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VSL Post-Tensioning Systems have been used commonly throughout the world since 1956. They are technically mature and have earned a reputation for quality and reliability. Today, VSL is a recognized leader in post-tensioning and related engineering. VSL Post-Tensioning is used in virtually every area of concrete construction. While used primarily in bridges and buildings, the system is also employed for the construction of concrete containment structures, anchoring in rock and soil, structural strengthening and repair, lifting and sliding of heavy loads, and many other applications.

Harbour Front, Hong Kong

The VSL technology is based on the principle of post tensioning. The prestress is permanently introduced into the structure after the concrete has hardened. This is achieved by the stressing of suitably arranged, highstrength prestressing tendons. VSL PostTensioning generates favorable stress conditions in the structure, enabling efficient use of building materials while controlling deformations under service conditions.

Gateway I, Hong Kong

Bank of China, Hong Kong

This publication comprises a summary of the VSL PostTensioning Systems and contains important information of design and construction. The dimensions

Tsing Ma and Kap Shui Mun Bridges, Hong Kong

THE COMPANY

and strengths indicated are subject to change as VSL


continuously improves its systems. Additional tendon sizes are available upon request. Alternate dimensions, special conditions and various

in Raleigh. Operating Unit 4.5 covers Europe, Middle East, Africa and South America, with the regional office in France. This arrangement gives VSL continuous access to the latest construction technologies employed throughout the world. Our local based offices allow VSL to be close to our clients and offer our construction solutions effectively.
Bee-Do Bridge, South Korea

Rambler Channel Bridge, Hong Kong

strengths may all be accommodated. Your local VSL Representative will furnish additional details regarding specific applications.

The scope of VSL's value-added services is tailored to suit client needs. As a technical leader in the posttensioning industry, VSL works continuously, through its quality assurance program, to refine, improve, and expand the scope of its systems and services. Subscribing to the philosophy that what is good today may always be made better for tomorrow, VSL has always attracted the most talented and motivated people, all with one goal: to be your most valued construction partner.

As a subsidiary of VSL International of Switzerland and a member of BOUYGUES S.A. of France, VSL is part of a major international construction group with a combined workforce of over 80,000. VSL International Ltd. further divides its subsidiaries and licensees into five Operating Units (OU's). Operating Unit 1 covers South East Asia with the regional office in Australia. Operating Unit 2 covers North East Asia with the regional office in Hong Kong. Operating Unit 3 covers the United States with the regional office

Koshiki Daimyojin Bridge, Japan

With offices throughout the world, VSL offers a comprehensive range of professional services for any post-tensioning project. These locally based services include feasibility studies, structural design assistance, contractor consulting and field installation, all aimed at finding the best solution and insuring the best value for money.

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

The VSL multistrand system is characterized by the following features: standardized tendon units with up to 55 strands of 13mm (0.5") or 15 mm (0.6") diameter; wide selection of anchorage types; ducts of steel or plastic PT-PLUS; grouting with cement mortar or other materials; economical tendon manufacture on-site or in the factory; no need to determine tendon length in advance; simultaneous stressing of all strands in a tendon but individual locking of each strand at the anchorage; stressing in any number of steps; simple and reliable equipment for installation, stressing and grouting.

VSL Multistrand System Components


Grout tube Grout tube Grout tube Grout tube Grout tube

Stressing anchorage

Dead end anchorage

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Strand Properties
Strand type Nominal diameter Nominal area Nominal mass Yield strength Tensile strength Min. breaking load Young's modulus Relaxation 3) mm mm 2 kg/m MPa MPa kN GPa % 13 mm (0.5") EN138 or ASTM A416 BS 5896 Super Grade 270 12.9 12.7 100 98.7 0.785 0.775 1580 1) 1670 2) 1860 1860 186 183.7 cicra 195 max 2.5 15 mm (0.6") EN138 or BS 5896 Super 15.7 150 1.18 1) 1500 1770 265 ASTM A416 Grade 270 15.2 140 1.1 1670 2) 1860 260.7

1) Measured at 0.1% residual strain (0.1% offset method) 2) Measured at 1% extension (1% extension under load method) 3) After 1000 hrs at 20 C (EN & BS, low relaxation to ASTM)

Tendon Properties
STRAND TYPE 13 mm (0.5") Tendon unit No. of strands Duct ID/OD Min. (mm) 36/39
4)

STRAND TYPE 15 mm (0.6") Min. Breaking load (kN) 12.9 372 558 744 930 1116 1302 1488 1674 1860 2046 2232 2418 2604 2790 2976 3162 3348 3534 3720 3906 4092 4278 4464 4650 4836 5022 5208 5394 5580 5766 5952 6138 6324 6510 6696 6882 7068 7254 7440 7626 7812 7998 8184 8370 8556 8742 8928 9114 9300 9486 9672 9858 10044 10230 12.7 367 551 735 919 1102 1286 1470 1653 1837 2021 2204 2388 2572 2756 2939 3123 3307 3490 3674 3858 4041 4225 4409 4593 4776 4960 5144 5327 5511 5695 5878 6062 6246 6430 6613 6797 6981 7164 7348 7532 7715 7899 8083 8267 8450 8634 8818 9001 9185 9369 9552 9736 9920 10104 6-3 6-7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Tendon unit No. of strands Duct ID/OD Min. (mm) 36/39 55/62
4)

Nominal (mm) 36/39

Nominal (mm) 36/39 65/72

Min. Breaking load (kN) 15.7 530 795 1060 1325 1590 1855 2120 2385 2650 2915 3180 3445 3710 3975 4240 4505 4770 5035 5300 5565 5830 6095 6360 6625 6890 7155 7420 7685 7950 8215 8480 8745 9010 9275 9540 9805 10070 10335 10600 10865 11130 11395 11660 11925 12190 12455 12720 12985 13250 13515 13780 14045 14310 14575 15.2 521 782 1043 1304 1564 1825 2086 2346 2607 2868 3128 3389 3650 3911 4171 4432 4693 4953 5214 5475 5735 5996 6257 6518 6778 7039 7300 7560 7821 8082 8342 8603 8864 9125 9385 9646 9907 10167 10428 10689 10949 11210 11471 11732 11992 12253 12514 12774 13035 13296 13556 13817 14078 14339

5-4

5-7

5-12

5-19

5-22

5-27

5-31

5-37

5-42

5-48

5-55

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

51/54

51/54

60/67

65/72

6-12

75/82

80/87

75/82

80/87

6-19

90/97

100/107

80/87

95/102

6-22

100/107

100/107

95/102

100/107

6-27

110/117

110/117

95/102

100/107

6-31

120/127

120/127

110/117

110/117

6-37

130/137

130/137

120/127

120/127

6-42

135/142

135/142

130/137

130/137

6-48

150/160

160/170

130/137

135/142

6-55

160/170

170/180

4) Corrugated plastic PT-Plus ducts are also available, refer to page 11

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing Anchorage VSL Type EC

Grout connection

Duct

Anchor block Casting Wedges Strands

AC

F E

Dimensions Tendon unit A 5-4 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-27 5-31 5-37 5-42 5-48 5-55 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-27 6-31 6-37 6-42 135 165 215 265 290 315 315 370 390 430 465 135 165 215 265 315 315 370 390 430 465 B 60 60 60 70 77 92 100 107 112 122 150 60 60 60 75 92 100 112 122 142 145 C 85 110 150 180 200 220 230 250 290 290 320 90 110 150 180 220 230 250 270 300 320 D 100 100 160 210 215 300 300 320 340 340 340 100 100 160 210 300 300 320 340 340 340 E 58 85 120 145 150 175 175 200 217 235 250 58 85 120 145 175 175 200 217 235 250 F Ext. Dia. 39 54 72 87 102 107 107 117 127 137 142 39 54 72 87 107 107 117 127 137 142 G 95 125 150 200 230 250 250 305 325 365 400 95 125 150 200 250 250 305 325 365 400

Dimensions in mm Dimensions are valid for: Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder). Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder). Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing Anchorage VSL Type E

Grout tube

Bearing plate (steel) Duct Anchor block Wedges Strands

Sleeve

AD

Dimensions Tendon unit 5-1 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-27 5-31 5-37 5-42 5-48 5-55 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-27 6-31 6-37 6-42 6-48 6-55 A 70 115 130 175 230 290 315 370 370 405 500 500 500 75 110 135 160 205 270 340 370 435 435 480 580 580 580 B 15 20 20 25 35 40 45 55 55 60 70 70 70 15 15 20 25 35 40 50 55 65 65 70 90 90 90 C 45 60 60 60 60 75 82 97 105 112 117 127 155 60 60 60 60 70 78 97 107 117 127 147 147 147 187 D 45 85 85 110 150 180 200 220 230 250 290 290 320 55 90 90 120 135 180 220 230 250 270 300 320 340 360 E 70 190 190 190 370 470 480 550 550 570 680 680 680 70 190 190 190 290 460 590 690 690 690 830 950 950 950 F Ext. Dia. 36 36 39 54 72 87 102 107 107 117 127 137 142 36 36 39 54 72 87 107 107 117 127 137 160 160 170
Subject to modification

Dimensions in mm Dimensions are valid for: Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder). Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder). Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Couplers VSL Type K and V


Grout tube Casting type EC or Bearing plate type E Coupling block K Duct

Sleeve

Coupling block V

Sleeve Omega ring Wedges Compression fittings Compression fittings with retainer plates

Tension ring Tension ring

Couplers Type K
Fixed coupler. For coupling to a tendon which has been placed and stressed.

Couplers Type V
Movable coupler. For coupling to a tendon which has already been placed, but not stressed.

Cast-in casting type EC D E+1.5 L F

Tendon 2 B L=Elongation of tendon 1

Tendon 1

Coupler type K
Tendon unit 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-27 5-31 5-37 5-42 5-48 5-55 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-27 6-31 6-37 A 430 440 440 510 590 660 860 1010 1080 1080 1370 1370 380 490 520 630 730 860 930 1090 1090 1390 B 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 150 150 150 170 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 138 150 170 C 130 150 170 200 240 260 310 350 390 395 420 490 150 150 160 200 240 280 310 330 350 440 Tendon unit

Coupler type V
D E F G

5-3 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-31

290 410 510 600 690 1000

175 175 175 175 175 175

230 330 420 490 570 870

130 170 200 240 260 350

6-2 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19

230 330 360 470 570 700

200 205 205 205 205 205

185 250 280 370 460 570

130 150 160 190 240 280

Dimensions in mm Dimensions are valid for: Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder). Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder). Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type H


Grout tube

Duct Tension ring Bulbs

Seal

Spacer

Type II Type I

AxB

C D

Strand type 13 mm (0.5")


Tendon unit 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-31 5-37 5-42 5-55 Alternative 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 Type I I I II II II I II II II II II II II II II II II II II A 230 310 150 370 170 350 310 470 310 570 390 670 470 770 470 870 570 1170 870 570 B 70 70 170 70 190 190 270 190 390 190 390 310 430 310 550 350 550 350 430 670 C 930 930 930 1130 1130 1130 1130 1130 1130 1130 1130 1330 1330 1530 1530 1530 1530 1830 1830 1830 D 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1480 1480 1680 1680 1680 1680 1980 1980 1980 Tendon unit 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-31 6-37 6-42

Strand type 15 mm (0.6")


Alternative 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 Type I I I II II II I II II II II II II II II II II II II II II A 290 390 190 450 210 430 390 570 390 690 470 810 570 1050 690 1050 810 690 1410 1050 690 B 90 90 210 90 230 230 330 230 470 230 490 260 510 370 510 370 510 650 370 510 790 C 950 950 950 1150 1150 1150 1150 1150 1150 1150 1150 1550 1550 1850 1850 1850 1850 1850 2150 2150 2150 D 1330 1330 1330 1330 1330 1330 1330 1700 1700 2000 2000 20000 2000 2000 2300 2300 2300

6-55

Dimensions in mm Dimensions are valid for: Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder). Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder). Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Intermediate Anchorage VSL Type Z and ZU

Grout tube

Tension ring with anchors

Wedges

Duct

Retainer plate Anchor block Z Wedges Anchor block ZU

Intermediate Anchorage Type Z

Intermediate Anchorage Type ZU

Centre-stressing anchorages are used for ring tendons in circular structures, or for those tendons where the ends cannot be fitted with normal stressing anchorages.

Stressing jack Curved stressing chair

F+L

Tendon

F+L G+L

Tendon

1 Tendon 2 G+L Tendon 1

L = Elongation of tendon 2 C E = + required cover 2

Intermediate anchorage type Z


Tendon unit 5-2 1) 5-4 1) 5-6 5-12 5-18 5-22 6-2 1) 6-4 1) 6-6 6-12 6-18 6-22 A 130 160 200 280 320 350 140 170 210 300 380 400 B 60 70 90 140 160 160 70 80 100 160 180 180 C 80 90 130 140 180 200 90 100 140 160 200 250 D 60 65 85 90 110 120 65 70 90 100 120 145 F 2) G 2) H

Intermediate anchorage type Z


Tendon unit A B C D F 2) G 2) H

400 560 170 500 720 200 700 990 240 1000 1490 320 1300 1910 360 1450 2110 390 450 900 1000 1350 1450 1500 620 1180 1400 1960 2280 2380 180 210 250 340 420 440

5-2 5-4 5-6

1) 1)

165 165 185

103 103 113

80 88 95

60 65 70

450 560 650

655 815 925

200 200 220

6-2 6-4 6-6

1) 1)

170 170 200

105 105 120

90 92 100

65 65 75

450 560 650

655 815 925

210 210 240

Dimensions in mm 1) Tension ring only on side 2 2) Dependent upon the shape of the concrete surface. The values stated apply for surfaces which are not curved.

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Selected Design Considerations


Spacing and Cover of Ducts
In determining minimum spacing and concrete cover requirements, reference should be made to applicable standards and recommendations.

Tendon Supports
Recommended spacing: Standard steel ducts Plastic ducts PT-PLUS:

0.8 to 1.2m 0.8 to 1.0m

Minimum Radii of Tendon Curvatures and Minimum Tangent Length


Minimum radius of tendon curvature Minimum tangent length

Minimum breaking load of tendon (MN)

Tendon Force Losses


The effective prestressing force at a specific place and time differs from the initial prestressing force for various reasons.
Significant factors include:

The following values may be assumed for design: Tendon in standard steel ducts:
= 0.2 (range 0.16~0.22) k= 0.001 (range 0.0008~0.0012)

friction losses due to curvature of the tendon; shrinkage and creep of the concrete; relaxation of the prestressing steel; draw-in of the wedges during lock-off. The friction losses along the tendon can be determined with the following formula: Px = Po e -( +kx) , where x = Distance from stressing end (in meters) Px = Prestressing force at x Po = Prestressing force at stressing end = Coefficient of friction = sum of all angular deviations (in radians) over the distance x k = Wobble friction coefficient due to minor unavoidable tendon curvatures (placing tolerances) The friction coefficients and k can vary fairly widely and depend upon various factors, including: the nature and surface condition of the prestressing steel; the type, diameter and surface condition of the duct; and the installation method.

Tendon in plastic ducts PT-PLUS:


= 0.14 (range 0.12~0.15) k= 0.001 (range 0.0008~0.0012)

For calculating the losses due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete, reference should be made to the technical literature and to the standards applicable to each project. The relaxation of the prestressing steel depends primarily upon the types of steel (relaxation class), the magnitude of the prestress and the temperature. For low relaxation strands commonly used today, the maximum loss is 2.5% after 1000 hours at 20 C and an initial stress of 70% of the nominal tensile strength. Further information can be found in the relevant prestressing steel standards and manufacturer's literature. Independent of the type of jack or tendon, a loss due to wedge draw-in of approximately 6mm occurs at lock-off. If necessary, this can be compensated for by suitable procedures.

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Sheathing and Corrosion Protection


For conventional applications, corrugated galvanised steel ducts are used. For applications requiring enhanced corrosion protection and improved fatigue resistance of the tendons, use of the VSL PT-PLUS System with corrugated plastic duct is recommended. This fully encapsulated and watertight system offers superb corrosion protection, and the plastic duct eliminates fretting fatigue between the strand and duct. It also provides reduced duct friction. The PT-PLUS System may, in conjunction with VSL CS Anchorages, be configured with special details and installation techniques to provide Electrically Isolated Tendons. These tendons may be electrically monitored at any time throughout the life of the structure. All ducts are manufactured in a variety of standard lengths and are coupled on site.

Dimensions of Plastic Ducts PT-PLUS


Strand Type 13 mm (0.5") Tendon unit 5-12 5-19 5-31 5-43 5-55 Strand Type 15 mm (0.6") Tendon unit 6-7 6-12 6-19 / 6-22 6-31 6-37
Other units on request

Duct Dimensions (mm) d 59 76 100 130 130 D 73 91 116 146 146 s 2 2.5 3 3 3

Steel Duct Plastic Duct PT-PLUS


Strand bundle

Centre line of duct Centre of gravity of strands

Strand Type 13 mm (0.5") Steel Tendon duct unit e (mm) 5-1 4 5-3 7 5-7 8 5-12 11 5-19 13 5-22 12 5-27 13 5-31 14 5-37 23 5-42 26 5-48 17 5-55 23 Plastic duct e (mm) 7 9 22 17 14 32 28 24 14

Strand Type 15 mm (0.6") Tendon unit 6-1 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-27 6-31 6-37 Steel duct e (mm) 5 6 6 10 14 17 14 13 22 25 Plastic duct e (mm) 9 12 18 15 32 28 22

Strand Position at High Point of Tendon

Strand Position at Low Point of Tendon

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type L


Duct B

Hairpin Bar Reinforcement


Hairpin bar Duct A
Required cross-sectional area of hairpin bars: As n = Po As [mm2 ] = Cross-section area of one hairpin bar n [-] = number of hairpin bars Po [kN] = Prestressing force in the tendon Aext. [mm] = External diameter of duct T [mm] = Concrete thickness X [mm] = Required anchoring length according to applicable standard Yield strength of hairpin bars: 400 MPa Concrete cover to ducts shall not be less than the external duct diameter.

Grout tube A

T B

Layout of L-Anchorages:
a b c

T 3 A ext.

T 4 A ext.

T 4 A ext.

Hairpin bar reinforcement T

Strand Type 13 mm (0.5") Tendon unit 5-4 5-7 5-12 5-19 5-22 5-31 A Internal/external 42/45 60/67 80/87 90/97 95/102 110/117 B Internal/external 36/39 51/54 65/72 80/87 85/92 100/107 R min. 600 600 900 1100 1200 1400 Tendon unit 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-7 6-12 6-19

Strand Type 15 mm (0.6") A Internal/external 42/45 42/45 65/72 75/82 90/97 110/117 B Internal/external 36/39 36/39 55/62 60/67 80/87 95/102 R min. 600 600 600 750 1000 1300

Dimensions in mm Dimensions are valid for: Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 25 MPa (cube), 20 MPa (cylinder). Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 80% of its nominal strength. Maximum prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type LD


When loops with a smaller radius are required, special half round ducts are available upon request. VSL Type LD Loops are available with a 590 mm radius. The tendon sizes available are the same as Type L - the difference is in duct configuration as indicated. A tight radius is good for nailing of precast box segments to piers.

Duct sized such that only two (2) layers of strand occur in the loop.

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing
The unique feature of the VSL Post-Tensioning system lies in its special procedure for locking the wedges. The wedges always remain in contact with the strands during the stressing operation. As the pressure in the jack is released, the wedges automatically lock in the conical holes of the anchor head.

Placing of anchor block

Placing of anchor block and wedges

Positioning of the jack


Positioning of jack

Stressing

Seating of wedges

Stressing, measuring, seating of wedges

Grouting
VSL grouting equipment includes mixer and pump in one unit. Grouting is usually carried out as soon as possible after stressing.

Grouting equipment

Grouting of tendon

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Push Through Machine

Hydraulic Pump

Jack type 60 ZPE-23FJ ZPE-30 ZPE-3 ZPE-60 ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-200 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-500 ZPE-750 ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250

A min. 30 30 30 30 50 50 50 60 80 80 80 90

B 300 600 550 650 800 700 1100 850 700 1150 1350 1300 1350

C 1200 1100 1000 1100 1200 1300 2100 1500 1500 2000 2300 2200 2250

D 116 140 200 180 300 310 330 390 485 585 570 790 660

E 90 100 150 140 200 200 210 250 300 330 365 450 375

Concrete cover according to applicable standard

Dimensions in mm B D

Stressing Jack Data

Type I (ZPE-23 FJ)


Designation ZPE-23FJ Type I Length (mm) 790 Diameter (mm) 116 Stroke (mm) 200 Piston area (cm 2) 47.10 Capacity (kN) 230 (bar) 488 Weight (kg) 23 Used for 13 mm 5-1 (0.5") tendon types Used for 15 mm 6-1 (0.6") tendon types ZPE-30 III 720 140 250 58.32 320 549 28 5-1 6-1 ZPE-3 III 475 200 160 103.6 500 483 47 5-2 5-3 6-2 ZPE-60 III 615 180 250 126.4 632 500 74 5-2 to 5-4 6-2 6-3

Type II (ZPE-19)

Type III (ZPE-500)


ZPE-750 ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250 II III II 1185 1200 1290 520 790 620 150 200 150 1247.0 1809.5 2168.0 7500 10000 12500 601 553 577 1100 2290 1730 5-31 5-37 5-37 5-37 to 5-55 to 5-55 6-31 6-31 6-31 to 6-43 to 6-55 Subject to modification

ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-200 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-500 II III II III III II 550 960 750 1000 690 580 310 315 390 550 280 485 100 300 100 200 160 100 309.4 325.7 500.3 894.6 203.6 804.0 1850 2000 2900 5000 1064 4660 598 614 580 559 523 580 151 305 294 1064 115 435 5-12 5-12 5-18 5-22 5-6 5-22 5-19 5-31 5-7 5-31 6-6 6-6 6-12 6-18 6-4 6-18 6-7 6-7 to 6-22 6-19

Harbour Front (Hunghom Marine Redevelopment), Hunghom, Hong Kong

Owners and designers of the buildings of today and tomorrow need to incorporate sufficient flexibility into their structures to accommodate the changing needs of the users of the building. Post-tensioning offers larger spans with reduced structural depth, resulting in larger column-free areas. Internal tenancy layouts are thus not restricted by tight column grids. Positive deflection and crack control and, if necessary, crackfree water-tight slabs offer the designer the opportunity to

break free of the limitations of the passive methods of reinforced concrete or structural steel. VSL Post-Tensioning is more economical than other systems, especially when faster construction cycles are considered. There is less material handling on site and also a reduced site labour force which minimises congestion on site. Most importantly, there is the quality and service of VSL specialized high-performance teams and optimum back-up on site.

The VSL Post-Tensioning slab system has been used in many prestigious buildings and structures throughout the Far East. The system uses up to five strands in flat-shaped ducting and anchorages. The strands are individually stressed and are gripped by wedge action. After stressing, the duct is subsequently filled with a cementitious grout, which is injected under pressure, so that the strands are fully bonded to the surrounding concrete.

Construction Sequence

Placing tendons Concreting

Stressing Grouting

BONDED S

LAB

POST- TENSIONING

Strand Properties
Strand type Nominal diameter Nominal area Nominal mass Yield strength Tensile strength Min. breaking load Young's modulus Relaxation 3) mm mm 2 kg/m MPa MPa kN GPa % 13 mm (0.5") EN138 or ASTM A416 BS 5896 Super Grade 270 12.9 12.7 100 98.7 0.785 0.775 1580 1) 1670 2) 1860 1860 186 183.7 cicra 195 max 2.5 15 mm (0.6") EN138 or BS 5896 Super 15.7 150 1.18 1) 1500 1770 265 ASTM A416 Grade 270 15.2 140 1.1 1670 2) 1860 260.7

1) Measured at 0.1% residual strain (0.1% offset method) 2) Measured at 1% extension (1% extension under load method) 3) After 1000 hrs at 20 C (EN & BS, low relaxation to ASTM)

Tendon Properties
Min. breaking load (kN) Strand type Tendon unit 5-4 5-5 6-4 6-5 Number of strands 4 5 4 5 BS 5896 ASTM A416 Super Grade 270 744 735 930 919 1060 1043 1325 1304

Duct Dimensions
Duct Dimension in mm (Height x Width) Standard flat duct 20 x 75 25 x 90 Corrugated flat duct 25 x 80 25 x 90 Plastic duct PT-PLUS 35 x 86 not available

13 mm (0.5") 15 mm (0.6")

Selected Design Considerations


Spacing of tendon supports: 0.75 to 1.2 m (conventional steel ducts) 0.75 to 1.0 m (plastic ducts PT-PLUS) 2.5 m 6.0 m 0.75 m (vertical profile) (horizontal profile)

Minimum radius of curvature:

Min. straight length at anchorage:

A wedge draw-in of approximately 6 mm occurs at lock-off Friction losses can vary fairly widely from one tendon to another and from one structure to another, depending on factors such as surface condition of strands, type and surface condition of ducts, material properties, installation methods and workmanship on-site. In general, the following friction parameters can be used, without additional consideration for anchorage losses: - Tendons in standard steel ducts: - Tendons in plastic ducts: k k = 0.20 = 0.001 = 0.14 = 0.001 (range: 0.16 ~ 0.22) (range: 0.0008 ~ 0.0012) (range: 0.12 ~ 0.15) (range: 0.0008 ~ 0.0012)

BONDED S

LAB

POST- TENSIONING

Stressing Anchorage VSL Type S


E Grout tube

Wedges Strands

Duct

Casting Recess former

Anchor block

Type S 5-4 S 5-5 S 6-4 S 6-5

A 265 265 315 315

B 100 100 105 105

C 240 240 254 266

D 73 73 82 82

E 90 90 100 100

F 305 305 338 338

X 350 350 400 400

Subject to modification

Couplers VSL Type SK


600 C Grout tube Compression fittings Coupling block Flat duct B Casting Wedges D

Strands

Type S 5-4 S 5-5 S 6-4 S 6-5

A 265 265 265 265

B 110 110 110 110

C 95 95 95 95

D 215 215 215 215

Subject to modification Dimensions in mm. Dimensions are valid for a concrete transfer strength of 25 MPa (Cube), 20 MPa (Cylinder).

BONDED S

LAB

POST- TENSIONING

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type H and Type P


C

Type H

Grout tube AxB Seal

Flat duct

Bulb

Type H 5-4 H 5-5 H 6-4 H 6-5

A 310 390 390 490

B 70 70 90 90

C 750 750 950 950

Type P
C Grout tube

Seal

AxB

P-plate Compression fittings

Type P 5-4 P 5-5 P 6-4 P 6-5

A 250 300 260 410

B 75 75 80 80

C 370 370 435 435

Dimensions in mm. Dimensions are valid for a concrete transfer strength of 25 MPa (Cube), 20 MPa (Cylinder).

VSLAB Encapsulated Two Strand System


E G Grout cap End anchor head Bearing plate Half shell A C F

Duct Clip Grout vent B D Wedge Gasket

High performance grout Encapsulated strand

Type SA5-2 k5-2

A 163 163

B 163 163

C 150 150

D 90 90

E 105 105

F 130 130

G 40 70

Anchorage Reinforcement
Details at Slab Edge
Extra links where shown for S6-5 only

Grout vent

Place innermost links hard against casting as shown

Anchorage at Slab Edge

Extra links where shown for S6-5 only

Grout vent

Details at Edge Beam


Anchorage at Edge Beam

Plan

The above sketches show the preferred arrangement for the local confinement reinforcement at the anchorages. Please consult your local VSL representatives for more details.

BONDED S

LAB

POST- TENSIONING S

YSTEMS

Stressing Jack Clearance Requirements


Jack type ZPE-23FJ
B=Strand projection A C

DKP-5 DKP-6

Tendon unit 5-4 5-5 6-4 6-5 5-4 5-5 6-4 6-5

A (mm) 1100 1100 1100 1100 800 800 850 850

B (mm) 260 260 260 260 260 260 400 400

C (mm) 280 400 280 400 250 320 300 400

Stressing Jack Data


DKP-5/DKP-6

ZPE-23FJ

Jack type A B C D Stroke Piston area Capacity Weight

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (cm 2) (kN) (bar) (kg)

ZPE-23FJ DKP-5 790 560 116 162 105 195 150 200 200 47.10 31.03 230 147 488 473 23 19

DKP-6 615 240 84 165 200 49.26 230 467 30

Internal Stressing Pocket


13 mm and 15 mm strand Details shown are typical and may vary for particular applications

Stressing Pocket

Plan
450 30 420 50 175 450 175 50

Section A

Section B

EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING

External post-tensioning is well suited to bridges due to the resulting economies in construction costs and the high degree of corrosion resistance provided by the system. External tendons are easy to inspect and can be replaced if necessary. They are ideal for strengthening existing structures and have a multitude of applications in addition to bridges.

VSL external tendons consist of:


strand bundle; polyethylene duct; end and intermediate anchorages as well as tendon couplers; grouting compound. External tendons, usually guided over deviation saddles, have many similarities to stay cables and permanent soil and rock anchors. Detailed information about design and construction is given in the VSL publication "External Post-Tensioning".

Bois de Rosset Viaduct, Switzerland

VSL External Post-tensioning System Components

Tendon deviation saddle

Stressing anchorage

Strand bundle and sheathing

Dead end anchorage

A wide selection of VSL anchorage types is available to meet the full range of practical requirements. In addition to the anchorages illustrated here, intermediate anchorages and couplers are also available . The strand bundle can be assembled from uncoated or individually greased and sheathed strands. The anchorages for these two types of tendon differ only in detail, the principle remains the same.

External prestressing components, Anchorage Type ECR

External tendons at deviation saddle

Tendon unit 5-12 5-19 5-31 5-43 5-55 A 270 310 370 430 520 B 125 150 165 200 220

Dimensions (mm) C 222 258 320 390 420 D 110 125 150 180 200 E 1) 65 / 3.6 90 / 5.1 110 / 6.3 125 / 7.1 140 / 8.0
D A E

Anchorage Type EC R

6-7 6-12 6-19 6-31 6-37

250 310 390 430 520

125 150 165 200 220

222 258 300 390 420

110 125 150 180 200

63 / 3.6 90 / 5.1 110 / 6.3 140 / 8.0 160 / 9.1


C E

Notes : 1. Nominal external duct diameter / wall thickness 2. Other sizes are available upon request

Anchorage Type CS

Dead end anchorage with split bearing plate

Parallel monostrand tendon, guide tubes and stay pipe

Damper and neoprene boot

Guide pipe

VSL Staycable System 200


Bundle of monostrands

Transition pipe

HDPE stay pipe

Grease

PE sheath

Strand

VSL Staycable System 200 SSI


Bundle of monostrands Guide tube/ Extension tube

Adjustable stressing anchorage with threaded anchorage head and ring nut

HDPE stay pipe Guide tube/ Extension tube

Grease

PE sheath

Strand

VSL Stay Cable System


VSL Stay Cable System has been developed to fulfil the stringent requirements for the design, construction and maintenance of cable stayed bridges.

VSL Stay Cable System consists of:


a tendon made of multiple parallel 15mm high tensile steel strands; each strand having an extruded coating of grease and polyethylene; each strand having an individual polyethylene guide tube continuous from anchorage to anchorage (option for system 200 SSI only); an outer sheath of thick walled polyethylene pipe; anchorages that are prefabricated in the factory.

The features of the system are:


high fatigue resistance of 200 MPa at 45% of tendon capacity through 2,000,000 load cycles; high degree of corrosion resistance with multi-layers of corrosion protection; excellent corrosion protection of strands during construction provided by extruded coating; simple erection of stay cable assembly without the weight of the tendon strands; simple Single Strand Installation of the tendon into the erected stay assembly; all strands are parallel within guide tubes with no risk of intertwining; no requirement for on-site grouting of cable; easy to adjust or monitor the tendon force at any stage of the cable life; able to remove and replace individual strands or entire cable for inspection or repair at any time without dismantling the installed anchorages; Single strand stressing.

STAY CABLES

VSL Stay Cable System 200


L min H H

min. 220 M

I K min

I K min

N O

min. 220

Stressing end

Dead end

Tendon Number Minimum of breaking Unit 2) strands load (kN) 4 1060 6- 4 7 1855 6- 7 12 3180 6-12 19 5035 6-19 22 5830 6-22 31 8215 6-31 37 9805 6-37 43 11395 6-43 55 14575 6-55 61 16165 6-61 73 19345 6-73 85 22525 6-85 91 24115 6-91

A 150 190 230 285 310 350 380 425 470 470 530 540 590

B 125 160 190 235 255 285 310 350 385 385 440 440 490

C 120 155 185 230 250 280 300 340 380 380 430 430 480

4)

4)

4)

3)

3)

I 260 340 600 870 870 1060 1390 1550 1550 1850 1900 2100 2200

K min 370 450 710 1000 1000 1200 1530 1700 1700 2000 2100 2300 2400

L min 80 80 80 100 105 125 135 145 160 170 180 200 200

M 63 68 75 95 100 120 130 140 155 165 175 195 195

N 80 80 80 95 100 120 135 145 160 170 180 200 200

O 131 136 141 172 177 197 217 232 254 269 288 313 313

75/ 4,3 90/ 5,1 110/ 6,3 140/ 8 140/ 8 160/ 9,1 180/ 10,2 200/ 11,4 225/ 12,8 225/ 12,8 250/ 14,2 250/ 14,2 280/ 15,9

75/ 4,3 110/ 10 140/ 8 180/ 10,2 200/ 11,4 225/ 12,8 250/ 14,2 280/ 15,9 315/ 17,9 315/ 17,9 355/ 13,7 355/ 13,7 400/ 15,4

140/ 4 178/ 5 219/ 6,3 254/ 6,3 273/ 6,3 324/ 7,1 343/ 8 406/ 8,8 419/ 10 419/ 10 495/ 11 495/ 11 546/ 12

175 225 290 355 380 450 485 540 590 610 690 720 765

15 20 25 35 35 40 45 45 55 60 65 75 75

Dimensions in mm

VSL Stay Cable System 200 SSI


Theoretical cable length Threaded anchor head DR with ring nut T Guide pipe Damper Connection sleeve Theoretical cable length Connection sleeve Boot Damper Pregrouted section Split shim U Anchor head DS Protection cap

S min Protection cap

Bearing Pmin plate

Transition pipe M min

Pregrouted section 50

Boot min. 150 N min

50

50

O Bearing plate

5-10 mm

Guide Transition Bearing 50 pipe pipe plate T M min L min

Q R

min 100

L min

Stressing end

Guide tube

Dead end
Split shim

Tendon Number Minimum Unit


1)

D 3)

G 4)

L min

M min

N min

P min

5)

S min 6)

T 3)

7)

of strands

breaking load (kN) 3180 5035 5830 8215 9605 11395 14575 16165 19345 22525 24115
2)

[-] 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-31 6-37 6-43 6-55 6-61 6-73 6-85 6-91

[-] 12 19 22 31 37 43 55 61 73 85 91

(mm) 230 285 310 350 380 425 470 470 530 540 590

(mm) 190 235 255 285 310 350 385 385 440 440 490

(mm) 185 230 250 280 300 340 380 380 430 430 480

(mm) 290 355 380 450 485 540 590 610 690 720 765

(mm) 230 280 300 350 370 430 460 460 530 530 580

(mm) 190 230 250 300 320 380 410 400 470 470 520

(mm) 219/6.3 267/6.3 273/6.3 324/7.1 355.6/8 406/8.8 419/10 419/10 508/11 508/11 559/12.5

(mm) 140 180 200 225 250 280 315 315 355 355 400

(mm) 125 160 180 200 225 250 250 280 315 315 355

(mm) 110 140 160 180 200 225 225 250 250 280 280

(mm) 1200 1300 1400 1450 1600 1800 2000 2050 2300 2400 2550

(mm) 650 750 850 900 1000 1200 1350 1350 1550 1650 1800

(mm) 550 550 550 550 600 600 650 700 750 750 750

(mm) 1100 1350 1500 1650 1850 2100 2200 2400 2600 2700 2900

(mm) 90 105 115 135 150 155 175 190 190 220 230

(mm) 85 100 100 125 150 155 175 190 190 220 230

(mm) 146 170 170 207 237 247 274 294 303 343 353

(mm) 220 230 230 260 280 290 310 330 330 360 370

(mm) 25 35 35 40 45 45 55 60 65 75 75

(mm) 35 40 40 50 55 60 65 70 75 85 85

(mm) M 12 M 16 M 16 M 16 M 16 M 16 M 16 M 20 M 20 M 20 M 20

Dimensions in mm 1) Tendon units 6-4 and 6-7: dimensions on request. 2) Strand in accordance with Euronorm 138-79 super; other types of strand with 15 mm (0.6) diameter see VSL's <Post-Tensioning Systems>. 3) Valid for nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 45 MPa (cube), 36 MPa (cylinder). Local zone reinforcement not shown. 4) External diameter / wall thickness.

Subject to modification 5) Min. height of anchor head allow an adjustability of 20 mm. 6) Dimensions valid only for load monitoring/adjustment. Min. required length for removal of cable to be determined acc. to project. 7) Threaded holes in bearing plate.

GROUND A

NCHORS

The VSL anchors are of similar construction, whether intended for installation in rock or in soil, and consist basically of the following three parts: bond length; free length; anchor head for attaching to the component to be anchored. Depending upon the intended application and service life of the anchor, the type of rock or soil and the magnitude of force to be transmitted, each of these parts must be capable of satisfying the most varied requirements. These factors therefore influence the individual components of which the anchor will be constructed and the dimensions of the anchoring length and of the borehole. The anchor head is the main characterisic feature of the VSL anchor. It always consists of a stressing anchorage selected from the VSL prestressing systems. The other parts of the anchor may, however, be adapted to the particular requirements in regard to their length, load-carrying capacity, form and individual components. Depending upon its construction, the VSL anchor may then be used as a temporary or permanent anchor, as a test anchor or surveillance anchor, in certain circumstances it may comprise special protective measures against corrosion and mechanical damage. Further information about the soil and rock anchors will be found in the following VSL publications, which are obtainable on request: VSL Measuring Technique; VSL Soil and Rock Anchors - Examples from Practice.

Tie-down for a tall building

Securing a slope

Strengthening of a gravity dam

GROUND A

NCHORS

Permanent VSL Strand Anchor Fully Encapsulated


Section A.A
Grout tube Bare clean strand

Corrugated sheath Internal spacer Bore hole External spacer Anchor block Bearing plate

Smooth sheath (Polyethylene) or corrugated sheath Greased and sheathed strand

Section B.B
Grout Grout tubes Bare clean strand Internal spacer Corrugated sheath (Polyethylene) Greased and plastic coated strand External spacer Bore hole Nose cone Bore hole External spacer Grout tubes Smooth sheath

Temporary VSL Strand Anchor


Section A.A
Grout tube Bare clean strand

Spacer Bore hole Anchor block Bearing plate

Greased and sheathed strand (optional)

Section B.B
Grout (free length optional) Bare clean strand Grout tubes

Grout tubes

Spacer Bore hole

Bore hole

Greased and sheathed strand (optional)

GROUND A

NCHORS

Stressing Anchorage
VSL Anchorage Type E
The VSL stressing anchorage Type E, is composed basically of an anchor block, wedges and bearing plate. A protective cap may also be fitted over the anchorage, if the latter must be accessible for surveillance purposes.
Fig. a: VSL anchorage Type ER

All the strands of an anchor are stressed simultaneously, but they are locked off individually by wedges in the conical bores in the anchor block. The range of VSL anchorages Type E enables tendons of 1 to 55 strands to be stressed, the principle of anchoring being the same from the smallest to the largest unit. The VSL stressing anchorages Type E are designed in principle to meet all the special requirements which may be demanded of an anchor. These requirements must certainly be known in advance to enable the anchor to be designed in detail accordingly. This is particularly necessary when the anchor is: a surveillance anchor; required to be restressed later; required to be detensioned and again restressed; required to be removed after use.
Fig. b: VSL anchorage Type E A

Alternatives A and B in the table are also suitable for restressing. To restress, the anchor block is lifted off from the bearing plate and shims are inserted between them. A third solution is to use VSL anchorage Type ER, which has a ring nut enabling the prestressing force to be adjusted (Fig. a).

Detensioning and Restressing of Anchors Surveillance Anchors


A surveillance anchor is an anchor at which observations are carried out periodically and enables the stressing force to be read at any time. The table shows diagrammatically various forms of construction of the anchorage. The choice of a suitable type will depend upon the access available to the anchor, its required service life and economical considerations. For alternatives B and C, an anchor head of Type E is used, with a thread on it's external cylindrical surface. Where an anchor is to be detensioned later, an arrangement is required consisting of a different type of wedge and an accessory device incorporated in between the jack and the anchor head. With this arrangement the wedges can be released and again locked at any time thus enabling the anchor to be completely detensioned in one or more stages. Where strands must be cut off and not project beyond the anchor block, a VSL anchorage Type EA can be used (Fig. b). This works on the principle of an adjusting ring nut and a coupler being used for destressing.

Restressing of Anchors
Where force losses are to be expected as a consequence of soil movements or structural deformations, the anchor should be so constructed that it can be restressed.
Anchor block for surveillance anchors:
Alternative Diagrammatic Presentation
VSL anchor head Force measurement with Protection of strand Type E normal Stressing jack Type E with thread Type E normal Stressing jack with coupling None Load cell, installed permanent or only when measuring None

Removable Anchors
For temporary rock or soil anchors which are required to be removed after use, the VSL Removable Anchor System can fulfill such a special requirement. After destressing of the anchor, the entire strand tendon can be removed. All that is left behind in the ground is a small piece of steel component and the grout column with plastic sheathing which would not affect neighbouring foundation activities in the future. For details of the VSL Rock and Soil Anchor Systems please contact your local VSL branch office.

Required

GROUND A

NCHORS

VSL Permanent Ground Anchors (Strand Type)


Number of 15mm strands 4 7 12 19 27 31 37 43 55 Ultimate capacity (kN) 1060 1855 3180 5035 7155 8215 9805 11395 14575 Drill hole dia. (mm) 130 150 175 200 215 275 310 325 350 Sheath Diameter (mm) Corrugated ID OD 65 80 100 125 125 150 150 200 250 85 100 125 165 165 195 195 256 270 Smooth ID OD 70 84 102 130 130 160 160 210 260 75 90 110 140 140 170 170 220 270 Jack type required ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-750 ZPE-750 ZPE-1000 ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250

Note: Where block outs, voids or drill hole casing are required, drill hole diameters and bearing plate dimensions should be confirmed with the local VSL office.

VSL Permanent Ground Anchors (Stressbar Type)


Permanent Encapsulated Bar dia. mm 15 *15 **20 20 23 **25 26 29 32 36 38 40 56 Ultimate capacity (kN) 190 191 188 325 450 295 575 715 870 1050 1225 1295 2460 Corrugated sheath mm ID OD 50 50 50 50 65 65 65 80 80 80 80 80 100 65 65 65 65 85 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 125 Epoxy Coated Temporary Jack type required ZPE-3 ZPE-3 ZPE-3 ZPE-3 ZPE-3 ZPE-3 ZPE-60 ZPE-7/A ZPE-7/A ZPE-7/A ZPE-200 ZPE-200 ZPE-19

Drill hole dia. mm 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150 150 150 175

Drill hole dia. mm 75 75 75 75 87 87 87 100 100 112 112 112 165

Drill hole dia. mm 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 87 100 100 100 100 125

Drill hole sizes are based on 10mm external cover *VSL Deformed Tie Bar **VSL Threadlok Bar

VSL Temporary Ground Anchors 13mm Strand


No. of 13 mm strands 7 12 19 27 Ultimate capacity kN 1362 2232 3534 5022 Minimum drill hole dia. mm 100 125 150 175 Jack type required ZPE-7 / A ZPE-12 / St2 ZPE-19 ZPE-460 / 31

VSL Temporary Ground Anchors 15mm Strand


No. of 15 mm strands 7 12 19 27 Ultimate capacity kN 1855 3180 5035 7155 Minimum drill hole dia. mm 100 125 150 175 Jack type required ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-500

HEAVY L

IFTING

New Airport Passenger Terminal Building Roof sliding, Hong Kong

Today's civil engineering structures and industrial plants are often assembled from large, heavy prefabricated components. This may be done for economic or technical reasons, or to save construction time. For projects in which cranes or other conventional handling equipment cannot be used because of excessive weight, dimensions or space limitations, VSL Heavy Lifting will often provide the most effective solution. VSL Heavy Lifting provides builders, engineers and owners with a broad range of advantages, including: custom-designed solutions for each project; the highest level of safety, based upon sound engineering practices and over two decades of experience; economy and efficiency through the use of advanced an reliable hydraulic equipment.

Unique Solutions
VSL will plan lifting, lowering or sliding operations and design the necessary temporary structures to suit your requirements. Sound engineering, clear thinking, the ability to innovate, and years of successful experience give you a guarantee of reliable and cost-effective solutions.

Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong Lifting of portal beams, formwork and steel trusses (weight 270 ~ 420 tonnes)

Loire River Bridge, France Lifting of 162 m long steel portal (2,400 tonnes) for the main span

HEAVY L

IFTING

Safety
Safety is VSL's first priority. Our specialised hydraulic lifting equipment is designed for the highest level of reliability, and all equipment is rigorously tested and serviced through VSL's quality control and maintenance programme. VSL field services are also based upon a total commitment to safety, the extensive experience of our personnel and VSL's exceptional record provide further assurance of reliable performance.

Flexibility
VSL's heavy lifting equipment includes a large selection of hydraulic jacks, pumps, control units, monitoring devices and jacking frames. This range of equipment gives us the capability to perform virtually any project requiring lifting, lowering or sliding.

Segment Erection, Normandy Bridge, France

Flat Jacks
Flat jacks are widely used for a multitude of civil engineering and construction applications such as: under pinning; prestressing of columns; counteracting sinking foundations; Pump prestressing of road works or airport runways; prestressing concrete in confined spaces; lifting and lowering of bridge superstructures for bridge bearing adjustments; counteracting loads applied during backfilling; lifting heavy weights; Flat Jack pile testing. The VSL flat jack is constructed of two moulded steel sections welded together to form a containment vessel. Hydraulic fluid or grout is injected at pressures of up to 13.5MPa into the peripheral ring, moving the lifting plates aparts, so that a force is applied with a maximum lifting stroke of 25mm per jack. Other shapes of flat jacks are available upon request.
Outside diameter D mm 120 150 220 250 270 300 350 420 480 600 750 870 920 1150 Maximum force at 13.5MPa kN 85 155 390 525 605 780 1080 1605 2170 3470 5400 7385 8975 13635 Effective area at zero extension 103mm2 6.4 11.5 29 39 45 58 80 119 161 257 400 547 665 1010 T Thickness ** mm 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 E Maximum travel mm 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 Installation gap mm 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 45 45 45 50

Type

120c 150c 220c 250c 270c 300c 350c 420c 480c 600c 750c 870c 920c *1150c

Plan

Closed

* 1150c Flat Jacks are specially produced to order and require longer lead times ** Flat Jack thickness may vary 3mm

Fully Inflated

STRESSBAR

Hong Kong Stadium, Hong Kong

Bar Systems
VSL has been manufacturing and designing bar systems in Australia for use by the construction industry since 1971. These have proven to be one of the most popular tools of Engineers wishing to induce and control loads and forces in structures. The systems range from High Tensile Cold Worked Stressbar to Low Tensile Architectural Tendons, all with compact and easy to assemble fittings. A range of diameters is available to give a wide selection of bar forces. The prestressing force is anchored at the end of the bar by a rolled thread, nut, washer and bearing plate. Where necessary bars can be joined with threaded couplers, and clevis fittings may be used where pin connections are required. The VSL bar system complies with the requirements of AS1313, AS1314, BS4486, ASTM-A722 and ISO 6934.

VSL Bar Configurations


Thread Details VSL Bar system CT Stress Bar 15-40mm CT Bar 56-73mm CT Bar Deformed Bar 15mm Tie Bar Threadlok Bar 20-25mm Fully CTA Short CTS Right hand Left hand Cold rolled Hot rolled Architectural Components available Max. Bar Length m Export containers 20ft. 40ft.

5.85 5.85 5.85 5.85

11.85 5.85+6.0 11.85 11.85

STRESSBAR

Application
VSL bar systems are ideal for the economic application of post-tensioning forces on relatively short tendons. Through the use of threaded connections and anchorages they are simple to use and lend themselves to many applications.

Typical Applications are:


Buildings
Prestressed Beams and Columns Precast Connections

Anchors
Permanent and Temporary Ground Anchors Uplift Anchors (Dam & Foundation) Roof Bolting Slope Stabilisation Crane Bases Light Towers

Bridges
Stay Cable Hangers Prestressed Segments Strengthening (Timber & Steel Bridges) Tension Piles and Caissons

Specialist Engineering
Heavy Lifting Formwork Ties or Hangers Frame Ties Pile Testing Architectural Ties

Wharves & Jetties


Stressed Deck Planks Tie Backs

Characteristic Properties
VSL Bar Properties are nominally as listed in the Tables.

Corrosion Protection
All bars and fittings must receive protection when installed under permanent conditions. In normal concrete construction the use of galvanised duct, injected with grout, provides good protection. Anchorage recesses must also be filled with cement mortar to protect these ends.

Bars
When bars are used in an exposed environment then one of the following coating systems may be used: single coat of inorganic zinc; three coat epoxy paint system; molybond coated bar ends only; greased and sheathed in poly tube; galvanising - (Threadlok Bar only). A combination of the above systems may also be specified. Consideration must also be given to the threaded ends to ensure correct installation of fittings after coating.

Fittings
Fittings may be treated as above but with preference given to galvanising.

Temporary Bar Anchors


Anchors used in a temporary environment may be used without protection apart from grout cover.

Permanent Bar Anchors


These anchors require installation into corrugated polyethylene sheathing to provide multiple levels of protection. This is accomplished by the internal grout and sheathing barrier. Additional protection may also be used by incorporating the above bar coatings.

STRESSBAR

VSL CT Stressbar
Characteristic Properties
Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal tensile Nominal 0.1% Characteristic Strength Minimum Appr. Modulus Major Dia. Thread kN Dia. area mass strength proof stress elongation of elasticity of thread pitch mm 15 20 23 26 29 32 36 38 40 56 73 sq. mm 177 314 415 531 661 804 1018 1134 1257 2463 4185 kg/m 1.52 2.39 3.46 4.40 5.44 6.59 7.86 9.23 9.72 20.74 34.68 MPa 1080 1030 1080 1080 1080 1080 1030 1080 1030 1000 1000 MPa 930 835 930 930 930 930 835 930 835 810 810 Max. force 0.1% Proof 190 325 450 575 715 870 1050 1225 1295 2460 4190 165 260 385 495 615 750 850 1055 1050 1995 3390 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 kN/sq.mm 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 205 205 mm 17.2 21.2 25.2 28.2 31.2 34.4 37.4 40.4 41.4 58.5 76.5 mm 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Note: 1. Relaxation properties, as per AS1313, are 4% maximum at 1000 hrs when loaded to 70% of minimum breaking load. 2. Fatique results exceed two million cycles when loaded over a stress range of 80 N/sq.mm. (For unbonded tendon only). 3. Minimum bending diameter = 200 x Bar Dia.

Stroke 200 L E D

Hydraulic Stressing Jack and Accessories

Jack Clearance Details (mm)


Jack model RH303 ZLP-100/80
F

F 390 560 1120 750

G 75 150 110 250

H 125 150 200 300

ZLP-200 ZPE-460 / 31

Recess Details (mm)


Bar Dia. 15, 20 23, 26 29, 32, 36 38, 40 56 73 Recommended A 125 150 150 175 220 320 B 125 150 150 175 220 320 C 75 80 100 112 250 250 A 100 130 130 150 200 300 Minimum B 100 130 130 150 200 300 C 70 75 90 100 200 200

Jack Details
Normal bar Dia. 15, 20 23, 26, 29 32, 36, 38 ZLP-100/80 280 270 46 56 73 ZLP-200 200 612 300 100 1980 4570 249 295 ZPE-460/31 485 410 80 996 56 Jack model RH303 Jack Dimension (mm) Capacity Weight D E Stroke 76 kN 295 kg 13.5 121 180

STRESSBAR

Permanent VSL Stressbar Anchor Fully Encapsulated

Nitroseal PX220 Spherical nut Hot-Dip galvanized protective cap Protective grease Grout tube inner Spherical washer Hot-Dip galvanized bearing plate with trumpet Grout Grout tube outer O-ring H.D.P.E. smooth or corrugated bore sheathing over free length External spacers at 1500 max. centres Corrugated sheathing (Polyethylene) CT Stressbar Internal spacers at 1500 max. centres

Protective grease

Grout tube outer Grout tube inner Bore hole

Corrugated sheathing (Polyethylene) CT Stressbar Internal spacers

A Section A-A
Steel nose cone

Temporary VSL Stressbar Anchor


Spherical nut

Spherical washer Heat shrink & sleeve Bearing plate

Grout tube Grout

Greased bar over free length H.D.P.E. smooth sheathing over free length

B
CT Stressbar epoxy coated if required Spacers at 1500 max. centres

Grout tube Spacers Bore hole CT Stressbar

Heat shrink

Section B-B

RETAINED E

ARTH

F5 Freeway, Heathcote NSW

VSL RETAINED EARTH is a composite soil reinforcing system which employs welded wire mesh to improve the shear and compressive strength of an earth backfill. A RETAINED EARTH structure is a stable, unified gravity mass which may be designed for use in a broad variety of civil engineering applications. In projects ranging from commercial retaining walls to highway bridge abutments, VSL RETAINED EARTH has found widespread use and acceptance as a major construction system. The effective principle of RETAINED EARTH involves the transfer of stresses from the soils to the reinforcing mesh through bearing. Bearing pressure is developed on the projected areas of the mesh crossbars, and the pressure is in turn transferred to the longitudinal bars. The longitudinal bars are thus placed in tension, which enables the soil mass to withstand loads in the direction of the reinforcement. In addition to the significant performance advantages, the VSL RETAINED EARTH system is also extremely economical to design and construct. The system consists of only three components, reinforcing mesh, precast facing panels and backfill material. This simplicity allow construction to proceed easily and rapidly. Cost savings of up to 50% are regularly realised when compared with traditional stabilisation systems.

Fast, Easy and Economical


The construction of a RETAINED EARTH structure is extremely straightforward. A five-man crew using standard construction equipment will average 75 square metres of wall per shift, and can place up to 140 square metres per shift.

Perspective View VSL RETAINED EARTH Retaining Wall

RETAINED E

ARTH

Complete Capabilities
VSL provides the client with a complete range of design and engineering services for a RETAINED EARTH structure. VSL employs the most advanced Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems available. Services provided include analysis of external stability, internal stability, bridge load, overturning and base sliding. In addition, VSL furnishes all preliminary drawings, shop drawings and complete erection sequencing documents as required.

Complete Flexibility
The VSL RETAINED EARTH concrete facing panels are available in a broad range of textures and colours. Because local materials are used in the production of these precast panels, the exposed surface can easily be coloured to complement the natural surroundings. Standard RETAINED EARTH panel treatments include raised relief, sandblast finish, exposed aggregate, and conventional smooth face concrete. These are only a very few of the possibilities however. Non-concrete faces, such as welded mesh or steel faced are also available and can be used to make temporary structures.
Temporary wall with welded mesh face

Fractured fin finish

Ashlar finish

Steel face finish

Raised relief finish

SYSTEM F

ORMWOR K

Central Plaza Building, Hong Kong

THE VSL Climbform System is a self climbing heavy duty construction platform used primarily to lift static panel vertical wall formwork. The system provides the wall designer with complete flexibility in both the structural design and selection of finishes.

Standard features include:


custom designed formwork panels which may be ganged in any shape or size to lift as one unit; form heights ranging from 2.5 to 4.0 metres; unobstructed access to the forms for: - cleaning and oiling - fixing of door frames and blockouts - reinforcement and reinforcing fabric fixing, including prefabricated reinforcement; truss members of fixed height assembled in "Meccano like fashion" to form a platform of any plan shape or size; easy levelling and plumbing of the external platform, which is typically supported on four, six or eight seatings; variation of wall thickness by moving the internal or external forms; parking the internal platforms at mid-lift to facilitate blockout and reinforcement fixing; cycle times as low as three days; access to external walls for curing; hanging access stairway.

VSL Climbform and Table Formwork Systems

SYSTEM F

ORMWOR K

Optional features include:


support of concrete placing booms on the platform; access hatches and/or temporary platforms to install precast stairs; external trailing platforms for: - patching of the tie-bolt holes - concrete finishing and curing - welding of beam stubs/brackets to support steel floor beams; provision to allow manhoists to service the top working platform; provision to locate tower cranes within internal and corridor platforms; collapsible door formers. The VSL Climform System is recognised as the most powerful commercial formwork system available in the world today and has been specified on the largest and tallest vertical structures in Asia and Australia. The VSL Slipform System has been used in the construction of silos, storage tanks, containment structures, chimneys, cooling stacks and bridge piers and pylons for over 20 years. Slipforming is advantageous when rapid construction between 2 and 6 m per 24 hours is required which results from continuous working and forms a monolithic structure free from construction joints. The system is raised by hydraulic jacks with upper working platforms for reinforcement fixing and concrete placement and a suspended scaffolding for finishing works.

Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong Climbformed piers and Slipformed pylons

Alsons Cement Plant, Philippines

VSL Formtravellers have been developed in conjunction with the in-house design of balanced or free cantilevering bridge structures. The formtraveller of either overhead truss or underslung type, is a hydraulically driven falsework system with built in working platforms and formwork panels. VSL services include design, supply, 1st assembly and commissioning, or a total turnkey package incorporating the operation of the system with the post-tensioning application. VSL System Formwork services include the design of the formwork systems, hire of the Climbform and Slipform Systems, prefabrication of forms and platforms, supervision and 1st assembly of the formwork and running of the systems.

Phu Luong Bridge, Vietnam

BRIDGE E

NGINEERING

As a specialist involved in the design and construction of bridges, VSL has considerable experience and expertise in: conceptual, preliminary and final detailed design of bridge structure; developing construction methods with full engineering; full design and detailing for formwork and erection systems; on-site construction of selected elements of the structure, from post-tensioning through to entire bridge superstructures. The application of this knowledge by VSL assists owners, developers, main contractors and consultants with initial design concepts, alternative designs and construction methods. The result for the project is that: the cost is minimised; the methods are simplified; the time is reduced; the quality is enhanced; the safety is improved; the value of the structure is increased;

Some of the very different projects successfully carried by VSL are:

Phu Luong Bridge, VIETNAM


Balanced Cantilever Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Design of the four lane main superstructure consisting of a main span of 102 m and side spans of 65m. Design, supply and commissioning of the travelling formwork system and supply of the post-tensioning, bearings and movement joints.

Tsing Ma Bridge, HONG KONG


Pylons and Approach Pier Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Construction of two number 206m high concrete pylons by slipforming including all concreting and reinforcement fixing. Heavy lifting of steel trusses for portal beams up to 420 tons. Design, supply and operation of the 4 VSL Climbforms Systems for the 60m high approach piers.

BRIDGE E

NGINEERING

Ma On Shan Pipe Bridge, HONG KONG


Incremental Launch Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Alternative design and construction of superstructure including casting of segments, reinforcement fixing and post-tensioning. The bridge has a length of 330m and spans of 33m for carrying 2 No. 1.2m diameter pipes crossing the river to the waste water treatment plant.

Decking Over Roadway, Lam Tin, HONG KONG


Precast Girder Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Supply and erect 87 No. 300 ton, 3m deep precast beams. Design, supply and operation of the erection gantry and launching.

Seoul Expressway Phase 1, KOREA


Precast Segmental Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Design and commissioning of formwork for the 3,600 precast box girder segments. The production on CAD of segment fabrication shop drawings. The design of the erection truss and full erection of the segments. Supply and installation of permanent and temporary posttensioning.

Hung Hom By-Pass, HONG KONG


Precast Segmental Construction

VSL Scope of Work:


Supply and installation of post-tensioning, bearings and movement joints. Supply and operation of the erection gantry for the erection of 1650 No. precast segments. The spans vary from 26 to 45 m with segment weight 40~83 tons.

STRUT URAL P

RODUCTS

Structural Bearings
Positioned between two structures to accommodate load transfer and relative movements which may cause damage. Bearings can be divided into two types, namely elastomeric and mechanical (disc or pot bearings). VSL services include design, testing, supply and installation.

Slip Joints
The slip joint has been developed to fill the need for a reliable and easily applied slip joint material on load bearing brickwork or under cast concrete slabs. It is designed to centralise loads and accommodate shrinkage and movement. Composed of polished stainless steel sliding against PTFE coated high grade natural rubber.

Movement Joints
Single Element
Used in building, pedestrian and vehicular structures to seal the gap between two structures so that they can move independently without adversely affecting each other. The joints are of either aluminium or steel with a flexible seal spanning between them and can accommodate movement ranges between 15 mm to 40 mm.

Movement Joints
Multi Element
Used in highway and bridge structures with large movements due to the effects of concrete shrinkage, thermal and seismic effects or differential settlement and ground movements. Typical movement ranges from 65 mm per single seal upto 1 m when connected together. VSL services include design, supply, 1st installation and long term maintenance.

NDEX

The Company Multistrand Post-Tensioning Bonded Slab Post-Tensioning External Post-Tensioning Stay Cables Ground Anchors Heavy Lifting Stressbar Retained Earth System Formwork Bridge Engineering Structural Products

1 3 15 21 23 25 29 31 35 37 39 41

POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM ISO 9001: 1994 Certificate No: CC421

BEARINGS, MOVEMENT JOINTS & SYSTEM FORMWORK ISO 9002: 1994 Certificate No: CC416

VSL

THE COMBINATION OF A WORLD-CLASS SPECIALIST CONTRACTOR WITH THE RESPONSIVENESS OF A LOCALLY BASED PARTNER

HEADQUARTERS
VSL International Ltd. Bernstrasse 9 LYSSACH - CH 3421 Switzerland Phone: 41-34-447 99 11 Fax: 41-34-445 43 22 http:\\ www.vsl-intl.com

Your post-tensioning specialist contractor:


South East Asia / Australia ( Operating Unit 1 )
REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd. 6 Pioneer Avenue THORNLEIGH, NSW 2120 Australia Tel. 61 - 2 - 9484 59 44 Fax. 61 - 2 - 9875 38 94

North East Asia ( Operating Unit 2 )

USA-North America ( Operating Unit 3 )

Europe, Middle East, South America and Africa ( Operating Unit 4.5 )
REGIONAL OFFICE
Representative Office L'Odysse - Bt. A 2-12 Chemin des Femmes 91886 MASSY Cedex - France Tel. 33 - 1 - 69 19 43 16 Fax. 33 - 1 - 69 19 43 17

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL North East Asia 1508 Devon House 979 King's Road Quarry Bay, HONG KONG Tel. 852 - 2590 22 22 Fax. 852 - 2590 95 93

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL Corporation Crosspointe II Plaza 2840 Plaza Place - Suite 200 RALEIGH, NC 27612 USA Tel. 1 - 919 - 781 6272 Fax. 1 - 919 - 781 6892

AUSTRALIA - Queensland
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd. VIRGINIA Tel. 61 - 7 - 326 564 00 Fax. 61 - 7 - 326 575 34

HONG KONG
VSL Hong Kong Ltd. QUARRY BAY Tel. 852 - 2590 22 88 Fax. 852 - 2590 02 90

MIDWEST
VSL Corporation DALLAS, TX Tel. 1 - 972 - 647 - 0200 Fax. 1 - 972 - 641 - 1192

ARGENTINA
VSL Sistemas Especiales Construccin S.A. BUENOS AIRES Tel. 54 - 1 - 322 06 09 Fax. 54 - 1 - 322 09 19 de

NORWAY
VSL Norge A/S STAVANGER Tel. 47 - 51 - 56 37 01 Fax. 47 - 51 - 56 27 21

AUSTRALIA - New South Wales


VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd. THORNLEIGH Tel. 61 - 2 - 9484 59 44 Fax. 61 - 2 - 9475 38 94

JAPAN
VSL Japan Corporation TOKYO Tel. 81 - 33 - 346 89 13 Fax. 81 - 33 - 345 91 53

NORTHEAST
VSL Corporation WASHINGTON, D.C. Tel. 1 - 703 - 451 - 4300 Fax. 1 - 703 - 451 - 0862

PERU AUSTRIA
Grund-und Sonderbau GesmbH VIENNA Tel. 43 - 1 - 878 17 0 Fax. 43 - 1 - 878 17 762 od 782 Pretensado VSL del Peru SA LIMA Tel. 51 - 1476 - 04 23/26 Fax. 51 - 1476 - 04 77

AUSTRALIA - Southern Division


VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd. NOBLE PARK Tel. 61 - 3 - 9795 03 66 Fax. 61 - 3 - 9795 05 47

KOREA
VSL Korea Co., Ltd. SEOUL Tel. 82 - 2 - 574 82 00 Fax. 82 - 2 - 577 00 98

SOUTHEAST
VSL Corporation MIAMI, FL Tel. 1 - 305 - 592 - 5075 Fax. 1 - 305 - 592 - 5629

PORTUGAL BOLIVIA
Prestress VSL of Bolivia Jauregui Ltd. LA PAZ Tel. 591 - 2 - 321 874 Fax. 591 - 2 - 371 493 VSL Prequipe S.A. LISBON Tel. 351 - 1 - 793 85 30 Fax. 351 - 1 - 793 09 01 Stronghold Portugal PORTO Tel. 351 - 2 - 370 00 21 Fax. 351 - 2 - 379 39 73

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
VSL Systems (B) Sdn. Bhd. BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN Tel. 673 - 2 - 380 153/2 - 38182 Fax. 673 - 2 - 381 954

MAINLAND CHINA
258 Qianshan Road, Hefei, ANHUI PROVINCE Postal Code: 230031 Tel. 86 - 551 - 5577421 Fax. 86 - 551 - 5576018

WEST
VSL Corporation SAN JOSE, CA Tel. 1 - 408 - 866 - 5000 Fax. 1 - 408 - 374 - 4113

CHILE
VSL Sistemas SANTIAGO Tel. 56 - 2 - 233 10 81 Fax. 56 - 2 - 233 67 39

SOUTH AFRICA
Steeledale Systems (Pty) Ltd. JOHANNESBURG Tel. 27 - 11 - 613 77 41/9 Fax. 27 - 11 - 613 74 04

GUAM
VSL Prestressing (Guam) Inc. TUMON Tel. 67 - 1646 80 61 Fax. 67 - 1649 08 50

PHILIPPINES
VSL Philippines Inc. MANILA Tel. 63 - 2 - 633 1739 Fax. 63 - 2 - 633 1740

CZECH REPUBLIC
VSL Systemy (CZ) s.r.o. PRAGUE Tel. 420 - 2 - 67 07 24 20 Fax. 420 - 2 - 67 07 24 06

SPAIN
CTT Stronghold BARCELONA Tel. 34 - 3 - 200 87 11 Fax. 34 - 3 - 209 85 90

INDONESIA
PT VSL Indonesia JAKARTA Tel. 62 - 21 - 570 07 86 Fax. 62 - 21 - 573 68 49

TAIWAN
VSL Taiwan Co., Ltd. TAIPEI Tel. 886 - 22 - 759 68 19 Fax. 886 - 22 - 759 68 21

FRANCE
VSL France S.A. EGLY Tel. 33 - 1 - 69 26 14 00 Fax. 33 - 1 - 60 83 89 95

SWEDEN
Internordisk Spnnarmering AB, DANDERYD Tel. 46 - 8 - 753 02 50 Fax. 46 - 8 - 753 49 73

MALAYSIA
VSL Engineers (M) Sdn. Bhd. KUALA LUMPUR Tel. 60 - 3 - 242 47 11 Fax. 60 - 3 - 242 93 97

VIETNAM
VSL Hanoi Representative Office HANOI Tel. 84 - 4 - 8245 488 Fax. 84 - 4 - 8245 717

GREAT BRITIAN
Balvac Whitley Moran Ltd. DERBYSHIRE Tel. 44 - 1773 54 26 00 Fax. 44 - 1773 54 27 00

SWITZERLAND
VSL (Switzerland) Ltd. LYSSACH Tel. 41 - 34 - 447 99 11 Fax. 41 - 34 - 445 43 22

NEW ZEALAND
Precision Precasting (Wgtn.) Ltd. OTAKI Tel. 64 - 6 - 364 81 26 Fax. 64 - 6 - 364 83 44

GREECE
VSL Systems A/E ATHENS Tel. 30 - 1- 363 84 53 Fax. 30 - 1- 360 95 43

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


Representative Office DUBAI Tel. 971 - 4 - 555 220 Fax. 971 - 4 - 518 244

SINGAPORE
VSL Singapore Pte. Ltd. SINGAPORE Tel. 65 - 336 29 23 Fax. 65 - 337 64 61

INDIA
Killick Prestressing Ltd. BOMBAY Tel. 91 - 22 - 578 44 81 Fax. 91 - 22 - 578 47 19

THAILAND
VSL (Thailand) Co., Ltd. - BANGKOK Tel. 66 - 2 - 237 32 88/89/90 Fax. 66 - 2 - 238 24 48

NETHERLANDS
Civielco B.V. AT LEIDEN Tel. 31 - 71 - 576 89 00 Fax. 31 - 71 - 572 08 86 Stronghold Benelux B.V. Tel. 31- 70 -511-5145 Fax. 31- 70 -517-6624