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Overview of !e Middle Ages 29 - 1600 AD/CE !

Usborne Medieval His$ry

Please No": We are beginning our study several years before !e fa# of Rome in order $ be able $ %#y explain !e "nsion between Jews, Chris&ans and Muslims when we come $ !e Crusades la"r in !e year.

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29

Era

AD/CE 29-313 approx. 75

History Spread of Christianity, Martyrdom, & Constantine Historic Documents ! (Dead Sea Scrolls) Byzantine Empire & Islam

Drama intro to drama

Before class

Week 1! 9/11/12

nding a voice theater in the middle ages developing a character theaters progress working with a script the bard monologues the art of war working on scenes working on scenes improv behind the scenes

intro. ! p. 1-3 p. 4-5, 8-11 p. 12-15, 20 p. 6-7, 16-18 p. 24-27 p. 22-23, 28-33, 45 p. 20 p. 19, 34-39 p. 52-73, 76-85 p. 42-43 p. 44 p. 86-89

2! 9/18/12 3! 9/25/12 4! 10/2/12 5! 10/9/12 6! 10/16/12 7! 10/23/12 8! 10/30/12 9! 11/6/12 10! 11/13/12 11! 11/27/12 12! 12/4/12 13! 1/8/13

Early Middle Ages ! (Dark Ages)

527-565

400-1000 764-814

Barbarian Invasion & the Vikings (Alfred the Great) Charlemagne and the Franks King Arthur, Knights & Chivalry Daily life in the middle ages & the Feudal system William the Conqueror / Battle of Hastings (castles) Monasticism, Cathedrals, & the Power of the Catholic Church What else was happening around the world? (Marco Polo) Crusades The Black Death and the transition to the Renaissance Ideas and Inventions of the Renaissance (Gutenberg prints the Bible) Joan of Arc / 100 years war! (heraldry) Voyages of Exploration

High Middle Ages

500-1500 500-1400 1066 269-1350 501-1600 1095 -1250

Late Middle Ages

1348 -1350 1300-1517

1337-1453! 1418-1600

playwright timeline theater games and review

p. 21 p. 74-75, 90-91

14! 1/15/13 15! 1/22/13

1600

Spread of Chris&ani', Mar'rdom, & Constan&ne


(29-313AD/CE)

9/11/12 Summary: After Jesus died, followers spread the word that He was, and is, God. This angered many people including Saul of Tarsus. Saul, along with many leaders, believed that Jesus could not be the Messiah. Roman authorities believed that the worshipers of Jesus were dangerous and massacred or sold into slavery many believers.

Saul dramatically changed to became the apostle Paul, one of the biggest promoters of faith in Christ. He was eventually imprisoned under the rule of Nero, and died a martyrs death in 67AD. Persecution continued until 313CE when Constantine ruled that Christianity was legal. Constantine was baptized on his deathbed and later Christianity became the official state religion of the Roman empire. ___

In class activities: Created a giant wiki stick map of Pauls missionary journeys Made our own ichthus necklaces Learned the word martyr and discussed its meaning Read portions of Lion Bible for Children Added to our Medieval Notebook ___

For additional information on this subject: Book Foxes Book of Martyrs by John Foxe Video Drive through History - Greece, Episode 2 Web Great info about Pauls missionary Journeys - http://www.welcometohosanna.com/ PAULS_MISSIONARY_JOURNEYS/4voyage_1.html ___

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In preparation for next weeks class please allow your child to enjoy flipping through your new copy of Usborne Medieval History to become familiar with the time period. Specifically, look at: intro. p. 1-3!

(approx. 75AD/CE) 9/18/12 Summary: Ancient writings are one of the most accurate sources of information about the past. Some of the oldest written records of life after the death of Jesus are those of Josephus and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

His$ric Documents (e Dead Sea Scro#s

The Dead Sea Scrolls are often called the greatest archaeological discovery of the 20th century. This collection of 972 texts includes the earliest known biblical manuscripts. They attest to the immense care that was taken to ensure the accuracy of the Bible. The Scrolls are believed to have been written by the Essenes, who Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian during the first century of the Roman Empire, records as a Jewish sect which devoted itself to writing, purity, and isolation. Josephus many writings provide valuable eyewitness information about the New Testament era, contributing to our understanding of the social, political, historical, and religious background of the New Testament. In class activities: Assembled puzzles and decoded the information we found Sewed and wrote our own ancient manuscripts Added to our Medieval notebook Read portions of The Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Hagit Allon Watched portions of The Dead Sea Scrolls by BBC 2.46-10.18 of Part 1 - http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=t5uZX3IloiU&feature=player_detailpage#t=165s 0-2.20 of Part 2 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbheOA9RX0M&feature=related

For additional information on this subject you may want to check out: Books The Dead Sea Scrolls by Ilene Cooper (64p.) Web View the dead sea scrolls - http://dss.collections.imj.org.il/ Learn about The Importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=FxdoJJhVsEA

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p.4-5, 8-11

Byzan&ne Empire & Islam


9/25/12

(324-1453 AD/CE)

Summary: The term Byzantine Empire is used to refer to the Eastern half of the Roman Empire after it was split in half. Emperor Constantine made the city of Byzantium the capital in 324, and renamed it Constantinople. Under Constantine, the Byzantine empire embraced Christianity and controlled east-west trade for a long period of time, making it the most powerful state in Europe.

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The peak of the Byzantine Empire occurred during the Justinian Dynasty. In 527 Justinian I became emperor and under his rule the empire gained territory and wealth. Justinian took on many projects including reviewing all of the existing Roman laws re-writing them into a single book called the Justinian Code. Throughout much of the Middle Ages the Byzantine Empire fought the Muslims for control of the eastern Mediterranean. Finally, in 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire. At that time Constantinople was renamed Istanbul. ___ In class activities: Looked at Byzantine clothing Added to our Medieval notebook Traveled on our own pilgrimage in the direction of Mecca Wrote our own Justinian Code combining several different sets of laws Created a Byzantine mosaic Studied the pillars of Islam: Faith, Prayer, Giving, Fasting, & Pilgrimage Read portions of Muhammad and Islam by Kerena Marchant ___ For additional information on this subject: Books Teen Time Travelers: Get Back To Constantinople by Lori Maynard (143p.) The Golden Age of Islam by Linda George (72p.) Web byzantine empire video - http://sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/02/sotw-2-chapter-4byzantine-empire.html ___

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 12-15, 20!

! 10/2/12 !

Barbarian Invasion & !e Vikings

(400-1000 AD/CE)

Summary: The term Barbarian does not describe one specific people group. It means outsider, or people who were foreigners to the main ruling countries. This included the Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths. They were thought of as uncivilized and uncultured people. During the Barbarian invasions (also known as the Migration Period) from 400 800, these feared warriors conquered many lands including the Roman empire.

The Vandals descendants became known as the Vikings. They were fair-skinned traders and settlers who spent a lot of time at battle. Because they had to depend on the sea, they were expert boat builders. They launched ferocious attacks on Europe, looting and pillaging before returning to the sea. ___

In class activities: Built a Viking longboat Added to our Medieval notebook Played the viking game Kubb Studied maps of scandinavia Discussed misconceptions about Vikings Read Yo, Vikings by Schachne ___

! For additional information on this subject: !

Books Viking Ships at Sunrise (Magic Tree House #15) by Mary Pope Osborne (96p.) Adventures with the Vikings by Linda Bailey (48p.) Web Fun online Viking activities - www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/vikings/

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In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 6-7, 16-18!

Charlemagne & !e Franks


10/9/12

(764-814 AD/CE)

Summary: The largest barbarian kingdom was that of the Franks. Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) and Pepin the Short brought the area under their control, but it is their descendant Charlemagne (Charles the Great), who is remembered as being one of Europes most successful monarchs.

Charlemagne cared deeply for education and religion. He worked hard at his studies and required those he conquered to submit to convert to Christianity. He, received the title of emperor from the Pope on Christmas Day 800. This act changed the course of history by establishing the churchs right to crown emperors and give and take away kingdom. This eventually lead to the Holy Roman Empire, which was neither Roman, nor particularly holy.

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The Frankish empire fought continually to defend itself from both Byzantines on the East, who were upset that a barbarian Frank had dared to claim the title of Emperor, and the Vikings, whom they were ill prepared to fight on sea. ___ In class activities: Added to our Medieval notebook Created our own pillows with pockets (Charlemagne kept a writing slate under his pillow) Studied maps of the Frankish empire Played a trial game & Discussed trial by jury vs. trial by ordeal Read portions of The World in the time of Charlemagne by Fiona Macdonald ___

For additional information on this subject: Books Son of Charlemagne by Barbara Willard (183p.) Web online videos re: Charlemagne - http://sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/02/sotw-2chapter-13-great-kings-of-france.html online videos re the Franks - http://sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/02/sotw-2chapter-11-kingdom-of-franks.html ___

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 24-27!

! 10/16/12 !

King Ar!ur Knights & Chivalry

(500-1500 AD/CE)

Summary: The story of King Arthur gives us a glimpse into the tradition of knighthood in the middle ages. If Arthur existed (a fact that is debated), then he was a british general who won a victory against the Germanic invaders around 500. Regardless of the fictional elements of the Arthurian legend, Knights were trained warriors who rode horses and wore armor. They were granted this honorary title by a monarch for their military service to the kingdom. Knights were part of the nobility and played an important part in the crusades and other wars during the Middle Ages. They were loyal to God and the king, and swore to follow the rules of chivalry.

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Added to our Medieval notebook Role played chivalrous behavior Made our own swords and tabards learned about the process of knighthood Enjoyed swordfighting listened to portions of The Kitchen Knight: A Tale of King Arthur by Margaret Hidges (32p.)

For additional information on this subject: Books The Sword in the Tree by Clyde Bulla (121p.) The Making of a Knight by Patrick OBrien (32p.) Video Disneys The Sword in the Stone

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In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 22-23, 28-33, 45!

! 10/23/12 !

Daily life in !e Middle Ages, !e Feudal Sys"m

(500-1400 CE)

Summary: During the Middle Ages, the feudal system was the primary form of social organization. Under feudalism all land was held by the king. Scattered throughout the kings land were many small villages, each ruled by a knight or noble who was granted this honor by the king in return for their help in fighting wars. Villages were filled with serfs (peasants) who farmed the land and gave a portion of their crops each year to the lord in return for protection and in payment for the use of the land.

As time passed, the first towns began to form. These were often built near a castle and residents would pay rent to the castle owner to live there. Unlike serfs, who had no choice but to serve the lords, freemen who lived in towns worked for and took care of themselves. Guilds began as craftsmen formed partnerships based on their trades, and agreed to support one another in adversity and business. ___

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Created our own feudal system economy using M&Ms and trading cards Played with walking boards to demonstrate the advantage of working together like a guild Added to our Medieval notebook Read portions of If You Lived in the Days of the Knights by Ann McGovern Looked at antique pots and pans to learn about how they were made and how they were used

For additional information on this subject: Books Adam of the Road by Elizabeth Janet Gray (317p.) Castle Diary: The Journal of Tobias Burgess (128p.)

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 20!

Wi#iam !e Conqueror and !e Ba)le of Has&ngs


10/30/12

(1066 AD/CE)

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Summary: Around 1000, the vikings began to settle in the Normandy area of France. In the next few years they adopted the culture and language of the people they conquered, becoming civilized Normans. When the King Edward III (the Confessor) of England, died in 1066 without leaving a son, several men, including William, Duke of Normandy, saw an opportunity to seize the throne and become rich. The war story of the Norman Conquest of England is told in a captivating piece of medieval art, the 231 foot long Bayeux Tapestry. William, who later became known as William the Conqueror, brutally invaded England. After landing he quickly built motte-and-bailey castles to shore up his position. Medieval castles were not the luxurious palaces we imagine in fairy tales. They were built first for advantage of position and defense, and rarely with comfort in mind. The castle was a stronghold, a place where all the people could retreat for protection. ___ In class activities: Studied the Bayeux Tapestry while sitting in our own castle Created our own large rag tapestry Added to our Medieval notebook Read portions of The Bayeux Tapestry by Norman Denny and Josephine FilmerSankey Watched animated portions of the Bayeux Tapestery at: http:// www.cosmolearning.com/videos/bayeux-tapestry-animated-version/ ___ For additional information on this subject: Books Castle by David Macaulay (78p.) William the Conqueror: Biography from Ancient Civilizations by Susan Sales Harkins and William H. Harkins (48p.) Web David Macaulays Castle video - sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/03/sotw-2chapter-16-england-after.html ___

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 19, 34-39!

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Monas&cism, Ca!edrals and !e Power of !e Ca!olic Church

(269-1350 AD/CE)

Summary: The church grew very powerful and influential during the middle ages. In 269 Christian hermits formed the first monastery. Soon monks were in many locations living simple lives, studying, writing, praying, and caring for the sick. Missionaries spread Christianity, and the religion continued to grow despite the split in 1054 between Byzantine (Orthodox) and Western European (Roman Catholic) churches. By 1300 Catholic Christianity was the official religion of nearly every country in western Europe. In stark contrast to the poverty of monks, stood the enormous cathedrals of the 1100 and 1200s. In medieval times there were only 2 major employers: the kings and the church. Cathedrals were built not just for religious purposes, but also to provide employment and symbolize the greatness of the king. ___

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Briefly reviewed the growth of Christianity from Christ through the Middle Ages Discussed the many differences between monasteries and cathedrals Created our own stained glass windows using shrinky-dinks Added to our Medieval notebook Wrote like monks Read The Clown of God by Tomie Depaola and discussed religion in the middle ages

Books: Life in the Middle Ages: The Church by Kathryn Hinds (80p.) You Wouldnt Want to Work on a Medieval Cathedral by Fiona Macdonald (32p.)

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 52-73, 76-85!

Advances !roughout !e world


11/27/12

(501-1600AD/CE)

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Summary: Most people learn about history from only one perspective. In our country, the middle ages are generally known as the time of European castles and knights, this hyper-focus on Europe is known as eurocentrism. From Japanese samurai, to the Anasazi apartment dwellers, there were many people living throughout the world during the middle ages. Their daily life differed greatly from the life in Europe, and their cultures were responsible for great advances including the invention of the number 0, paper money, and gunpowder. ___ In class activities: Created our own metal maps and discussed the custom of putting Europe in the center. Mapped the many changes happening around the globe during this period including the invention of 0, paper money, etc. Added to our Medieval notebook Watched a video about eurocentrism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QV7CanyzhZg Set off mini firecrackers commemorating the Chinese invention of gunpowder Read portions of Around the World in 1200 by Alexandra Service ___ For additional information on this subject: Because we went around the world today, there are lots of different directions that you can take your studies. Here are a few resources I recommend:

videos: Modern Marvels: The Great Wall of China- 45 minutes The Story of India- 6 episodes (54 minutes each) Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire- 3 episodes (55 minutes each) Mayans & Aztecs- 50 minutes Lost Kingdoms of Africa- 4 episodes (48-59 minutes each)

Suggested Reading: My Sister Shahrazad by Robert Leeson Dragon of the Red Dawn (Magic Tree House) by Mary Pope Osborne Russian Fairy Tales by Gillian Avery __

In preparation for our next class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p.42-43!

! 12/4/12 ! !

(e Crusades

(1095-1250 AD/CE)

Summary: The Crusades were a series of tragic wars fought between Christians and Muslims for control the holy land of Jerusalem (Palestine). The city of Jerusalem was the center of faith for three major world religions. This Holy Land was conquered by Islam in the 600s A.D. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade to free Jerusalem from Muslim control. Side note: The word crusade comes from the word Crux, which means cross in Latin.
Those who volunteered were called crusaders, meaning that they took the cross of Jesus upon them, literally wearing a red cross on their clothing.

Crusaders were promised that they would receive eternal life if they died while fighting nonChristians. As a result, they killed thousands, including Jews, on their two year journey to Jerusalem. When they finally laid siege upon the city, they had to surround it for months. When the city fell, the Crusader army massacred its inhabitants. Eight more crusades would follow in an effort to maintain control of the city, but the Christian hold on the area continually weakened. In 1291 A.D., the Muslims captured the last European hold-out in the area and the crusades came to an end. ___

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Added to our Medieval notebook Created a large timeline indicating the timing of the crusades Discussed the terms jihad and crusade Read portions of You Wouldnt Want to be a Crusader by Fiona MacDonald __

For additional information on this subject: Books The Minstrel in the Tower by Gloria Skurzynski (64p.) Big Johns Secret by Elanore M. Jewett (207p.) Web online videos - http://sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/04/sotw-2-chapter-18-age-ofcrusades.html

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In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 44!

! 1/8/13 ! ! !

Black Dea! *Plague+

(1348-1350 AD/CE)

Summary: The plague, also known as the Black Death because of the dark sores that it caused, was one of the worst diseases in history. This illness carried by rats and fleas resulted in the death of 1/3 of the population of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. For years the disease would disappear during the winter, when fleas were less active, only to reappear again to the horror of both rich and poor. Unfortunately, this tragedy destroyed many peoples faith in God. It led to the collapse of the economy and ultimately to the end of the already weakened feudal system, completely changing the medieval world.

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Discussed the various methods used to cure the plague Mixed up some of our own cures and tasted our creations. Discussed the cycle of the plague Added to our Medieval notebook Read Run Far, Run Fast by Timothy Decker (40p.)

For additional information on this subject: Books The Door in the Wall by Marguerite de Angeli (121p.) Web music video of the black death - http://sotw-videolinks.blogspot.com/2012/04/sotw-2chapter-25-end-of-world.html

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In preparation for our class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 86-89!

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Ideas and Inven&ons of !e Renaissance

(1300-1517 AD/CE)

Summary: During the Middle Ages, the time consuming process of copying books by hand made the spread of new ideas very slow. People often worked very hard to solve problems that had already been solved, but they had no access to that information. Johann Gutenbergs invention of the moveable type printing press was one of the main factors that created the explosion of ideas known as the Renaissance, a revolutionary period in the arts and sciences. Faster and cheaper printing made books available to many people for the first time. This spread of knowledge led to a new fascination with the learning that swept through Europe. Ideas became more realistic and less dominated by religion, sometimes creating conflict between scientists and the church.

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Assembled and printed using our own moveable type Read portions of Johann Gutenberg, Master of Modern Printing by Michael Pollard Explored Renaissance leisure activities and practiced walking on stilts Discussed the time consuming process of creating machines by hand Added to our Medieval notebook

For additional information on this subject: Books Ink on His Fingers by Louise A. Vernon (127p.)

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 21!

! 1/22/13 !

Joan of Arc 100 Years War

(1337-1453 AD/CE)

Summary: The Hundred Years War actually lasted 116 years. It was a series of short, costly wars between England and France for control of the French throne. At first the English were successful, winning an especially big battle at Agincourt in 1415, where they used a new weapon, the cannon. Because of several factors, including the Black Death, neither side could triumph quickly.

In France, a young peasant girl named Joan of Arc heard voices from heaven telling her to help free her country. At the age of 17, she successfully led the French to victory. Despite her military success, the English eventually captured her and accused her of being a witch because she dressed in mens clothing and claimed to have visions from God. She was burned at the stake, but was later declared to be a saint.

(Parents: I was deliberately vague in class, so as not to introduce my own beliefs into this topic. I highly suggest that you discuss with your child which portions of the story of Joan of Arc you view as folk tale or truth. They probably have lots of questions.)

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Created our own coat of arms & standard Added to our Medieval notebook Read Joan of Arc by Diane Stanley (48p.) ___ For additional information on this subject: Books Joan of Arc: Warrior Saint by Joy Williams (128p.) Web Joan of Arc cartoon biography by Nest Entertainment: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Kgbu1bvmWgk Printable activity book - http://www.dscl.org/kids/JoanOfArc.pdf ___

In preparation for next weeks class please read the following in Usborne Medieval History: p. 74-75, 90-91!

! 1/29/13 ! Summary: !

Voyages of Explora&on in !e Middle Ages

(1418-1600 AD/CE)

During the renaissance the growth of trade, new inventions, increased knowledge, and rapid flow of information combined to bring about the age of exploration. No longer bound to the land by feudalism, people of the renaissance began to explore the world by both land and sea. They made long, dangerous journeys to find trade routes which would bypass the Islamic world, for both monetary and political reasons. These incredible journeys covered thousands of miles, leading them far beyond the limits of the known world of that time, to great discoveries.

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Created our own passports Built our own compass and used it to find north Completed our Medieval notebook Watched a documentary about the age of exploration: http://history.docuwat.ch/videos/? alternative=2&channel_id=0&skip=0&subpage=video&video_id=365

For additional information on this subject: Books The Silk Route: 7,000 Miles of History by John S. Major (32p.) Around the World in 100 Years by Jean Fritz Marco Polo: The Boy Who Traveled the Medieval World by Nick McCarty (64p.) Web interactive map of explorers - http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org

! ___ ! Electives begin next week! !

Thank you so much for sharing your sweet children with me. We have had a lot of fun exploring the Middle Ages together.