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(a) Study Fig. 1, which shows a cross section of a river meander.

(a) Study Fig. 1, which shows a cross section of a river meander.

Fig.1 (i) At which point is deposition most likely P, Q, R or S? (ii) Why is erosion more likely at point S than point P? (iii) Explain how the process of hydraulic action may erode the bed and banks of a river. (iv) Name and explain two processes by which a river transports its load. (b) Study Photograph (Insert) which shows part of a river and its flood plain. (i) Describe three likely impacts of flooding in the area shown in the photograph. (ii) What methods can be used to reduce flooding? (c) Describe the advantages and difficulties for people of living on a river delta. You should refer to a delta which you have studied. Fig.1 (i) At which point is deposition most likely P, Q, R or S? (ii) Why is erosion more likely at point S than point P? (iii) Explain how the process of hydraulic action may erode the bed and banks of a river. (iv) Name and explain two processes by which a river transports its load. (b) Study Photograph (Insert) which shows part of a river and its flood plain. (i) Describe three likely impacts of flooding in the area shown in the photograph. (ii) What methods can be used to reduce flooding?

(c) Describe the advantages and difficulties for people of living on a river delta. You should refer to a delta which you have studied.

3 (b) (i) P 1 mark [1] (ii) Ideas such as: Greater amount/volume of water water is faster flowin!/has more ener!" as it has further to travel centrifu!al forces #ushes water to outer bank/helicoidal flow$ % & 1 mark [%] (iii) Ideas such as: wei!ht/#ower/force of water removes unconsolidated/soft materials/soil/cla" #ushes air/water into cracks in rock and breaks it a#art/cavitation/undercuts bank re#eat of #rocess etc$ 3 & 1 mark [3] (iv) 'ethods of river trans#ortation such as: traction lar!e materials bein! #ushed/rolled alon! bed (e(#) saltation #ebbles bein! #icked u# b" water and bounced alon! the bed/series of ho#s (e(#) sus#ension li!ht materials carried within the water (e(#) solution materials dissolved in the water (e(#) )* +ne mark for each named #rocess and one for e(#lanation correctl" linked with it$ % & % marks [,] (b) (i) Im#acts such as: loss of life floodin! of roads/disru#tion of road trans#ort floodin! of farmland/dama!e to cro#s/death of farm livestock dama!e to houses/#ro#ert"/evacuation of residents dama!e to/floodin! of businesses/#ub/restaurant boats dama!ed/swe#t awa" contamination of land/dwellin!s b" #ollutants dama!e to trees loss of recreational land etc$ 3 & 1 mark [3]

(ii) 'ethods such as: build hi!her banks/artificial levees so it will hold more water (dev) afforestation so less water will reach river (dev) build dams/barriers to re!ulate flow of water (dev) strai!hten river so water is removed from draina!e basin more -uickl" (dev) widen/dee#en/re!ular dred!in! so less water is dis#laced b" accumulated sediment (dev) artificial draina!e channels/overflow channels restrict buildin! on flood #lain etc$ . & 1 mark or develo#ment /evel 1 (103 marks) 1tatements includin! limited detail describin! advanta!es and/or difficulties of livin! on a delta$ (e$!$ Good for a!riculture/fertile soils 2ater for irri!ation eas" to build road/rail source of food/fish flat buildin! land floodin! instabilit" of foundations need to brid!e rivers com#etition for s#ace etc$) /evel % (,03 marks) 4ses named e(am#le (e$!$ 'ississi##i 5elta)$ 'ore develo#ed statements describin! advanta!es and/or difficulties of livin! on a delta$ (e$!$ fertile soils therefore hi!h cro# "ields 2ater for irri!ation enables cultivation in dr" #eriods eas" to build road on flood #lain source of food/fish to var" diet flat buildin! land so construction is eas" floodin! ma" re!ularl" dama!e homes need to brid!e rivers makes cost of road construction e(#ensive com#etition for s#ace due to hi!h #o#ulation densit" etc$) ()* '67 . if no named e$!$) /evel 3 (8 marks) 4ses named e(am#le (e$!$ 'ississi##i 5elta)$ 9om#rehensive and accurate statements describin! advanta!es and difficulties of livin! on a delta$

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