Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

FCE Writing Guide 1

Transactional Letter 1 Part 1 of FCE Paper 2 is compulsory. You always write a letter to ask for or give information of some kind. This letter may be formal or informal. formal letter is a letter you write to someone you don!t know" or don!t know very well. n informal letter is the kind of letter you write to friends" members of your family and other people you know well. #ook at the following phrases and mark them F $formal% or I $informal%.
1. Dear Sir / Madam __ 2. Love, Elena __ 3. See you next week! I an !ardly wait! __ ". I look #orward to re eivin$ your re%ly. __ &. 'our( #ait!#ully, )na *ar ia +errera __ ,. I am writin$ in re%ly to your letter o# 1& May. __ -. *ive my love to your %arent(. __ .. S!ould you re/uire any #urt!er in#ormation, do not !e(itate to onta t u( at t!e a0ove addre((. __ 1. 2rite 0a k (oon and tell me all your new(. __ 13. I4m (orry I !aven4t written #or (u ! a lon$ time, 0ut I4ve 0een really 0u(y. 11. I would 0e mo(t $rate#ul i# you ould (end me any #urt!er relevant in#ormation. __

&emember' #earning to write correctly and appropriately in English means building up a sto(k of fixed phrases and expressions" su(h as those above" whi(h you (an adapt to the spe(ifi( situation as re)uired. This is mu(h better than trying to translate your *talian thoughts into English" whi(h is likely to result in strange and unnatural writing. lways read the instru(tions (arefully and de(ide what kind of letter" formal or informal" you are supposed to write. #ook at this task. +ill your answer be formal or informal, Some young people you met last summer are planning to visit your country on holiday and have asked you to suggest some places of interest to see. Write a letter of reply using the notes below. - when? - how long? - come and stay?

-ow look at the plan for the above task and put the points in a logi(al order" by numbering them 1./.

pologise for not writing sooner. 00 Thank them for their letter. 00 sk when they will be (oming. 00 Tell them to write again. 00 *nvite them to stay for a few days. 00 1uggest pla(es to visit and things to do. 00 1ay why you haven!t replied sooner. 00 5!ink o# idea(6 a rea(on #or not re%lyin$7 t!in$( t!ey mi$!t en8oy doin$ and (eein$. I( t!ere a %arti ularly $ood time o# year to vi(it t!e(e %la e(9 2!at an your #riend( do t!ere9 :emem0er t!at you will need to divide t!e letter into learly marked %ara$ra%!(, u(ually t!ree or #our. 2ere are some phrases you (an use in this letter3 5!ank you #or your letter. It wa( $reat to !ear #rom you. Sorry I !aven4t written 0a k #or (o lon$. Sorry it4( taken me (o lon$ to re%ly. I4ve 0een really 0u(y re ently. I4ve 0een workin$ really !ard. I4ve 0een (tudyin$ like mad #or my #inal exam(. I4m really %lea(ed you4re omin$ to Italy. It4( $reat t!at you4re omin$ !ere (oon. 2!en exa tly will you 0e omin$9 Do you know w!en you4re omin$9 2!en are you $oin$ to 0e !ere9 2!y don4t you ome and (tay wit! me #or a #ew day(9 I4d love to %ut you u% #or a #ew day(. 2ould you like to (tay wit! me #or a #ew day(9 'ou ould vi(it Leri i and ;ortovenere. 5!e <in/ue 5erre are well wort! a vi(it. I4m (ure you4d really love t!e Mu(eo Lia. 'ou an (wim and (un0at!e on t!e (andy 0ea !e(. 2e ould $o #or walk( in t!e ountry(ide to$et!er. 2rite 0a k (oon and tell me your %lan(. +rite and tell me e4a(tly when you are planning to (ome. -ow write your letter. sk for help if you need it. Try to write about 156 words.

F ! Writing "uide # $ransactional %etter # #ook at the following task. re you asked to write a formal or an informal letter, #ook at the advertisement and the notes you have made below it. Then write a letter of between 126 and 156 words in an appropriate style asking for more information (overing the points in your notes. 7o not write any addresses. W&'$!( '!W )!)*!+S for water.sports (lub. +ater.skiing" s(uba diving" 8et ski" windsurfing' You name it 9 if it!s a water sport we offer instru(tion and fa(ilities for it. Plenty of opportunities to pra(tise your (hosen sport with other enthusiasts at Club )uarius' For your membership appli(ation form write to3 The 1e(retary Club )uarius P: ;o4 <12 #ittlehampton 1usse4" 1=< 5>T membership fee, nnual or monthly payment, =se of fa(ilities free to members, 1ports not mentioned in advertisement,

Follow this procedure, 1. #ook at the instru(tions and underline the words and phrases whi(h tell you e4a(tly what you have to do. 2. Think of four )uestions you want to ask in your letter. <. 7e(ide what order you want to put them in" and how you will divide the letter into paragraphs. ?. +rite your letter. =se linking words" su(h as firstly- also- as well as this- finally. 5. Che(k your letter (arefully for any grammar and spelling mistakes.

2ere are some phrases whi(h you may find useful for this kind of letter3 I (aw your adverti(ement in t!i( week4( =Daily ;o(t>. I am intere(ted in 0e omin$ a mem0er o# =<lu0 )/uariu(>. 5!ere are a #ew %oint( w!i ! I would 0e $rate#ul i# you ould lari#y. +ow mu ! doe( t!e lu0 o(t to 8oin9 <ould you $ive me in#ormation re$ardin$ mem0er(!i% #ee(9 I( t!e mem0er(!i% #ee %aya0le mont!ly or annually9 )re mem0er( (u08e t to additional !ar$e(9 I( t!e u(e o# t!e #a ilitie( #ree to mem0er(9 Doe( t!e lu0 o##er ot!er (%ort( in addition to t!o(e mentioned in t!e adverti(ement9 I would al(o 0e $rate#ul i# you ould tell me more a0out t!e kind o# (%ort( on o##er. 5!ank you very mu ! #or your !el%. I look #orward to !earin$ #rom you (oon. .ow much should I write? *n Paper 2 of FCE you are always asked to write between /#0 and /10 words in Part 1 and between /#0 and /20 words in part 2. You are assessed on the )uality and also the )uantity of English you produ(e" so you should try to write around the upper limit $156 or 1@6 words%. Try not to e4(eed this limit by more than a few words. -ow write your letter. sk for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide 3 &rticle / *n Paper 2 Part 2 you may be asked to write an arti(le e4pressing your opinion about something. #ook at this )uestion. 4ou have been asked to write an article for an !nglish language newspaper aimed at parents with young children. 4our article should be a response to the following statement, Foreign languages should be taught at nursery school level. The best way to begin answering a )uestion like this is to make a plan. Aake two (olumns" one headed F:&" the other B *-1T. Think of arguments for" or in favour of the statement and write them in the first (olumn. Then think of arguments against and write them in the se(ond (olumn. Two arguments ea(h" for and against" will be suffi(ient. *f you (an!t think of any arguments for and against" imagine what people you a(tually know would think about the )uestion. +hat would your mother think, nd your best friend, nd your grandparents, Choose one of these two plans. They are both good plans. Plan *ntrodu(tion3 my opinion Paragraph 13 point for the statementC argument against this point. Paragraph 23 point for the statementC argument against this point Con(lusion3 state my opinion again.

Plan ; *ntrodu(tion3 my opinion. Paragraph 13 arguments in favour of the statement. Paragraph 23 arguments against the statement. Con(lusion3 state opinion again.

Follow your plan and write the arti(le. +hen you have finished" read it (arefully and (he(k for grammar and spelling mistakes. 2ere are some phrases whi(h you may find useful for this kind of arti(le3 These days" many people say that D. -owadays" we often hear people say that D.. *n the last few years it has be(ome fashionable to say that D.

The )uestion of whether very young (hildren should be taught a foreign language is one whi(h is often dis(ussed these days. There are several arguments whi(h (an be made in favour of the statement. :pponents of this view argue that D. nother argument whi(h is often put forward is that D *n support of this view it may be said that D.. :n the other hand" it (an also be argued that D *n my opinion" D. *t is often suggested that D. * agree up to a point that D. nother argument against tea(hing very young (hildren a foreign language is that D This is true to a (ertain e4tent" but D. There is a (ertain amount of truth in this argument" but D * (annot agree with this viewpoint" sin(e D *n (on(lusion" * have to say that D :n balan(e" therefore" * feel that D. -ow write your arti(le. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide 5 +eport / *n Paper 2" Part 2 you may be asked to write a report on a pla(e you have visited and what it offers a parti(ular group of people. #ook at the following task3 4ou work in a language school helping to organise excursions and trips for students. $he school director has asked to prepare a report on a museum in your area. Write your report in /#0-/20 words describing the museum and what it has to offer students of !nglish as a foreign language. )ention both good and bad points in your report. You should plan your answer (arefully" like this3 Think of good and bad points about the museum" espe(ially in relation to students of English. >oin the good and bad points using linking expressions. The most useful are3 but :n the other hand

despite E in spite of although E even though 2owever

:rganise your senten(es into numbered paragraphs" with sub.headings" like this3 1. *ntrodu(tion 2. Pri(e <. *nterest ?. #anguage 5. Con(lusion

Bive your report a (lear title" like this3 &eport on the 1eals Auseum" #a 1peFia To3 1(hool 7ire(tor From3 E4(ursions offi(er

Follow your plan and write your report. &emember to read and (he(k (arefully for grammar and spelling mistakes.

2ere are some phrases whi(h may help you with this type of report3 * visited the 1eals Auseum last week in order to de(ide if it would be an interesting pla(e for students to visit. * will (omment on the following3 pri(e" interest" language The entran(e fee to the museum is D There is a redu(tion for students. 1tudents pay half.pri(e on +ednesdays. There are many interesting e4hibits on display. The Egyptian se(tion was (losed on the day * visited. * espe(ially liked the D * found the D. espe(ially interesting. * think students will appre(iate the D. Aost students will find the D. of interest. guidebook in English is available. The guidebook is rather e4pensive. *t (ontains some beautiful (olour photographs. The guides are helpful. The guides don!t speak English. There is an audio (ommentary in English. *t wasn!t working on the day of my visit. *n my opinion D. To (on(lude" * think that D. * am therefore of the opinion that D. -ow write your report. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide 1

%etter of &pplication *n Paper 2" Part 2 you may be asked to write a letter of appli(ation. #ook at the following 8ob advertisement3 $rading and ommercial *ank $rainee )anagers
+e will be re(ruiting trainee managers to start work *n late >une or early >uly in our bran(hes all over Europe. ppli(ants should have a degree in an appropriate area and a knowledge of English andEor Berman. pply in writing to3 $he 6ersonnel 7fficer $rading and ommercial *ank /35 ollins Street )anchester

The senten(es in this reply are in the wrong order. Put them in the (orre(t order" by putting 1.G in the gaps. 7ear 1ir E Aadam" * (an be (onta(ted by telephone on 61262 ?522<? in the mornings or at the above address. 00 * have a working knowledge of Berman and have re(ently passed the =niversity of Cambridge First Certifi(ate in English e4amination. 00 * look forward to re(eiving your reply. 00 * am writing in reply to your advertisement in last Tuesday!s Evening -ews. 00 * will also (omplete a degree in ;anking and Finan(e in >une and will be available for work immediately afterwards. 00 * would like to apply for one of the trainee manager positions you advertise. 00 Yours faithfully >uan de 1ouFa This type of letter is based on a very small number of fixed- formulaic expressions. *f you (an reprodu(e these (orre(tly in the e4am you are (ertain to get a very good mark.

#ook at the following task3

4ou see the following advertisement in the newspaper. Write a letter applying for one of these positions and asking for more details about the discounts. (o not write any addresses. $rainee $ravel &gents
+e are looking for students who are interested in training to be(ome travel agents. To 8oin our training s(heme you must have a knowledge of English and an interest in travelling. These positions are unpaid" but you will re(eive large dis(ounts on all our organised tours and holidays. 2rite to6 Aaria 1ampras 7ire(tor T& HE#+*1E Hia rdipane &ome 6?166

=nderline the key words in the instru(tions. Think about the form of your letter. +ill it begin and end in the same way as the previous letter, Plan your letter. Follow the order of the previous letter. &emember to ask for more information about the dis(ounts. You will also need to give some eviden(e for your knowledge of English and your interest in travelling. You may also want to ask about the possibilities of work at the end of the training period. The following phrases may help you3 * am very interested in 8oining your training s(heme. * have loved travelling sin(e * was a small (hild. * have visited many (ountries in Europe. * studied English for eight years at s(hool. * am (urrently attending a (ourse to prepare for the First Certifi(ate e4amination. Could you please give me some more information about the dis(ounts you offer, Your advertisement mentions dis(ounts" and * would be grateful if you (ould tell me D Could you give me some indi(ation about the possibility of finding a 8ob on (ompletion of the (ourse, -ow write your letter. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide 8

&rticle # #ook at this )uestion3 & local !nglish language newspaper has asked students to write articles expressing their opinion about this 9uestion, Should students do part-time work? Write your article for the newspaper. *n order to write a good answer to this )uestion" you need to plan your arti(le (arefully. First" de(ide what opinion you are going to e4press. Then think of at least three arguments in support of your opinion. For e4ample3 *mportant and useful to have work e4perien(e #earn to appre(iate the value of money Come into (onta(t with other people" not 8ust other students

7e(ide in what order you are going to present your ideas. Then write your arti(le. ;e sure to divide it into three or four paragraphs. Aake use of ordering e4pressions like these3 First of all 1e(ondly Finally -ow write your arti(le. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it. Firstly *n the first pla(e

*n the se(ond pla(e

F ! Writing "uide :

$ransactional %etter 3 &emember that Part 1 of Paper 2 is compulsory. There is only one )uestion. You always have to write either a formal or an informal letter. #ook at the )uestion below. 4ou were travelling by train recently and left something that belongs to you on the train. Write a letter to the lost property officer en9uiring about the thing you lost. ;se these notes in your letter. (o not write any addresses. date of journey destination and departure time description of object

2ow to write a formal letter. *f you are asked to write to an offi(ial or a (ompany you should -:T use )uestion tags (ontra(tions linkers like well, anyway, 0y t!e way )ll t!e 0e(t or Love #rom )lex at the end of your letter

You 12:=#7 begin the letter with either Dear Sir / Madam or Mr / M(/ Dr ? the person!s surname use formal language" eg I look #orward to re eivin$ your re%ly end the letter with 'our( #ait!#ully or 'our( (in erely sign your letter with your full name

&emember to plan your letter before you start writing. For the )uestion above" the plan should look like this3 e4plain why you are writing say what you lost and when" des(ribe it ask how you (an get it ba(k thank the re(ipient of the letter in advan(e

-ow write your letter. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide 2 &rticle 3 *n Paper 2" Part 2 you may have the option of writing an arti(le in whi(h you write about the advantages and disadvantages of something" the arguments for and against something" or in whi(h you write your opinion about a sub8e(t. #ook at this )uestion. 4ou have been asked to write an article for a student newspaper on the following topic, .as television improved in your country over the last ten years? Write your article- saying what most people think and giving your own point of view. To answer this )uestion well" you need to plan your arti(le (arefully" like this3 underline key words in the instru(tions. Think of arguments for and against. +rite a plan. good plan for this )uestion might look like this3

Introduction, )uestion as a statementC two points of view 6aragraph /, des(ribe a situation 9 more (hannels than before. 6aragraph #, more (hoi(eC entertainment mainly 6aragraph 3, not edu(ationalC fewer do(umentariesC fewer (ultural programmes onclusion, what most people thinkC what * think. Then write your arti(le and (he(k it (arefully. The following phrases may be useful in writing this type of arti(le3 Aany people think that D. . 2owever" there are people who think that D. few years ago D.. -owadays" on the other hand" D.. *t is therefore (ertainly true that D.. *t is worth remembering however" that D. Furthermore" it must be admitted that D.. :n balan(e" therefore * think that D.. -ow write your arti(le. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide < Formal and Informal %etters

2ere are some more e4pressions whi(h you (an use when you are writing a letter. 7e(ide whether they are suitable for use in a formal or an informal letter and mark them F or I. Initial greetings *t was great to hear from you. 00 * am writing with referen(e to your letter of 25 Aay. 00 Thanks for writing to me. 00 ongratulations +ell done' 00 * would like to offer (ongratulations on your re(ent promotion. 00 Please allow me to (ongratulate you on your re(ent su((ess. 00 &dvice = suggestion +hy not try 00 +hat about going 00 *t is re(ommended that you (onta(t 00 You (ould visit 00 * urge you to (onsider the points * have made. 00 *f * were you *!d 00 %inkers Aoreover" 00 Then again" 00 Furthermore" 00 ;etter still" 00 +hat!s more" 00 dditionally" 00 !ndings 7o drop me a line if you have time. 00 * look forward to hearing from you without delay. 00 2ope to hear from you soon. 00 Ieep in tou(h. 00 * hope to hear from you at your earliest (onvenien(e. 00 -ow look at this e4ample of a Part 1 task. You have 8ust returned from a trip to Florida. You flew there and ba(k with J:(ean irK. You de(ide to write to the airline to (omplain about your flight and ask for some money ba(k. &ead the advertisement and the notes you made and then" using the information" write a letter to the airline. You may add other relevant points of your own.

F%4 7 !&' &I+ $7 F%7+I(&


We offer, 5 flights a day late boarding

wide- comfortable seats friendly- well-trained staff )uite rude a good choice of food >no problems with special diets? no vegetarian for me' the latest in in-flight entertainment movie already been on TH'

+rite your letter in 126.1@6 words. 7o not in(lude any postal addresses. -ow think about how you will answer this )uestion. +hat kind of letter will it be, 2ow will you begin and end the letter, 2ow are you going to organise the letter, 2ow many paragraphs will you write, +hat kind of linking words will you use, &emember that you must in(lude all the points in the rubri(" so you must make referen(e to the late boarding" the rudeness of the staff" the la(k of a vegetarian alternative and the old film. You may" if you wish" make further points" $you (ould" for e4ample" (omment on the seats% but remember not to write mu(h more than 1@6 words. 2ere are some phrases to help you3 * am writing to (omplain about D. * re(ently flew to Florida with your airline" and unfortunately D. Your advertisement talks about D. whereas my e4perien(e was that D. *n your advertisement you say D. . 2owever" in reality" D. Your advertisement mentions D. . :n my flight" however" D. nother (ause for (omplaint was that D.. -ot only that" but D.. ll in all" * am most dissatisfied with the servi(e * re(eived and D. * hope you will be able to refund at least some of the return fare" as D. * hope to re(eive an apology in the near future. -ow write your letter. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

F ! Writing "uide /0 +eport #

*n Part 2 of Paper 2 you may be asked to write a report. This will involve the presentation of information in a (lear" fa(tual way" using headings" and sometimes with some suggestions or re(ommendations. #ook at this task. 4our local museum is 9uite old-fashioned and not many people visit it. 4our local tourist board has asked you to write a report on the museum- and give some recommendations on how to improve its image. Write your report. *n the following report" the paragraphs are in the wrong order and they don!t have a suitable heading. &ead through the te4t and de(ide on the right order and then (hoose an appropriate heading from the list below. ; C 7 E Purpose The museum today 1uggested improvements dditional fa(ilities Con(lusion

W&(!)7;$. );S!;)
1. 0000000000000000000000000000 The museum mainly (ontains items (onne(ted with the pottery industry and various inventions (onne(ted with it. "enerally" most of the items are displayed in glass (abinets with e4planations on small bits of (ard. These aren!t very easy to read and some of them are pla(ed too high for small (hildren. The lighting inside the building is also very poor. 2. 0000000000000000000000000000 $o sum up" * found that +ademouth Auseum (ould have a bright future if some time was spent up.dating the displays and opening some new fa(ilities. <. 0000000000000000000000000000 Finally" * spoke to some of the visitors" and one thing that most people mentioned is having a good gift shop and a (afL in the building. The profits from these would help to pay for more interesting displays. ?. 0000000000000000000000000000 $he aim of this report is to give an outline of what (an be seen in this museum and to suggest ways in whi(h the museum (an (hange its image. 5. 0000000000000000000000000000 lthough the museum gives the visitor a good idea of how the pottery industry developed through the ages in this area" it doesn!t make the sub8e(t (ome alive. I would recommend that the museum puts in some working models" or" even better" have people showing you how the pots were produ(ed. The (orre(t order for the paragraphs is3 00000000000000000000000000000000000000 -ow look at the e4pressions in bold. +hi(h of the fun(tions below do they illustrate,

1. *ntrodu(ing 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 2. &eporting an impression 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <. Beneralising 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ?. Aaking a re(ommendation or suggestion 00000000000000000000000000000 5. Con(luding 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 -ow look at this )uestion. 4ou regularly write a column in your college maga@ine on new films that are being shown in your town. &ttendance at the local cinema is falling- and they have asked you to write a report- based on research at your college- on the cinemaAs facilities and to make some recommendations on how to attract more people to the cinema. Write your report. Plan your answer" and then write your report. =se the stru(ture of the museum report to help you.

&! Writing "uide / Informal %etter / #ook at this task3

Some !nglish friends- 6eter and Sue .all- have written to you for advice. $heir #0-year-old son- $om- wants to get a Bob teaching !nglish in your country. $his is part of a letter you have received from them, $omAs doing a teacher-training course at the moment- as you know- but he thinks he ought to learn something of the language before he comes- which seems like a good idea. .eAs bought a C$each 4ourselfD book on the language- but we were wondering if you had any other suggestions which would help him. ItAs 9uite a while since he studied a language at school- so heAd also be really grateful for some general tips on learning a language. Write a letter to $om giving advice and any helpful suggestions that you can. Write about #10 words. &ead the )uestion (arefully and highlight the key points. sk yourself3 +hat!s the purpose of your letter, +hat two things do you need to give advi(e on,

Think about the content of your letter. Think about these points3 +hat would be the advantages of Tom being able to speak a bit of your language when he arrives, Think about the language3 is there anything an English speaker would find parti(ularly diffi(ult or unusual $pronun(iation" grammar" writing system et(%, Aake a list of all the things Tom (ould do to learn your language" from having private lessons or buying a (assette (ourse to listening to radio broad(asts. Think about the pros and (ons in terms of (ost" time and effe(tiveness. 7e(ide whi(h method seems most realisti(. *s there anything you (ould do to help" eg send magaFines or simple books, +rite down any general tips on learning a language that you think would be helpful. =se your own e4perien(e as far as possible.

Aake a plan for your letter. 7e(ide on the main se(tions you want to have and think about the best way to organise them. >ot down the main points for ea(h se(tion. Think about a suitable introdu(tion and (on(lusion. 2ere are some points to remember when you are writing an informal letter3 7ear Ien" alway( u(e a name Aany thanks for your letter and the photos. @e$in t!e #ir(t (enten e wit! a a%ital

*eginnings *n an informal letter to a friend it may be appropriate to begin by mentioning a letter whi(h you have re(ently re(eived" or by making general friendly (omments. A(e#ul lan$ua$e

Aany thanks for your letter D *t was lovely to hear from you. * was glad to hear that you had a good holiday. * hope you and the family are well. "iving advice A(e#ul lan$ua$e You asked me for advi(e on D. 2ave you thought about D. *t might be a good idea to D. :ne thing * would suggest is D. !ndings *t is usual to end letters whi(h e4pe(t a reply with a senten(e on a separate line. For e4ample3 #ooking forward to hearing from you E seeing you. 2ope to hear from you soon E see you soon. +rite and tell me how you are getting on. +rite soon E1ee you soon. losing salutation @e(t wi(!e( and 'our( followed by your name on the ne4t line are useful general endings. For (lose friends you (an end with Love 2ope to hear from you soon ;est wishes Bianni -ow write your letter to Tom. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it.

&! Writing "uide # Formal %etter / #ook at this task.

You are attending a (ourse in #ondon. #ast week" be(ause the trains were delayed by bad weather" you were late for (ollege every day. :n the worst day" the train was 1 hour 26 minutes late and you missed two (lasses. This is an e4tra(t from an information leaflet you have pi(ked up at the station.
We hope you have a pleasant Bourney with apital +ail- but if you have any comments or complaints about our services- please write to the ustomer are )anager at the address below.

What we promise to do when things go wrong,


If you are delayed for more than one hour you may claim rail vouchers to the value of 10E of the Bourney made.

+rite a letter to the Customer Care Aanager at Capital &ail (omplaining about the poor servi(e you have e4perien(ed and asking for (ompensation. =se your own words as far as possible. +rite about 256 words. You do not need to in(lude addresses. &ead the instru(tions (arefully and highlight the key points. sk yourself3 +hat is the purpose of your letter, +hat do you want it to a(hieve,

ontent Your letter should in(lude the following points. +hy you are writing +hi(h of your 8ourneys were delayed 2ow long the delays were +hat happened as a result of the travel delays +hat (ompensation you re)uire

7rganisation 7e(ide how you will organise these points into about four paragraphs. +hat kind of things (an you say in ea(h paragraph, Style and register Thinking about what you want the letter to a(hieve" (onsider these )uestions3 1hould the letter be formal or informal, +hat tone is appropriate" eg angry" humorous" sar(asti(" (ool and fa(tual,

%ayout of a formal letter This is how we organise a formal letter" although in the C E e4am it is not ne(essary to write addresses. ## 4ork Street

*ridewell *+2 510 $he 6rincipal lifton ollege lifton %1 #+! #5 'ovember #008

(ear SirI am interested in applying for a place on a computer course at your college and I would be grateful if you could send me full details of the courses you offer and the fees- together with an application form. I look forward to hearing from you. 4ours faithfully S. ). "ilchrist 1. A. Bil(hrist $As% %etter of complaint *n the first paragraph e4plain the reason for writing. *n the second paragraph e4plain e4a(tly what the problem is. Bive all the ne(essary details about where and when it happened and who was involved. Bive other relevant information in further paragraphs if ne(essary. *n the final paragraph e4plain what a(tion you want to be taken. A(e#ul lan$ua$e * am writing to (omplain about D to e4press my (on(ern about the fa(t that D to e4press my annoyan(e at D. * must insist that you D. * must urge you to D. * feel * am entitled to a refund. * feel * am entitled to some (ompensation for the in(onvenien(e * have suffered. * hope you will (onsider the points * have raised very (arefully. * shall e4pe(t a written apology at your earliest (onvenien(e. !ndings *t is usual to end letters whi(h e4pe(t a reply with a senten(e on a separate line. The most (ommon ending is3 I look forward to hearing from you. &! Writing "uide 3 6ersonal 'otes and )essages #ook at this task.

4ou are working as an assistant in the offices of an !nglish company. 4ou are finishing some work after your colleagues have left when the phone rings for you. &s a result of the call- you need to take the following day off work. Write two notes explaining the situation- one to your boss- and one to a colleague and friendwith whom you had a lunch date. Write 80-20 words in each note. task like this will be more realisti( and more su((essful if you de(ide on some (on(rete details before you start. *f you (an use true fa(ts" it!s very easy" but if you (an!t" invent some interesting and believable ones' 7e(ide on answers to the )uestions below.
4our work, $he phone call, 4our boss, 4our colleague, $he lunch, +hat kind of work do you do for the (ompany, 2ow long have you been with the (ompany, 2ow will you be able to make up for the time you will miss, +ho was it from, +hat was the message, +hy is it important, +hy was there su(h short noti(e, Aale E female, 2ow well do you get on with him E her, 2ow are they likely to rea(t to your being away, Aale E female, 2ow long have you known him E her, 2ave you had lun(h together before, +here were you going to go, +ill there be any problem about (an(elling, +hen (ould you have lun(h instead,

-otes and messages are usually even more informal than informal letters" although the e4a(t degree of formality will depend on the spe(ifi( relationship. 7e(ide whi(h phrases from the list below would be more appropriate in the note to your boss $*% and whi(h in the note to your (olleague $ % * re(eived a telephone (all 00 rang me 00 *!ll gladly make up the time 00 *n the (ir(umstan(es 00 1ome other time, 00 out of the blue 00 su(h short noti(e 00 *!m really sorry 00 * apologise for any in(onvenien(e 00

There are no fi4ed rules about the layout of notes and messages. #ook at these e4amples and the (omments whi(h follow. Fri hrisFust to let you know that I managed to get # tickets for the Flaming %ips concert at the !nsemble $heatre on $ues. It starts at :.30- so shall we meet outside the theatre at about :./1? We could have a bite to eat afterwards if you like. See you soon G. .astings :=// (ear lare& 9uick note to thank you for helping me with the Bob application. 4our advice was much appreciated. IAve sent it off now- so letAs hope I get an interview. Saw Frank yesterday. IAll pass on the news when I see you.

&ll the best&llison The day" date or time is normally somewhere at the top. You (an begin with Dear B, with a first name or 8ust an initial" depending on your relationship. *nformal language is often appropriate. You need not always write in full senten(es Finish with your name or initial.

*eginning a note -o spe(ial introdu(tory phrases are ne(essary but notes often begin with e4pressions like3 >ust $a note% to )ui(k note to &pologising 1orry * (ouldn!t E wasn!t able to E forgot to D. * $would like to% apologise for missing the meeting. !nding a note -o spe(ial fi4ed phrases are needed but notes and messages may end with e4pressions like3 1ee you soon 1peak to you soon ll the best -ow write the two notes for the task above. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for help if you need it. let you know E tell you E (he(k that D. ask E see if D. thank you for E apologise for E about

&! Writing "uide 5 %eaflet #ook at this task. 4ou work in a fitness centre. $he centre would like to encourage more business people to use its facilities after work. $here are many companies in your town which have !nglish-speaking employees and you have been asked to prepare the text for a leaflet aimed at them.

4ou should, /. introduce the fitness centre and its facilities. #. emphasise the benefits of regular exercise. 3. give brief general advice on ways of avoiding stress in daily life. Write the text for the leaflet using about #10 words. First" you will need to think about the (ontent of your leaflet. - make a list of possible e4er(ise and other fa(ilities $su(h as a shop" (afL et(% - make notes about the benefits of regular e4er(ise $and the dangers of ina(tivity% - think about what to in(lude in the Jgeneral advi(eK se(tion. %ayout and organisation *nformation sheets" leaflets and bro(hures are intended to inform" persuade or warn. The two main aims are therefore to (at(h the reader!s attention and to present the message as (learly as possible. To do this" layout and organisation need to be as effe(tive as possible. 1hort paragraphs with (lear headings are mu(h easier to read and absorb than long blo(ks of te4t" for e4ample. The best approa(h is to imagine yourself as the reader and to ask what you would want to know" and in what order you would find it easiest to absorb the information. Consider these points3 )ain heading, - *s this as dire(t and eye.(at(hing as possible, - 7oes it give the reader a (lear idea of what the sub8e(t is, - 7oes it make the reader want to read on, Subheadings, re these short and (lear, sking a )uestion in your heading may be more interesting than stating a fa(t. $ext, *s the information broken up into short" easy.to.read se(tions, *s the order logi(al,

Hisual help, Can you help the reader" for e4ample3 by indenting small sub.se(tions so that they stand out as small blo(ks whi(h are (learly separate from the main te4t, - by putting important points on separate lines, :r G. by numbering your points, :r by putting JbulletsK in front of main points, :r by using different S$4%!S and si@es of writing, :r by underlining or putting bo4es round important words. You won!t be marked on your design skills" of (ourse" but you may make a good impression on the e4aminer'

#ook at this e4ample of a leaflet whi(h gives information about looking after your heart. 2ere we have reprodu(ed only the text of the leaflet" as this is all that you are re)uired to produ(e in the e4am. real.life leaflet would of (ourse (ontain visuals as well.

%ook &fter 4our .eart 1imple Buide To Feeling Fitter #ooking ;etter nd #iving #onger
Why do I need to look after my heart? ;y looking after your heart you (an feel fitter and look better 9 and you!ll be prote(ting yourself against heart disease too. England is one of the worst (ountries in the world for heart disease. *t (auses one in three of all deaths among 55.G? year olds. What causes heart disease? Your heart needs a supply of o4ygen that (omes from the blood in its arteries. :ver a number of years these arteries (an get (logged up and the supply of blood to the heart (an stop. This (auses a heart atta(k. IAm fit and healthy. Why should I worry? 2eart atta(ks usually happen to people in middle age" but the damage to your arteries (an start long before that" without you realising it. *t (an even start to develop in (hildhood. 1o it!s important to look after your heart now" whatever your age. IsnAt a heart attack a 9uick way to go? -ot always. 2eart disease (an (ause years of pain" dis(omfort and worry. .ow can I avoid getting heart disease? There are no guarantees" but the best way to avoid heart disease is3 (onAt smoke !at healthily $ake regular exercise "o easy on alcohol &void stress if you can *f you have heart disease in you family you may have a greater risk of getting it yourself so it!s espe(ially important to follow this advi(e. -ow use these tips to help you write your answer to the task about the fitness (entre. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor if you need additional help. &! Writing "uide 1 +eview #ook at this task. 4ou have been asked to write a short film review for a school =college maga@ine. hoose any film which you think might be of interest to your fellow students. $he film can be in any

language and it can be of any type, comedy- thriller- science fiction- romance- historical drama etc. 4our brief is to include a clear description of the story=contents- to comment on what you think the most successful and least successful features are- and to give an overall recommendation. Write about #10 words. First" (hoose a film to review. *t doesn!t have to be a new film" though it is helpful if you have seen it re(ently" and you don!t have to have en8oyed it. 1ometimes it!s easier to pinpoint what you don!t like about something than what you like' Think about what you liked or didn!t like about the film. The purpose of a review is firstly to give fa(tual information about the sub8e(t" and se(ondly to give an opinion about it whi(h will help the reader to de(ide whether to buy the book" see the play or film or visit the e4hibition. &eviews normally (ontain three main ingredients3 overview" pros and cons" and verdict" whi(h are des(ribed more fully below. review may not always fall into three neat se(tions" however. The writer may de(ide to des(ribe an aspe(t of the sub8e(t and (omment immediately on strengths and weaknesses" for e4ample" before going on to des(ribe another aspe(t of the sub8e(t. 7verview I a description of the subBect *ook I non-fiction, +hat is it about, +ho is it for, 2ow te(hni(al is it, 2ow is it organised, +hat topi(s are (overed, +hat spe(ial features are there, 2ow mu(h does it (ost, et(. *ook I fiction +hat kind of book is it, $thriller" histori(al novel" s(ien(e fi(tion et(%, *s it different in any way from other books of this type, +hat!s the story, et( $You (an give an outline but don!t give the ending away'% 6lay = film = $H programme +hat is it about, *s there anything spe(ial E unusual about the produ(tion, 6lay = film3 +here is it on, re there any well.known a(tors, +ho is the dire(tor, $H programme, +hi(h (hannel, *s it part of a series, +ho is the produ(er, 6ros and cons I detailed comments on the successful and unsuccessful features of the subBect. Your (omments will probably in(lude both obBective views $the photographs in a book were poor )uality or the (ostumes didn!t fit the a(tors properly" for e4ample% and subBective views $based on personal feelings% 9 the story wasn!t interesting or the film was too violent. Aake sure" however" that you give reasons for your (omments. You may have strong positive or negative feelings about the sub8e(t of the review and this is no bad thing. strong opinion" (learly argued" is often more interesting to read than a (arefully balan(ed assessment. Even so" try not to be (ompletely one.sided. Herdict I summing-up and recommendation The last paragraph should sum up your feelings and make it (lear to the reader whether you re(ommend the sub8e(t without any reservations" re(ommend it with one or two reservations" or don!t re(ommend it at all. *n real life" readers often look at the last paragraph of a review first to see what the general verdi(t is. Aake sure your review gives a (lear verdi(t. E4ample of a film review.

ra@y 6lumber I 6la@a inema *f you have seen the advan(e publi(ity" you might imagine that this was a funny film. +rong. *t!s a film whi(h tries very hard to be funny and fails (onsistently. The story (on(erns a plumber who isn!t very good at his 8ob. +hen his (ustomers desert" and he (an!t pay his bills" he de(ides to turn to (rime. 2e tries a little shoplifting $he isn!t very good at it" of (ourse% but then he gets involved in bigger things. +ayne Bibson" who plays the hero" has one or two good lines but most of the time he!s struggling with a terrible s(ript. There are a few good moments 9 the (ar (hase se)uen(e is memorable 9 but the storyline is very slight and the dire(tor seems to have run out of ideas very )ui(kly. s the film progresses" the level of violen(e in(reases. 7espite the publi(ity" this is not a film for young (hildren. great deal of money went into the making of <raCy ;lum0er but in the end spe(ta(ular effe(ts are no substitute for real humour.

;seful language 7verview The book E film E programme (on(erns D deals with D shows D des(ribes D tells the story of D *t (ontains *t in(ludes a (hapter on a se(tion on a study of a survey of a history of

6ros and cons really absolutely e4traordinary fas(inating amaFing beautiful stunning superb brilliant )uite interesting amusing fairly entertaining e4(iting informative attra(tive su((essful really boring unimaginative (ompletely humourless hopeless amateurish over the top predi(table

Herdict ll in all *n the last analysis *n (on(lusion To sum up :n balan(e

-ow use these tips to write your answer to the task. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor for additional help if you need it. &! Writing "uide 8 &rticle #ook at this task.
4ou have a friend who works for an organisation that arranges study exchanges for school and college students. $he organisation produces a regular maga@ine- which features articles about exchange countries- experiences people have had abroad- etc. .ere is part of a letter from your friend. theres been a big increase in the number of people applying for study exchanges to your country nearly double last years figures! in fact. "lmost all will be staying with local families and! as itll be the first time most of them have been to your country! we thought we ought to put an introduction to the basic customs in the next edition of our maga#ine. So $ was wondering youve guessed it% if you could possibly write

a short article on the topic. &ou could explain any special habits to do with greeting! eating! being a good guest! etc! and also include any points about family or social life which you think they should be aware of. $ know youd do a brilliant job and $d be really grateful. 'ope to hear from you soon Write your article in approximately #10 words.

n arti(le is a pie(e of writing on a parti(ular sub8e(t whi(h is written for publi(ation in a newspaper" magaFine or newsletter. &pproach wide range of approa(hes is possible" depending on the sub8e(t matter. light.hearted or humorous topi( might be given a fairly personal treatment" for e4ample" while a more serious topi( would be treated in a more neutral" analyti( way. .eadings rti(les should have a heading whi(h makes the sub8e(t matter (lear but whi(h also (at(hes the reader!s eye and makes him or her want to read. -ewspapers and magaFines often use dramati( statements or word play in headings for this reason" and sometimes add a sub.heading whi(h gives more information. %ayout and organisation s with any other kind of (omposition" it!s important to have an interesting introdu(tion and a suitable (on(lusion to Jround offK the pie(e" and to organise the information into paragraphs whi(h help the reader to follow the argument or understand the different aspe(ts of the sub8e(t. *n addition" arti(les often in(lude an outline of the story or the topi( near the beginning so that the reader begins with a general pi(ture and then reads on to find out more information. Your C E (oursebook will (ertainly (ontain many e4amples of different types of arti(les" taken from English.language newspapers and magaFines. #ook at ea(h one (arefully to see how the writer uses organisation and style to (reate interest. -ow look at the e4ample below3

Screaming $yres
*y $racy ole
2ave you ever wondered what it would be like to sit behind the wheel of a ra(ing (ar, re you looking for a really imaginative birthday present for a (ar.mad friend or relation, *f the answer to either of these )uestions is JyesK" then you may be interested to hear about a (ourse * took at 1toke #odge &a(ing 1(hool re(ently. Ay day as a ra(ing driver was the first priFe in a newspaper (ompetition * had entered" and * must say that it was the most e4(iting priFe *!ve ever won. The day began with theoreti(al instru(tion (overing all aspe(ts of safety. This was followed by pra(ti(al tuition in a high.performan(e saloon (ar. +ith no traffi( to worry about" * was able to pra(tise (ontrolling the (ar on bends and prepare myself for the ultimate e4perien(e 9 the (han(e to drive a single.seater ra(ing (ar. nd finally" with (rash helmet on and full harness seat belts se(ured" * was able to rev up the engine and edge my way out onto the (ir(uit. 1i4 breathtaking laps later" my dream had be(ome reality. For those not lu(ky enough to win a day at the ra(ing s(hool" the (ost of the introdu(tory (ourse is M126" whi(h in(ludes all e)uipment and also an impressive (ertifi(ate to hang on the wall. nyone who (an drive a (ar (an en8oy the e4perien(e" regardless of age. The oldest parti(ipant so far has been @5" and * understand that he has booked a se(ond (ourse'

-ote in parti(ular the following points3 heading 9 short" dramati( :pening 9 (at(hes the reader!s attention by asking a )uestion 1eparate paragraphs for different aspe(ts of the sub8e(t Ending 9 rounds the arti(le off suitably with a 8oke. -ow" plan your answer the task above" like this3 Think of a title" perhaps one with a tou(h of humour. Aake a list of the topi(s suggested in the )uestion and 8ot down any ideas you have for ea(h one. *magine yourself as a visitor to your (ountry and your family. +hat would seem strange, +hat mistakes might you make, 7e(ide on the best order for the topi(s. Aake your arti(le readable. &emember your readers! ages. 2ow (an you get their attention to begin with, 2ow (an you keep them reading, +hat would be a good ending,

-ow use the tips above to help you write your arti(le. sk the 1tudy Centre monitor if you need additional help.

&! Writing "uide : Information +eport #ook at this task3


&n !nglish friend of yours is working on a series of articles called C4oung and 7ld &round the WorldD which looks at different towns and cities through the eyes of teenagers and senior citi@ens. She has written asking for your help and this is an extract from her letter. (hat $ want is some first-hand information about what its like to live in your town from the point of view of the two different age groups. &ou would need to interview! say! ten people in each category on the main topics of public transport! entertainment! and shopping and write me a brief report. )ould you also include a short introduction about your town and give a little summing up at the end?

Write your report in about #10 words. report is a formal do(ument prepared by one person or a group of people who have been studying a parti(ular sub8e(t. There are two basi( kinds of reports3

The first simply provides information on a topi( and gives a brief (on(lusion or summary at the end. E4ample3 a report on the edu(ational system in a parti(ular (ountry" written to help someone resear(h the sub8e(t. The se(ond sets out to identify strengths and weaknesses in a parti(ular situation and make re(ommendations for improvement. E4ample3 a report on the library fa(ilities in a (ollege written at the re)uest of the prin(ipal.

%anguage and register &eports are the most impersonal kind of writing and it is usually best to avoid e4pressing personal opinions or feelings" e4(ept" perhaps" in the (on(lusion. *nstead of I t!ink t!at B or I #ound t!atD for e4ample" you (an use the impersonal J*tK (onstru(tion and a passive" eg It (eem( t!atB It wa( #ound t!at B *t is also advisable to avoid making very definite statements unless you!re absolutely sure they!re true. *nstead of saying It i( for e4ample" you (an use a modal verb eg It ould/may/mi$!t 0e or a more tentative e4pression su(h as It (eem( to 0e or It tend( to 0e. %ayout and organisation &eports should have a (lear fa(tual heading and may also have subheadings whi(h divide the writing into shorter se(tions. The information should be organised and presented as (learly and logi(ally as possible" with a short introduction e4plaining the aims of the report and how the information was obtained and a suitable conclusion" summing up the information and making re(ommendations if ne(essary. ;seful language Introduction, The aim of this report is to.. This report is intended to.. This report looks at E des(ribes.. +eporting an observation3 *t seemsEappears that.. The ma8ority E minority of D Juoting, ((ording to D s N saidD *t is based onD *t draws on *t uses..

*t was found that.. *t was felt that .. *n the words of D

Speculating, *t may E (ould E might $well% be that .. "eneralising, *n general :n the whole *n the main 1trangely *t is interesting that

ommenting,*nterestingly Curiously :ddly 1urprisingly Predi(tably s might be $have been% e4pe(ted )aking a recommendation,

*t is re(ommended that .. $Perhaps% it would be advisable for N to $do% $Perhaps% N might Eshould (onsider :n balan(e *n short

Summing up,

To sum up E To summarise

1tudy the following e4ample (arefully3

%eisure Facilities in "rimthorpe


Introduction The aim of this report is to des(ribe and assess the leisure fa(ilities available in Brimthorpe. *t is based on information made available by the Brimthorpe Tourist :ffi(e" and on views e4pressed by lo(al people who were interviewed. Sport Brimthorpe has a wide range of sports fa(ilities" both publi( and private. There is a large modern leisure (entre in the 2igh 1treet and fa(ilities in(lude a swimming pool" a sports hall for 8udo" fen(ing and other a(tivities" and tennis (ourts. The (entre runs (ourses in all these sports and these tend to be very popular. Aembership (osts M156 a year" whi(h was felt to be rather e4pensive" but a spe(ial temporary membership is available to visitors. The publi( swimming pool on the outskirts of the town is older" less attra(tive and often over(rowded" but entry is only M1.56. $heatres There are two theatres in town" the Iings Theatre in ;ee 1treet" whi(h offers mainly JseriousK drama and has a good reputation for its produ(tions of 1hakespeare" and the #ittle Theatre in 1ea 1treet whi(h spe(ialises in lighter entertainment and the o((asional pop (on(ert. *n general" it seems that the Iings Theatre is more popular with the older members of the (ommunity while the #ittle appeals more to people in their teens and twenties. )useums and &rt "alleries The City Auseum has an e4tensive (olle(tion of maps" pottery and other arti(les (onne(ted with Brimthorpe!s history. The attendants are said to be very friendly and helpful" and there is also a small (afL with reasonably pri(ed home.made sna(ks. *nterestingly" few of the lo(al people interviewed had ever been to the museum but it was re(ommended highly by several tourists. onclusion Brimthorpe is well provided with leisure fa(ilities for a town of its siFe and these are well used by the townspeople on the whole. 1port seems to be the most popular leisure a(tivity" while (ultural a(tivities like visiting the museum or art gallery appeared to be the least popular among the Brimthorpians who were interviewed. Perhaps the City Coun(il should (onsider laun(hing a publi(ity (ampaign to show how mu(h these fa(ilities have to offer.

-ow use these tips to help you write your answer to the task above.