Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

VERBALS - Participles

A. A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. 1. Active participles end in ing. Examples: the howling dog (a dog that is howling). the screaming child (a child that is screaming). 2. Passive participles end in ed, t, d, en, or n. Examples: broken toys (toys that have been broken) B. rotted timbers (timbers that have been rotted)

the bent twig (a twig that has been bent) the known data (data that is known) the told secrets (secrets that have been told) Exercise A Underline the participles in the following sentences. Circle the word that is modified by the participle. The first one is done for you. 1. The galloping horse scared the child. 2. We listened to the singing birds. 3. Those are stolen goods. 4. Rolling stones gather no moss. 5. There was some broken glass on the road. 6. She gave the snarling dog a swift kick. 7. Burnt toast is a favorite of mine. 8. It was the unknown factors that made the problem difficult. 9. A swinging gate kept Bert awake all night. 10. The child, lost and half-frozen, was found after two days.

B. Participles, like verbs, can have objects, complements and modifiers of their own. These objects, complements and modifiers, together with the participles, form participial phrases that are used to modify nouns and pronouns. Examples: 1. Grabbing a sandwich from the tray, Tom hurried to the door. The whole participial phrase modifies Tom. Inside the phrase, sandwich is the object of grabbing. From the tray is an adverb phrase modifying grabbing. 2. Frightened by the lightening, she pulled the blanket over her head. The whole participial phrase modifies she. Inside the phrase, by the lightening is an adverb phrase modifying frightened. Exercise B Underline the participial phrase in the following sentences. Remember they must be used as adjectives. Circle the noun or pronoun that each one modifies. The first one is done for you. 1. Broken by the strong wind, the flagpole dangled high above the street. 2. Hating misery, the missionaries fought disease and poverty. 3. Revolutionizing the techniques of battlefield surgery, Bethune became famous. 4. The toast, burnt to a crisp, caught on fire. 5. Being rich and successful, the actress turned to charity work. 6. Being rich and successful is not my prime goal. 7. I saw the man walking down the street. 8. Bill appeared on the stage, his face painted beyond recognition. 9. I saw him leaning out the window, shouting and waving at the passers-by. 10. Otto, busily mixing the formula, didnt notice the water in the beaker boiling dry. 11. Perched in a corner of the loft, his head propped against a sack of feed, George fell asleep. 12. Standing next to Christopher made Elizabeth appear taller than she is. 13. Running to catch a bus, Doris tripped and sprained her ankle. 14. Blinded by the dazzling snow, almost frozen after the long journey, the explorer could not even strike a match. 15. Encourage by her smile, Mark asked her for a date.

C. Participles can be used in a perfect tense to express a time prior to the main verb. The perfect tense of a participle has having attached to the participle. Examples: Having read the book, I knew I wouldnt want to see the movie. The "reading" occurred before the "knowing". Having been warned about his temper, Laura wasnt surprised at this outburst. The "warning" occurred before the "not being surprised". Otherwise the present tense of the participle is used. Example: Realizing that he was wrong, he said nothing more. Not having realized. The "realizing" and the "saying nothing" occur at the same time. Exercise C Underline the appropriate tense of the participle: 1. (Hiking, Having hiked) for three hours, the gang was ready to eat. 2. Not (wanting, having wanted) to draw attention to himself, Martin wouldnt ask questions. 3. (Bathing, Having bathed) for three hours, Mikes fingers and toes were dried and wrinkled. 4. Her brother, (disagreeing, having disagreed) with her, broke into the discussion. 5. Paul (frightened, having been frightened) into speechlessness, shrank back into the corner.

D. An absolute phrase is a special kind of participial phrase where the participle modifies a word inside the phrase itself. Example: Don was stretched out on the beach, a straw hat shielding his eyes. The participle shielding modifies hat. She sat down, her face flushed with excitement. The participle flushed modifies face.

Exercise D Underline the absolute phrases in the following sentences and circle the word within the phrase that the participle modifies. 1. Bernie was sitting at his desk, his head bent over a sheet of graph paper. 2. The contract signed, Lefty and his new manager shook hands for the photographer. 3. The Model I moved slowly along the parkway, horns honking angrily behind it. 4. His voice trembling with anger, he ordered us to leave. 5. Dan was slouched in a corner of the seat, his head covered with a newspaper.

ANSWER KEY (Words that were to be circled are shown in bold.) Exercise A 2. singing birds 3. stolen goods 4. Rolling stones 5. broken glass 6. snarling dog 7. Burnt toast 8. unknown factors 9. swinging gate 10. lost, half-frozen child Exercise B 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Hating misery, missionaries Revolutionizing the techniques of battlefield surgery, Bethune burnt to a crisp, toast Being rich and successful, actress no participial phrase the phrase is used as a noun and it is therefore a gerund phrase 7. walking down the street, man 8. painted beyond recognition, face 9. shouting and waving at the passers-by, him 10. busily mixing the formula, Otto and boiling dry, water

11. Perched in a corner of the loft, George and propped against a sack of feed, head 12. no participial phrase gerund 13. Running to catch a bus, Doris 14. Blinded by the dazzling snow, explorer almost frozen after the long journey, explorer 15. Encouraged by her smile, Mark Exercise C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Having hiked wanting Having bathed disagreeing frightened

Exercise D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. his head bent over a sheet of graph paper The contract signed horns honking angrily behind it His voice trembling with anger his head covered with a newspaper