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Warm-up for 3-1 What financial responsibilities exist between a parent and a child?

? Could a similar relationship exist between a parent nation and its colonies? Explain

purpose of the colonies was to enrich Britain theory of mercantilismeconomic system designed to increase wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver and est. a favorable balance of trade

colonial merchants sought $ and traded goods to other European nations England viewed this as a threat Navigation Acts (1651)- series of laws restricting colonial trade
-all goods must be passed through England -goods must be shipped on colonial or British ships passed by Parliament- Englands legislative body

*colonial merchants resented restrictions and smuggled goods

Tensions Emerge Dominion of New England(1686) -est. of one colony, under one ruler by James II, to make the colonial govt. more obedient Sir Edmund Andros- chosen to rule New England

Glorious Revolution (1688)transfer of the British monarchy from RC James II to Protestants William and Mary Parliament restored original status of the colonies in 1691required more religious toleration between Puritans/Anglicans

England Loosens the Reins Turns attention away to pursue control of Europe Salutary neglect- new policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for continued economic loyalty -affects politics as well as economics -colonialists dev. a taste for self-governing

STUARTS James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 COMMONWEALTH Oliver Cromwell 1649-1658 Richard Cromwell 1658-1659 STUARTS (restored) Charles II 1660-1685 James II 1685-1688 William III 1689-1702 Mary II 1689-1694 Anne 1702-1714 HOUSE OF HANOVER George I 1714-1727 George II 1727-1760 George III 1760-1820

Warm-up for 3-2 Do you think it is possible to live a life of leisure and wealth without relying on the hard work of other, poorer people? Explain

Plantations develop instead of towns (rural) Plantation farmers specialize in raising a single cash crop- grown for sale, not use -examples- tobacco, rice, indigo deep river systems of the south allowed access for ocean-going vessels

Southern Society dominated by planters small farmers formed majority of pop. women had few legal or social rights (educated in social graces & domestic tasks) indentured servants-harsh limited term of servitude, many decide to not to come & planters faced w/ a depleted labor force

Slavery-people who are considered the property of others increasingly difficult to enslave Native Americans Africans dark skin seen as a sign of inferiority slavery going on since late 1600s in West Indies triangular trade

middle passage- voyage that brought Africans to West Indies and later to NA *Up to 20% died from cruel treatment, disease, or suicide on their way to the New World*

merchants bring goods (rum) to Africa to trade goods for slaves slaves brought to West Indies for sugar and molasses goods brought to NE to be distilled

African Culture kept alive culture and musical traditions

resisted slavery by faking illness, breaking tools, staging work slowdowns Stono rebellion
- occurred near Stono River near Charlestown in 1739

retold stories of ancestors dance- colonists tried, but failed to eradicate it

-militia put down rebellion -despite failure, showed courage and scared colonists

**the slave trade spanned ~400 years, from the 15th to the 19th century, and removed an estimated 25-30 million people from Africa**

Warm-up for 3-3 What do you like or dislike about city life? How do large cities near us influence our communities? How might the growth of commercial cities affect life in the colonies?

1650-1750, colonies economy grew 2x as fast as GBs farms produced several crops unlike the south commercial economygrinding wheat, fishing, lumber, & shipbuilding major port citiesBoston, NYC, & Philadelphia *Philly was the first large city since Ancient Roman times to be laid out in a grid

Immigrants bring diversity fleeing economic distress or seeking religious freedom (Scots-Irish, Germans, Dutch, Scandinavians, & Jews) Slavery in the North slavery existed in NE and thrived in middle colonies enjoyed greater legal standing could sue and be sued Women few rights, same as south

Salem girls accused a West Indian slave woman, Tituba, of witchcraft in 1692 hysteria gripped town as accusations grew 19 people were hung, 1 person crushed to death, & 4 or 5 witches died in jail

There was a marked west-east split between the accused and accusers. The villagers living in the hills to the west made accusations against the inhabitants of the more affluent east. Other possible theories about the cause of the Witch Trials, besides economic jealousy, include religious hysteria and ergot poisoning.

Enlightenment movement in the 1700s that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as a means of obtaining knowledge Benjamin Franklinbelieved humans could use their intelligence to improve their lives

invented lightning rod & bifocals known for being a ladies man

Nothing is certain but death and taxes A penny saved, is a penny earned

Only went to 2nd grade Invented the catheter Invented bifocals Printed 1st mail order catalog Est. the nations 1st insurance company Set up the 1st subscription library Invented the lightning rod Invented a heater, the Franklin stove Organized 1st volunteer fire dept. Helped setup Univ. of Penn. 1st demonstrated that acidic soils can be made fertile by adding lime Did much to develop the science of electricity and give it a vocabulary Printed Poor Richards Almanac- known for weather Signer of the Declaration of Independence Campaigned unsuccessfully to have the turkey selected as the symbol of America

Enlightenment cont. Thomas Jefferson used reason to conclude that individuals have natural rights, which govt. must respect drafted Declaration of Independence 3rd President of US

The Great Awakening revival of religious feeling throughout the 1730s and 1740s Jonathon Edwards- famous preacher Goal- revive intensity of original Puritan vision increased interest in higher education (Protestant schools foundedPrinceton, Brown, Columbia, & Dartmouth)

*Both movements caused people to question traditional authority and stressed importance of the individual*

Warm-up for 3-4 Video warm-up The Impact of the French and Indian War Alternative- Have you ever experienced a friendship with one person that caused a rift with another? Do you think a similar situation could occur between nations? Explain

Dispute of fertile Ohio River Valley* Robert Cavelier had claimed Mississippi Valley, naming it Louisiana in 1682 New France- French colony sparsely populated (70,000 by 1754) French consisted of traders and priests Had developed friendly relations w/ Indians

The Spark In 1754 the French built a fort in modern-day Pittsburgh, but the British had previously granted the land to a wealthy planter Virginia governor sends militia led by George Washington to evict the French Battle ensued and Washington was forced to surrender- this began the French and Indian War

French used guerilla style fighting to win battle after battle William Pitt-politician and military leader sent by King George turned the tide & aligned w/ powerful Iroquois

Battle of Quebec-59 surprise attack by British wins the war Treaty of Paris- (1763) GB gains all of NA east of Mississippi including Florida Spain gained French lands W of Mississippi including New Orleans

1st political cartoon in America Benjamin Franklin created to encourage the colonies to unite against the French and Indian forces *widely circulated during the American Revolution

Victory brings problems Pontiac- Ottawa leader realizes French loss means Indian loss captures 8 British forts in Ohio Valley British present smallpox infected blankets to two Delaware chiefs weakened by disease & war many negotiate peace by 1765 Proclamation of 1763British govt. banned all settlement west of Appalachians (like the Navigation Acts they could not enforce)

Tensions between Colonies and Britain 1. proclamation convinced colonists that the British did not care about their needs 2. writs of assistance-law allowing custom officials to search any ship or building for smuggling 3. British leave 10,000 men in territories to control Indians 4. George Grenville- prime minister who developed Sugar Act (3) 1. Halved duty of foreign made molasses 2. placed duties on certain imports 3. allowed prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a viceadmiralty court as opposed to a colonial court