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COMPUTER THEORY NOTES: Computer meaning The characteristics of computers The first computer of the world The Generations

ions of computers The basic electronic components of computers The types of computers Computer hardware& software


Computer meaning: Computer is electronic device, used for information processing. Its

accept the instructions by the user with the help of input devices than stored in its memory, process it next produce the result on output devices.

Computer can works on I ! cycle. I ! means Input& !utput" processing cycle. #howing on down.

B) The characteristics o computer: a) Spee!: Computer can work at an incredible speed. The speed of the computer is measured in terms of $illiseconds $icrosecond %anoseconds or ico seconds. The speed of processing is it is accepting million instructions per second. ") Accurac#: In working being fast computer also accurate, they either give the correct answer or not at all. c) Consistenc#: Computers being machine are highly consistent, they never get bored too. !) Automatic:

Computer can work automatically by itself because once stored on a &ob they carry in until the &ob is finished normally without any human assistance. e) Storage capacit#: Today's computer can stored huge amount of data. !nce recorded a piece of information is never forgotten the storing capacity of computer measured by (ilobyte, mega byte& gigabyte. ) $%e&i"i%it#: computer are used not only one thing, it is used to entertainment)movie, song, animation*, account maintaining, creating letters& letter heads, play games, weather forecasting, railway reservation counter, aircraft, satellite, studio designing and sending the information in whole +ord)internet*. & multimedia. C) The irst computer o the 'or%!: S% no Nation Year Computer Name , 1 5 China #cotland 6rench -./ bc ,2,3 ,2-1 0bacus %apier bones #ir. %apier ascaline ) ascal $r. 7laise calculator* ascal 4ohn (nno)ator




$r. Gatrified

replica . 2 8ngland ;#0 ,9th century ,9-< :ifference engine $ark I #ir. Charls babage =award aikey

C=0>?8# 7070G8 is a father of the computer, professor of Cambridge university was invented @:I66>8%C8 8%GI%8A in ,9th century, which is called the first computer of the world. *) #l n o , 1 5 Bear Component used #peed ,9.,".< Cacuum tubes ./// additions& 5./ multifications ?anguage for second. $achine language . 8lectric ,./kwEhour 0ssembly language less 70#IC, , !#C0? less ?!G!, C, ?!G!, CDD, :atabase 15/watsEhour :atabase less C, articulars Computer generations: ,st generation 1nd generation ,9.9"2Transistors 6aster 5rd generation ,92."3/ Integrate

.th generation

generation ,93,"<. $icro processor faster %ow onwards $icro processor 6aster

circuits then faster

,st generation

6!>T>0% CDD,

consumption #iFe ./x./ feet

,E,1// of valve

siFe less


</to </x Cabinet & ,9 inches



monitor programming Information Information Information processing processing processing, commercial, business purpose, weather forecasting & Internet were They were They were To work more reliable, and faster, more reliable, accurate ,st than generation computers. without prior instruction as 0rtificial ,st integrated machine )robot* 1G7 1./G7. T!



:ifficult transports, heat generation too much.

to They more reliable, faster,

and faster, and like

accurate than accurate ,st generation than computers. generation computers.

#torage capacity E+ The "asic e%ectronic components o computers:

7asic electronic components used inside of the computer which are reGuired to working computer. ,) -accume tu"es: This component were designed with as Hvalves' also called as vaccum tubes as basic electronic components in ,st generation computers .) Transistors: Transistors were used an assembly language could used for programming, Transistor were used in place of vaccum tubes as a basic electronic component in 1 nd generation computers. This siFe of transistor was ,E,1// siFe of valve. /) (ntegrate! circuits: IC is a composition of many transistors in integrated form many transistors integrated in single IC reduced the siFe & cost of the components, because only one IC replaced many transistors. IC used for language 6!>T>0%, 0#C0? in 5rd generation computers. 0) Micro processor: $icro processor is a integrated form of of entire electronic circuits along with the components on a single silicon chip.

It is used for -th & .th generation computes.


T#pes o Computers:

+e have 1 classifications about computer types. a) Base! on si1e 2 capa"i%it#: The computers can be divided in to four categories based on their siFe & capability. Micro computer: ersonal computer is known as microcomputer, microcomputer is very simple & built with only one single IC& only one $icroprocessor. It is used on schools, home& personal use. !nly one person can operate at a time. Mini computer: $ini computer is advanced than microcomputer in terms of performance, speed. 0t the most < persons can use simultaneously work on a single minicomputer is much more than micro computers. Main rame computers: Computers which are big in siFe and faster than minicomputer are known as mainframe computer. $ore than < persons can work simultaneously on single mainframe computers. 8xI >ailway, airlines etc.

Super Computer: #uper computer is specially designed computer built with more number of processor for particular purpose, it is used special applications like military, weather fore casting, space, satellite work etc. 0>0$",/// is the first Indian super computer. ") Base! on %o' o in ormation2 har!'are: The basis of flow of information& hardware computers can be classified 5 categories. *igita% computer: :igital computer used 1 digits H/' & H,' as the switch can be either on or off. They can understand only machine language that is in the form H/' &H,'. Computers which consist of large number of interconnected switch in IC work on digital electronic techniGue are called digital computer. Ana%og computer: 0nalog is Greek words which mean @comparing between 1 values or 1 GuantitiesA. The analog computers number indicated as a result of voltage& current, like as clock. 0nalog computer worked with electric

signals. These computers are used control robot, rockets lunching pad etc,

H#"ri! computer: The computer which have a characteristic of both digital & analog computers are called hybrid computer. This is used for robot, pathfinder, temperature control, C%C machine, computer with multimedia etc. Computer Har!'are2 So t'are:

Har!'are: Computer is not only one thing, it is integration form many hardware. =ardware means the visible parts of computer, like monitor, printer, C ;, keyboard, mouse etc. it's all parts helps to working properly. The parts of computerI Computer in fact is an integration of many parts, each part its own specific &ob that cannot be replaced another part, there fore it is very important to study the used and working of the various parts of computer. 0ll these parts classifieds in following asI ,* 1* 5* Input devices !utput devices C ; a* b* c* -* 0?; C; $;

#ome important parts

a+ (nput !e)ices: The devices which we used to feed the informationEdata to computer that device are called input devices. "+ 3e#"oar!: The keyboard containing alphabets from 0 to J, & numbers / to 9 & many other function keys )K LMNO&PQRSD*. It is used enter the textEdata &number &operate other function. There are 1 types of keyboard a. normal keyboard b. multimedia keyboard c+ Mouse: $ouse is used to operate the system by selecting menus& used to painting & drawing pictures. Its having a 1"5 buttons on a top, it is used painting. There are 5 types of mouse. a. %ormal mouse b. !ptical mouse c. !+ Scanner: #canner is used scan the images, photos &with the help of scanner we can input alphabets, logos, letter heads in to computer. e+ 4o#stic5: ower mouse

It is used to playing games + 6e" camera: It is used feed our photos to computer. g+ Output !e)ices: The devices that are used to getting the result the processed information from the computer.

,+ Monitor: It's like TC. !n a monitor we can see which we are typing & processed data. The siFe of monitor is 3 inches to 9 inches. There are several types of monitors. a. b. c. d. e. .+ Printer: rinter paint on result or out put in a color or black. a. ink &et printer Tink 7lack and white monitor color monitor digital monitor T6T monitor C>T monitor

b. c.

:ot"matrix printer Tpower &tape ?aser &et printer

/+ Spea5ers: It is used to listen the music &sound. %oteI C: &6loppy are also using both input &out put device we have learn about its in memory devices. /) CENTRA7 PROCESS(N8 UN(T 9C P U) The information or data is sent to the computer using input device the dataEinformation is processed in the c p u. =ence c p u can be termed as the brain of computer a* 0rithmetic logic unit )0 ? ;* b* Control unit )C ;* c* $emory unit )$ ;* A) A 7 U: +hen we have to calculator something like 1D1 we apply our brain similarly the computer will calculate in the 0?; of C ;. This kind of produce of calculating is called @data processingA. B) Contro% Unit:

C; is which control all activities by sending signal to different parts of computer at appropriate time. This enable be smooth functioning of computer.

C) Memor# Unit: In computer language memory means storage of all the data or information is stored in the memory in the forms of / & ,, that is /&, is called bits. In a memory unit information is organiFed in the form of cells, each cell can store either / or ,U the group of <cells or bits is called , byte. ;nits of memory <bits,byte ,/1-byte , kilobyte ,/1- kb , megabyte ,/1- mb, gigabyte T#pes o memor#: a. b. rimary memory #econdary memory

Primar# memor#: ,) RAM:

>0$ is temporary memory unit. It works only when the computer is switched on, the stored information can be changed, erased or rewritten, as the data can be accessed randomly to read &write using this memory.

.) ROM: >!$ is temporary memoryU the information stored in will not be last even when the computer is switched off, because the data or information stored in >!$ is read only. +e cannot change this according to our reGuirements. i) Secon!ar# memor#: This is permanent memory, its stores all the information even when the computer is switched off. It is also called backup memory. 8xI floppy, hard disk, cd etc. ii) $%opp# !is5 2!ri)e: 6lexible & circular plastic plate coated with magnetic oxide, the data is stored on the floppy. 6loppy drive is reGuired to read the floppy. Two types of floppy $ini diskI ..1."inch floppy disk ,.1 mb. $icro diskI 5.."inch floppy disk ,.-- mb.

iii) C* 9compact !is5): Cd is optical disk, this is circular plastic plate, that it is coated with highly reflective material the data is recorded on this disk by focusing a laser beam on surface of the disk. The storing capacity of cd is 2-/ mb. Cd drive is reGuired to this which is used to read the cd. i)) Har! !is5: =: is a group of rounded metal plates mounted one above the other which is created magnetic material. It can store more dataU the storage capacity of =: is 1 G7 to 12/ G7. RPM: H*C: .) a) )revolution per minute* the speed of rotation of hard hard disk controller disk while reading & writing is measured revolution per minute.

Some important parts o computer: Smps:9s'itch mo!e po'er supp%#) #mps is a main unit that supply reGuired electric current to various circuits and components. ") Coo%ing an: #mps by on it built fan which exhaust the hot air& keeps the system cool while working. !ne or more fans are there inside the system & may have proper functioning. c) Mother "oar!:

$other board is made of a special type of plastic, metallic tracks are attached on this board. +orking of whole computer system is based on the electronic circuits board of the computer is called mother board. The micro processor chip is called as cpu is fixed motherboard & memory chips)>0$& >!$* are also affixed on the mother board, all input& output slats )monitor, printer, mouse, keyboard, floppy, hard disk, cd rom etc.* are also fixed on a same board& 6:C)floppy disk controller*, =:C)hard disk controller*& display adapter card also fixed. !) Micro processor: It is made by siliconU microprocessor also called C ; is tinny sGure or rectangular chip e) *isp%a# a!apter car!: The information displays on monitor is reGuired display adaptercard. It is a small circuit's board fixed in motherboard. TypesI 0. monochromes display cardsingle color monitor b. c. CG0 video graphics adapter #CG0 super video graphics adapter old

Notes: a. Cd& floppy is using both input, output& memory devices. b. %ow a day's pen drive is also there. c. $any other parts ex. TC tuner card, ?0% card, cable are used different purposes.

Computer so t'are: +hen particular problems is to we solved by the computer. It necessary to design instructions for the computer to carry out the assigned task, the art of writing this instruction is called programming. rogramming is nothing but a set of well defined instructions such set of program or programming is called software, software cannot be touched or seen, it is only to make the computer work. There are 1 types of software. a* #ystem software or operating software b* 0pplication software a) S#stem so t'are or Operating so t'are: This is collection of programming for the management of computer systemU this program is given by the manufacture of the computer. 0ll the basic software is called as system or operating system.

It is essential for any computer without this software no computer will work or functioning. #oftware communicates between the operator and system undo & manages the computer computer devices connected to the computer.

#ystem software is. :os ;%IV +indows ?inux

a+ *os: This is single user operating system developed by 7ill gates and ull 0llen in early in ,9</. "+ UN(:: This is multi user operating system developed by 0T & T. c+ 6in!o's /+,,: 7ased on graphical unit interface )G;I* this was developed by $icrosoft. !+ 6in!o's ;<:

This is advanced version 5.,, e+ 6in!o' ;=: 0dvanced version of +indows 9., it has entranced internet services & is a 51 bit operation system. + 6in!o's NT: Its operating system used network. g+ 6in!o's .>>>: It is a user interface very similar to +indows 9. or +indows %T with integrated internet explorer. h+ 6in!o's &p pro essiona%: ?atest operating system. i+ 7inu&: This is multi user, multi tasking operating developed by university of melsenlei with the assistance of amateur software developers around the world. App%ication so t'are: This is general purpose program or the program developed by the users to solve their processor or reduce their mechanical working application software is specially developed to the reGuirement of companies or institution, such as railway and school issue of tickets, reservations can be maintain only by specially designed application software. 8xI tally, age$aker, hotoshop etc.

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