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STEMS AND FUNCTIONS

MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE STEM

provide a framework for leaves, flowers and seeds.


carry water and minerals from the soil, and sugars manufactured in leaves throughout the plant.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

Horticulture , landscaping and bonsai making

History,Culture and Economics

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

(Curcuma longa)luyang dilaw

hops (Humulus lupulus).Beer flavor

Cinnamon bark cinnamon bread

Parts of a Stem

Parts of a Stem

STEM GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION

STEM GROWH AND DIFFERENTIATION

The three sections in young dicot stem are dermal, cortex and stele.

A young dicot stem has eustele a true stele.

Cross section of young dicot stem

Monocot stem shows dermal and ground tissue sections. The arrangement of vascular bundles is scattered.

Vascular bundle in monocot stem is enclosed by bundle sheath

Monocot stem

Dicot stem has eustele Monocot stem has dispersed bundles

From Root Protostele to stem eustele

EUSTELE With loose ring of vascular bundles

VASCULAR CAMBIUM o Initiation of the vascular cambium

VASCULAR CAMBIUM Fusiform initials Ray initials


Ray initials
1. 2. Storage parenchyma Albuminous cells

1.

Fusiform initials

2.

tracheids, vessel elements and fibers Sieve cells, sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers

Secondary Growth

Presence of secondary growth Modern ferns Gymnosperms Absent in all species Present in all species

Dicots

Present in many species, other species are herbs


Ordinary type is absent in many species, some have anomalous secondary growth

Monocots

VASCULAR CAMBIUM PRODUCES SECONDARY XYLEM AND PHLOEM

Region of secondary vascular tissues

Old dicot stem secondary vascular tissues


Primary phloem Secondary phloem Vascular cambium

Secondary xylem Primary xylem

pith

Secondary Xylem Types of Wood Cells


Axial System from fusiform initials

Radial System ray initials

Fibers and vessels in Wood

SECONDARY XYLEM
1. Types of Wood Cells derived from fusiform initials and ray initials fusiform initials axial system ray initials radial system

SECONDARY XYLEM
Growth Rings a.k.a. Annual Ring

1. Early Wood spring wood 2. late wood summer wood

SECONDARY XYLEM HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD


Darkening of the Heartwood 1. Breakage of water columns in tracheary elements (freezing, wind vibration, etc) 2. Fungal attack 3. Formation of tylosis 4. Metabolic changes that produce phenolic compounds, lignins, aromatic compounds

SECONDARY XYLEM REACTION WOOD


Angiosperm: Tension Wood Upper side of stem produces many special gelatinous fibers whose walls are rich in cellulose

Gymnosperm : Compression Wood Underside of the branch produces fibers whose walls are rich in lignin.

SECONDARY PHLOEM INNER BARK

OUTER BARK or PERIDERM Cork and the Cork Cambium

OUTER BARK or PERIDERM Cork and the Cork Cambium

lenticel phellem
Phellogen or

Cork cambium Phelloderm or


Cork parenchyma

VARIABILITY OF THE OUTER BARK

LENTICELS AND OXYGEN DIFFUSION

Pine stems have resin ducts

ANOMALOUS FORMS OF GROWTH

1. Anomalous Secondary Growth in potato

Formation of cambia around the vessels

Advantage: speed the production of storage capacity in storage roots and stems

ANOMALOUS FORMS OF GROWTH Included phloem type of secondary phloem located between two bands of xylem

Selective advantage may be protection of phloem from insects by one to several layers of wood

ANOMALOUS FORMS OF GROWTH 3. Secondary Growth in Monocots

Outermost cells of secondary vascular bundles develop into fibers with thick secondary walls.
Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)

Modified stems

Onion

Bulb short stem covered with fleshy blades Function storage and reproduction

Modified stems

Cactus

Cladodes- green stem


Photosynthesis Reproduction

Rhizome- scaly underground stem


Reproduction storage

storage

Modified stems

Tubers
swollen outgrowths of stolon for storage and reproduction

Hooks for protection in stem of rose

Modified stems

Stolons- horizontal stems with adventitious buds


for reproduction of new plants

Modified stems

Gabi or taro Corm vertical and short


underground stem Twiner climbing/twining stem support

reproduction
storage

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