith !"re# !i00er in (ia'eter than .3/ cali!er an( 1 'illi'eter #$ch a# cali!er . 2, . 1, . , . * an( al#" le##er cali!ere( ,irear'# !$t c"n#i(ere( p"&er,$l #$ch a# cali!er .3*. an( cali!er .33 center),ire 'a0n$' an( "ther ,irear'# &ith ,irin0 capa!ilit+ ", ,$ll a$t"'atic an( !+ !$r#t ", t&" "r three. Pr"6i(e(, h"&e6er, that n" "ther cri'e &a# c"''itte( !+ the per#"n arre#te(. I, h"'ici(e "r '$r(er i# c"''itte( &ith the $#e ", an $nlicen#e( ,irear', #$ch $#e ", an $nlicen#e( ,irear' #hall !e c"n#i(ere( a# an a00ra6atin0 circ$'#tance. I, the 6i"lati"n ", thi# Secti"n i# in ,$rtherance ", "r inci(ent t", "r in c"nnecti"n &ith the cri'e ", re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n, "r atte'pte( c"$p (BKtat, #$ch 6i"lati"n #hall !e a!#"r!e( a# an ele'ent ", the cri'e ", re!elli"n, "r in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n, "r atte'pte( c"$p (BKtat. The #a'e penalt+ #hall !e i'p"#e( $p"n the "&ner, pre#i(ent, 'ana0er, (irect"r "r "ther re#p"n#i!le ",,icer ", an+ p$!lic "r pri6ate ,ir', c"'pan+, c"rp"rati"n "r entit+, &h" #hall &ill,$ll+ "r =n"&in0l+ all"& an+ ", the ,irear'# "&ne( !+ #$ch ,ir', c"'pan+, c"rp"rati"n "r entit+ t" !e $#e( !+ an+ per#"n "r per#"n# ,"$n( 0$ilt+ ", 6i"latin0 the pr"6i#i"n# ", the prece(in0 para0raph# "r &ill,$ll+ "r =n"&in0l+ all"& an+ ", the' t" $#e $nlicen#e( ,irear'# "r ,irear'# &ith"$t an+ le0al a$th"rit+ t" !e carrie( "$t#i(e ", their re#i(ence in the c"$r#e ", their e'pl"+'ent. EL1F

Chen a per#"n c"''it# an+ ", the cri'e# (e,ine( in the RPC "r #pecial la&# &ith the $#e ", the a,"re'enti"ne( e;pl"#i6e#, (et"nati"n a0ent# "r incen(iar+ (e6ice#, &hich re#$lt# in the (eath ", an+ per#"n "r per#"n#, the $#e ", #$ch e;pl"#i6e#, (et"nati"n a0ent# "r incen(iar+ (e6ice# #hall !e c"n#i(ere( a# an a00ra6atin0 circ$'#tance. I, the 6i"lati"n ", thi# Secti"n i# in ,$rtherance ",, "r inci(ent t", "r in c"nnecti"n &ith the cri'e ", re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n "r atte'pte( c"$p (BKtat, #$ch 6i"lati"n #hall !e a!#"r!e( a# an ele'ent ", the cri'e# ", re!elli"n, in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n "r atte'pte( c"$p (BKtat. The #a'e penalt+ #hall !e i'p"#e( $p"n the "&ner, pre#i(ent, 'ana0er, (irect"r "r "ther re#p"n#i!le ",,icer ", an+ p$!lic "r pri6ate ,ir', c"'pan+, c"rp"rati"n "r entit+, &h" #hall &ill,$ll+ "r =n"&in0l+ all"& an+ ", the e;pl"#i6e# "&ne( !+ #$ch ,ir', c"'pan+, c"rp"rati"n "r entit+, t" !e $#e( !+ an+ per#"n "r per#"n# ,"$n( 0$ilt+ ", 6i"latin0 the pr"6i#i"n# ", the prece(in0 para0raph#. EL3F 3. C&rr+in1 licen e% ,ire&r$ o!t i%e one) re i%ence #itho!t le1&l &!thorit+ there,or EL1F T&$(erin1 o, 7ire&r$: Seri&l N!$ber M an+ per#"n &h" #hall $nla&,$ll+ ta'per, chan0e, (e,ace "r era#e the #erial n$'!er ", an+ ,irear'. EL*F Re(&c;in1 or Alterin1 the Co$(o ition o, L&#,!ll+ M&n!,&ct!re% E9(lo i5e Man+ per#"n &h" #hall $nla&,$ll+ repac=, alter "r '"(i,+ the c"'p"#iti"n ", an+ la&,$ll+ 'an$,act$re( e;pl"#i6e#. EL-F

*.

Co5er&1e o, Unlicen e% 7ire&r$ The ter' $nlicen#e( ,irear' #hall incl$(e? 1F ,irear'# &ith e;pire( licen#e@ "r 3F $na$th"riAe( $#e ", licen#e( ,irear' in the c"''i##i"n ", the cri'e

Advinc/la vs. CA 2000" )he ,ourt of Appeals ruled that no charges for 9llegal Possession of -irearms could be filed against Amando and 9sagani Acampo for two *"+ reasons( -irst, as to Amando Acampo, he had the re4uisite license to possess the firearm *from the ,hief of the -irearms and E/plosi es Affice, which was established by sufficient e idence on record! Second, as to 9sagani Acampo, there was no con incing e idence that he was in possession of a gun during the incident in ol ing him, his father and petitioner, e/cept for the eyewitness account of petitioner and one -ederico San <iguel! HE'$( )he rule is well settled that in cases of 9llegal Possession of -irearms, two *"+ things must be shown to e/ist( *a+ the e/istence of the firearm, and *b+ the fact that it is not licensed! Howe er, it should be noted that in People ! Ramos, citing People ! Gy Gesiong, this ,ourt

3.

Unl&#,!l M&n!,&ct!re- S&le- Ac8!i itionDi (o ition or Po e ion o, E9(lo i5e M an+ per#"n &h" #hall $nla&,$ll+ 'an$,act$re, a##e'!le, (eal in, ac<$ire, (i#p"#e "r p"##e## han( 0rena(eE#F, ri,le 0rena(eE#F, an( "ther e;pl"#i6e#, incl$(in0 !$t n"t li'ite( t" Bpill!";,B B'"l"t"6 c"c=tail !"'!#,B B,ire !"'!#,B "r "ther incen(iar+ (e6ice# capa!le ", pr"($cin0 (e#tr$cti6e e,,ect "n c"nti0$"$# "!:ect# "r ca$#in0 in:$r+ "r (eath t" an+ per#"n.

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 22

ruled( H ! ! ! E en if he has the license, he cannot carry the firearm outside his residence without legal authority therefor!H )he Secretary of Custice, in his contested Resolution, thus made the following findings( E en if Amando had the re4uisite license, there was no proof that he had the necessary permit to carry it outside his residenceI and 9saganiEs plain denial could not o ercome his positi e identification by petitioner that he carried a firearm in assaulting him! )hese are findings of fact supported by e idence, which cannot be disturbed by this ,ourt! People vs. *ac0an 1((0" )ac2an and the deceased EscaJo were high school classmates Kand gang mates in 3ron/ gangL! )he relationship between )ac2an and EscaJo turned sour as the 4uarrel between them escalated from September up to $ecember %#10! Bhile the class was still going on, )ac2an slipped out of the classroom and went home to get a gun! )ac2an suddenly burst into the room, and upon sighting EscaJo )ac2an fired at scampering EscaJo, hitting EscaJo! EscaJo remained sprawled on the floor bleeding profusely! )ac2an was charged with 4ualified illegal possession of a firearm and ammunition and of murder! After trial the R), imposed upon him the penalty of death in both cases! HE'$( P.D. 1&$$ is applica'le. )here is nothing in P!$! No! %155 *which was promulgated on "# Cune %#1:+ which suggests that it was intended to remain in effect only for the duration of the martial law imposed upon the country by former President <arcos! Neither does the statute contain any pro ision that so prescribes its lapsing into non2 enforceability upon the termination of the state or period of martial law! An the contrary, P!$! No! %155 by its own terms purported to Hconsolidate, codify and integrateH all prior laws and decrees penali.ing illegal possession and manufacture of firearms, ammunition and e/plosi es in order Hto harmoni.e their pro isions,H as well as to update and re ise certain pro isions and prior statutes Hin order to more effecti ely deter iolators of the law on firearms, ammunitions and e/plosi es!H 1isolas vs. Panga 1((0" Philippine ,onstabulary *P,+ raided a suspected NPA Hunderground houseH in -oster =illage, $el ,armen, Pili the early morning! )he house was searched and in a red bag under a pillow allegedly used by <isolas a !"& gauge Remington shotgun and four li e rounds of ammunition were found! <isolas was charged with the crime of illegal possession of firearms and ammunition under P$ %155 with allegation that it was in furtherance of sub ersion so as to 4ualify the offense! HE'$( 9llegal possession of firearms is not absorbed in rebellion or sub ersion! Hernande. ruling cannot find application in this case because <isolas is being charged specifically for the 4ualified offense of illegal possession of firearms and ammunition under P$ %155! He is not being charged with the comple/ crime of sub ersion with illegal possession of firearms! Neither is he being separately charged for sub ersion and for illegal possession of firearms! S, considered the fact that the 'egislature had deemed it fit to pro ide for two distinct offenses(

*%+ illegal possession of firearms 4ualified by sub ersion *P!$! No! %155+ and *"+ sub ersion 4ualified by the taking up of arms against the Go ernment *R!A! No! %M&&+! 2a3losis vs. C-avez 1((1" 3aylosis, de =era and <arco Palo, all known high ranking officers of the ,PP2NPA, were charged with a illegal possession of firearms in furtherance of, or incident to, or in connection with the crimes of rebellion or sub ersion! HE'$( ,harging the 4ualified offense of 9llegal possession of firearms under P$ %155 does not charge the comple/ crime of sub ersion with illegal possession of firearms, and hence does not run counter to Hernande., et al!, is good and correct rule and is applicable in ,A3! People vs. *iozon 1((1"

Section % of P!$! No! %155 imposes the penalty of reclusion temporal in its ma/imum period to reclusion perpetua Hupon any person who shall unlawfully manufacture, deal in, ac4uire, dispose or possess any firearm, part of firearm, ammunition or machinery, tool or instrument used or intended to be used in the manufacture of any firearm or ammunition!H 9t goes further by pro iding that Hif homicide or murder is committed with the use of an unlicensed firearm, the penalty of death shall be imposed!H

9t may be loosely said that homicide or murder 4ualifies the offense penali.ed in said Section % because it is a circumstance which increases the penalty! 4+ does no+. -owever. ,ollow +-a+ +-e -omicide or m/rder is a'sor'ed in +-e o,,enseI otherwise, an anomalous absurdity results whereby a more serious crime defined and penali.ed in the Re ised Penal ,ode is absorbed by a statutory offense, which is 8ust a malum prohibitum! )he rationale for the 4ualification, as implied from the e/ordium of the decree, is to effecti ely deter iolations of the laws on firearms and to stop the Hupsurge of crimes itally affecting public order and safety due to the proliferation of illegally possessed and manufactured firearms, ! ! ! H 9n fine then, the killing of a person with the use of an unlicensed firearm may gi e rise to separate prosecutions for *a+ iolation of Section % of P!$! No! %155 and *b+ iolation of either Article "01 *<urder+ or Article "0# *Homicide+ of the Re ised Penal ,ode! *-e acc/sed canno+ plead one as a 'ar +o +-e o+-er5 or. s+a+ed o+-erwise. +-e r/le agains+ do/'le 6eopard3 canno+ 'e invo7ed 'eca/se +-e ,irs+ is p/nis-ed '3 a special law w-ile +-e second. -omicide or m/rder. is p/nis-ed '3 +-e Revised Penal Code! Howe er, to 8ustify the imposition of the increased penalty under Section % of P!$! No! %155 because of the resulting crime of homicide or murder, the prosecution must allege in the information and pro e by the 4uantum of e idence re4uired for con iction iolation of said section and, more specifically, the use of an unlicensed firearm and the commission of homicide or murder!

Gndoubtedly, there is unlawful possession under the foregoing section if one does not ha e the license

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 2!

to possess the firearm! E en if he has the license, he cannot carry the firearm outside his residence without legal authority therefor! 9t follows then that +-e lac7 or a'sence o, a license is an essen+ial ingredien+ o, +-e o,,ense w-ic- +-e prosec/+ion m/s+ allege and prove. E ery element of the crime must be alleged and pro ed!

-e in+ended +o possess +-e same. even i, s/cpossession was made in good ,ai+- and wi+-o/+ criminal in+en+.

*-ere 'eing no proo, +-a+ acc/sed0appellan+ -ad no license +o possess +-e ,irearm in 8/es+ion, -e co/ld no+ 'e convic+ed ,or illegal possession o, a ,irearm. )herefore, the trial court then committed an error in holding the accused2appellant guilty thereof! People vs. De 9racia 1((4"

,oncomitantly, a +emporar3. inciden+al. cas/al. or -armless possession or con+rol o, a ,irearm canno+ 'e considered a viola+ion o, a s+a+/+e pro-i'i+ing +-e possession o, +-is 7ind o, weapon, such as Presidential $ecree No! %155! )hus, al+-o/g+-ere is p-3sical or cons+r/c+ive possession. ,or as long as +-e animus possidendi is a'sen+. +-ere is no o,,ense commi++ed. People vs. 9arcia 2002"

)he rule is that ownership is not an essential element of illegal possession of firearms and ammunition! :-a+ +-e law re8/ires is merel3 possession w-ic- incl/des no+ onl3 ac+/al p-3sical possession '/+ also cons+r/c+ive possession or +-e s/'6ec+ion o, +-e +-ing +o one;s con+rol and managemen+. )his has to be so if the manifest intent of the law is to be effecti e! )he same e ils, the same perils to public security, which the law penali.es e/ist whether the unlicensed holder of a prohibited weapon be its owner or a borrower! )o accomplish the ob8ect of this law the proprietary concept of the possession can ha e no bearing whatsoe er!

)ioleco was kidnapped while he was 8ogging alone in the morning! His abductors took him to a house in -air iew, where the accused Rogel and 'ariba were assigned to watch o er him! Bhen the police disco ered the hideout, Rogel and 'ariba immediately ran to a room in the house where se eral unlicensed firearms were stored! 3oth were con icted of Didnapping for Ransom AN$ 9llegal Possession of -irearms! HE'$( Rogel and 'ariba cannot be held liable for illegal possession of firearms and ammunitions there being another crime 2 kidnapping for ransom 2 which they were perpetrating at the same time! Gnder R!A! 1"#0, if an unlicensed firearm is used in the commission of any crime, there can be no separate offense of simple illegal possession of firearms! )he language of the new law demonstrates the legislati e intent to fa or the accused! )he law is clear( the accused can be con icted of simple illegal possession of firearms, pro ided that Hno other crime was committed by the person arrested!H 9f the intention of the law in the second paragraph were to refer only to homicide and murder, it should ha e e/pressly said so, as it did in the third paragraph! Bhere the law does not distinguish, neither should we! People vs. Cas+illo 2000" Bilhelmina was kidnapped by persons pretending to be interested buyers of real estate! She was brought to a safehouse in ;ue.on ,ity, where the accused Gon.ales was assigned to watch o er her at all times! Gon.ales carried an unlicensed firearm while watching o er Bilhelmina! Bhen the police disco ered the safehouse, Gon.ales immediately threw his firearm away from him! )he police found more unlicensed firearms in another room in the house! Gon.ales was con icted of 9llegal Possession of -irearms, with penalty deri ed from P!$! %155! HE'$( )he penalty imposed on him by the trial court e/ceeded that prescribed by law! Gnder Republic Act No! 1"#0, amending P! $! No! %155, the penalty for illegal possession of firearm classified as high powered is prision mayor minimum or si/ *5+ years and one *%+ day to eight *1+ years and a fine of thirty thousand *P:&,&&&!&&+ pesos! Here, the offense was committed on No ember "M, %##"! Since the amendatory law is fa orable to the accused, it shall be gi en retroacti e application! People vs. <epom/ceno 1((("

But is the mere fact of physical or constructive possession sufficient to convict a person for unlawful possession of firearms or must there be an intent to possess to constitute a violation of the law? )his 4uery assumes significance since the offense of illegal possession of firearms is a malum prohibitum punished by a special law, in which case good faith and absence of criminal intent are not alid defenses!

Bhen the crime is punished by a special law, as a rule, intent to commit the crime is not necessary! 4+ is s/,,icien+ +-a+ +-e o,,ender -as +-e in+en+ +o perpe+ra+e +-e ac+ pro-i'i+ed '3 +-e special law. 9ntent to commit the crime and in+en+ +o perpe+ra+e +-e ac+ must be distinguished! A person may not ha e consciously intended to commit a crimeI but he did intend to commit an act, and that act is, by the ery nature of things, the crime itself! 9n the first *intent to commit the crime+, there must be criminal intentI in the second *intent to perpetrate the act+ it is enough that the prohibited act is done freely and consciously!

A distinction should be made between criminal intent and in+en+ +o possess! Bhile mere possession, without criminal intent, is sufficient to con ict a person for illegal possession of a firearm, i+ m/s+ s+ill 'e s-own +-a+ +-ere was animus possidendi or an in+en+ +o possess on +-e par+ o, +-e acc/sed. Such intent to possess is, howe er, without regard to any other criminal or felonious intent which the accused may ha e harbored in possessing the firearm! ,riminal intent here refers to the intention of the accused to commit an offense with the use of an unlicensed firearm! )his is not important in con icting a person under Presidential $ecree No! %155! Hence, in order that one may be found guilty of a iolation of the decree, i+ is s/,,icien+ +-a+ +-e acc/sed -ad no a/+-ori+3 or license +o possess a ,irearm. and +-a+

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 24

Accused here was charged with parricide that was committed with the use of an unlicensed firearm! )he " charges were separately charged and tried! RA1"#0 was passed which said that if a homicide or murder is committed with the use of an unlicensed firearm, the latter cannot be tried separately but will 8ust be treated as an aggra ating circumstance! HE'$( Accused can no longer be separately charged with parricide and illegal possession of firearms! )he amendment says that the latter is only to be treated as an aggra ating circumstance! 3eing clearly fa orable to the accused, the amendatory law RA1"#0 can be applied retroacti ely to this case! People vs. Evangelis+a 1(($" Accused here was charged with murder and simple illegal possession of firearms! Accused here killed someone with a homemade gun! Howe er the court found the accused guilty of murder and aggra ated illegal possession of firearms *weapon used for murder+ and sentenced him to death! Held(

a. There i# a 'eetin0, a 0atherin0 "r 0r"$p ", per#"n#, &hether in ,i;e( place "r '"6in0@ !. The 'eetin0 i# atten(e( !+ ar'e( per#"n#@ c. The p$rp"#e ", the 'eetin0 i# t" c"''it an+ ", the cri'e# p$ni#ha!le $n(er the C"(e. 3. An+ 'eetin0 in &hich the a$(ience, &hether ar'e( "r n"t, i# incite( t" the c"''i##i"n ", the cri'e ", trea#"n, re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n, "r a##a$lt $p"n per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent#. a. There i# a 'eetin0, a 0atherin0 "r 0r"$p ", per#"n#, &hether in a ,i;e( place "r '"6in0@ !. The a$(ience, &hether ar'e( "r n"t, i# incite( t" the c"''i##i"n ", the cri'e ", trea#"n, re!elli"n "r in#$rrecti"n, #e(iti"n "r (irect a##a$lt. Per#"n# lia!le? 1. The "r0aniAer "r lea(er# ", the 'eetin0@ 3. Per#"n# 'erel+ pre#ent at the 'eetin0, &h" '$#t ha6e a c"''"n intent t" c"''it the ,el"n+ ", ille0al a##e'!l+. 4eetin0 % incl$(e# a 0atherin0 "r 0r"$p, &hether in a ,i;e( place "r '"6in0. Un(er the ,ir#t t+pe ", ille0al a##e'!l+, n"t all per#"n# pre#ent at the 'eetin0 '$#t !e ar'e( t" !e lia!le $n(er thi# article. The $nar'e( per#"n 'erel+ pre#ent at the 'eetin0 ", the ,ir#t t+pe i# lia!le, !$t ar'e( per#"n# are p$ni#he( '"re #e6erel+ $n(er thi# article.

1)

"+

Accused cannot be found guilty of aggra ated illegal possession as the information simply charged simple illegal possession! )hat an unlicensed firearm was used in the commission of murder or homicide is a 4ualifying circumstance! ,onse4uently, it must be specifically alleged in the information, otherwise the accused cannot be sentenced to death without iolating his right to be informed of the charge against him! He cannot e en be con icted of simple illegal possession as there was no proof that the gun was unlicensed! )he fact that the gun used was homemade does not mean that it cannot be licensed and therefore it is right for the court to automatically assume that it is unlicensed! E en if a homemade gun is used, it does not dispense with the re4uired proof that the gun was indeed unlicensed!

Note( 9n this case, the amendatory law AR1"#0 had not yet been passed, therefore it was still allowed to separately charge murder and illegal possession of firearms!

P&l&n1&n& 5. CA <433.= Bith the passage of Republic Act! No! 1"#0 on 5 Cune %##M, the use of an unlicensed firearm in murder or homicide is now considered as a SPE,9A' aggra ating circumstance and not a generic aggra ating circumstance!

N"te h"&e6er that the per#"n 'erel+ pre#ent '$#t ha6e an intent t" c"''it the ,el"n+ ", ille0al a##e'!l+. I, he &a# a c$ri"$# !+#tan(er, he i# n"t lia!le.

Article 14.. Ille1&l & Act# p$ni#ha!le?

e$blie

1. An+ 'eetin0 atten(e( !+ ar'e( per#"n# ,"r the p$rp"#e ", c"''ittin0 an+ ", the cri'e# p$ni#ha!le $n(er the C"(e@ Ele'ent#?

I, an+ per#"n pre#ent at the 'eetin0 carrie# an $nlicen#e( ,irear', o it i# pre#$'e( that the p$rp"#e ", the 'eetin0 in#",ar a# he i# c"ncerne( i# t" c"''it act# p$ni#ha!le $n(er the Re6i#e( Penal C"(e, o 9e i# c"n#i(ere( a lea(er "r "r0aniAer ", the 'eetin0. Un(er the ,ir#t t+pe, the a$(ience '$#t !e Iact$all+ incite(N t" C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 25

the c"''i##i"n ", an+ ", the cri'e# en$'erate(. I, the 'eetin0 &a# (i#per#e( !e,"re there &a# act$al incitin0, there i# n" ille0al a##e'!l+. Article 14/. Ille1&l & oci&tion

3. Cith"$t p$!lic $pri#in0, !+ attac=in0, !+ e'pl"+in0 ,"rce "r !+ #eri"$#l+ inti'i(atin0 "r !+ #eri"$#l+ re#i#tin0 an+ per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r an+ ", hi# a0ent#, &hile en0a0e( in the per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($tie#, "r "n "cca#i"n ", #$ch per,"r'ance. Ele'ent#?

Chat are ille0al a##"ciati"n#D 1. A##"ciati"n# t"tall+ "r partiall+ "r0aniAe( ,"r the p$rp"#e ", c"''ittin0 an+ ", the cri'e# p$ni#ha!le $n(er the C"(e@ 3. A##"ciati"n# t"tall+ "r partiall+ "r0aniAe( ,"r #"'e p$rp"#e c"ntrar+ t" p$!lic '"ral#. Per#"n# lia!le? 1. 3. 8"$n(er#, (irect"r# an( pre#i(ent ", the a##"ciati"n@ 4ere 'e'!er# ", the a##"ciati"n.
Ille1&l & e$blie It i# nece##ar+ that there i# an act$al 'eetin0 "r a##e'!l+ ,"r the p$rp"#e# #tate( in Article 1 The 'eetin0 an( atten(ance at #$ch 'eetin0 i# p$ni#he( Per#"n# lia!le are the "r0aniAer# "r lea(er# ", the 'eetin0 an( the per#"n# pre#ent at #$ch 'eetin0

Ille1&l & oci&tion It i# n"t nece##ar+ that there !e an act$al 'eetin0 The act ", ,"r'in0 "r "r0aniAin0 an( 'e'!er#hip in the a##"ciati"n i# p$ni#he( Per#"n# lia!le are the ,"$n(er#, (irect"r# an( pre#i(ent, an( the 'e'!er#

a. O,,en(er 'a=e# an attac=, e'pl"+# ,"rce, 'a=e# a #eri"$# inti'i(ati"n, "r 'a=e# a #eri"$# re#i#tance@ !. The per#"n a##a$lte( i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent@ c. At the ti'e ", the a##a$lt, the per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent i# en0a0e( in the act$al per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($tie#, "r that he i# a##a$lte( !+ rea#"n ", the pa#t per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($tie#@ (. O,,en(er =n"&# that the "ne he i# a##a$ltin0 i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent in the e;erci#e ", hi# ($tie#. e. There i# n" p$!lic $pri#in0.

Article 140. Direct & Act# p$ni#ha!le?

&!lt

1. Cith"$t p$!lic $pri#in0, !+ e'pl"+in0 ,"rce "r inti'i(ati"n ,"r the attain'ent ", an+ ", the p$rp"#e# en$'erate( in (e,inin0 the cri'e# ", re!elli"n an( #e(iti"n@ Ele'ent#? a. O,,en(er e'pl"+# ,"rce "r inti'i(ati"n@ !. The ai' ", the ",,en(er i# t" attain an+ ", the p$rp"#e# ", the cri'e ", re!elli"n "r an+ ", the "!:ect# ", the cri'e ", #e(iti"n@ c. There i# n" p$!lic $pri#in0.

An+ per#"n &h" a##a$lt#, #tri=e#, &"$n(# "r in an+ "ther 'anner ",,er# 6i"lence t" the per#"n ", an a'!a##a("r "r a p$!lic 'ini#ter, #hall !e #$!:ect t" an a((iti"nal penalt+ $n(er R.A. .*. In the ,ir#t t+pe ", (irect a##a$lt, it i# n"t nece##ar+ that the ",,en(e( part+ i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent. I, the ",,en(e( part+ i# "nl+ an a0ent ", a per#"n in a$th"rit+, the ,"rce '$#t !e ", a #eri"$# character a# t" in(icate a (eter'inati"n t" (e,+ the la& an( it# repre#entati6e. The ,"rce e'pl"+e( nee( n"t !e #eri"$# &hen the ",,en(e( part+ i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+ Erea#"n? penalt+ i# e6en hi0her &hen the ",,en(er la+# han(# $p"n a per#"n in a$th"rit+F The inti'i(ati"n "r re#i#tance '$#t !e #eri"$# &hether the ",,en(e( part+ i# an a0ent "nl+ "r he i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+. T" (eter'ine &hether a certain p$!lic ",,icer i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+, l""= at hi# p"&er# an( ($tie# 6e#te( !+ la&. Chen per#"n# in a$th"rit+ "r their a0ent# (e#cen(e( t" 'atter# ", pri6ate nat$re, an attac= 'a(e C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 2$

!+ "ne a0ain#t the "ther i# n"t (irect a##a$lt, !eca$#e the+ are n"t c"n#i(ere( in Iper,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($tie#.N I, the per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent pr"6"=e# the ",,en(er, there i# n" (irect a##a$lt i, acc$#e( i# actin0 in la&,$l #el,)(e,en#e. Direct a##a$lt ", the #ec"n( t+pe 'a+ !e c"''itte( !+ a p$!lic ",,icer, !eca$#e the la& c"n#i(er# it an a00ra6atin0 circ$'#tance &hen the ",,en(er Ii# a p$!lic ",,icer "r e'pl"+ee. Gn"&le(0e ", the acc$#e( that the 6icti' i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent i# e##ential. The in,"r'ati"n '$#t alle0e #$ch =n"&le(0e. It i# n"t nece##ar+ that the per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent !e in the act$al per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($t+ &hen attac=e( "r #eri"$#l+ inti'i(ate(. Attac= 'a+ !e ("ne H!+ rea#"n ", the per,"r'ance ", ($t+ % 'ean# !+ rea#"n ", the pa#t per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($t+, e6en i, at the ti'e ", the a##a$lt n" ",,icial ($t+ &a# !ein0 (i#char0e(. E6i(ence ", '"ti6e i# i'p"rtant &hen the per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent i# n"t in the act$al per,"r'ance ", ($t+ &hen attac=e(. Direct a##a$lt ", the #ec"n( ,"r' i# <$ali,ie( &hen? o The a##a$lt i# c"''itte( &ith a &eap"n, "r o The ",,en(er i# a p$!lic ",,icer ", e'pl"+ee, "r o The ",,en(er la+# han(# $p"n a per#"n in a$th"rit+. The cri'e ", #li0ht ph+#ical in:$rie# i# a!#"r!e( in (irect a##a$lt, !eca$#e it i# the nece##ar+ c"n#e<$ence ", the ,"rce "r 6i"lence $#e(. Seri"$# ph+#ical in:$rie#, '$r(er "r h"'ici(e 'a+ !e c"'ple;e( &ith (irect a##a$lt.
People vs. 2el+ran <ayor ;uirolgico and patrolman )olentino went to the Pu.on compound to talk to 3eltran and his companions to surrender in connection with an incident where 3eltran shouted 6 ul a of your mother7 to Al arado and Grbi! <ayor and patrolman suffered gunshot wounds and the mayor@s son died due to a simultaneous discharge of gunfire by the accused! HE'$( )he accused are guilty of murder and double attempted murder with direct assault *under the "nd form of direct assault+! )he accused attacked and employed force against the mayor and police while the latter were

engaged in the actual performance of duty and the accused knew that they were assaulting persons in authority!

People vs. Dollan+es 3arangay ,aptain was deli ering a speech to start a dance when $ollantes went to the middle of the dancing floor making a dance mo ement, brandishing a knife and challenging e eryone! )he 3arangay ,aptain approached him and told him to stop and keep 4uiet! $ollantes and his companions stabbed and e entually killed the 3arangay ,aptain! HE'$( )he accused were guilty of Assault upon a person in authority, resulting in <urder! )he 3arangay captain was in the act of trying to pacify $ollantes who was making trouble in the dance hall when he was stabbed to death! Hence, he was killed while in the performance of duties! A 3arangay ,aptain is a person in authority!

Article 142. In%irect & Ele'ent#?

&!lt

1. A per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent i# the 6icti' ", an+ ", the ,"r'# ", (irect a##a$lt (e,ine( in Article 1 /@ 3. A per#"n c"'e# t" the ai( ", #$ch a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent@ 3. O,,en(er 'a=e# $#e ", ,"rce "r inti'i(ati"n $p"n #$ch per#"n c"'in0 t" the ai( ", the a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent. In(irect a##a$lt can !e c"''itte( "nl+ &hen (irect a##a$lt i# c"''itte(. Article 1*3. Di obe%ience to !$$on i !e% b+ the N&tion&l A e$bl+- it co$$ittee or !bco$$ittee - b+ the Con tit!tion&l Co$$i ionit co$$ittee - !bco$$ittee or %i5i ion Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. B+ re,$#in0, &ith"$t le0al e;c$#e, t" "!e+ #$''"n# ", C"n0re##, it# #pecial "r #tan(in0 c"''ittee# an( #$!c"''ittee#, the C"n#tit$ti"nal C"''i##i"n# an( it# c"''ittee#, #$!c"''ittee# "r (i6i#i"n#, "r !+ an+ c"''i##i"n "r c"''ittee chair'an "r 'e'!er a$th"riAe( t" #$''"n &itne##e#@ 3. B+ re,$#in0 t" !e #&"rn "r place( $n(er a,,ir'ati"n &hile !ein0 !e,"re #$ch le0i#lati6e "r c"n#tit$ti"nal !"(+ "r ",,icial@ 3. B+ re,$#in0 t" an#&er an+ le0al in<$ir+ "r t" pr"($ce an+ !""=#, paper#, ("c$'ent#, "r rec"r(# in hi# p"##e##i"n,

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 2%

&hen re<$ire( !+ the' t" (" #" in the e;erci#e ", their ,$ncti"n#@ . B+ re#trainin0 an"ther ,r"' atten(in0 a# a &itne## in #$ch le0i#lati6e "r c"n#tit$ti"nal !"(+@ *. B+ in($cin0 (i#"!e(ience t" a #$''"n# "r re,$#al t" !e #&"rn !+ an+ #$ch !"(+ "r ",,icial. Rea#"n ,"r thi# article? t" 0i6e #tren0th t" the le0i#lat$re# p"&er ", in<$ir+, &hich i# e##ential t" le0i#lati6e ,$ncti"n#. Thi# article &ill n"t appl+ i, the paper# 'a+ !e $#e( in e6i(ence a0ain#t the "&ner, !eca$#e it &"$l( !e c"'pellin0 hi' t" !e a &itne## a0ain#t hi'#el,. Sel,)incri'inati"n i# a 6ali( e;c$#e. The te#ti'"n+ ", the per#"n #$''"ne( '$#t !e $p"n 'atter# int" &hich C"n0re## ha# :$ri#(icti"n t" in<$ire. Act# p$ni#he( $n(er thi# article 'a+ al#" !e p$ni#he( ,"r c"nte'pt ", the C"n0re##. Article 1*1. Re i t&nce &n% %i obe%ience to & (er on in &!thorit+ or the &1ent o, !ch (er on

Un(er #i'ple (i#"!e(ience, the ",,en(e( part+ '$#t !e "nl+ an a0ent ", a per#"n in a$th"rit+. I, n" ,"rce i# e'pl"+e( !+ the ",,en(er a0ain#t a per#"n in a$th"rit+, the cri'e i# re#i#tance "r #eri"$# (i#"!e(ience $n(er the ,ir#t t+pe.
Re i t&nce or erio! %i obe%ience Per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent '$#t !e in act$al per,"r'ance ", hi# ($tie# C"''itte( "nl+ !+ re i tin1 "r #eri"$#l+ (i#"!e+in0 8"rce e'pl"+e( i# n"t #" #eri"$#, a# there i# n" 'ani,e#t intenti"n t" (e,+ the la& an( the ",,icer# Direct & &!lt

Per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent '$#t !e en0a0e( in the per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($tie# "r that he i# a##a$lte( !+ rea#"n there", E3n( t+peF c"''itte( !+ attac=in0, e'pl"+in0 ,"rce, #eri"$#l+ inti'i(atin0 "r erio! l+ re i tin1 Attac= "r e'pl"+'ent ", ,"rce '$#t !e #eri"$# an( (eli!erate. B$t i, the "ne re#i#te( i# a per#"n in a$th"rit+, an+ (e0ree ", ,"rce i# (irect a##a$lt.

Article 1*4. Per on in &!thorit+ &n% A1ent o, (er on in &!thorit+

Ele'ent#

",

re#i#tance (i#"!e(ience?

an(

#eri"$#

A per#"n in a$th"rit+ i# "ne (irectl+ 6e#te( &ith :$ri#(icti"n, &hether a# an in(i6i($al "r a# a 'e'!er ", #"'e c"$rt "r 0"6ern'ent c"rp"rati"n, !"ar( "r c"''i##i"n.

1. A per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent i# en0a0e( in the per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($t+ "r 0i6e# a la&,$l "r(er t" the ",,en(er@ 3. O,,en(er re#i#t# "r #eri"$#l+ (i#"!e+# #$ch per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent@ 3. The act ", the ",,en(er i# n"t incl$(e( in the pr"6i#i"n ", Article# 1 /, 1 1 an( 1*2. Ele'ent# ", #i'ple (i#"!e(ience? 1. An a0ent ", a per#"n in a$th"rit+ i# en0a0e( in the per,"r'ance ", ",,icial ($t+ "r 0i6e# a la&,$l "r(er t" the ",,en(er@ 3. O,,en(er (i#"!e+# #$ch a0ent ", a per#"n in a$th"rit+@ 3. S$ch (i#"!e(ience i# n"t ", a #eri"$# nat$re. The (i#"!e(ience c"nte'plate( c"n#i#t# in the ,ail$re "r re,$#al t" "!e+ DIRECT ORDER ,r"' the per#"n in a$th"rit+ "r hi# a0ent.

7e#te( &ith :$ri#(icti"n % the p"&er an( a$th"rit+ t" 0"6ern an( e;ec$te the la&#. E;a'ple# ", per#"n in a$th"rit+? (i6i#i"n #$perinten(ent ", #ch""l#, pre#i(ent ", #anitar+ (i6i#i"n Ein a '$nicipalit+F, teacher#, 'a+"r, :$#tice ", peace, !aran0a+ captain an( !aran0a+ chair'an

An a0ent ", a per#"n in a$th"rit+ i# "ne &h", !+ (irect pr"6i#i"n ", la& "r !+ app"int'ent !+ c"'petent a$th"rit+, i# char0e( &ith E1F the 'aintenance ", p$!lic "r(er an( E3F the pr"tecti"n an( #ec$rit+ ", li,e an( pr"pert+.

E;a'ple#? !arri" c"$ncil'an, !arri" p"lice'an, !aran0a+ lea(er, an+ per#"n &h" c"'e# t" the ai( ", per#"n# in a$th"rit+, #heri,,, p"#t'a#ter, a0ent# ", BIR, '$nicipal trea#$rer, p"lice'en Teacher#, pr",e##"r# an( per#"n# char0e( &ith the #$per6i#i"n ", C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 2&

p$!lic "r ($l+ rec"0niAe( pri6ate #ch""l#, c"lle0e# an( $ni6er#itie#, an( la&+er# in the act$al per,"r'ance ", their pr",e##i"nal ($tie# "r "n the "cca#i"n ", #$ch per,"r'ance, #hall !e (ee'e( per#"n# in a$th"rit+ ,"r p$rp"#e# ", Article# 1 / E(irect a##a$ltF an( 1*1 E(i#"!e(ienceF. B+ i'plicati"n, Article 1 1 Ein(irect a##a$ltF i# al#" incl$(e(.

1. Ca$#in0 an+ #eri"$# (i#t$r!ance in a p$!lic place, ",,ice "r e#ta!li#h'ent@ 2. Interr$ptin0 "r (i#t$r!in0 per,"r'ance#, ,$ncti"n# "r 0atherin0#, "r peace,$l 'eetin0#, i, the act i# n"t incl$(e( in Article# 131 an( 133 3. 4a=in0 an+ "$tcr+ ten(in0 t" incite re!elli"n "r #e(iti"n in an+ 'eetin0, a##"ciati"n "r p$!lic place@ . Di#pla+in0 placar(# "r e'!le'# &hich pr"6"=e a (i#t$r!ance ", p$!lic "r(er in #$ch place@ *. B$r+in0 &ith p"'p the !"(+ ", a per#"n &h" ha# !een le0all+ e;ec$te(. I, the act ", (i#t$r!in0 "r interr$ptin0 a 'eetin0 "r reli0i"$# cere'"n+ i# n"t c"''itte( !+ p$!lic ",,icer#, "r i, c"''itte( !+ p$!lic ",,icer# the+ are participant# therein, thi# article #h"$l( !e applie(. O$tcr+ % t" #h"$t #$!6er#i6e "r pr"6"cati6e &"r(# ten(in0 t" #tir $p the pe"ple t" "!tain !+ 'ean# ", ,"rce "r 6i"lence an+ ", the "!:ect# ", re!elli"n "r #e(iti"n. I, the "$tcr+ i# an $nc"n#ci"$# "$t!$r#t &hich i# n"t intenti"nall+ calc$late( t" in($ce "ther# t" c"''it re!elli"n "r #e(iti"n, it #h"$l( !e p$ni#he( $n(er thi# article. I, the ",,en(er 'a(e the "$tcr+ &ith the th"$0ht ", in($cin0 hi# hearer# t" c"''it re!elli"n "r #e(iti"n, then it i# p$ni#he( a# incitin0 t" re!elli"nO#e(iti"n. Per#"n# ca$#in0 (i#t$r!ance ", a t$'$lt$"$# character #hall !e i'p"#e( a penalt+ ne;t hi0her in (e0ree T$'$lt$"$# % I, ca$#e( !+ '"re than three per#"n# &h" are ar'e( "r pr"6i(e( &ith 'ean# ", 6i"lence Article 1*4. Unl&#,!l ! e o, $e&n (!blic&tion &n% !nl&#,!l !tter&nce Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. P$!li#hin0 "r ca$#in0 t" !e p$!li#he(, !+ 'ean# ", printin0, lith"0raph+ "r an+ "ther 'ean# ", p$!licati"n, a# ne&# an+ ,al#e ne&# &hich 'a+ en(an0er the p$!lic "r(er@ "r ca$#e (a'a0e t" the intere#t "r cre(it ", the State@ 3. Enc"$ra0in0 (i#"!e(ience t" the la& "r t" the c"n#tit$te( a$th"ritie# "r prai#in0, :$#ti,+in0 "r e;t"llin0 an+ act p$ni#he( !+ la&, !+ the #a'e 'ean# "r !+ &"r(#, $tterance# "r #peeche#@ o,

Article 1*3. T!$!lt &n% other %i t!rb&nce o, (!blic or%er " t!$!lt!o! %i t!rb&nce or interr!(tion li&ble to c&! e %i t!rb&nce Act# p$ni#ha!le?

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer 2(

3. 4alici"$#l+ p$!li#hin0 "r ca$#in0 t" !e p$!li#he( an+ ",,icial re#"l$ti"n "r ("c$'ent &ith"$t pr"per a$th"rit+, "r !e,"re the+ ha6e !een p$!li#he( ",,iciall+ . Printin0, p$!li#hin0 "r (i#tri!$tin0 E"r ca$#in0 the #a'eF !""=#, pa'phlet#, peri"(ical#, "r lea,let# &hich (" n"t !ear the real printer# na'e, "r &hich are cla##i,ie( a# an"n+'"$#. H'a+ en(an0er % 'ean# that act$al p$!lic (i#"r(er "r act$al (a'a0e t" the cre(it ", the State i# n"t nece##ar+. The ",,en(er '$#t =n"& that the ne&# i# ,al#e, t" !e lia!le $n(er thi# article. R.A. 3 / pr"hi!it# the reprintin0, repr"($cti"n "r rep$!licati"n ", 0"6ern'ent p$!licati"n# an( ",,icial ("c$'ent# &ith"$t ",,icial a$th"rit+. Article 1**. Al&r$ &n% c&n%&l Act# p$ni#ha!le? 1. Di#char0in0 an+ ,irear', r"c=et, ,irecrac=er, "r "ther e;pl"#i6e &ithin an+ t"&n "r p$!lic place, calc$late( t" ca$#e E&hich pr"($ce#F alar' ", (an0er@ 3. In#ti0atin0 "r ta=in0 an acti6e part in an+ chari6ari "r "ther (i#"r(erl+ 'eetin0 ",,en#i6e t" an"ther "r pre:$(icial t" p$!lic tran<$ilit+@ 3. Di#t$r!in0 the p$!lic peace &hile &an(erin0 a!"$t at ni0ht "r &hile en0a0e( in an+ "ther n"ct$rnal a'$#e'ent#@ . Ca$#in0 an+ (i#t$r!ance "r #can(al in p$!lic place# &hile int";icate( "r "ther&i#e, pr"6i(e( Article 1*3 in n"t applica!le. The (i#char0e ", ,irear' #h"$l( n"t !e ai'e( at an+ per#"n, "ther&i#e the ",,en#e i# (i#char0e ", ,irear' $n(er Article 3* . The act in the ,ir#t para0raph '$#t pr"($ce alar' "r (an0er a# a c"n#e<$ence. Di#char0e ", ,irecrac=er# "r r"c=et# ($rin0 ,ie#ta# n"t c"6ere( !+ thi# article. Chari6ari % a 'e(le+ ", (i#c"r(ant 6"ice#, a '"c= #erena(e ", (i#c"r(ant n"i#e# 'a(e "n =ettle#, tin#, h"rn#, etc. (e#i0ne( t" ann"+ an( in#$lt. I, the (i#t$r!ance i# ", #eri"$# nat$re, the ca#e ,all# $n(er Article 1*3. Article 1*.. Deli5erin1 (ri oner ,ro$ >&il

Ele'ent#? 1. There i# a per#"n c"n,ine( in a :ail "r penal e#ta!li#h'ent@ 3. O,,en(er re'"6e# there,r"' #$ch per#"n, "r help# the e#cape ", #$ch per#"n. Applie# t" an+ =in( ", pri#"ner, &hether (etenti"n pri#"ner "r pri#"ner !+ ,inal :$(0'ent. 7i"lence, inti'i(ati"n "r !ri!er+ increa#e# the applica!le penalt+. I, the e#cape ", the pri#"ner ta=e# place "$t#i(e ", #ai( e#ta!li#h'ent# !+ ta=in0 the 0$ar(# !+ #$rpri#e, the penalt+ i# the 'ini'$' peri"( ", that pre#cri!e(. Chat i# the lia!ilit+ ", the pri#"ner &h" e#cape#D o I, he i# a (etenti"n pri#"ner, #$ch per#"n i# n"t cri'inall+ lia!le. A pri#"ner i# cri'inall+ lia!le ,"r lea6in0 the penal in#tit$ti"n "nl+ &hen there i# e6a#i"n ", #er6ice ", #entence, &hich can !e c"''itte( "nl+ !+ a c"n6ict !+ ,inal :$(0'ent.
Al'er+o vs. Dela Cr/z $ena4ue escaped while working on the go ernor@s fence! Petition to include as defendants Go ernor ,ledera and assistant pro incial warden Esmeralda due to the belief that they had a hand in the escape of Pablo $ena4ue! Allegedly, the go ernor sent a note to Esmeralda asking for fi e men to work on his fence! HE'$( )he Go ernor and Esmeralda cannot be prosecuted for the offense! 9t is necessary that the public officer consented to or conni ed in the escape of the prisoner under his custody! 9f the public officer charged with the duty of guarding him does not conni e with the fugiti e, then he has not iolated the law and is not guilty of the crime! Article %N5 is usually committed by an outsider! 9f the offender is a public officer, then Article "": applies!

Article 1*/. entence Ele'ent#?

E5& ion

o,

er5ice

o,

1. O,,en(er i# a c"n6ict !+ ,inal :$(0'ent@ 3. 9e i# #er6in0 #entence &hich c"n#i#t# in the (epri6ati"n ", li!ert+@ 3. 9e e6a(e# #er6ice ", hi# #entence !+ e#capin0 ($rin0 the ter' ", hi# i'pri#"n'ent. >$ali,+in0 i'p"#e(? circ$'#tance# a# t" penalt+

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer !0

e. I, #$ch e6a#i"n "r e#cape ta=e# place )

1.

B+ 'ean# ", $nla&,$l entr+ Ethi# #h"$l( !e I!+ #calin0N i, c"rrect Spani#h tran#lati"n i# $#e(F@ 3. B+ !rea=in0 (""r#, &in("&#, 0ate#, &all#, r"",# "r ,l""r#@ 3. B+ $#in0 pic=l"c=, ,al#e =e+#, (i#0$i#e, (eceit, 6i"lence "r inti'i(ati"n@ "r . Thr"$0h c"nni6ance &ith "ther c"n6ict# "r e'pl"+ee# ", the penal in#tit$ti"n. HE#cape % ,lee ,r"', t" a6"i(, t" 0et "$t ", the &a+, a# t" ,lee t" a6"i( arre#t. Pri#"ner# #een l"iterin0 a ,e& 'eter# a&a+ ,r"' the cit+ :ail are n"t c"n#i(ere( t" ha6e e#cape(.

'$tin+ in &hich he ha# n"t participate(@ 3. 9e e6a(e# the #er6ice ", hi# #entence !+ lea6in0 the penal in#tit$ti"n &here he i# c"n,ine(, "n the "cca#i"n ", #$ch (i#"r(er "r ($rin0 the '$tin+@ . 9e ,ail# t" 0i6e hi'#el, $p t" the a$th"ritie# &ithin / h"$r# ,"ll"&in0 the i##$ance ", a pr"cla'ati"n !+ the Chie, E;ec$ti6e ann"$ncin0 the pa##in0 a&a+ ", #$ch cala'it+. The ",,en(er '$#t !e a c"n6ict !+ ,inal :$(0'ent. Chat i# p$ni#he( i# n"t the lea6in0 ", the penal in#tit$ti"n, !$t the ,ail$re ", the c"n6ict t" 0i6e hi'#el, $p t" the a$th"ritie# &ithin / h"$r# a,ter the pr"cla'ati"n ann"$ncin0 the pa##in0 a&a+ ", the cala'it+. I, c"n6ict ,ail# t" 0i6e hi'#el, $p, he #hall #$,,er an( increa#e ", 1O* ", the ti'e #till re'ainin0 t" !e #er6e( $n(er the "ri0inal #entence, n"t t" e;cee( #i; '"nth#. I, he 0i6e# hi'#el, $p &ithin / h"$r#, he #hall !e entitle( t" 1O* (e($cti"n ", the peri"( ", hi# #entence. 4$tin+ % "r0aniAe( $nla&,$l re#i#tance t" a #$peri"r ",,icer, a #e(iti"n, a re6"lt Article 1*2. Other c& e o, e5& ion o, er5ice o, entence <6iol&tion o, con%ition&l (&r%on= Ele'ent#? 1. 3. 3. O,,en(er &a# a c"n6ict@ 9e &a# 0rante( par("n !+ the Chie, E;ec$ti6e@ 9e 6i"late( an+ ", the c"n(iti"n# ", #$ch par("n. A c"n(iti"nal par("n i# a c"ntract !et&een the Chie, E;ec$ti6e an( the c"n6ict. Since it i# a c"ntract, the par("ne( c"n6ict i# !"$n( t" ,$l,ill it# c"n(iti"n# an( accept all it# c"n#e<$ence#, n"t a# he ch""#e#, !$t acc"r(in0 t" it# #trict ter'#. I, the penalt+ re'itte( ("e# n"t e;cee( #i; +ear#, penalt+ ,"r 6i"lati"n ", thi# article i# pri#i"n c"rrecci"nal 'ini'$'. I, the penalt+ re'itte( e;cee(# #i; +ear#, the penalt+ $n(er thi# article i# the $ne;pire( p"rti"n ", the "ri0inal #entence. C"n(iti"n that par("ne( c"n6ict #h"$l( n"t c"''it an"ther cri'e

Thi# article i# applica!le t" a #entence ", (e#tierr".


*anega vs. 1asa7a3an )anega was found guilty of slander! He failed to show up on the day of the e/ecution of the sentence imposed! HE'$( Gnder Article %NM, escape should take place while ser ing the sentence! -or prescription of penalty of imprisonment imposed by final 8udgment to commence to run, the culprit should escape during the term of such imprisonment! Ne er placed in confinement, prescription of penalty does not run in )anega@s fa or! People vs. A'ilong Abilong was sentenced to destierro by irtue of final 8udgment for attempted robbery! He iolated this 8udgment by going beyond the limits made against him, and committed agrancy! HE'$( Abilong is guilty of e asion of ser ice of sentence for ha ing iolated the 8udgment of destierro against him! $estierro is a depri ation of liberty *though partial+ and he may escape from the restrictions of the penalty!

Article 1*0. E5& ion o, er5ice o, entence on the occ& ion o, %i or%er con,l&1r&tion - e&rth8!&;e - or other c&l&$itie Ele'ent#? 1. O,,en(er i# a c"n6ict !+ ,inal :$(0'ent, &h" i# c"n,ine( in a penal in#tit$ti"n@ 2. There i# (i#"r(er, re#$ltin0 ,r"' % a. c"n,la0rati"n@ !. earth<$a=e@ c. e;pl"#i"n@ "r (. #i'ilar cata#tr"phe@ "r

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer !1

e;ten(# t" ",,en#e# p$ni#ha!le $n(er #pecial la&#. I, there i# a c"n(iti"n that c"n6ict #hall n"t c"''it an"ther cri'e, ",,en(er '$#t !e ,"$n( 0$ilt+ ", a #$!#e<$ent ",,en#e !e,"re he can !e pr"#ec$te( $n(er thi# article. The ($rati"n ", the c"n(iti"n# in a par("n &"$l( !e li'ite( t" the re'ainin0 peri"( ", the pri#"ner# #entence, UNLESS an intenti"n t" e;ten( it !e+"n( that ti'e &a# 'ani,e#t ,r"' the nat$re ", the c"n(iti"n "r the lan0$a0e in &hich it &a# i'p"#e(. 7i"lati"n ", c"n(iti"nal par("n ("e# n"t ca$#e har' "r in:$r+ t" the ri0ht ", "ther per#"n n"r ("e# it (i#t$r! p$!lic "r(er, it i# 'erel+ an in,rin0e'ent ", the ter'# #tip$late( in the c"ntact !et&een the Chie, E;ec$ti6e an( the c"n6ict.
*orres vs. 9onzales )orres was con icted of estafa! He was granted a conditional pardon and was released! Subse4uent to his release, he was charged with "& counts of estafa *cases pending+, was con icted of sedition *appeal pending+ and had a long list of crimes charged against him *gra e threats, gra e coercion, swindling etc!+ HE'$( Article %N# defines a distinct and substanti e felony! Gnder this article, the con ict must be charged, prosecuted and con icted by -9NA' CG$G<EN) before he can be made to suffer the penalty in said article! 9n proceeding against a con ict who iolated the conditions of his pardon, the E/ecuti e $epartment may( %+ proceed against him under Section 50 *%+ of the Re ised Administrati e ,ode or "+ proceed against him under this article of the RP,!

>$a#i)reci(i6i#' ("e# n"t re<$ire that the t&" ",,en#e# are e'!race( in the #a'e title in the RPC, $nli=e in reci(i6i#'. Reiteraci"n re<$ire# that the ",,en(er ha# #er6e( "$t hi# #entence# ,"r the pri"r ",,en#e. In <$a#i reci(i6i#', the ",,en(er i# !e0innin0 t" #er6e the #entence "r i# alrea(+ #er6in0 the #entence. >$a#i)reci(i6i#' cann"t !e ",,#et !+ "r(inar+ 'iti0atin0 circ$'#tance, !eca$#e the article pr"6i(e# that the ",,en(er #hall !e p$ni#he( !+ the 'a;i'$' peri"( ", the ne& ,el"n+. A <$a#i)reci(i6i#t #hall !e par("ne( &hen he ha# reache( .2 an( ha# alrea(+ #er6e( "$t hi# "ri0inal #entence, "r &hen he #hall c"'plete it a,ter reachin0 .2, $nle## !+ rea#"n ", hi# c"n($ct "r "ther circ$'#tance#, he #hall n"t !e &"rth+ ", #$ch cle'enc+. A <$a#i)reci(i6i#t 'a+ NOT !e par("ne( e6en i, he ha# reache( .2 an( ha# alrea(+ #er6e( "$t hi# "ri0inal #entence, i, he i# a ha!it$al cri'inal. Ta=e N"te? ?!$&n Sec!rit+ Act o, 433/ ERA 13.3F@

De,ine ITerr"ri#'N@ t"

Atte'ptOC"n#pirac+ C"''it Terr"ri#'@

9"& principal#, acc"'plice# an( acce##"rie# are p$ni#he(@ S$r6eillance an( Intercepti"n ", #$#pecte( terr"ri#t c"''$nicati"nO #ai( c"''$nicati"n c"n#i(ere( Icla##i,ie( in,"r'ati"nN@

Article 1.3. Co$$i ion o, &nother cri$e %!rin1 er5ice o, the (en&lt+ i$(o e% ,or &nother (re5io! o,,en e Ele'ent#? 1. O,,en(er &a# alrea(+ c"n6icte( !+ ,inal :$(0'ent ", "ne ",,en#e@ 3. 9e c"''itte( a ne& ,el"n+ !e,"re !e0innin0 t" #er6e #$ch #entence "r &hile #er6in0 the #a'e. The #ec"n( cri'e '$#t !e a ,el"n+, that i#, p$ni#ha!le $n(er the Re6i#e( Penal C"(e. B$t the ,ir#t cri'e ,"r &hich the ",,en(er i# #er6in0 #entence nee( n"t !e a ,el"n+. The ne& ",,en#e nee( n"t !e ", (i,,erent character ,r"' that ", the "l( ",,en#e.

A'"$nt ", (a'a0e# pai( t" th"#e (etaine( &r"n0,$ll+ EP*22=O(a+F, ta=en ,r"' the !$(0et ", the 0"6ern'ent a0enc+ &h" ca$#e( hi# (etenti"n.

C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer !2

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