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ENERGY CRISES IN PAKISTAN/LOADSHEDDING/ELECTRICITY CRISES INTRODUCTION 4. Uneducated masses 6. Environmental Pollution 1. Great challenge 5. Corruption SOLUTION 2. Short fall of 4000-9000MW 6. Poor distribution of wapda 1. Effective law and order 3. Rich Pakistani soil EFFECTS 2. Prepaid Electricity cards 4. Hydral resources , air, nuclear 1. Exports reduction 3. Agreements with Iran technology, winds, fuels are 2. Capital and brain drain 4. Modification of WAPDA major resources 3. Cause of unemployment, equipment REASONS inflation and poverty 5. Alternative energy resources 1. Population increase 4. Students educational 6. Mass awareness 2. Poor planning problems CONCLUSION 3. Lavish life style 5. Cause of social issues 1. Long and short term policies Energy crises are a great challenge of present times. Energy is the need of economic and social sector. Pakistan is a rich country. It has many resources. The biggest reserves of gas are in Pakistan. Coal is found in excessive quantity. But in spite of all these blessings, darkness rules our homeland. Electricity has become a dream only. The people are forced to adopt the methods of Iron Age to get energy. There is excessive load shedding. It has made life miserable. The demand for electricity and other energy resources is increasing day by day. There is short fall of 4000 to 9000 MW depending upon climatic conditions. There are different resources of energy. They are coal, gas, hydral power, nuclear energy, air, solar energy and fossil fuels. Coal is not used and gas is not enough to fulfill domestic, transport and industrial needs. No hydral power was built is a few decades. The previous dams have reduced capacity due to slit. Nuclear resources dont expand with much speed due to international pressure and their cost. Air and solar plants are used on a limited scale. Fossil fuels are costly and affect economy with the change in prices in international market. All these things have increased the crises. There are many reasons of this problem. There is population increase. Every year our demand increases. But we are unable to meet requirements. There is poor planning by the ruling class. It doesnt realize its importance. No dam was built in a few decades except Ghazi Barotha and Chashma. Some projects like Kalabagh dam have been politicized. Thus there is no use of coal reserves, water resources and nuclear technology. Pakistan has diverse climates and seasons. There are many resources in the form of air, water current and solar energy. But they are not utilized. The life style of the people has also progressed. There is excessive use of electrical appliances. The people lead luxurious life style. Thus the problem increases. The masses are uneducated and waste electricity. They even use bulbs instead of energy savers. Present Prime Ministers scheme of exchanging energy savers with bulbs seems a useless practice. There is corruption in wapda. The people are involved in electricity theft. The officials are involved in it. It causes increase in tariffs and loss of the capital. This is dues to poor law and order and corruption in law enforcement agencies and wapda. Nearly all the areas of FATA dont pay bills. The powerful people dont pay their bills. Corruption has also worsened the situation in Rental Power case and costly electricity. Wapda has poor distribution system. There a lot of line losses and theft due to old technology. The price of petroleum products is high. It increases the cost of electricity. It has affected socio-economic life in many ways. The cost of the industrial products increases and they cant compete in international markets. Thus exports reduce and purchase power lessens. This situation results capital and brain drain from the country. As a result GDP growth rate decreases. The farmers cant produce according to their potential. Industry collapses in such circumstances. Unemployment, inflation and poverty are caused due to high energy prices. The students dont get electricity to prepare for the exams. Energy crises result a lot of social issues. The people use alternative resources to get energy. They burn the trees to meet their energy needs. It causes environmental pollution. To correct all these crises, there is the need of solid steps. Law and order should be made effective. There should be no excuse for any one. Prepaid electricity cards should be introduced to avoid corruption. To fulfill the needs of energy, it should be imported from other countries. PAK-IRAN Gas pipeline agreement is very crucial in this regard. It can address a lot of problems. Corruption should be dealt with iron hands. The equipment of WAPDA should be changed to reduce line losses. Alternative energy should be sought out. The uranium, coal, and hydral reserves should be used effectively. The govt. should plan for the long term and in the wake of ever increasing demands. The people should be made aware through media and educational syllabus of the schools and colleges. All the factories producing bulbs should be changed into energy. Thus, it can be concluded that energy crises should be dealt at many levels. Long term and short term policies are to be implemented to decrease this problem.