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Title

Motivating students to learn through the use of ICT

Author(s)

Sze, Sheung-hoi, Kevin.; .

Citation

Issue Date

2005

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10722/40201

Rights

The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.

Motivating students to learn through the use of ICT: a case study

SZE Sheung Hoi, Kevin

Dissertation presented on partial-fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Information Technology in Education,

The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education

2005

ABSTRACT
Basically, ICT is more than a teaching tool. Its potential for improving the quality and standard of students education is significant (DfEE, 1998). Many research claims that the use of ICT in education has a positive impact on students motivation to learn, such as leading them to positive attitude; increasing their enjoyment, self esteem, independence and confidence in the learning process. This study aims to investigate the relationship between ICT and student motivation, as well to determine factors which have influences on teachers to use ICT and to determine factors motivate students to learn through the use of ICT in teaching and learning. A case study research method employing both qualitative and quantitative research approach such as literature search, questionnaire, class observation, and interview with both students and teachers were used during the process. The findings show that the use of ICT in teaching and learning has a significant positive impact on student motivation, such as increasing students attitude to learn, improving classroom behavior, and providing better performance of learning outcome. The factors which motivated students to learn with the use of ICT, such as enhancement of enjoyment and interest of topic presented, decreased feedback time, allowed the opportunity for student to choose and control their learning pace; as well as increased of self esteem, independence and confidence in the learning process. There are many factors that encourage the teachers to use ICT in teaching activities; such as meeting the minimum requirement of the (25%) IT teaching from the

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EMB instruction, the level of resources available, the level of training and supporting provided, the effectiveness and improvement in students learning and the using of ICT in teaching which considered being interesting and enjoyable.

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this dissertation represents my own work and that it has not been previously submitted to this University or any other institution in application for admission to a degree, diploma or other qualifications.

SZE Sheung Hoi, kevin Student number: 2001977377

________________________ May 14, 2005

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to the following individuals who have made the completion of this dissertation possible:

I would like to thank Mr. James Henri for his advice and guidance through all stages of the dissertation.

I would also like to convey my deepest appreciation to the principal, colleagues, and students of the Cotton Spinners Association Secondary School, who took part in the questionnaire, class observation and interview, especially to Mr. Leung Che Ming for reviewing the report to ensure the standard of writing.

I would like to express my sincere appreciation for my wife and my eight months old daughter, for their love and caring, support, patience, and understanding during MSc course period.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Abstract Declaration Acknowledgements Table of contents List of figures List of tables Glossary of terms and acronyms

ii iv v vi xii xiii xiv

Chapter One Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction ICT in education ICT and motivation Background information Significance of the study Objectives of the study Methodology Scope of the Study 1 1 2 3 4 6 6 7

Chapter Two Literature review 2.1 Introduction 8

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

What is Motivation? Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Student Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 2.6.1 The physiological needs 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 The safety and security needs The love and belonging needs The esteem needs The Self Actualization

9 10 10 11 11 13 13 13 14 14 15 18 18 19

2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

ICT and student motivation ICT and teacher motivation Parents role in student motivation Conclusion

Chapter Three Research methodology 3.1 3.2 Methods for conducting the study Case study 3.2.1 3.2.2 Definition Types of case study 3.2.2.1 Illustrative cast study 21 21 21 22 22

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 3.2.2.2 Exploratory cast study 3.2.2.3 Cumulative cast study 3.2.2.4 Critical instance cast study 3.2.3 Strengths and weaknesses 3.2.3.1 Flexibility 3.2.3.2 Inherent subjectivity 3.3 3.4 Reasons for selecting cast study Conducting case study 3.4.1 Determine and Define the Research Questions 3.4.2 Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques 3.4.3 Prepare to Collect the Data 3.4.4 Collect Data 3.4.5 Evaluate and Analyze the Data 3.5 Ethical issues 29 30 31 32 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28

Chapter Four Findings and analysis 4.1 4.2 Introduction Questionnaire 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Description of the sample Results relating to motivation Results relating to motivation with gender analysis 33 34 34 36 41

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page

4.2.4

Correlations between motivational factors and the use of ICT

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4.3

Class Observation 4.3.1 Introduction 4.3.2 4.3.3 Set the Scene Development of Theme Teaching

43 44 44 44 45 45 46 47

4.3.4 Consolidation 4.3.5 Observation Result 4.3.5.1 Teaching and learning supported by ICT 4.3.5.2 Teaching and learning with traditional approaches 4.3.5.3 Evaluation of class observation 4.4 Interview 4.4.1 Interview with teachers 4.4.1.1 Background information 4.4.1.2 ICT and Motivation 4.4.2 Interview with students 4.4.2.1 Background Information 4.4.2.2 Family influences on motivation 4.4.2.3 ICT and motivation 4.4.2.4 ICT and test outcome

48 48 49 49 50 51 52 54 54 55

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 4.4.2.5 Limitation of ICT 58

Chapter Five Conclusions 5.1 Introduction 5.2 5.3 5.4 Conclusions Limitation Recommendations for further research

59 59 63 64

Reference

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Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Student interview protocol Teacher interview protocol Students interview questions Teachers interview questions Lesson plan Distribution of responses Statistical data Unified test paper Class observation sheet Questionnaire 72 73 74 77 78 81 89 90 93 97

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page Appendix K Correlation table 99

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page

2.1 4.1 4.2

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Distribution of computer confident level Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered make lessons more enjoyable.

12 30 34

4.3

Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to improve teachers presentation material.

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4.4

Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to be unenjoyable.

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4.5

Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to impair students learning.

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4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

The courseware - Magic Unfolds Percentage of the ICT usage in Engineering Science Preference of Engineering Science The comparison of two Unified Test score

39 44 47 51

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LIST OF TABLES
Page

4.1 4.2

Biological sex of respondents The advantage and disadvantage of using ICT in teaching and learning.

29 32

4.3

The mean score of questionnaire response base on the gender.

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4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Year of serve and Computer proficiency level First Unified Test result Second Unified Test result Engineering Science Score distribution

44 46 50 52

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS


BECTA CCL CSA DfEE EMB ES ICT SES British Educational Communication and Technology Agency Computer Confident Level Cotton Spinners Association Secondary School Department for Education and Employment Education and Manpower Bureau Engineering Science Information and Communication Technology Social Economic Status

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Living in this era, we are unavoidably bound for a rapid change; in terms of technological, economical, and social transformation. On top, the restructuring from manufacturing centered to service knowledge based economy and the shifting from localized economy to globalization, labor marketplace has experienced an upheaval in the form of demand which subsequently leads to a reformation of our education system. HKSAR and many countries around the globe, such as USA, UK, Denmark, Singapore, New Zealand, Japan and Australia are making ICT policy as one of the highest priorities on the agenda of education reform, and devoting huge amount of resources in implementing ICT in education. HKSAR has launched first 5 - year ICT strategy plan in 1998 which aims to harness the power of ICT, to turn schools into dynamic and innovative learning institutions, where students can become more motivated, inquisitive, creative and independent lifelong learners (EMB, 1998).

1.2 ICT in Education

The objective of implementing ICT policy in Hong Kong is to bring about a paradigm shift in the delivery of school education - from a textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and learner-centered approach. Key components of the strategy are teachers competence, focusing on
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curriculum and software, hardware provision as well the extension of infrastructure.

For teachers enablement, EMB aimed to have 100% of teachers with BIT, 75% with IIT, 25% with UIT, and a minimum of one or two teacher with AIT level by the 2002/03 school year. Teachers were trained at four different levels to become effective facilitators, guiding the students to play a more active role in learning.

EMB aimed to have ICT elements incorporated in the school across curriculums; it required at least 25 per cent of the curriculum taught through ICT by 2002/03. The government provided schools with a threshold level of hardware, technical support and an appropriate network infrastructure for collaboration and communication between the educational sectors and the community. ICT facilities will be progressively increased and the provision of educational software will be more structured (EMB, 1998). On one hand, the policy gears up teachers skill of ICT and gets ready for the paradigm shift. On the other hand, it creates a new ICT environment for the school from inside out; so that the students may use ICT as part of their daily activities and make use of it creatively when they grow up in the future as well. The main tasks are to equip our teachers with the necessary IT skills; to apply computerassisted teaching and learning across the curriculum; and to place students in an environment where they can use this technology as part of their daily activities and grow up to use it creatively (HKSAR, 1997).

1.3 ICT and Motivation

It is believed that the use of ICT in teaching and learning have positive effects on students motivation. ICT enhances not only the students enjoyment and interest of learning relating topics with multimedia presentation, animation and simulations, but also builds self esteem, independence and confidence of students in the learning process. It can influence students to stay longer on a task, to show a greater commitment to learning, to find their school work more interesting and consequently to improve their learning (Cox, 1999, p. 33). Students are motivated, have a positive attitude and better commitment to learn when ICT is a part of their daily lives.

For the level of motivation, no matter how intrinsic or extrinsic it is, a long term one may be differed from a short term one among students. Experience reveals that motivating students with low academic achievement to learn accompanied with ICT has greater impact than on the students whom with high academic achievement. It is because Band One students are in the auto pilot mode of learning. In fact, they are motivated (intrinsic and extrinsic) to learn. Therefore, it is significant to conduct the study of ICT and motivation to the Band Three bottom ten students. The result is expected to be a positive. If this is the case, equipping ICT in education will and possibly can play a key role in the education reforming for lower banding school in the light of quality school education.

1.4 Background Information CSA

Cotton Spinners Association Secondary School (CSA) is a sizeable secondary school, with 59 teachers, 20 minor staff members and 25 classes which have total numbers of 900 students in 2004 2005 academic years. It is an aided Band 3 school and is located in the Kwai-Tsing School Division. In terms of academic performance, 52% of the Form 1 students are holding the standard equivalent to Primary 4 in the English, Chinese, and mathematics. From the perspective of Social Economic Status (SES), 99% of the students are in the lower end of SES. 58% of them are living in broken family; single parent, remarried, parents under long - term meditation as well as new immigrates. 64% of the students are currently under the scheme of students aids and public aids. According to Maslow, if students lack of sense of safety and security, lack of family love and support, their motivation and attitude to learn will be low. Those elements mentioned end up to be apathy of learning in that particular group of students.

1.5 Significance of the Study

I took my five months old baby to Park N Shop last week. She was inquisitive with shoppers and colorful products on the shelf. I took mini bus last Sunday; there was a mother with a 3 years old child sitting in front of me. She asked why there is a handle in front of her?, why there is a button (Stop required) above the window? Infants and young children appear to be propelled by curiosity, driven by an intense need to explore, interact with, and make sense

with the environment around them. Ironically, in real life, children seem to lose their passion for learning when they are older. As children grow, their passion for learning frequently seems to shrink. Learning often becomes associated with drudgery instead of delight. A large number of students, more than one in four, leave school before graduating(Lumsden, 1994, p1). As growing older, learning often becomes the hardship to them instead of enjoyment; especially for the slower achievers.

In a normal class size, it is not surprised to find that a very large number of students are mentally absent even they are in the class physically in a Band 3 bottom 10 school. They fail to invest themselves in the experience of learning(Lumsden, 1994, p1). However, they are fascinated by the internet and computer technology. According to a survey conducted by IT team, there are 86.3% of students have 1 personal computer home, with internet access, 96.4% of them spend one hour or more online activities. They invest

themselves fully in computer games, online games, ICQ, MSN, and so on. It sounds a great news that their fascination with ICT in daily activities provides the groundwork and opportunity for teachers to explore and adopt new way of teaching with the use of ICT.

Awareness of how students' attitudes and beliefs about learning with ICT and what factors motivate students to learn can assist educators in reducing students apathy in learning, make learning and teaching activities more interesting and fun for both teachers and students

1.6 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the relationship of the use of ICT in teaching and learning between students motivation. 2. To determine what factors motivate students to learn through the use of ICT. 3. To determine what factors motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching activities.

1.7 Methodology

In order to accomplish these objectives, a case study methodology was adopted and the following steps were taken: Literature search on the student motivation, the use of ICT in teaching and learning and the relationship between ICT and motivation; One to One investigative interview with three Engineering Science teachers was conducted, to determine the factors that inspire them to use ICT in teaching; One to One investigative interview with six students was conducted as well, to determine the factors that motivate them to learn when ICT was used in teaching and learning; Design a web based questionnaires to investigate the relationship between the use of ICT and motivation; Review and analyze the data of the questionnaires form 35 students;

Develop recommendations to help students of CSA to improve their performance.

1.8 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on: The uses of ICT in the subject of Engineering Science in the Form 5C and the Form 5B only; Identify the factors motivated students to learn; Identify the relationship of the use of ICT between student motivation; Identify the factors that motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching; Recommend a framework for raising the level of the motivation of teachers using ICT for motivating students to learn; In the light of above mentioned, propose a new method of teaching for the Band Three bottom ten students to learn Engineering Science, in a way to achieve better understand and enjoyable mean of learning experiment.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

An elevation for a higher level of student motivation and performance on a particular subject is the basic goal for every teacher. Motivation can be defined in a variety of ways. However, it is commonly defined as forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work (Schermerhorn, 2000). The ability to promote higher student motivation is associated with both students personal characteristics and the teaching context. In order to sustain students attention, teachers may try to make lessons more interesting and have more fun, as well engage together with their personal styles. Students permitted the opportunity to choose and control their learning report higher motivation, greater commitment, deeper involvement and more strategic thinking (Paris & Turner, 1994). Tasks that perceived as interesting and worthwhile result in greater student motivation than tasks that are perceived as uninteresting and not worthwhile (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Similar finding has also been

reported by Paris & Turner, 1994. Students report higher motivation when feedback is relevant and timely (Baume & Baume, 1996).

ICT can play a significant role in sustaining higher motivation of students. As Cox (1997) found that ICT enhances enjoyment and interest of topic presented,

builds up self esteem, independence and confidence of students in the learning process. (Cox, 1997).

2.2 What is Motivation?

The definition of motivation varies greatly among researchers because of the complexity of the concept. However, there appears to be a general agreement that motivation is defined as a force that drives people to attempt their needs with efforts. In fact, the term motivation is derived from Latin movere, which means to move. Motives cannot be seen but only inferred from behavior. Motivation is an internal state that arouses us to action. It pushes us in specific directions, and keeps us engage in certain activities (Elliot, 2000).

Motivation can either be intrinsic or extrinsic in its source. Intrinsic motivation involves internal, personal factors such as needs, interests, curiosity, and enjoyment (Woolfolk, 2001). A student who is intrinsically motivated undertakes an activity "for its own sake" (Lumsden, 1994, p.1), because the activity itself is rewarding (Woolfolk, 2001). Extrinsic motivation is that a student engages in an activity in order to obtain a reward, or to avoid a punishment, such as grades, stickers or teacher approval. This student is not really interested in the activity for its own sake, but rather for what it will gain from that (Woolfolk, 2001).

2.3 Intrinsic Motivation

Adolescents are compelled to learn because of their natural curiosity in life. As growing older, their curiosity obviously diminishes with time. They need to be pushed in order to engage in the direction of learning. Intrinsic

motivation is that the adolescent is motivated to complete a task without rewards from an outside source. Intrinsic motivation is internal and often satisfies basic human needs (Hill, 1999). There are different triggers for this type of motivation in students learning; for examples task completion, feedback or result, acquisition of knowledge or skills, and a sense of mastery (Witzel, 2003). If students always engaged with intrinsic motivation, they will be motivated to do things without considering the reward. On top, they will have better performance and success in their future study and career.

2.4 Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation is the willingness to do something based on the encouragement from an outside source. It means that students perform in order to obtain reward or avoid some punishment out of the activity itself; such as grades, sticker or teacher approval. When students complete a task or behavior based solely on a reward, they will possibly copy the same attitude again for another reward. A child used to be promised a treat for learning or acting responsibly has been given every reason to stop doing so when there is no longer a reward to be gained (Kohn, 1994). None the less, grades are

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probably the most positive example of extrinsic motivation. And many students are driven by the grades for higher education and their future jobs.

2.5 Student Motivation

Student motivation is their desire to participate in the learning process. Although students may be equally motivated to perform a task, the sources of their motivation may differ. Some students, who are intrinsically motivated, undertake an activity for their own sake; others, who are extrinsically motivated, perform a task just to obtain better grade or hand in the assignment just to avoid punishment from teacher.

Generally speaking, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are mutually important in the process of teaching and learning. Intrinsic motivation increases the effectiveness of learning. Lumsden (1994) notes that when students are intrinsically motivated, they tend to use strategies that require more effort and involve processing of information on a deeper level. Moreover, students with an intrinsic orientation also tend to prefer tasks that are moderately challenging. On the contrary, students who are extrinsically motivated tend to prefer easier tasks that consume energy to a minimum.

2.6 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

One of the most enduring influences in motivation theory is Maslow's needs hierarchy. He noted that some needs took precedence over others. For

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example, if people are hungry and thirsty at the same time, they will tend to try to take care of their thirst first. People survive without food for weeks, but can only stay alive without water for a couple of days. Therefore, thirst is a stronger need than hunger.

Figure 2.1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

There are five levels in the Maslows Hierarchy of needs: the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize oneself. Maslow introduced the concept of self-actualization which is the idea that people enable their abilities to their maximum potential. In other words, if we can convince our students that they are capable of fulfilling their goals, then they are on their way to selfefficacy (Elliot, 2000).

Self-actualization is the highest goal to reach in motivation. It is placed at the top of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Five needs must be met before selfactualization can be developed. The idea of Maslows hierarchy of needs is that if basic needs are not met, motivation cannot be found. .

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2.6.1. The physiological needs


This is the basic level of needs; including the needs for air, water and food, as well as the needs to be active, rest and sleep. If those basic needs are not met, a student will not have motivation for the other things. The students will sleep during the lesson because of their needs for resting and sleeping is not met due to the playing computer games all night.

2.6.2 The safety and security needs


When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second level of needs will fall in. People will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, and protection. If a student is not safe in the school due to bullying; for instance, just like the case found in La Sa Collage, where their motivation is focused on, What will make me happy today?

2.6.3 The love and belonging needs


By and large, when physiological needs and safety needs are being taken care of, a third level starts to show up. At this stage, people begin to feel the needs for friends, a sweetheart, a sense of community. Sometimes, these needs become so much exaggerated, especially found in secondary school students. Many students at this level strive to be accepted by their peers, and are being distracted by others opinions.

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2.6.4 The esteem needs


Following needs are the self-esteem level. They are the needs for the respect of others, the needs for status, fame, recognition, attention, reputation, and appreciation.

2.6.5 The Self Actualization


The self actualization is the higher level of Maslows hieraracy of needs. This includes feelings such as confidence, competence,

achievement, independence, and freedom. The most motivated person can reach the top of Maslows hieraracy of needs. Practically, it is so important that all those needs relate so closely to one another and work together as a whole. Skipping one of the needs, students will not move up onto the next needs and will not achieve the motivation to self learning and achieve ultimate goal of life - long learning.

Nowadays, the physiological needs and the needs for safety and security are largely taking care. As mentioned in Chapter 1, most of students in CSA are lack of sense of belonging and support. Their investment in ICQ, MSN, and Netmeeting provides opportunity of new friendship and sharing. The use of ICT in teaching and learning enhanced students self-esteem (Cox, 1997) and students play the role of the co-builders of knowledge (CITE, 2002), which provide opportunity for self actualize. Together with teachers personal style, students were motivated to learn.

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2.7 ICT and student motivation

Cox (1997) studied the use of ICT for primary and secondary students and their attitudes towards ICT. Based on an analysis of the literature on

motivation, it shows that the regular use of ICT across different curriculum subjects can have a beneficial motivational influence on student learning. Responses from the students include an increased commitment to the learning task, their enhanced enjoyment, interest and sense of achievement in learning when using ICT, and their enhanced self-esteem. More than 75% of secondary pupils agreed or strongly agreed that using computers made their subject more interesting and more than 50% of all the school aged pupils agreed that using ICT helped them understand their subjects better (Cox, 1997).

Denning (1997) researched on nine secondary schools from West Sussex, Sheffield and Birmingham, to study why and how ICT activities can motivate students to learn. He noted that students were motivated by positive

experiences of using the technology for a range of activities and 80% of teachers who used ICT regularly found that students were well motivated.

Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) project also shown that students with access to ICT learned things faster and better when they had a chance to practice them using technology. One of the reasons cited for this improvement was that students were engaged by the technology. Students were more

motivated to learn when technology was part of their daily school experience.

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Gardner (1994) conducted a study on the use of portable computers during one school year by 235 students from a number of primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland to measure changes in their achievement in English and science. He found that the majority of the teachers reported a higher degree of motivation amongst the students and a better attitude to work when the students were using laptop computers.

In UK, the UK IMPACT project investigated the impact of ICT on student's learning in primary and secondary schools which involved 2,300 students in 19 LEAs. It also found that the students commitment to their work was enhanced by the use of ICT (Watson, 1993). This study suggested that for some subjects and age groups, and in certain conditions, pupils in High IT classes (defined in terms of access to computers and appropriate software, together with a curriculum plan that would integrate their use in lessons) could achieve a 5 per cent gain in public examination results(BECTA, Impact 2). Robertson also conducted a similar study on the computer-related attitudes of students in an English secondary school. They were assessed by questionnaire items such as "I would like working with computers" and "I think I would enjoy working with computers". The outcome showed that students held a positive attitude towards learning with computers.

The BECTA published a compendium of research findings entitled Information Technology works! in 1994. Pachler (1999) reprinted 27

assertions made by the report, which could be summarizing as following:

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Students who have not enjoyed learning can be encouraged by the use of ICT, which has the flexibility to meet the individual needs and abilities of each student. ICT presents information in new ways which help students to understand and assimilate; even difficult ideas are made more understandable when information technology makes them visible. ICT simulations encourage analytical and divergent thinking, motivate and stimulate learning, particularly successful in holding the attention of students with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Using ICT makes teachers take a fresh look at how they teach and the ways in which students learn. Giving teachers easy access to ICT resource encourages and improves the use of ICT in the curriculum (Pachler 1999, p.5).

Bullock (2001) conducted a case study on evaluating the impact of using ICT upon student motivation and attainment in English. The findings shown that there was a significant improvement in the motivation of the majority of the students. In particular, students had been more enthusiastic to begin tasks and this enthusiasm had been sustained for their duration. The questionnaires responded 88% of the class stated that the use of a variety of ICT this year had made their English lessons more or a lot more interesting and enjoyable than they expected. A further 86% of the group stated that ICT had helped them to produce good work that had allowed them to explore ideas and work creatively (Bullock, 2001).

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Coley (1997) found that ICT could individualize instruction and give instant feedback to students and even explain the correct answer, which increase student motivation to learn. Underwood & Brown found that increased

motivation of students for learning with ICT was related to ease of error correction, semi private environment, increased self esteem, active control of their immediate environment and able to work at their own pace (Underwood & Brown, 1997).

2.8 ICT and teacher motivation

Teaching and learning are mutually related in classroom activities in a secondary school. It is generally believed that ICT can make lessons more interesting and have more fun, contribute to students' learning; improving the presentation of materials and making the lessons more diversely. What will motivate teachers to use ICT in their teaching activities? Cox, Preston and Cox (1999) reported that the most significant motivation factors relating to use were, perceived ability to use ICT, difficulties experienced in using ICT, level of resources available and teachers satisfaction with ICT, and whether using ICT in teaching is considered to be interesting and enjoyable (Cox, Preston & Cox 1999, p.17).

2.9 Parents role in student motivation

Parents have a significant impact on motivation at every stage of childs development. Healthy, effective families possess positive attitudes and

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behaviors toward their children that help them to succeed in school and life (Wlodkowski & Jaynes, 1990). With parents being a childs first and most important teacher, it seems obvious that family will have a significant influence on the development of a childs motivation to learn. "The smallest school in America is the family (Garrett, 1995)", which illustrates the significant role that family has in education and motivation of students.

Some other researchers, such as Pape (1999), Fager and Brewster (1999), strongly support the benefits of having parents involved in their childs education. Parents involved in their childs academic life have a profound effect on the childs ability to learn and help instill in them an appreciation for learning that can last a lifetime (Pape, 1999). Parental involvement can also improve academic performance, behavior in school, greater academic motivation (Fager & Brewster, 1999).

2.10 Conclusion

In conclusion, this chapter reviews the definition of motivation and types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivation is defined as a force that drives people to attempt their needs with efforts. It is believed that the intrinsic motivation is more permanent while extrinsic motivation has a short term effect on students behavior. Accounting to Maslows Hierarchy of needs, all needs are met; student will have self-efficacy in learning.

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Many researchers reported in the literature that the use of ICT in teaching and learning has significant positive impact on students motivation (Denning, 1997, Bullock, 2001, & Cox, 1997). The factors that contribute to students motivation to learn in the ICT environment, include more interesting and fun of lessons, the more enjoyment of the learning experiment, gaining control over their own learning process (Underwood & Brown, 1997), increase their confidence and self esteem (Cox, 1997).

Teaching and learning are mutually related, the research report in the literature that the factors motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching and learning activities include their attitudes to ICT, their beliefs in the value of ICT for teaching and learning, their perceptions of whether or not they can use it effectively in their teaching, and the availability of resources. Motivational factors include

making lessons more interesting and more fun, contributing to students' learning, improving the presentation of materials and making the lessons more diverse (Cox, Preston & Cox 1999).

With parents being a childs first teacher and family being a childs first and smallest school (Garrett, 1995); parents definitely have a significant influence on every state of childs development. Parental involvement and support not only can increase student motivation, but also improve academic performance and behavior in school (Fager & Brewster, 1999).

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

3.1 Method for conducting the study

In order to investigate the relationship between ICT and student motivation, as well determine the motivational factors which influences on students learning and teachers teaching with ICT, a case study methodology with both qualitative and quantitative research approach were adopted. Research methods such as literature search, questionnaire, class observation, and interview with both students and teachers will be used.

3.2 Case Study

3.2.1 Definition

There are numbers of definitions of the case study. According to Bromley, it is a "systematic inquiry into an event or a set of related events which aims to describe and explain the phenomenon of interest" (Bromley, 1990, p. 302). According to Yin, the case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which multiple sources of evidence are used (Yin, 1984, p. 23).

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Case studies involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single event. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happens as it does. Case study research does extremely well at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research (Soy, 1997).

The unit of analysis can vary from an individual to a school or to a school division. Data come largely from documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant observation and physical artifacts (Yin, 1994).

3.2.2 Types of case study

Case study can be categorized in four types. They are as follows:

3.2.2.1 Illustrative case studies

Illustrative case studies are primarily descriptive studies (Becker, 2005). They describe a domain; utilize one or two instances to analyze a situation. These case studies serve to make the unfamiliar familiar, and give readers a common language about the topic (Becker, 2005).

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3.2.2.2 Exploratory case studies

Researchers undertake exploratory case studies before implementing a largescale investigation. Where considerable uncertainty exists about program operations, goals, and results; exploratory case studies help identify questions, select measurement constructs, and develop measures. Meanwhile, they also serve to safeguard investment in larger studies.

The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions (Becker, 2005). Other pitfalls include the tendency to extend the exploratory phase, and inadequate representation of diversity.

3.2.2.3 Cumulative Case Studies

The cumulative case studies serve to aggregate information from several different places collected at different times. The idea behind these studies is the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies (Becker, 2005).

3.2.2.4 Critical instance case studies

Critical instance case studies examine one or a few sites for one of two purposes. A very frequent application involves the examination of a situation
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of unique interest, with little or no interest in generalization. A second, rarer, application entails calling into question of a highly generalized or universal assertion and testing it by examining one instance. This method particularly suits answering cause-and-effect questions about the instance of concern.

3.2.3 Strengths and weaknesses

Most of the case study researchers point out that case studies produces much more detailed information than what is available through a statistical analysis. Moreover, they also declare that statistical methods might not be able to deal with homogeneous and routine data sets. And case studies are needed to deal with creativity, innovation, and context. A frequent criticism of case study methodology is that its dependence on a single case renders it from incapable of providing a generalizing conclusion (Tellis, 1997) because of inherent subjectivity and because of basing on qualitative subjective data, and generalization only to a particular context (Becker, 2005).

3.2.3.1 Flexibility

The case study approach is a comparatively flexible method of research. It is because its project designs seem to emphasize exploration rather than prescription or prediction. In addition, researchers are comparatively freer to discover and address issues as they arise in their experiments. Last but not the least, the format of case studies allows researchers to begin with broad questions and narrows their focus as their experiment progresses rather than

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attempts to predict every possible outcome before the experiment is conducted (Becker, 2005).

3.2.3.2 Inherent Subjectivity

"The case study has long been stereotyped as the weak sibling among social science methods (cited by Becker, Yin 1989), and is often criticized as being too subjective and even pseudo-scientific. Likewise, "investigators who do case studies are often regarded as having deviated from their academic disciplines, and their investigations as having insufficient precision (that is, quantification), objectivity and rigor" (cited by Becker, Yin 1989). Opponents cite opportunities for subjectivity in the implementation, presentation, and evaluation of case study research. The approach relies on personal interpretation of data and inferences. By and large, results not being generalized are difficult to test for validity, and rarely offer as a problemsolving prescription (Becker, 2005).

3.3 Reasons for selecting case study

The design of this study is informed by case study research. Yin (1993) stated that case study research was 'an appropriate research method ... when trying to attribute causal relationships and that the main reason for using the case study is when your investigation must cover both a particular phenomenon and the context within which the phenomenon is occurring' (Yin, 1993, p.31). These criteria certainly fitted my intent to investigate the relationship between

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student motivation and ICT within the context of the use of ICT in teaching and learning.

My evidence arose from class observation, interviews of both students and teachers, and literature review fitted with Yin's (1993) suggestion that 'the important aspect of case study being data collecting which is the use of multiple sources of evidence - converging on the same set of issues' (Yin, 1993, p.32).

The results from the questionnaire provide fundamental, scientific and objective evidence for the study. Therefore, the results may be generalized in a small domain, like the school of CSA, and able to test for validity. On top, the weaknesses of the case study have been overcome together with the quantitative research approach as coming along.

3.4 Conducting case study

Based on the previous research, there are six successful steps for organizing and conducting a case study research. They are as follows:

Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data collecting and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data Evaluate and analyze the data

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3.4.1. Determine and Define the Research Questions

To get the process cracking, the first step is to establish a firm research focus on the researcher who can refer over the course of study for a complex phenomenon. The researcher establishes the focus on the study by forming questions about the problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study (Tellis, 1997). In the education sector, there are many stakeholders. However, concerning the activities of teaching and learning, the major stakeholders are teachers and students whom are the good candidates for case study research.

For a case study research, it generally begins with answering one or more questions with "how" or "why." The questions are usually targeted to a limited number of events. To assist in the targeting and formulating of questions, researchers have to conduct a literature review (Tellis, 1997). In this case, I am interested in determining the questions for whether or not the using of ICT could motivate students to learn. I begin with a review of the literature as outlined in Chapter Two, as well determine what prior studies that I have to make for the issue and use the literature to define the following questions for studying the relationship between ICT and motivation:

Why do teachers use ICT in the teaching and learning activities? How does the use of ICT increase students motivation to learn? What factors motivate students to learn through the use of ICT?

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Literature search involves literature reviewing of books, a range of paper and online publication; such as reports, articles and individual web pages about the topics on the motivation and the use of ICT in teaching and learning

3.4.2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Collecting and Analysis Techniques

During the design phase of case study research, the researcher determines what approaches have to be used in selecting single or multiple real-life cases in order to examine the study in depth. Moreover, he also figures out which instruments and data collecting approaches have to be used (Tellis, 1997). Even though, it is believed that the use of ICT may have positive impact on student motivation in various subjects; I will only conduct the case study on the subject of Engineering Science owing to the constraint of time and resource. Engineering Science was considered a very difficult subject for Band 3 bottom 10 students. CSA record showed that the passing rate of ES for HKCEE, for the elegant class (F5D) was about 30%, but for the low achiever (F5C) was zero. There is a significant to conduct this study to determine whatever ICT can have positive impact on student motivation to learn and improve academe performance.

A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data collecting process. Data collected is normally and largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools for collecting data

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include surveys, interviews, documentation review, and observation (Tellis, 1997).

In order to reduce the amount of time consumed on processing the questionnaire and analysis, I designed a web base questionnaire system for the result of the data collecting. Class observation was also conducted for observing students performance and reaction during the lesson. Open-ended interviews were arranged with both class monitors and Engineering Science teachers. In this case, within-case analysis of data was employed as the analysis technique.

3.4.3. Prepare to Collect the Data

Case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources. Systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and preventing the researcher being off track from the original research purpose and questions (Tellis, 1997).

A web based questionnaire was designed to collect evidence from students about their ICT experiences, their attitudes on the value of ICT for teaching and learning (Appendix J). The sample size consists of 35 students of the class 5C. The data will be collected through PHP and MySQL program, and stored on my computer on my desk for data analyses. In order to make life easier, two pages of PHP Script are programmed to display a bar graph of the distribution of each question answered (Appendix F), and display the

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fundamental statistical data, such as mean, maximum, minimum, and standard deviation (Appendix G).

Prior to the study, school principal will be informed, then the teachers and students of the class 5C and 5B. To gain their cooperation, I will explain the purpose of the study. Briefing section will be conducted to have detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study, the format of the questionnaire and interviews.

3.4.4. Data Collection

For the survey, I arranged 5C to the MMLC for doing the web based questionnaire. Class observation was conducted to observe attitude,

performance and reaction towards the learning of the topic in the lessons. For designing the observation sheet, it was modified from a Class Observation Sheet from B. Davis, Tools for Teaching, Office of Educational Development, & Craft of Teaching class feedback for recording the observation events. In order to study the impact of ICT on teaching and learning, classroom activities of the class 5C was supported by ICT while class 5B was conducted in the traditional teaching approaches, chalk and talk teaching approaches, which acted as the control group for the study. Besides taking written note during the lessons, video recording was also employed for the purpose of review and analysis as needed. By and large, the key observation areas were the students concentration and attitude, as well as the overall class atmosphere of the topic presented.

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Interviewing with Six class monitors, 4 were from class 5C and 2 were from class 5B (5C had 4 monitors and 5B had 2 monitors), and three Engineering Science teachers were invited. The length of interviews was ranged from 20 to 30 minutes, during which time both notes was taken and tape recorded.

The purpose of the interview was to understand the relationship between the use of ICT in teaching and learning with students motivation, to determine factors which motivated students to learn through the use of ICT, as well to determine factors which motivated teachers to use ICT in teaching activities.

3.4.5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data

Use the data collected through questionnaire, class observation and interview to find the link between the research object and the outcomes. The use of multiple data collecting methods and analysis techniques provides opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions (Tillis, 1997). Within-case analysis is used to study patterns of survey response data, to categorize and group interview questions and answers for similarities. The optimum goal is to produce analytic conclusions, which are able to answer the "how", "why", and what research questions.

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3.5 Ethical issues

All of materials including notes, computer data, video and audio tapes were stored in the cabinet behind my desk for two years. In order to obtain open and honest interviews result, it is essential to clarify the underlying code of confidentiality and to make this explicit to all interviewee. These include as follows: All interview evidence (notes, transcript, video and audio tapes) were considered to be confidential. Teachers and students were presented anonymously in written.

Interviewees were assured of their right to check the notes which are
taken either during or after the interview. This provided the interviewee with the opportunity to consider whether the notes were fair, relevant and accurate account for what had been discussed.

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CHAPTER FOUR Findings and analysis

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the findings and analysis of the questionnaire, class observation, and interview is presented. The web base questionnaire is done by 35 students through the use of PHP and MySQL. The results of the questionnaire are stored in the database. A page of PHP code is programmed for displaying distribution of each question in the bar graph format (Appendix F). Another page of PHP code is also programmed for finding the minimum value, maximum value, mean and standard deviation of each question answered (Appendix G).

The focus on the class observation was on the process of the teaching and learning activities, rather than on the academic outcome of the lesson. I mainly focused on the atmosphere of the class, students concentration level, students response, and students learning attitude in the lesson. The observation was subjective, but the result of the observation was analyzed objectively.

In this case study, I personal pronoun had conducted interviews with both teachers and students. The purpose of the interviewing teachers was trying to answer one of the research questions what are the factors motivating teachers to use ICT in teaching activities? The aims of interviewing students were

trying to consolidate the findings of the factors, motivate students to learn

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through the use of ICT, form the questionnaire and class observation, and identify new factors and findings.

4.2 Questionnaire

The questionnaire had 15 questions. The first 10 questions were expected to have positive effect on student motivation and the last 5 questions were to have negative effect on student motivation. 35 students in the class of 5C answered the web base questionnaire. Some of them did not respond to all of the questions by selecting the N/A for some of the answers.

4.2.1 Description of the sample

There are 35 students answering the web base Questionnaire. The data are shown in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 both the proportion of male and female students respondents and distribution of computer confident level (CCL) respectively.

Sex Male Female

Number 18 17

Percent 51.4% 48.6%

Table 4.1. Biological sex of respondents

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Figure 4.1 shows the majority of male students having higher computer confident level than female students. It is also found that 67% of male

students are computer games lovers who bear the advance level of confident.

CPL - Female

0%

29%

Advance Intermediate Beginner

71%

CPL- Male

11% 22% 67% Advance Intermediate Beginner

Figure 4.1. Distribution of Students Computer Confident Level

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4.2.2 Results relating to motivation

The questionnaire contains a number of items concerning potential increase or decrease in student motivation through the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities. These items are as follows: Whether using ICT makes lessons more interesting? Whether using ICT makes lessons more fun? Whether using ICT permitted the opportunity for students to choose and control their learning pace? Whether using ICT students can have greater commitment and deeper involvement in learning tasks? Whether using ICT decrease feedback time? Whether using ICT enhances students self-esteem? Whether using ICT enhances independence and confidence of students in the learning process? Whether using ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand? Whether using ICT makes lessons less enjoyable? Whether using ICT impairs students learning? Whether using ICT makes students work with less difficulty? Whether using ICT reduces student motivation to learn?

Table 4.2 shows the mean response for items referring to the factors relating to motivation. For the first 10 statements in the Table 4.2 (10 questions from the questionnaire), the statements have positive relationship between the use of ICT and motivation. The mean value higher than 3 indicate that the majority

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of respondents agree or strongly agrees with the statement. For example, for the statement "ICT improved the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting to learn ", the mean response score of the 35 replies is 4.46, which is greater than a response of 4. This indicates that the majority strongly agrees that ICT makes lessons more interesting to learn. For many students the quality of presentation is very important and this is where ICT can have huge benefits (Bullock, 2001). No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Statements ICT improves the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting ICT decreases feedback time ICT permits the opportunity for me to control my learning pace ICT makes lessons more fun ICT permits the opportunity for me to choose my learning pace ICT enhances my independence in the learning process Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have deeper involvement in learning tasks Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have greater commitment in learning tasks ICT enhances students self esteem ICT enhances my confidence in the learning process ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand ICT makes me work less hard, spend less time on my homework ICT impairs my learning ICT makes lessons less enjoyable ICT reduces my motivation to learn N 35 35 35 35 35 35 34 34 35 33 35 35 35 35 35 Ma x 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 2 3 Min 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mean Std. Dev
4.46 0.59

4.43 4.26 4.17 4.14 4.06 3.74

0.58 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.37

3.59

0.35

3.57 3.55

0.33 0.35

2.03 2.00

0.42 0.43

1.49 1.37 1.23

0.61 0.66 0.73

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Table 4.2. The advantage and disadvantage of using ICT in teaching and learning. (Higher score means greater agreement with the statement)

The statements are listed in order of highest to lowest mean scores, but from the 11th statement onwards, starting with the statement " ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand" a mean score of 3 or less indicates that the students do not agree with these negative statements. For example, the

statement ICT reduces my motivation to learn, the mean score of 1.23, most of the students disagree with the statement strongly. In other words, most of students believe that the use of ICT in teaching and learning have positive effect on their motivation.

These findings show that the majority of students believe that the use of ICT as part of their teaching and learning can improve teachers presentation of material, make lessons more interesting and fun, decrease feedback time, permit the opportunity for them to choose and control their learning pace, have greater commitment and deeper involvement in learning tasks, enhance independence, confidence and self esteem

The mean responses for negatively statements, relating to student motivation, benefits for learning, and enjoyment of IT use, are very low. This indicates that, in general, ICT is considered to increase students motivation, improve learning, and be enjoyable.

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Figures 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 show the distribution of responses for four of the questions. Figure 4.2 shows that the most students agree with the statement Using ICT in teaching and learning activities makes lessons more fun. Figure 4.3 shows that vast majority of students agree with the statement Using ICT in teaching and learning activities improves teachers presentation material. Furthermore, Figure 4.4 shows the entire sample not considered using ICT in teaching and learning activities to be un-enjoyable. Also, Figure 4.5 shows most students do not consider using ICT in teaching and learning activities impair their learning, although there is a very small minority does believe so. Therefore, the findings show that students consider using ICT in teaching and learning activities improve presentation material, so make lesson more fun but do not make learning un-enjoyable and impair their learning.
ICT makes lessons more fun
50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure 4.2 Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered make lessons more enjoyable.

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ICT improved the presentation of material


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure 4.3 Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to improve teachers presentation material.

ICT makes lessons less enjoyable


70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure 4.4 Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to be un-enjoyable.

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ICT impairs my learning


70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure 4.5 Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to impair students learning.

4.2.3 Results relating to motivation with gender analysis

Table 4.3 shows that the mean responses of male and female for the factors relating to motivation. For the first 10 statements relate to positive motivation, the mean responses for male are higher than female. These finding shows that ICT has higher positive impact on male students than female students. For the negative statement, the mean responses for female are higher than male. These finding shows that male students disagreed with the statement are stronger than female students. This is similar to previous research findings reported where the impact of ICT in motivation to learn has direct relationship with CCL.

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No Statements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ICT improves the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting ICT decreases feedback time ICT permits the opportunity for me to control my learning pace ICT makes lessons more fun ICT permits the opportunity for me to choose my learning pace ICT enhances my independence in the learning process Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have deeper involvement in learning tasks Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have greater commitment in learning tasks ICT enhances students self esteem ICT enhances my confidence in the learning process ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand ICT makes me work less hard, spend less time on my homework

N 35 35 35 35 35 35 34 34 35 33

Mean Male 4.55 4.67 4.45 4.28 4.23 4.11 4.01 4.00 4.01 4.03

Mean Female 4.35 4.15 4.04 4.01 4.01 4.01 3.45 3.13 3.10 3.04

Overall Mean 4.45 4.42 4.25 4.15 4.12 4.06 3.74 3.58 3.57 3.55

11 12 13 14 15

35 35

1.54 1.30

2.50 2.75

2.01 2.00

ICT impairs my learning 35 1.10 1.90 1.49 ICT makes lessons less enjoyable 35 1.25 1.51 1.38 ICT reduces my motivation to 35 1.12 1.33 1.22 learn Table 4.3. The mean score of questionnaire response base on the gender. (Higher score means greater agreement with the statement)

4.2.4 Correlations between motivational factors and use of ICT

For the purpose of the analysis of the relationship among motivational factors, correlations were calculated between them which were shown in Appendix K.

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Both positive and negative relationship was observed as some of the statement negative. For example, the statement, ICT improved the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting correlated negatively with:

ICT makes me work with less difficulty, spend less time on my homework

ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand ICT impairs my learning ICT makes lessons less enjoyable I ICT reduces my motivation to learn

This means that students who found ICT improved teachers presentation material which makes lesson more interesting did not agree with any of the negative statements, such as the use of ICT makes students becoming lazy, impairs their learning, and decreases student motivation to learn.

4.3 Class Observation

Four single period lesson of class observation was conducted to both 5C and 5B on the same topic presented, such as structure of Engine

(http://www.brainpop.com was used for 5C), Heat Energy of a mixture (self prepare webpage was used for 5C), and Simple Machine (Magic Unfolds courseware was used for 5C). There were 35 students in the class of 5C and 40 students in 5B. The teaching and learning activities of the class 5C were

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supported through the use of ICT, while 5B used the traditional chalk and talk teaching approaches, which act as the control group for the case study.

4.3.1 Introduction

Figure 4.6 showed the interface of the courseware, Magic Unfolds which was used in the presentation of the Chapter Simple Machine. The expository approach was used in the lesson. A copy of a lesson plan was attracted on Appendix E. The whole lesson could be divided into three sectors, which were set the scene, development of theme teaching, and consolidation.

4.3.2 Set the Scene

A brief introduction of simple machines we use in daily life such as a seesaw in the park, screwdriver, scissors, nail cutter, and etc was introduced to the students.

4.3.3 Development of Theme Teaching

After the brief introduction, teacher defined the machines advantage (MA), velocity ratio (VR), and the efficiency of a machine. Then, explained three types of level and simple pulley system with the courseware of the Magic Unfold.

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4.3.4 Consolidation

At the second part of the lesson, teacher summarized the contents taught in the lesson. Students were being asked to log on the computer and explore the topic presented as class work exercise and assigned homework to consolidate the students understanding of the contents taught.

Figure 4.6. The Magic Unfolds, the courseware used in the Chapter of Machine

4.3.5 Observation Result

Expert says that the concentration period of an average mature person is about 40 minutes. Band Three bottom ten students concentration length may be less than 20 minutes. Thus, it is a challenge for Band Three school teachers to maintain their concentration in the class.

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4.3.5.1 Teaching and learning supported by ICT

For the class 5C, students were highly interacted with teacher. There were no sign of classroom management problem occurred. During the self learning period, students were enjoying multimedia and hypermedia presentation such as graphs, animation, videos and photos. The multimedia presentations

improved the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting and have more fun.

There are summaries and glossaries at the end of each section. It helps to reinforce in learning and enhances students memory. The courseware also

contains stimulating activities which sharpen the students thinking and concepts. They can help students to develop their observing, communicating, inferring, classifying and experimenting skills. The modeling and simulation can make a significant positive impact on students learning (Cox, 1992).

There are also questions & answers sections with immediate feedback and detail explanations. For the assessment part, it contains a report card system. It can print out detailed reports of students performance and progress. This allows both students and teachers to keep track of their progress.

The use of ICT encourages collaboration among students. Students assume a greater variety of roles in the learning process; students teach students as well as do more exploration on their own (Rockman, 2000). How do I change the system to have 3 pulleys?

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Do you think if we use higher number to lift a weight, we can save more power, use less force? You read so fast, I am still in the lever section

Using a simulation courseware enables students to decide the nature of the investigation, what parameters to change and what aspects to explore, giving them more control over their learning. Such ICT

activities, therefore, provide opportunities to enhance the pupils selfesteem through taking on the role of investigator and decision maker (Cox, 1999, p.23).

The use of ICT increased commitment to the learning tasks, enhanced students enjoyment and interest in learning (Cox, 1997). The use of ICT taking care of students different ability, allowed them to learn at their own pace. Simulation software fostered student centered learning environments and promoted student student collaborative learning (Means, 1993).

4.3.5.2 Teaching and learning with traditional approaches

For the class 5B, students were also highly interacted with teacher and concentrated on the topic presented. However, the situation was less for about 10 minutes. At that time, it seemed that some of the students head started to get heavy, needed a hand to support its weight. At about 25minutes later, their hand was not strong enough to support the weight; there was a need of table

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and arms. Some of other students started to demonstrate their art talent by coloring pictures and drawing extra parts of the machine on the worksheet.

4.3.5.3 Evaluation of class observation

Students in the lesson supported by ICT teaching and learning seemed to have greater enjoyment with multimedia and hypermedia presentation material. A study conducted in Canada found that 71% of the students found learning Science in a technology-enhanced setting more stimulating and pupil-centered than in a traditional classroom (Pedretti, 1998).

The atmosphere of the class 5C, students concentration level, students response to teacher questions, and students learning attitude in the lesson are better than the class 5B, which is conducted in the traditional approaches of teaching and learning. ICT enhances the enjoyment of learning and enhances avenue for collaboration (Valdez, 1999).

4.4 Interview

The interview session with open end questions was conducted with three Engineering Science teachers and six class monitors. The length of interviews was about 30 minutes for each session. The purpose of the interviews is trying to find the answer of the following questions from both teachers and students prospective.

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1. What is the relationship of the use of ICT in teaching and learning with students motivation? 2. What factors motivate students to learn through the use of ICT? 3. What factors motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching activities?

4.4.1 Interview with teachers

There are 5 teachers in the Engineering Science Department, 3 of them was selected to have interview. They are Mr. Tam, Mr. Chan, and Miss Chan, the Engineering Science teacher of class 5A, 5B, and 5C respectively.

4.4.1.1 Background information

Table 4.4 shows the years of teaching science experience for each teacher and the level of computer proficiency. It shows that younger teacher has higher computer proficiency level.

Teacher Years Computer level

Mr. Tam 15 proficiency IIT

Mr. Chan 13 IIT

Miss Chan 6 UIT

Table 4.4. Year of serve and Computer proficiency level

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Figure 4.7 shows the percentage of the usage of ICT in teaching and learning activities in lesson. It shows that the use of ICT have a positive relationship with the level of computer proficiency. This is similar to some previous research findings reported in the literature that ICT is mostly conducted by younger teachers who with higher computer proficiency level.

Usage of ICT
45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Mr. Tam Mr. Chan Teacher Miss Chan

Figure 4.7. Percentage of the ICT usage in Engineering Science

4.4.1.2 ICT and Motivation

All of teachers use ICT in their daily administration work, such as prepare worksheet and test paper, record student marks, webpage design, email, PowerPoint and etc. ICT makes my administration more efficient ICT has improved my presentation material ICT makes lesson more fun for student ICT makes lesson more interesting for me to present
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Percent

ICT reduces my feedback time for student ICT reduces my preparation time It is required by EMB to use at least 25% of ICT in teaching and learning There are many ready to use resource in the Hong Kong Education City Learning with ICT enables the student to find the style of learning that suits them Learning with ICT, students can work at their own pace Even sometimes encounter hardware and software problems, which are not really matter because school has strong support term, 2 hardware engineers and 3 IT assistants

Those are the responses from the interview. The findings show that other than to meet the requirement of EMB, teacher considered ICT have improved the presentation of material, made lessons more fun for the students and more interesting for the teacher, and made administration more efficient. In general, ICT is considered to increase student motivation, improve teaching and learning effectiveness, and be more enjoyable for both teacher and students.

4.4.2 Interview with students

Six students were interviewed. They are Ricky, Charles, and Milky, Joyce from the class of 5C and Nancy and Ken from the class of 5B. The aims of the interview were to identify the factors that motivate students to learn through the use of ICT from the students perspective and determine whatever those factors could improve their academe outcome.

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4.4.2.1 Background Information

Table 4.5 shows the result form the first unified test for 6 interviewers. The format of engineering Science paper contains calculation questions (Part A) and essay type questions (Part B). The path of the result of the Science subject and Mathematics is similar to some previous research findings reported in the literature that the ability of student in these subjects is related.

Subjects
Engineering Science Mathematics Chinese Language

Ricky 13

Charles 25

Milky 22

Joyce Nancy 58 62

Ken 48

15 54

20 65

18 66

65 56

78 69

44 61

Table 4.5 First Unified Test result

Engineering Science
6 Preference(1-10) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Ricky Charles Milky Joyce Nancy Ken Students

Figure 4.8 Preference of Engineering Science

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Figure 4.8 shows that the maximum score of the preference of the Engineering Science is only 5, which is half of the measurement. It means most of the students dislike the subject.

It is too hard, dont understand the question asked Too many formula need to memorize, even I remember, dont which one to apply to the question I just can manage basic mathematics (+, -, x, /), how can I manage science? I do pay attention in the class and try to do class work and homework, but some time just too difficult I use few minutes to read the question, if it is hard, just give up, copy someone else homework next morning I like Chinese Language because I am Chinese and dont need to do calculation

In general, for the first 6 Cycle of school periods, students did not pay much attention in the lesson because they considered science was hard and calculation was boring. Engineering science was too difficult for them to understand the concept and even hard for them to apply the concept in calculation. Students used little time to do their Engineering Science class work and homework, in compare with Chinese subject in which they spent 1 or 2 hours.

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4.4.2.2 Family influences on motivation

With parents being the first teacher of a child, family has a significant role in childs education. In CSA, students are from family of lower end of SES. Even their parents want them to do well in school, but they just dont know how to provide help and support for their child. Most of students are from problem family or their parents work in the non skill sector with very long working hour. There is not much chance of face to face contact within family. My father only finish Primary 4, my mother never went to school I live with my grandmother My mother works in caf from 10am to 10pm

4.4.2.3 ICT and motivation

All of interviewers have at least one personal computer with broadband connection to internet. documentation, and games. Computer mainly used on the web browsing,

Begin from Cycle 7, for the class 5C, ICT was introduced in the teaching and learning activities in Engineering Science. Power point presentation, webpage simulation and courseware are being used in the lessons intend to embedded our students in the ICT environment. Some of the responses of the

interviewers from the class 5C are as following:

I like multimedia and hypermedia as mean of teaching and learning tool

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The simulation is so interesting It is fun to learn with computer I didnt sleep during the lesson I can check my answer right the way, if it is wrong, computer will provide me hints and I can try again and again Water Rocky Competition was fun We search information from internet, build water rocky, launch for testing, make change for improvement, then write up our group report

The finding of the interviews with students shows that the use of ICT in teaching and learning make lesson more fun and interesting to learn, reduces feedback time, reduces the classroom management programs, makes learning activities more enjoyable. The use ICT makes their lesson a lot more

interesting and enjoyable than their expected (Bullock, 2001). These findings are constant with the many previous research findings reported that the ICT increase students motivation to learn. Students and teacher report a positive change in student motivation for the class assignments when the use of multimedia is incorporated into classroom instruction (CARET, 2003). Simulation software programs tend to be highly motivating for students and increase student productivity (Means, 1993).

4.4.2.4 ICT and test outcome

Table 4.6 shows the result form the Second Unified Test for 6 interviewers. The format of test paper contains part A and B. Each question carries equal

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marks of 25 marks (Appendix H). The test results of the interviewer form 5C had improved while the interviewers from 5B are simile to the First Unified Test. The test result of Chinese Language are use as reference, because if students do good on Chinese means that they should have no problem to answer Part B if they understand the concepts of science.

Subjects
Engineering Science Mathematics Chinese Language

Ricky 42

Charles 53

Milky 55

Joyce Nancy 66 64

Ken 46

18 55

28 68

35 71

62 74

81 58

34 55

Table 4.6 Second Unified Test result

Some of the results form the interviewers from 5C are as following: I did better on second test, at least I am able answer all writing questions I still dont know how to do the calculation part of the questions I am very please that I pass, I never though that I can understand science and pass the test. I think new ways of teaching help a lot I have more confident in learning science

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Change in test score


40 30 Marks 20 10 0
Ch ar le s Jo yc e Na nc y Ri c M Ke n ilk y

-10

ky

Student

Figure 4.9. The comparison of two Unified Test score

Figure 4.9 shows that there is increase in test score for the interviewers from the class of 5C, in which ICT was use in the teaching and learning activities. The interviewers whom have very lower test score from the Unified Test 1 have a greater improvement in Unified Test 2. This finding is similar to the previous research finding that ICT has greater impact on the lower achievers. Chen & Lool in 1999 conducted a case study on at risk secondary students, which find that the percentage of distinctions and passes increased overall. The students show a high level of enthusiasm for ICT (Chen & Lool, 1999).

In general, the interviewers though that the use of ICT in teaching and learning made learning more fun and enjoyable, improved teachers presentation material, made the concept presented more easy to understand, and spent more time on the learning task. Real world simulations improved performance and motivation (CARET, 2003)

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4.4.2.5 Limitation of ICT

Mathematics is one of the fundamental skills of studying Science. If a student is very poor in mathematics, he will not do very well in science subjects. Table 4.7 shows that comparison of Part A and Part B of two unified test score. The Part A contains number of calculating questions while Part B contains number of theoretical questions. There is no significant increase in score for Part A. However, there is a significant increase in score for Part B. The finding shows that the use of ICT increase student motivation to learn and ICT helps making theoretical conception easier to understand.

However, the finding shows that there is a limitation of ICT on the mathematical calculation in the short run. For the students who are very poor in fundamental mathematics and logical thinking, ICT may not have significant impact on them in the short run. This is just because the

fundamental skill takes some time to build, step by step.

Unified Test Unified Test 1 Part A Part B Total Unified Test 2 Part A Part B Total

Ricky 2 11 13 5 37 42

Charles 6 19 25 13 40 53

Milky 8 14 22 22 33 55

Joyce Nancy 24 34 58 28 38 66 36 26 62 36 28 64

Ken 22 26 48 20 26 46

Table 4.7. Engineering Science Score distribution

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CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS

5.1 Introduction

To increase student motivation through the use of ICT in teaching and learning, teacher must first understand what it is, what the relationship between ICT and student motivation is, what factors motivate students to learn, and what factors motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching activities. The whole chapter is engaged to answer three research questions of this study.

5.2 Conclusions

There are two types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It is believed that the intrinsic motivation is more permanent while extrinsic motivation has a short run effect on students behavior. Accounting to

Maslow, all of the needs are met; student will have self-efficacy in learning.

The analysis of previous research and theories about student motivation, learning attitudes and behavior have shown that a range of factors can contribute to motivate students to learn through the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities. Many researchers report that parental involvement, the

use of ICT in teaching and learning has significant positive impact on students motivation. The factors that contribute to students motivation to

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learn in the ICT environment, include more interesting and fun of lessons, the more enjoyment of the learning experiment, gaining control over their own learning process, increase their confidence and self esteem.

The previous research report that the factors that motivate teachers to use ICT in teaching and learning activities include their attitudes to ICT, their beliefs in the value of ICT for teaching and learning, their perceptions of whether or not they can use it effectively in their teaching, and the availability of resources. Motivational factors include making lessons more interesting and more fun, contributing to students' learning, improving the presentation of materials and making the lessons more diverse.

In Chapter Four, Finding and Analysis, my analysis of the relationship between ICT used and motivation, had shown that there was a significant positive relationship of the use of ICT in teaching and learning with students motivation, which finding was consistent with previous research findings that the use of ICT had positive impact on student motivation. The use of ICT increased students attitude and motivation to learn, improved classroom behavior, and better performance of learning outcome. Students who used computer-based instructions felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and had increased self-confidence and self-esteem (Kachala and Bialo, 2000)

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The findings of the questionnaire survey show that the majority of students believe that the most significant motivation factors relative to the use of ICT as part of their teaching and learning are as following:

ICT improved teachers presentation of material; ICT makes lessons more interesting and fun; ICT decrease feedback time; ICT permitted the opportunity for them to choose and control their learning pace;

ICT enhances students self esteem; ICT enhances independence and confidence of students in the learning process.

The mean responses for negatively questionnaire statements, relating to student motivation, benefits for learning, and enjoyment of IT use, were very low. This indicates that, in general, the use of ICT was considered to increase students motivation, improve learning, and make learning more enjoyable. The use of ICT increased commitment to the learning tasks, enhanced students enjoyment and interest in learning (Cox, 1997).

The findings of class observation show that students have greater enjoyment with multimedia and hypermedia presentation material, better learning atmosphere in the class, higher level of concentration in learning, greater commitment and deeper involvement in learning tasks, better learning attitude and more active response to question teacher asked when students learning

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activities were supported by ICT. Students learn Science in a technology enhanced environment more stimulating than in a traditional classroom (Pedretti, 1998).

The findings of interview with teachers show the most significant motivation factors relating to use of ICT in teaching activities were to meet the requirement of EMB (minimum 25% of teaching and learning supported by ICT); the level of resources available; the level of training and supported provided; the usefulness and improvement in students learning and whether using ICT in teaching is considered to be interesting and enjoyable. In general, the findings show that ICT was considered to increase student motivation, improve teaching and learning effectiveness, and be more enjoyable for both teacher and students in the process of teaching and learning.

The finding of the interviews with students are consistent with the findings of the questionnaire that the use of ICT in teaching and learning make lesson more fun and interesting to learn, reduce feedback time, reduce the classroom management problems, make learning activities more enjoyable. These

findings are also consistent with the many previous research findings reported that the ICT increase students motivation to learn. Students and teacher

reported a positive change in student motivation for the class assignments when the use of multimedia was incorporated into classroom instruction (CARET, 2003). Simulation software programs tend to be highly motivating for students and increase student productivity (Means, 1993).

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The analysis of the impact of use of ICT on the learning outcome, the finding shows that ICT has positive impact on the test outcome for the theoretical section of test. The impact on students performance is greater on the lower achievers than the medium and higher achievers, which is consistent with previous research findings. Students performed significantly better when ICT was employed (Wenglinsk, 1998).

5.3 Limitation

Many researchers strongly support the benefits of family involvement in childs education. Parental involvement can also improve academic

performance, behavior in school, greater academic motivation (Fager and Brewster, 1999). However, as I mentioned in Chapter 1, all most all students in CAS are from lower end of SES. Above half of them are living in broken family and many of them are under the scheme of students aids or public aids. The finding shows that our students have little or no parental support. Those students are appearing to apathy in learning.

One of the key factors toward successful in learning science is mathematical skill of the learner. As I mentioned in Chapter 1, CSA is a school with Band 3 bottom 10 students, more than half of Form 5 students are holding the standard equivalent to Form 1 in Mathematics. Even thought, the findings show that ICT has significant positive impact on students performance, but it is mainly on the theoretical conception. Lack of fundamental skill in mathematical

calculation pose a threat to the positive impact on students performance.

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5.4 Recommendations for further research

Research provides substantial evidence that ICT have a positive effect on students motivation, enjoyment and interest in learning. As a teacher, how can we maximize the impact of the use of ICT in teaching and learning on students motivation? There is a need to explore new opportunities for

improving classroom practices when using ICT.

Professor Grasha of University of Cincinnati titled his talk, How can I teach you if I dont know how you learn? The research findings show number of positive factors that motivate students to learn. However, how do our students learn in the ICT embedded environment? What is our students learning pattern and behavior toward the use of ICT in teaching and learning? The answers to the above questions will provide great insight for educator to adapt and facilitate new way of teaching, no limited the subject of Engineering Science; it can also be applied in some other subject areas.

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APPENDIX

71

Appendix A Student Interview Protocol

Students Name:_________________ Class:________ Class Number:______ Date and time of interview:____/____/____ ________AM/PM *************************************************************** Reminders: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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Appendix B
Teacher Interview Protocol

Teachers Name:_________________________ Class of taught:________ Date and time of interview:____/____/____ ________AM/PM *************************************************************** Reminders: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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Appendix C
Student Interview Questions:

Background 1. What marks did you get in First Unified Test of Engineering Science? 2. What marks did you get in Mathematics? 3. What marks did you get in Chinese Language?

About Engineering Science 4. How much do you like ES, on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the highest? 5. Which chapter(s) do you like? Why? 6. Which chapter(s) do you dislike? Why?

Effort of study 7. Do you pay attention in the ES class? 8. How hard do you do your class work? Do you do everything you teacher assigns? 9. Do you always do your homework? If yes answer Question #10 otherwise answer Question #11. 10. How much time do you spend on you ES homework each day? 11. Why dont you do your homework? 12. How do you like ES in comparison with other subjects, such as Mathematics and Chinese Language?

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13. Are there any factors that make you study hard in other subjects?

Family influences on motivation 14. Do your parents want you to do well in school? 15. How much support do they give you? 16. Do they help your homework? 17. Do they ask you about school? 18. Do your parents job related with Science or ICT? 19. Do your parents do anything special to encourage or discourage you in ES as compared to other subjects?

ICT and motivation 20. Do you have a computer at home? 21. Do you have access to internet? If do what is the connection speed? 22. Do you like your teacher use multimedia projection system instead of chalk and talk? If yes answer Question #23, otherwise answer Question #25. 23. Which way, or both you like, the PowerPoint presentation we use in the Chapter of Material or the webpage simulation on the Chapter of Engine, Heat and Machine? 24. Can you state 2 reasons? 25. Do you like the Water Rocky Project? 26. Can you state at least 2 reasons that you like or you dont like?

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ICT and examination outcome 27. What marks did you get in Second Unified Test of Engineering Science? 28. How did you do on the Question #1, which relative to the Chapter of Heat? 29. How did you do on the Question #2, which relative to the Chapter of Engine? 30. How did you do on the Question #3, which relative to the Chapter of Machine?

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Appendix D
Teacher Interview Questions:

Background 1. How many years have you teach Engineering Science? 2. Which level of IT training have you completed (BIT, IIT, UIT or AIT)?

ICT and Motivation 3. Do you use IT in the daily administration work? Why? 4. How many percent of you teaching and learning are with the support of ICT in the Engineering Science class? 5. What are the reasons that you use ICT in lesson? 6. Do you ever encounter difficult in use ICT? If do, can you explain what are they?

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Appendix E
Lesson Plan Subject: Teacher: Class: Standard of Students: Duration: Date: Engineering Science Chan Suk Yee Form 5C Band 3 40 minutes 7th November 2004

Topics:

Introduction of machine and three kinds of lever Vector diagram

Previous Knowledge: 1.

2. Space diagram 3. Moment Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define what machine is.. State the advantages of using machines. State the application of machines in our daily life. State the principle of operation of a lever and a system of pulley. 5. 6. Content Item Introduction A 1 Recall Space and Vector diagram of equilateral Explain three kinds of lever. Define MA and VR of a pulley system Teaching Activities Learni Remarks Dur ng atio Activiti n es

Apparatu s

Chalkboar 1. Look at the Answer Expected 3 d, equilateral triangular Questio answer: min PowerPoi framework, do you n 1.2 nt, and still remember how diagrams LCD many diagrams do 2. Space
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triangular

projector

Content Item 2 Recall taking moment

we have to draw, in order to calculate forces for each member? 2. What are they? 3. Show answers on white screen Apparatu Teaching Activities s

diagram and vector diagram

Learni ng Activiti es 1. What other methods Answer can we use to Questio calculate the n reactions, R1 and R2? 2. What happy if it is not an equilateral triangular? 3. How?

Remarks Dur atio n Expected 3 Answer: min 1. R1 = R2 = 10 kN / 2 for equilateral triangular 2. Take moment 3. mome nt = moment

B Developme nt: Machine Handout 1. Define what machine 1 LCD is projector 2. State the advantages of using machines 3. Show students some machines in the daily life. 4. State the application of machines in our daily life 5. Asking Does a machine must be complex in order to be called a machine? Handout 1. State the principle of 2 Lever LCD operation of a lever projector 2. Explain three kinds of lever 3. Show students some simple tools we used in the daily life

Listen

Objective 5 1 min Observa Objective tion 2 Answer Objective question 3

Listen

Objective 7 4 min Observa Objective tion 5

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3 Pulley

LCD 1. State the uses of projector pulley 2. MA and VR of a pulley system

Listen Objective 7 Observa 4 min tion Objective 6

C Consolidati on 1 Class work Computer 1. Explore the Handout courseware, self learning 2. Class work exercise 1. Function of a 2 Summary machine 2. Three type of levels 3. Pulley system 3 Home work Handout 1. Worksheet, year 2000 HKCEE #1 Answer Questio n Listen 12 min 2 min 1 min

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Appendix F
Graphical representation of distribution of each question
ICT improved the presentation of material
60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.1. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to improve presentation material.

ICT decrease feedback time


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.2. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to decrease feedback time.

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ICT permitted me to control my learning pace


50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.3. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to permitted students to control their learning pace.

ICT makes lessons more fun


50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.4. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered make lessons more fun.

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ICT permitted me to choose my learning pace


45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.5. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to permitted student to choose their learning pace.

ICT enhances independence


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.6. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to enhance independence.

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Using ICT - deeper involvement in learning tasks


35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.7. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to motivate me in deeper involvement in learning tasks.

Using ICT - greater commitment in learning tasks


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.8. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to improve students commitment in learning tasks.

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ICT enhances students self esteem


70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.9. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to enhance students self esteem.

ICT enhances my confidence


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.10. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to permitted student to enhance students confidence in learning process.

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ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand


60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.11. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to make lesson more difficult..

ICT makes my work less hard, spend less time on my homework


45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.12. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to make students work less hard and spend less time on homework.

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ICT impairs my learning


70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.13. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to impair students learning.

ICT makes lessons less enjoyable


70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.14. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to be un-enjoyable.

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ICT reduces my motivation to learn


90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Figure F.15. Responses relating to the extent to which the use of ICT in teaching and learning activities considered to reduce students motivation to learn.

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Appendix G
Standard Deviation and correlation summary table No N S D D 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 8 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 8 0 0 0 2 3 0 4 5 1 3 18 10 10 13 6 S A 5 19 18 14 15 15 10 11 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 N Mean / A 4.46 4.43 4.26 4.17 4.14 4.06 3.74 3.59 3.57 3.55 2.03 2.00 1.49 1.37 1.23 Max Min Standard Deviation 0.59 0.58 0.51 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.37 0.35 0.33 0.35 0.42 0.43 0.61 0.66 0.73

N 3 3 3 5 5 4 8 6 8 1 3 1 4 9 9 2 0 1

A 4 13 14 16 13 13 17 11 17 21 17 0 1 1 0 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

35 35 35 35 35 35 34 34 35 33 35 35 35 35 35

5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 2 3

3 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Note: No: Number of question N: Sample size SD1: Strongly Disagree D2: Disagree N3: Neutral A4: Agree SA5: Strongly Agree r: Correlation coefficient 100r2: The percentage of total variation of statements (2-15) which is accounted for by the relationship of statement 1.

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Appendix H
Second Unified Test paper

2003 / 2004
_______________________ ___________ ( ) _________/100

1 2 3 10 100 3 g = 10 m/s2 _______________________________________________________________

1.

0.02kg 1.5kg 0.5m 200m/s a. b. c. d.

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2.

2.5 x 10-3kg 0.5m a. b. i. ii. iii.


c.

20%

20m/s 0.01s

91

1. a. b.

P1 P2 i. ii. 0.2s/cm P1 P2 iii. ( =1500m/s) iv. c.

i. ii.
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Appendix I
Class observation sheet* Class: ________________ Name of teacher:_________________ Date and time of visit: _____________ # of students: ______________ I. Framing of the class 1. preliminary & opening activities Material/ outline of day presented somehow? ___________________________________________________ Interactions w/ students while handing out material? ___________________________________________________ Is there a real beginning or does it just start? ___________________________________________________ Does the beginning encourage & welcome the students? ___________________________________________________ Tone set upon entering the room (attitude, expression)? ___________________________________________________ 2. summary & concluding activities Opportunity for review of what was learned that day ___________________________________________________ Anticipation of whats coming up the next week? ___________________________________________________ Opportunity for students to evaluate/give feedback on the days activities? ___________________________________________________ II. Presentation 1. organization Purpose of day clearly stated? ___________________________________________________ Emphasizes or restate important ideas from previous week ___________________________________________________ Smooth transitions from topic to topic? ___________________________________________________ Conclusion which restates @ end of session what key points were ___________________________________________________ Relates days session to upcoming ones? ___________________________________________________ Too much or too little material covered in the day? ___________________________________________________ At ease with material? ___________________________________________________ Class began & ended promptly? (time mgmt. of session) ___________________________________________________

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2.

Style Voice clear, strong, easily heard? ___________________________________________________ Too quick or too slow (for note-taking & comprehension)? ___________________________________________________ Talks to the class & not the windows or board or notes? ___________________________________________________ Listens carefully to students comments without interruption? ___________________________________________________

3. Content Defines new terms, concepts, principles? ___________________________________________________ Gives e.g.s, & illustrations to clarify abstract concepts? ___________________________________________________ Explicitly relates new ideas to familiar ones? ___________________________________________________ Aware of whether students are puzzled or confused/asks for questions? ___________________________________________________ Uses alternate explanations when students dont understand? ___________________________________________________ Slows down when discussing complex or difficult ideas? ___________________________________________________ III. Facilitation 1. Questioning skills Asks Qs to determine what students know about the topic? ___________________________________________________ Asks different levels of Qs to challenge & engage students? ___________________________________________________ Pauses sufficiently after asking Qs to allow students time to respond? ___________________________________________________ Encourages students to answer difficult Qs by rephrasing or providing cues? ___________________________________________________ Is supportive & not shaming if a students response is somehow off or inaccurate? ___________________________________________________ When necessary, asks students to clarify their questions? ___________________________________________________ Asks follow-up questions if a students answer is incomplete or superficial? ___________________________________________________

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2.

Maintaining student interest and participation Encourages student participation? ___________________________________________________ Accepts others points of view? ___________________________________________________ Provides opportunities for students to practice what theyre learning? ___________________________________________________ Engage students intellectual curiosity? ___________________________________________________ Addresses (at least) some students by name, w/ correct pronunciation? ___________________________________________________ Calls on women & men in equal #s (if facilitator directly solicits student participation)? ___________________________________________________ Calls on students of differing ethnic groups in equal #s (if direct solicitation used)? ___________________________________________________ Evenhandedly listens attentively & responds to students comments & questions? ___________________________________________________ Gives feedback, encouragement, criticism, & praise evenhandedly? ___________________________________________________ Avoids language patterns or case examples that exclude or derogate any groups? ___________________________________________________ Welcomes criticism, feedback, etc.? ______________________________________________________ Facilitating discussion Encourages all students to participate in the discussion? ___________________________________________________ Draws out quiet students/keeps dominating students from monopolizing dis.? ___________________________________________________ Refrains from monopolizing discussion her/himself? ___________________________________________________ Mediates conflicts or differences of opinion? ___________________________________________________ Brings closure to the discussion? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

3.

Open notes

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Open notes, Cont. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Note: From B.Davis, Tools for Teaching, Office of Educational Development, & Craft of Teaching class feedback.

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Appendix J
Questionnaire Strongly Disagree ------- Strongly Agree No. 1 Statement ICT improved the presentation of material which makes lessons more interesting 2 3 ICT decrease feedback time ICT permitted the opportunity for me to control my learning pace 4 5 ICT makes lessons more fun ICT permitted the opportunity for me to choose my learning pace 6 ICT enhances my independence in the learning process 7 Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have deeper involvement in learning tasks 8 Using ICT in teaching and learning, I have greater commitment in learning tasks 9 ICT enhances students self esteem 1 2 3 4 5 N/A

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1 10 ICT enhances my confidence in the learning process 11 ICT makes lessons more difficult to understand 12 ICT makes my work less hard, spend less time on my homework 13 14 15 ICT impairs my learning ICT makes lessons less enjoyable ICT reduces my motivation to learn

N/A

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Appendix K
Correlation Table
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 1.00 0.99 0.93 0.98 0.98 0.77 0.94 0.38 0.20 0.07 2 0.99 1.00 0.96 0.99 0.99 0.81 0.96 0.45 0.27 0.13 3 0.93 0.96 1.00 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.98 0.67 0.54 0.40 4 0.98 0.99 0.97 1.00 0.99 0.86 0.99 0.55 0.37 0.25 5 0.98 0.99 0.96 0.99 1.00 0.83 0.98 0.53 0.33 0.20 6 0.77 0.81 0.94 0.86 0.83 1.00 0.91 0.84 0.78 0.68 7 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.91 1.00 0.65 0.48 0.36 8 0.38 0.45 0.67 0.55 0.53 0.84 0.65 1.00 0.93 0.88 9 0.20 0.27 0.54 0.37 0.33 0.78 0.48 0.93 1.00 0.98 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.07 -0.85 -0.94 -0.71 -0.71 -0.59 0.13 -0.86 -0.95 -0.72 -0.72 -0.60 0.40 -0.88 -0.96 -0.78 -0.80 -0.66 0.25 -0.82 -0.98 -0.82 -0.81 -0.71 0.20 -0.79 -0.99 -0.79 -0.77 -0.70 0.68 -0.80 -0.87 -0.79 -0.84 -0.68 0.36 -0.78 -0.99 -0.86 -0.86 -0.77 0.88 -0.40 -0.64 -0.65 -0.67 -0.65 0.98 -0.38 -0.44 -0.53 -0.60 -0.49 1.00 -0.24 -0.32 -0.50 -0.58 -0.49 1.00 0.74 0.46 0.55 0.27 0.74 1.00 0.85 0.83 0.78 0.46 0.85 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.55 0.83 0.98 1.00 0.93 0.27 0.78 0.97 0.93 1.00

-0.85 -0.86 -0.88 -0.82 -0.79 -0.80 -0.78 -0.40 -0.38 -0.24 -0.94 -0.95 -0.96 -0.98 -0.99 -0.87 -0.99 -0.64 -0.44 -0.32 -0.71 -0.72 -0.78 -0.82 -0.79 -0.79 -0.86 -0.65 -0.53 -0.50 -0.71 -0.72 -0.80 -0.81 -0.77 -0.84 -0.86 -0.67 -0.60 -0.58 -0.59 -0.60 -0.66 -0.71 -0.70 -0.68 -0.77 -0.65 -0.49 -0.49

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