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-

.. , ..,
.. , ..


- ()



- 2005 .

539.3(075)
30.1217
-851
- -
.

:
.. , , ,

(. ).
.. , , ,

.., .., .., ..


: .
/ ..., .. . -: - , 2005. 299.

ISBN-5-89230-190-7

-851 ,
,
,
,
.

. ,
.

.
: , , , .

ISBN 5-89230-190-7

301217
.. ., 2005.
, 2005.


.
..
..
1. ..
1.1. .
1.2. - ...
1.3. - ...
1.4.- ..
1.5.
2. ..
2.1. ..
2.1.1. .
2.1.2. .
2.1.3. ..
2.2.
2.3.
2.4. ...
3. .
3.1. ..
3.2.

3.3. ...
3.4.
3.5. ..
3.6. .
3.7. ...
4.
4.1. .
4.2. .
4.3.
.
4.4. .
4.5. ..
4.6. ..
4.7. ...
5. ...
5.1. .
5.2. ...
5.3. ...
6. - ..
6.1. ...
6.2.
6.3.
6.4. ...
7. . ...
7.1.
7.1.1. .
7.1.2. ...
7.2.
7.2.1.

6
7
7
8
8
10
13
20
26
29
29
29
30
33
33
36
43
45
45
45
50
57
65
69
75
81
81
82
87
93
94
98
101
104
104
105
112
114
114
122
126
131
133
133
133
135
144
144

7.2.2. ..
7.3.
7.3.1.
7.3.2.
7.4. .
8. .
8.1. ..
8.1.1. .
8.1.2. .
8.2.
8.2.1. .
8.2.2. .
8.2.3. . ..
8.2.4. . ..
8.3. .
9. ..
9.1. , ..
9.2.
..
9.3. .
9.4. .
9.4.1. ..
9.4.2. .
..
9.4.3. .

9.4.4.
9.4.5. ..
9.5.
10. ..
10.1. ...
11. ...
11.1. .
11.1.1. ..
11.1.2. ..
11.2. ..
11.2.1. .
11.3 .
12. .
12.1. ..
12.2. .
12.2.1. ...
12.2.2. .
12.3. ...
13. .
13.1. .
13.2.
13.2.1. .
13.3. .
13.4.
14.
14.1. ..

145
152
152
155
158
161
161
161
162
172
172
177
182
183
186
188
188
193
193
194
194
194
196
197
198
200
215
215
219
219
221
222
223
225
227
228
228
229
231
234
235
237
237
240
240
244
247
249
249

14.2. ...
14.3. .
14.3.1.
15.
15.1. ..
15.2. .
15.2.1.

15.2.
16. ..
16.1. ..
16.2. .
16.2.1. ..
16.2. ...
16.3.
17. .
18.
.

251
254
254
257
257
261
261
266
271
271
272
273
276
276
277
287
299

1
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.. ,
.
.
,

. ,
.
. ,

, , , ,
.

, .

,
,
- 199698 .

1
( 01.01.114).


F [];
M [];
Fcr [];
ne [/];
te [/];
qe [/];
Qx , Q y - [];
T [/];
Mx,My [/];
A [2];
Ix, Iy [4];
It [4];
Wx, Wy X Y [3];
Wt [3];
E [];

- ;
pr - [];

yt , yc - [];
un , uc - [];
adm , adm - [];
eq - [];
cr - [];
n y , nu - ;

- ;
- ;

imin

- [];
- ;

- [1/0 ];
- [/3];

N - [].

1. , ,
, .
2. , :
=2105 ; =0,3; =1,2510-5 1/0;
=1105 ; =0,3; =1,6510-5 1/0;
=0,7105 ; =0,3.

1.
1.1.

,
N, ,
Q , M T.
:
1). .
2). .
3). .
4). , .

, .
:
1. N 0, M x = M y = Q x = Q y = T = 0.

2. M x 0, M y = Qx = Q y = T = N = 0.
3. Q y 0, Qx = M x = M y = T = N = 0.

4. T 0, M x = M y = Qx = Q y = T = N = 0.
,
, .
, ,
N.
: 1.

. .
,
:
N
(1.1)
= .
A
,
. ()
() .
()
k
Nl
(1.2)
l = i i ,
E
A
i =1
i i
k - , N i = const
Ei Ai = const; l i - i - . N (z )
z ,
N ( z )dz
(1.3)
,
l =
l
EA
.

(1.4)
l = atl ,
a - ; t - .

(1.5)
dw N d 2 w ne ( z )
dN
=
= ne ( z ),
,
=
,
dz EA dz 2
EA
dx
ne - ; w -
z ; EA - - .
(1.5)
.
,
k
N 2l
(1.6)
U = l i .
i =1 2 Ei Ai
N (z ) ,
N 2 ( z )dz
.
U=
l 2 EA

(1.7)

W, ,

m
1
(1.8)
W = Fi wi ,
i =l 2
wi - Fi ; m - .
, (1.2) (1.8) ,
.


N
(1.9)
max = adm ,
A


max

adm -
adm =

lim

,
(1.10)
n
lim - ; n - .
lim = y ,

n y .
- lim = u , n y -
.

y u

.
, n ,
:

(1.11)
max lim .
n
, ,


.
:
. [1.9]
N A, nadm .

adm

A N adm .
1.2.


.
1.1 , . 1.1, ,
.
. , .
.
.

.1.1

.1.2
1 0 z l. ab

. N ,
()
(. 1.2,).
: ,
, z ,
Fz = 0 , N 2F + F = 0,
N1 = F .
, ab
(). bc cd .
2 0 z l. (. 1.2,)
Fz = 0, N 2 2 F + F = 0, N 2 = F .
3 0 z l. (. 1.2,)

10

= 0,

N 3 + F = 0,

N3 = F.


,
. , ..
Z.
(1.1).
. 1.1, .
, a
: wa = 0.
1 0 z l. z
. z.
N z
Fz
( ).
w( z ) = l az = ab =
EA
EA
, Z ,
, , Z .
l
w a (0) = 0, wb (l) =
().
EA
Fl N 2 Z
+
( ).
2 0 z l. w( z ) = wb + l bz =
EA 2 EA
Fl
Fl Fl
3 Fl
().
wb (l) =
wc (l) =
=
,
+
EA
EA 2 EA
2 EA
, ab
bc .
3Fl N 3 Z
+
3 0 z l. w( z ) = wc + l cz =
( ).
2 EA EA
3Fl
3 Fl Fl
Fl
wc (0) =
, wd (l) =
+
=
().
2 EA EA
2 EA
2 EA
N 1 , N 2 , N 3 ab , bc , cd
N (. 1.1).
. 1.1. , , .
(1.6)
F 2l F 2l F 2l 5 F 2l
U=
+
+
=
.
2 EA 4 EA 2 EA 4 EA
, , , (1.8)
1
3 Fl 1 Fl 5 F 2 l
W = 2F
F
=
.
2
2 EA 2 2 EA 4 EA
F , F
wa .
1.2. ,
, . 1.3. ne ,
.
. .
1 0 z l. ( 1.4,)
1
N 1 = ne l .
Fz = 0,
2
2 0 z l. (.1.4,)
Fz = 0, N 2 = 2ne l + 3ne Z ( )

11

N 2 (0) = 2ne l

N 2 (l ) = n e l .

.1.3

.1.4
3 0 z l. (.1.4,)
N 3 = ne l .
Fz = 0,
.1.3.
(1.1), .1.3.
-
, , a : wa = 0.
NZ
1 0 z l. w( z ) = l aZ = 1 ( ).
E3 A
N1l ne l 2
wa (0) 0, wb (l) =
=
().
E 3 A 6 EA
ab , b
.
2 0 z l. bc
Z
z
ne l 2
N ( )d
+ 2
,
w( z ) = l ab + l bz =
EA
6 EA 0

- . (.1.4,)
, :
z
n l2
(2ne l + 3ne )d ne l 2 2ne lz 3 ne z 2
w( z ) = e +
=

+
6 EA 0
EA
6 EA
EA
2 EA
( ).

12

ne l 2
().
6 EA
.

wb (0) =
w z

dw( z )
=0.
dz

ne l 2
2
2
z = l w l =
2 EA
3
3

().

w( z ) =
0

N ( )d
,
EA

dw( z ) N ( z )
=
= 0.
dZ
EA
EA , N ( z ) = 0 , w( z ) ,
N ( z ) = 0 . c
ne l 2
().
wc (l) =
3EA
N
3 0 z l . w( z ) = wc + 3 ( ),
E2A
ne l 2
w(0) = wc =
3EA
2
nl
n l l ne l 2
=
().
wd (l) = e + e
3EA 2 EA 6 EA
1.3.

,

.

,
.

.
.
. ,
( )
, .

, ,
:
,
,
.

13

1.3.
, . 1.5,. ,
. : l = 0,4 ; F = 80 ; = 0,5 10 3 ; A = 2 10 4 2.
. F ab
c , R
(1.5,). de . ,
Z , .. , .
N l Fl
8 10 4 0,4
=
= 0,8 ,
wc = l ab = ab =
EA EA 2 1011 2 10 4
.. wc > .

.1.5

.1.6
, F
, R. ,
, ,
.
R ,
c d , .
. c d , .1.6
wc = wd +
() ,
l ab + l bc = ( de ) + .
, d
de .
, ,

N ab = F R ; N bc = R ; N de = R .

14

( F R )l
EA

( R )l
2 EA

( R )l
EA

+ ,

4
4
11
2 5 10 2 10 2 10
R= F
= 8 10
= 12 kH.
1
5
5l
5
5 4 10
R , N (.1.5).
( N ), (.1.5).
c a :
wa = 0 .
N l
ab 0 z l. w( z ) = l az = ab ( ),
EA
wa (0) = 0 ,
6,8 10 4 4 10 1
= 0,68 ().
w (l ) =
b
2 1011 2 10 4
,
N .
Fl N bc Z
bc 0 z l. w( z ) = wb + l bz =
( ),
+
EA E 2 A
wb (0) = 0,68 ,
(1,2 10 4 ) 4 10 1
= 0,62 ().
wc (l) = 6,8 10 4 +
11
4

2 2 10 2 10
dc 0 z l. z e ,
ez
N Z
w( z ) = l ez = de ( ),
EA
we (0) = 0 ,
(1,2 10 4 ) 4 10 1
= 0,12 ().
w (l ) =
d
2 1011 2 10 4
(.1.5) ,
,
d .
1.4. , ,
3
l t 0 (.1.7,).
2
t adm .
2

2EA

N , , w . : l = 0,3 ; A = 2 10 4 2;

adm = 80 .

. t 0
3
l = t l . ,
2
R , (.1.7.). ,
,

15

. a ,
, wd = 0.
,
R . , (
Z ), .
Rl 3
3 Rl Rl
wd = l ab + l bc + l cd =
+ tl

=0
2 EA 2
2 EA EA

1
R = tEA.
2
,
, R .
N ,
(bd )
R 1
max = = tE .
A 2
, .
2

3/2 l

l
R

16K

40 K

80K
0.12
0.06

.1.7

1
max = adm t adm E = adm ,
2

2
2 8 10 7
t adm = adm =
= 64 0 C .
E
2 1011 1,25 10 5
,
t = t adm = 64 0 C (.1.7).
:
1
1
N = t adm EA = 1,25 10 5 64 2 1011 2 10 4 = 16 kH.
2
2
ab :
N 1
1
=
t adm E = 1,25 10 5 64 2 1011 = 40 ,
2A 4
4
bd :

16

N 1
1
t adm E = 1,25 10 5 65 2 1011 = 80 (.1.7).
A 2
2
, ,
max = adm .

, a : wa = 0 .
NZ
1 0 z l. w( z ) = 1 ( ),
2 EA
wa (0) = 0 ,
1
1
wb (l) = t adm l = 1,25 10 5 64 0,3 = 0,06 ().
4
2
2 0 z

3
l. w( z ) = wb + t adm z ( ),
2
wb (0) = 0,06 ,

3
R l
3
1
3
1
1
wc ( l) = t adm l + t adm l + 2 = t adm l = 1,25 10 5 64 0,3 = 0,12 ().
EA 2
2
4
2
2
N Z
3 0 z l. w( z ) = wc + 3 ( ),
EA
Rl
1
wb (0) = 0,12 , wd (l) = t adm l
=0.
EA
2
.1.7.
1.5. (.1.8,),
F ab t 0 ,
ny . : A = 2 10 4 2; t = 150 0 C ; F = 100 ; yt = yc = 400 .
. , ,
(),
0
F ab t .
,
0
F t .
1. F .
, .1.8,.

.1.8
, ,
F (.1.8,,). Y ,
(.1.8.), N 1 f = N 2 f . Z ,
, :
N1 f = N 2 f ; N 4 f F N 3 f = 0 .

17

, ,
.
. , Z , .
(.1.9), aa1 b ,

l 1 = wa cos 60 0

l 1 = ( 3 + 4 ) cos 60 0 ,

()
l1 - 1; wa - .
() ,
.

N1 f l
N3 f l N 4 f l
l 1 =
; 3 + 4 =
+
.
2 EA 2 EA
EA
, (),
N 1 f , N 2 f , N 3 f
N1 f l

N4 f l 1
) .
()
EA
2 EA 2 EA 2
() (),
F
N1 f = N 2 f = N 3 f = = 16,7 ,
6
5
N 4 f = F = 83,3 .
6
, 1,2- 3-
.
2. , .
=(

N3 f l

.1.9
.1.8, , F

N1t = N 2t = N 3t = N 4t .
() ,
, ,

N l
N l N l
l 1 = 1t ; 3 + 4 = tl + 3t + 4t .
EA
2 EA 2 EA
()
N1t l
N l N l 1
= (tl + 3t + 4t ) ,
EA
2 EA 2 EA 2

18

1
N1t = N 2t = N 3t = N 4t = tEA =
3
1
= 1,25 10 5 1,5 10 2 2 1011 2 10 4 = 25 .
3

N1 + N 2 = N 3 = N1 f + N1t = 16,7 25 = 41,7 (),
N 4 = N 4 f + N 4t = 83,3 25 = 58,3 ().

N1
4,17 10 4
=
208 ;
A
2 10 4
N
4,17 10 4
3 = 3 =
104 ;
2A
2 2 10 4
N
5,83 10 4
4 = 4 =
146 .
2A
2 2 10 4
1- 2- .
, (1.11)
yc yc 400
ny =
=
=
= 1,92 .
max 1 208
,
.
1.6. ,
.1.10,, . adm .

1 = 2 =

: l = 0,5 ; y = 300 ; n y = 2 . ,

.
. ,
. , ,
.1.10,. N 1 , N 2 , N 3 ,
. ,
(.1.10,).

.1.10

Fy = 0 ;

N1 + N 2 + N 3 = 0

= 0;

N1a + N 3 a = 0

()

, ,
.
.
. ,
. ,

19

(.1.11,).

2( wb wa ) = wc + wa

2wb wa wc = .
, (),
:
2(l 2 ) l 1 ( l 3 ) = .
() l 2 l 3 ,
w wc 2 3.

.1.11
, (
())
N l Nl Nl
()
2 2 1 + 3 = .
EA EA EA
() (),
EA
EA
N1 =
(); N 2 =
();
6l
3l
EA
N3 =
().
6l
:
E
max = 2 =
( ),
3l

E y
max =

.
3l n y

3 y l 3 300 10 0 0,5
= 1,125 10 3 = 1,125 .

=
=
adm En
11
y
2 2 10
1.4.

. , ,
, ,
(.1.11,6).

20

, ,

n=

Flim
,
F

(1.11)

Flim - ; F - .
,
, , Flim ,
, , ,

yA

(.1.11,6).
- (
), .
, ,
,
.
(), , ()
. ,
, , (
).
1.7. , .1.12,,
.
F = (9 / 4) y A
. . -
, yt = yc . .
.
. ,
. R
(.1.12,,). R , ,
, .
,
. , ,
.
wc = we

l 1 + l 2 = l 3 .
.1.12,. ,
:
N1 = R F ; N 2 = R ; N 3 = R .

,
R
( R F )l Rl ( R)2l
+
=
,
2 EA
EA E ( A / 2)

F
.
11
,
(. 1.12).
R=

21

1.
, F pl ,

5 Fpl
11

= y Fpl = y A .
11 A
5

()

.1.12
, F = F pl
, :
N1 = 2 y A,
1 = y
N 2 = y A / 5,

(),

2 = y / 5 (),
N 3 = y A / 5, 3 = 2 y / 5
().
10 Fpl l y l

()

wb = l ab =

F > F pl

=
().
()
E
11 2 EA
,

N 1 = 2A = const , y .
2- (.1.12,)
Fz = 0, N 2 = F 2 y A .
, , (
). ,
.
F

wb = l 3 + ( 2 ) .
, 2 wc b
.
( F 2 y A)2l ( F 2 y A)l
5( F 2 y A)l
()

=
.
wb =
E ( A / 2)
EA
EA
, b . , F = F pl ,

22

11
y A 2 y A)l
5
(
5( F 2 y A)l
yl
5
wb =
=
=
().
EA
EA
E
.
N1 = 2 y A
(),
N 2 = y A (),
N3 = y A

()

().

1 = y = const
2 =
2 =

F 2 y A
A
F 2 y A

()

.
A/ 2
,
,
. ,
,
Flim 2 y A
5
= y Flim = y A .
2
A/ 2
, ,
. ,
b F = Flim . (), () (), :
N1 = 2 y A (), 1 = y ,
N2 =

2 y A

N3 =

(), 2 =

2
2 y A
2

y
2

(), 3 = y ,

5 yl
().
A
2 E
( f - ) ( a
9
- ) F = y A
4
( r - ). Fpl < F < Flim ,
wb =

5( Flim 2 y A)l

()

, .
(),
N1 f = 2 y A
1
N 2 f = F 2 y A = y A (),
4
1
().
N3 f = y A
4
.

10
45
N1a = F = y A (),
11
22
1
9
N 2 a = F = y A
(),
11
44

23

9
yA
44

N 3a =

().

Nr = N f + Na .

45
1
y A = y A ().
22
22
1
9
1
N 2 r = y A y A = y A (),
4
44
22
1
9
1
N 3r = y A + y A = y A
().
4
44
22

N
1
1r = 1r = y (),
2 A 44
N
1
2 r = 2 r = y (),
2
22
N
1
3r = 3r = y ().
( A / 2) 11
.
, ,
.
5( F 2 y A)l 5 Fl
5 yl
wb =
+
=
().
EA
11 EA
22 E
1.8. ,
.1.14. , yt = yc (.1.11,).
N1r = 2 y A +

: y = 300 ; A = 10 4 2.
. ,

,
( ).
.

.1.13
1. 1 2.
, 1 2 (.1.15).

.1.14

24

= 0,

Flim1 2a y A3a y Aa = 0 ,

Flim1 = 2 y A .

2. 2 3.
a ; 2 , 3
(.1.16).

.1.15

M a = 0 , y A2a + 2 y A3a Flim 2 a = 0 , Flim 2 = 8 y A .
3. 1 3.
b , 1 3 (.1.17).

.1.16

M b = 0 , Flim 3a 2 y Aa y A2a = 0 , Flim 3 = 4 y A .
, , .
Flim = Flim1 = 2 y A = 3 108 10 4 2 = 60 .
,

( ).
1.9. , .18,.
- .

.1.17
. .

25

1. ,
. , (.1.18,).

Fz = 0 , Flim1 = 2 y A .
2. ,
. , (.1.18,).
3
Fz = 0 , Flim 2 = 2 y A .
3. ,
. , (.1.18,):
Fz = 0 , Flim 3 = 3 y A .

3
Flim = Flim 2 = y A .
2
1.5.
1.11.5. , .
, (.1.18,,,,,).

.1.18
1.61.8. N , w .
(.1.19,,,).
1.9. , Rb 1 / 4
F (.1.19,). N , , w
A . : F = 50 ; l = 0,2 ; yt = yc = 280 ; n y = 1,5 ; E = 2 10 5 .

1.101.12.
t C (.1.20,,,). b .
1.13. A
F = 100 adm = 150 (.1.21,).
1.14. , ,
t = 100 o (.1.21,). n y . :
o

A1 = 2 10 4 2; l = 1 ; A2 = 4 10 4 2; = 1,25 10 5 1/; yt = yc = 300 ; a = l .

26

.1.19

.1.20

. 1.21

. 1.22

27

1.15.
t i (i = 1;2) (.1.22,). : a = 3 ; b = 2 ; c = 1,5 ; A1 = A2 = A ; t1 = 30o C ;

t 2 = 30 o C .
1.161.18.

F = F pl ,

, Flim (.1.22,,,).
.
1.19. .1.23
Flim , .

.1.23

28

2.
2.1.

,
T . , , .
T ,
,
(.2.1,) [1,3]. ,
(
).

.2.1
2.1.1.

.2.1.)
=

T
r,
Ip

(2.1)

d 4

[4] - . max
32
(rmax = d / 2)
T
,
max =
(2.2)
Wp

I p =

W p = I p /(d / 2) = d 3 / 16 [3] - .

Tdz
,
=
GI
p
l

(2.3)

E
- ; z - . GI p
2(1 + v)
() .
T GI p l

G =

,
Tl
.
GI p

t
dT
d 2
d
T
= e ,
,
= te ,
=
2
dz GI p
GI p
dz
dz

29

(2.4)

t e - .
.

T 2 dz
.
U =
(2.5)
2GI p
l

T GI p ,
T 2l
.
U=
2GI p

(2.6)

, M i ,
m
1
W = M i i ,
(2.7)
i =1 2
i - , M i ; m -
. , (2.7) .


max adm ,

adm - ;

max

y
ny

(2.9)

y - ; n y - .
2.1.2.


, (2.2)
T
max = ,
Wt

(2.10)
Wt [3] - . Wt
.2.1. 2.2. ,
.

max (.2.2).

(.2.2,).
,
,
. ,
(.2.2,).

, (2.3) (2.5).
Tdz
,
=
(2.11)
l GI t

30

T 2 dz
U =
,
l 2GI t

(2.12)

I 1 [4] - .
2.1

d 4

I =

I =
C =

32

d 3

W =

32

d e4

(1 C )
4

W =

16

d e4
16

(1 C )
4

di
de

I =

3 t
dm
4

.2.2

31

W =

d m2 t
2

2.2


I t

h>B


Wt

Bh

B 2 h

.
2.3

a 3 B 3

aB 2

a2 + B2

3 4
a
80

a2
20

1 3
St
3

1 2
St
3

1 n
S i t i3

3 i =1

1 n
Si ti
3 i =1
t max

4 A2
dS
t

2At min

A-,

2.3
, , It Wt
h/b

10

0.208
0.141

0.246
0.229

0.267
0.263

0.282
0.281

0.299
0.299

0.313
0.313

0.333
0.333

1.000

0.795

0.753

0.745

0.743

0.742

0.742

32

I 1 .2.1 2.2.
2.1.3.

,
, .. . ,
, (. I).

Tlim . ,
(. 2.2, , y - , - ),

Tlim = y

Tlim = y

12

d 3
12

(2.13)

(2.14)

(d 3 d i3 ) ,


Tlim = y
y - .

b2
b
(h ) ,
2
3

(2.15)

(2.132.15) .2.1 2.2.


2.2.
2.1. , .2.3,,
T , max
. d .
. M = 600 ;
l = 0,5 ; y = 200 ; n y = 1,5 .

. . .2.3,.

(.2.3,):
2 0 z 2 l
1 0 z1 l
M z = 0 . T1 = M .
M z = 0 . T2 = 5M .
(2.2):
T
d 3
16 M
,
W p1 =
max1 = 1 = 3 ,
W p1
16
d

max 2

T
10 M
,
= 2 =
W p 2 d 3

W p2 =

d 3
2

, c = 0 .
,
( z ),
.
2 0 z 2 l . 2-
(2.4)

33

10 Mz 2
T z
2 ( z) = 2 2 =
GI p 2
Gd 4

( ).

.2.3
2- T2 ,
, 2 ( z ) ,

10Ml
2 (0) = = 0 ,
.
b = 2 (0) =
Gd 4
Tz
1 0 z1 l 1 ( z ) = b 1 1 ( ),
GI p1

1 (0) = b ,

1 (l) = a =

10 Ml ( M )l32 2 Ml

=
.
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4

T , max .2.3.
d (2.8),
max
16M y

,
d 3 n y

d =3

16 Mn y

=3

16 600 1,5
= 2,84 10 2 .
2 108

d = 30 .
(2.5)

34

T12 l 1
T 2l
41M 2 l
41 600 2 0,5
+ 2 2 =
=
= 36,25 .
2GI p1 2GI p 2 Gd 4 8 1010 (3 10 2 ) 4
,
.
1 22M 2 l 1 60M 2 l 41M 2 l
1
1
+
=
.
W = M a + 6 M b =
2 Gd 4 2 Gd 4
2
2
Gd 4
U = W = 36,25 .
2.2.


(.2.4,,). M = 10 3 ; t = 3 10 3 ; bm = 5 10 3 ; l = 1 ; G = 8 10 4 .
.
max 1 1 (2.10) (2.11), .2.2:
U=

Wt = 2 At min = 2 2 bm2 t = 4 bm2 t ;

4(2bm2 ) 2
4 A2
16
=
= bm3 t ;
dS 4bm 2bm
5
+
t
t
2t
103
T
M
=
= 2 =
= 33 ;
Wt 4b t 4 25 10 4 3 10 3
It =

max1
1 =

5Ml
5 103 1
Tl
=
=
= 0,0104 .
GI t 16Gbm3 t 16 8 1010 (5 10 2 ) 3 10 3

max 2

2 (2.10) (2.11), .2.2:


It =

1 4
1
20 3
S i ti3 = 2bm t 3 + 2bm t 3 + bm (2t ) 3 + bm (2t ) 3 =
bm t ,

3 i =1
3
3

.2.4
Wt =

max 2 =

It
t max

20 bm t 3 10 2
= bm t ,
3 2t
3

3M
3 10 3
T
=
=
= 666 ,
Wt 10bm t 2 10 5 10 2 (3 10 3 ) 2

3Ml
3 103 1
Tl
=
=
= 1,388 .
GI t 10Gbm t 3 20 8 1010 5 10 2 (3 10 3 ) 3
, 20 (
) 133,5 .

2 =

35

2.3.
2.3. , 2.5,,

d , T , max .
. : M = 100 ; l = 0,5 ;

y = 200 ; n y = 2 d = 2 a ; G = 8 10 4 .

. 2.5
. , ..
(
, .2.5,). , ,
X (.2.5,), \
d ( M ,3M , X ) = 0

Tab l Tbc l Tcd l


+
+
= 0.
GI p GI t GI p
Tab , Tbc , Tcd ab , bc ,
cd , (.2.6).

. 2.6

ab

0 zl:

bc

0 zl:

cd

0 zl:

M
M
M

= 0,

Tab = 2M X ;

= 0,

Tbc = 3M X ;

= 0,

Tcd = X .

(2 M X )l (3M X )l ( X )l
+
+
=0.
GI p
GI t
GI p

36

Ip =

d 4
32

( 2 a) 4

a 4 = 0,393a 4 ,

32
8
I t = a 4 = 0,141a 4 ,

X = 2,164M .
, T (.2.5).
.
ab
T
0,164 M
M
M
= 0,835 3 = 0,295 3 .
ab = ab = 3
W p d / 16
d
a
bc

bc =

Tbc 0,836M 0,836M


M
=
=
= 4,02 3 .
3
3
Wt
0,208a
a
a

cd =

Tcd 2,164 M
M
M
=
= 11,03 3 = 3,896 3 .
3
W p d / 16
d
a

cd

, bc .
.2.5.

T z
ab 0 z l :
( z ) = ab
( ),
GI p
T l
0,164 Ml
Ml
Ml
a (0) = 0 , b (l) = ab =
= 1,67
= 0,4176 4 .
4
4
GI p
C ( d / 32)
Gd
Ga
T z
( z ) = b + bc
( )
bc 0 z l :
GI t
T l T l
Ml
Ml
0,836 Ml
Ml
b (0) = 0,4176 4 , c (l ) = ab + bc = 0,4176 4 +
= 5,511 4 .
4
GI p GI t
Ga
Ga
G 0,141a
Ga
T z
( ),
cd 0 z l :
( z ) = c + cd
GI p
T l T l T l
Ml
Ml 2,164 Ml
c (0) = 5,511 4 , d (l) = ab + bc + cd = 5,511 4
=0.
GI p GI t GI p
Ga
Ga
Gd 4 / 32
, .
.2.5.
M
max bc = 4,02 3 y ,
a
ny
a3

4,02Mn y

4,02 10 2 2
=
= 1,59 10 2 = 15,9 .
8
2 10
3

d 22,5 . d = 20 .
,
.
(.2.5).
( ),
. (2.13) (2.15)
.

37


Tlim

d 3
12

y =

2 a3
6

y = 595,3 .,


(1,59 10 2 ) 3 2 108
a3
y =
= 268 .
3
3
, .2.5,, ,
.
Tlim =

.2.7
.
(.2.7,),
3M lim1 = Tlim + Tlim .
Mz = 0,

Tlim + Tlim 595,3 + 268


=
= 287 .
3
3
.2.7,,.
, M lim 2 M lim 3 ,
, . ,
, ,
, ..
M lim = M lim1 = 287 .
2.4. AD (.2.8,),
d , M . 1,
B , 2.
T .
n y . : M = 25 ; l = 0,2 ; d = 10 ; a = 100 ;
M lim1 =

= 1 ; y = 150 ; G = 8 10 4 .
. 1. . 1
2 AD B M B (.2.8,).

Mz = 0, M A M B + M M D = 0.
.

D =

[M ( M

,
a

DA = 0 ,

+ M D )]l

GI p

,
a

M B l M 2l M D l
+

= 0,
GI p
GI p
GI p

38

()
( )

.2.8
(), () (),
MA + MB + MD = M ,
GI p
MB + MD = M
,
al
M B + 3M D = 2 M .

I p =

d 4
32

d = 10 ,

M = 25 ,

GI p

1 10 3 0,8 1011 0,014


=
= 3,93 .
0,1 0,2 32
al
M A + M B + M D = 25 ,
M A = 3,93 .
M B + M D = 21,07 ,

M B = 6,60 .

M B + 3M D = 50 ,

M D = 14,47 .

.2.9
2.
AB (.2.9,)
M z = 0 , TAB = M A = 3,93 ( ).
BC (.2.8,)

39

= 0,
= 0,

TBC = M A + M B = 3,93 + 6,6 = 10,53 ( )


TCD

CD (.2.9,)
= M A + M B M = 3,93 + 6,6 25 = 14,47

).
3. . A ,
A = 0 .
T z
AB 0 z l
( z ) = AB ( ),
GI p

A ( 0) = 0 ,
BC 0 z l

3,93 0,2 32
= 0,01 .
0,8 1011 0,014
T z
( z ) = B + Bz = B + BC ( )
GI p

B (l ) =

B (0) = 0,01 , C (l) = 0,01 +


CD 0 z l ( z ) = C + Cz

10,53 0,2 32
= 0,0368 .
0,8 1011 0,014
T z
= C + CD ( ),
GI p

(0) = 0,0368 , D (l) = 0,0368

14,47 0,2 32
= 0.
0,8 1011 0,014

4.

ny =

y
,
max

max =

TCD
,
Wp

Wp =

d3
16

150
14,47 10 6 16
= 73,7 , n y =
= 2.
3
73,7
0,01
2.5. , ,
, .2.10,. T , max , .

max =

M lim .

(.2.10,). : M = 800 ; l = 1 ; d m = 50 10

; t = d m / 20 ;

d = (4 / 5)d m ; y = 280 ; G = 8 10 .
4

.2.10
. (.2.11,,)
. M a , M a M C ,
:

M a + M C = M ,
M a + M a = M .

40

.2.11
.
,
a
c , = , .
,
( ())
M C l ( M M C )l ( M C )l
=
+
,
GI p
2GI t
2GI t

4
4
dm
8d m4
d 4
5
=
=
- ;
Ip =
32
32
625
d 3 t d 4
I t = m = m - .
4
80

M C = 0,253M = 0,258 800 = 202 .

M a = M = M C = 800 202 = 598 ,


M a = M C = 202 .
:
0,253M 0,253 800 16
T
=
=
= 16 ,
max =
3
W p d 3 / 16
(4 10 2 )
:

max =

Tab Tab
T
598 40
=
= 3 ab =
= 61 .
Wt 2 At d m / 40 5 10 2 3

max =

Tbc
T
202 40
= 3 bc =
= 20 .
Wt d m / 40 (5 10 2 )3


.2.11.
a :

41

a = 0 .
:
0 z l / 2

( z) =

Tab z
- ( ).
GI t

l
l
40 598 1
2 = 40Tab l =
a (0) = 0 ,
b ( ) =
= 0,015 .
4
GI p
Gd m 8 1010 (5 10 2 ) 4
2
T z
( z ) = b + bc - ( ),
0 z l / 2
GI t
l
(Tbc )
202 0,5 80
l
2 0,015
b (0) = 0,015 , C = 0,015 +
= 0,01 .
8 1010 (5 102 ) 4
GI t
2
:
T z
( z ) = ac - ( ),
GI p
Tab

a (0) = 0 ,
Tac l
202 1 625
=
= 0,01 .
4
10
G (d m / 625) 8 10 8 (5 10 2 ) 4
.
.
,
. , :
d 3
(5 10 2 ) 3
= yWt = y (2 At ) = m y =
2,8 108 = 2,75 .
Tlim
40
40
(2.13):
d 3 2,8 108 (4 10 2 ) 3
=
= 4,69 .
Tlim = y
12
12
,
, .
.
1. (.2.12,).

c (l ) =

.2.12


M z = 0 , M lim1 = 2Tlim = 5,5 .
2. (.2.12,).

M z = 0 , M lim 2 = Tlim + Tlim = 2,75 + 4,69 = 7,44

M lim1 < M lim 2 , M lim = M lim1 = 5,5 .

42

2.4.
2.12.4. T .
GI t (.2.13,,,,).

.2.13

2.52.6.
, T
(.2.14,,). : M = 50 : l = 0,2 ; y = 250 ; n y = 2 ; G = 8 10 4 .

. 2.14

2.7. ,
,
(.2.15,) (.2.15,).

.2.15
2.8. T (.2.16).
C A B . : M = 1 ; d = 50 ; l = 0,5 ;
= 1,2 . .
2.9. z ,

Ml
.
=
2GI p

T (.2.17,).

43

.2.16

.2.17

2.10. a .
T , max . : M = 105 ; l = 1 ; y = 240 ; d = 0,1 ; n y = 2 ;

G = 8 10 4 (.2.17,).
2.112.12. M lim .
(.2.18.,).

.2.18
2.13. M lim ,

M lim . .
y (.2.18,).

44

3.
3.1.

, ,
( ),
( ) [1,3]. , ,
.
, ,
.

, ,
.
, .
:
1) ,
,
(.3.1,);
2) , ,
,
(.3.1,).

, ..
.
.3.1,:
.
.
.
.

.3.1
3.2.


. , M x ( z ) Q y (z )
,
, :

45

dM x
dQx
= Qy ,
= qe ,
(3.1)
dz
dz
qe [H / ] - .

, (3.1),
:
1. (qe = 0)
(Q y = const ) , .
2. ( q e = const )
, ,
.
, Q y = 0 .
3. ,
, ,
.
4.
, .
,
.
.
3.1. (.3.2) M x Q y .

.
1
2qe l 0 qe l 2 + R 2l = 0 R = qe l .
Ma = 0,
b
b 2
3
qe l 2 qe 2l 2l + Ra 2l = 0 Ra = qe l .
Mb = 0 ,
2
Rh = 0 , ..
z . Ra Rb c

q l
3
R a + R q e 2l = q e l + e 2 q e l = 0 .
Fy = 0 ,
b
2
2
, .
M x Q y .
, ,
:
1)
, ;
2) ,
.
q z2
1 0 z l
M x = e ( ),
2
Q y = qe z ( ).
M x

q l2
M x (0) = 0 ,
M x (l ) = e ,
2

46

M x
dM x
= qe z = 0 z = 0 .
dz

.3.2

, .
M x

d 2M x
= qe < 0 ,
dz 2
. Q y
Q y (0) = 0 ;
.

Q y (l ) = qe l ;

2 l z 2l .

q z2
3
qe l( z l) e ( ),
2
2
3
Q y = qe l qe z ( ).
2
M x Q y , .
Mx =

qe l 2
q l2
,
M x (2l) = e .
2
2
M x
dM x 3
3
= qe l qe z = 0 z = l .
2
dz
2
2
d Mx
M x max ,
< 0.
dz 2
3
3
M x max = M x l = qe l 2 ;
8
2
1
1
Q y (l ) = qe l ;
Q y (2l) = qe l ;
2
2
3 2l z 3l .
M x (l ) =

47

1
qe l(3l z ) ( ),
2
1
Qx = qe l(const ) .
2
M x
1
M x (3l ) = 0 ,
M x (2l ) = qel 2 .
2
Q y , z . M x Q y

Mx =

.3.2. M x .
a b , M x .

. ,
.
. , , .
3.2. ,
.3.3,.
.
qe l 2 + qe 2l 2 Rb l = 0 Rb = qe l .
Ma = 0;

qe l 2 + qe 2l 2 Ra l = 0 Ra = qe l .

= 0;

:
Rh qe 2l = 0 Rh = 2qe l .
:
Ra Rb = 0
, .
(.3.3,),
z .
1 0 z l
. M x = 2qe lz ( ).

M x (0) = 0 ;

M x (l) = 2qe l 2 - ,

M x z = l .
2 l z 2l M x = qe l 2 2qe lz ( );

M x (l ) = q e l 2 ;
3 0 z l

M x (0) = 3qe l 2 ;

M x (2l) = 3qe l 2 ( );
M x = qe lz 3qe l 2 ( );
M x (l) = 2qe l 2 ( );

qe z 2
( ), M x (0) = 0 ;
4 0 z 2l M x =
2

M x (2l) = 2qe l 2 ( );
dM x
= qe z = 0 z = 0 ( ).
dz
M x .3.3, .
c d (.3.3,):
Mc = 0;
Md = 0 .
3.3. ,
.3.4,. : R , F , = 30 o .

48

. . (.3.4,):
1
M a = 0 , F R cos a + Rb 2R = 0 Rb = 2 F cos = 0,435F .
1
M b = 0 , F R cos + Ra 2 R = 0 Ra = 2 F cos = 0,435F .
Fz = 0 , Rh + F sin = 0 Rh = F sin = 0,5F .

.3.3
:

= 0,

1
1
F cos + F cos F cos = 0 .
2
2

.3.4
M x .
,
.
M x = 0,435 FR(1 cos ) + 0,5FR sin .
1 0 60 o

49

2 0 120 o
M x = 0,435FR(1 cos ) .
dM x

= 0 ,
d
.
(.3.1). , ,
, , .3.4, .
3.1

0
15
30
45
60
0
30
60
90
120

cos

sin

0.0
1.0
0.26
0.9
0.5
0.87
0.71
0.71
0.87
0.5
0.0
1.0
0.5
0.87
0.87
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.87
0.5
3.3.

Mx
0.0
0.17FR
0.31FR
0.48FR
0.66FR
0.0
0.07FR
0.22FR
0.435FR
0.65FR


(.3.5,; x, y - ).

.3.5
(.3.5,)
:
M
(3.2)
x = x ,
Ix
I x 4 - x .
,

M
(3.3)
max = x ,
Wx
W x = I x / max - , 3.

max adm .

[ ]

50


[I].
I x Wx .3.2.
, (.3.5,),

Q y S x
=
,
I xb

S x - ( x )
, y ; b -
.
, .
3.4. EI x (.3.6) :
1. M x Q y ;
2. .
: qe = 5 kH/; l = 0,2 ; yt = yc = 300 ; n y = 1,5 .

.
1
1
qe l l + qe l 2 R 2l = 0 R = qe l .
Ma = 0;
b
b 4
2
3
5
qe l 2 + qe l l Ra 2l = 0 Ra = qe l
Mb = 0 ;
2
4
:
5
1
Fy = 0, 4 qel qel 4 qel = 0.
:
qe z 2
5
1 0 z l
( ).
M x = qe l
4
2
3
M x z = 0 = 0 , M x z =l = qel 2 .
4
Mx

dM x 5
5
= ql qe z = 0 z = l .
dz
4
4

d 2M
dz 2
Qy =

= q e < 0 , , ,

5
q l q z ( ), Q y
4

z=0

5
q l ; Qy
4

z =l

5
ql .
4

1
M x = qel (2l z ) ( )
4
1
M x z = 0 = 0 ; M x z = l = q l 2 . ; Q y = 1 ql ,
4
4
.. Qy = const.

2 l z 2l

M x Q y .3.6.
3
M x max = qe l 2 .
4

51

3.2

Ix = Iy =

d 4

d
Ix = Iy =
1 i
64 d e

d 3

Wx =

64

d e4

Ix = Iy =

32

d 3

d
1 i
Wx =
32 d e

d m4 t

Wx =

d m3 t
4

t << d m
hm

+ 1
3bm

tb h b
I y = m m m + 1
2 3hm

Ix =

tbm hm2
2

bh3
I x1 =
3

bh 3
Ix =
12

Ix =

bh 3
36

I x1 =

I x2 =

bh
4

Ix = Iy =

bh 3
12

Wx = tbm hm m + 1
3bm

W y = tbm hm m + 1
3hm

Wx =

bh 2
6

Wx =

Ix
y max

yc =

4R
3

R 4

8
I x = 0,11R 4

.
max adm

52

Wy =

hb 2
6

M x max y

,
Wx
ny
, ,
M x max n y
.
Wx =

b W x ,
I
Wx = x ,
max
x, y - ; y max -
. (.3.6)
, . ,
x1 ,
a y
5 5
5 5
b b b + 2b( b) b
8 4 = 5 b,
= 4 8
ay =
;
a y=
5
5
A
A
24
b b + 2b b
4
4
A
S x1 -
x1 .

S x1

S x1 + S x1

.3.6
, x
x1 . y max x
5
5
35
y max = b + b = b .
4
24
24
I x
5
5 3

2b( b) 3
b ( b)

5 2 15 2
4
)
+
b = 1,79b 4 .
I x = I x1 a y2 A = 4
(
4
3
3
24
b

Wx =

1,79b 4
= 1,227b 3 .
35
b
24

53

b
M x max n y
M x max n y
3 5 10 3 0,2 2 1,5
1,227b 3 =
b =3
=3
= 0,5 10 2 = 5 .
6
y
1,227 y
4 300 10 1,227
3.5.
, .3.7,, qe = 40 /; l = 1 ; yt = yc = 300

; n y = 1,5 .
. :
1
1
M a = 0 ; qe l + Rb l + qe l 4 = 0 Rb = 4 qe l ;
1
5
7
M b = 0 ; qe l 2 Ra l + qe l 4 l = 0 Ra = 4 qe l .
:
7
1
F y = 0 ; q e l + 4 qe l qe l + 4 q e l = 0 .
:
1 0 z l / 4
M x = q e lz ( );
1
1
l
M x (0) = 0 ;
M x ( ) = qe l 2 = 40 103 l 2 = 10 .
4
4
4
3
Q y = qe l = 40 10 1 = 40 kH.
2

l
( z )2
l
7
4 (
M x = qelz + qel ( z ) qe
4
4
2

l
5
z l
4
4

)
5
M x ( l) = 0 ;
4

1
1
M x ( l) = qe l 2 = 10 .
4
4

M x
7
l
dM x
= qe l + qel qe ( z ) = 0 z = l = 1 .
dz
4
4

1
qe l 2 = 1,25 .
32
1
5
Qy = qel + qe ( l z ) ,
4
4
5
1
1
3
Qy ( l ) = qel = 10 ,
Qy ( l) = qe l = 30 .
4
4
4
4
M x Q y .3.7,,. M x ,
M x max =

M x max = 10 .

max adm
Mx y

.
Wx n y
,
(.3.7,)

54

Wx =

qe l 2 n y
4 y

40 10 3 1,5
= 5 10 5 3.
6
4 300 10

. W x =

2 3
b ,
3

2b 3
3
= 5 10 5 3 b = 3 5 10 5 = 0,42 10 1 3.
3
2
b = 4,2 ;
A1 = 2b b = 35,28 2.

.3.
( 8239-72).
( Wx = 5 10 5 3) 12, ( A2 = 14,7 2;
Wx = 5,84 10 5 3).
.
Wx = t bm hm (

1
h
+ 1) = bm3 ,
3bm
3

1 3
bm = 5 10 5 3 bm = 3 3 5 10 5 = 0,53 10 1 ,
3
b
bm = 5,3 ;
A3 = 6bm = 16,85 2.
10
.

:
A 35,28
A
K1 = 1 =
= 2,4 ;
K2 = 2 = 1;
A2 14,7
A2
A 16,85
= 1,15 .
K3 = 3 =
A2 14,7
, .

55

3.6. EI x

(.3.8,) M x

n y , qe = 500 /; l = 1 ; yt = yc = 250 ; E = 2 105 ; I 10;


Wx = 39,7 3.
.

= 0,

M = 0,
F = 0,
b

1
+ Rb 2l Rh l = 0 ,
2
1
Ra 2l 10qe l l qe l = 0 ,
2
qe l Rh = 0 ,
10qe l 3l + qe l

ha =

21
qe l ,
4

Rb =

61
qe l , Rh = qe l .
4


21
qe lz ( ).
4
M x (0) = 0 ;
M x (2l) = 10,5qe l 2 .
M x = 10qe lz ( )
2 0 z l
1 0 z 2l

M x (0) = 0

Mx =

M x (l) = 10qe l 2 .

qe z 2
.
2
.
q l2
M x (0) = 0 ;
M x (l ) = e .
2
bc . M x :
dM x
qe l + qe z = 0 z = l .
= 0,
dz

3 0 z l

M x = q e lz +

.3.8
M x .3.8,.
M x max = 10,5qe l 2 .

56

max =

M x max 10,5qe l 2 10,5 500


=
=
= 132 .
Wx
Wx
39,7 10 6


ny =

y
250
=
= 1,89 .
max 132

3.4.


(3.4)
EI xV = M x .
(3.4) ,
M
= x dz + C .
EI x

M dz
V = x + Cz + D .
EI x
V ,
y . ,
x
.
C D
.
2n ( n - ) ,
,
(-).

. V0

0 ,
(.3.9,).
,
(3.4), (.3.9,),
( z a) 2
( z b) 3
( z c) 4
(z d )4
(3.5)
EI xV = EI xV0 + EI x0 z + M
+F
+ qe
qe
.
2
6
24
24

(3.5) .
, .

. V0 0
.

f = M x M 1dz /( EI x ) ,
l

f - ; M x -
, ; M 1 ,
, (

57

;
).

.3.9
,
OX ,

t t1
t + t1
f = M 1 2
dz + N1 2
dz ,
(3.7)
h
2
l
l
t1 , t 2 -
; h - .

;
,
, .
EI x
,
(.3.9,)
AM 1c
,
f =
(3.8)
EI x
A - M x , , ;
M 1c - , .
M x M 1 - , ,
, ,
, , A - .

: , ; .3.3

( A) , ( z c )
.
3.7. (.3.10)
. : qe = 5 /; l = 0,2 ;
d = 10 2 ; E = 2 10 5 .
.

= 0,

3
1
qe l l + qe l 2 + Rb 3l = 0 Rb = qe l ,
2
6

58

3
5
qe l 2 + qe l l Ra 3l = 0 Ra = qe l .
2
6

= 0,

:
5
1
qe l qe l + qe l = 0 .
6
6
(3.5) :
z 3 q ( z l) 4 qe ( z 2l) 4
5
( z 2l) 2
EI xV = EI xV0 + EI x0 z + qe l e
+
qe l 2
.
6
6
24
24
2
:
z = 0 V = V0 = 0 ,
z = 3l V = 0 .
,
q e l 4 qe l 4
5
16
4 27
4
0 = EI x0 3l + qe l
,

qe l +

6
6 24
24
2
63
EI x0 = qe l 3 .
72
V0 = 0 ,

= 0,

6 3qe l 3
.
7 2 EI x
, V
,
5q lz 3
q ( z l) 4
q ( z 2l) 4 qe l 2 ( z 2l) 2
63
EI xV = qe l 3 z + e
|I e
| II + e

| III
72
36
24
24
2
5q lz 2
q ( z l) 3
q ( z 2l) 3
63
EI x = qe l 3 + e
|I e
| II + e
qe l 2 ( z 2l) | III .
72
12
6
6
, V
I, II, III .

(15 10 3 ) 4
(10 10 3 ) 4
Ix =

= 37 10 10 4.
12
64
c z = l
1 63
5
53 qe l 4
4
4
Vc =
,
q e l + qe l =
EI x 72
36
72 EI x

0 =

53 5 10 3 0,2 4
= 8 10 3 = 8 .
72 2 1011 37 10 10
c . e z = 2l :
q l 3 5q l 3
1 63
5

e =
qe l 3 + qe l(2l) 2 e = e ,
EI x 72
12
6 8 EI x
Vc =

5 5 103 0,23
= 0,007 .
8 2 1011 37 10 10
e .
3.8. .3.11, Vc c

e =

b b . . : qe = 10

/; E = 2 10 ; b = 20 ; l = 0,2 .
5

59

3.3

2
A = l h
3

1
A = ( a + b) h
2

A=

1
1
l h zc =
l
n +1
n+2

.3.10

60

=0

= 0

Ra =

3qe l
,
8

Rb =

13qe l
.
8

3
13
q e l 2 qe l + qe l = 0 .
8
8

= 0,

:
3
1 0 z 2l
M x = qe lz ( ),
8
3
M x (0) = 0 ;
M x (2l) = qe l 2 .
4
2
qz
3
2 0 z 2l M x = qe l(2l + z ) e
( ),
8
2
1
3
1
M x (0) = qe l 2 ;
M x (2l) = qe l M x (2l ) = q e l 2 .
4
2
2

. 3.11
M x
dM x
= 0,
dz
M x max

3
3
q e l qe z = 0 z = l .
8
8
3
105 2
= M x ( l) =
qe l .
8
128

61

1
M x = qe l 2 = const .
2
M x .3.11.

3 0 z l

Vc M 1 ,
c , (.3.11,). M x

M 1 . M x .3.3
.3.11.
1 1 3 2 2
1 3 2 2
2 qe (2l) 2 1
1 1
1 7 qe l 4
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l =

2
+

2
+
2

2
.
Vc =
q
q
q
e
e
e

3
2 4
3
3 8
2
2 2
3 6 EI x
EI x 2 4
bh 3
= 45 10 9 4,
12
7 10 10 3 (0,2) 4
Vc =
= 2 10 3 =2 .
9
11
6 2 10 45 10
,
, .. .
b , b
I x =

(.3.11,), M 2 (.3.11).
M x ,
1 3
5q e l 3
1 1 3
2 2 q e ( 2l ) 2
3 1 1
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

q
q
q
e
e
e

3 2 4
3 3
8
4 2 2
6
6 EI x
2 4
3
3
5 10 10 (0,2)
b =
= 0,0074 .
6 2 1011 45 10 9
, b
, .. .
3.9. (.3.12,) ( )
wa a c , ,

b =

1
EI x

EI x = const .

. 3.12

62

. ,
, .
q z2
0 z l
( )
M x = q e lz + e
2
3
M x (0) = 0 ;
M x (l ) = q e l 2
( ).
2
l 3
(
0 z l
M x = qe l 2 + qe l = qe l 2 = const
2 2
).

l
0 z 2l M x = qe l(l z ) + qe l z + qe l 2 ( ),

2
5
M x (0) = qe l 2 ( ).
2
3
M x (2l) = qe l 2 ( ).
2
M x .3.12,.
a
a.
M 1 (.3.12,) ,
M x M 1 ,
4
1 3
1
1 5
1 3
7 qe l
2
2
2
.
qe l l l + qe l 2 l l qe l 2l l =
EI x 2
2
2 2
2 2
4 EI x
a , .. .
c M 2
(.3.12,). M x (.3.12,),

wa =

3
1 3
1 1 5
ql
2
2
qe l 2 l 1 qe l 2 l 1 = e .
EI x 2 2
2 2
EI x
c .
3.10. a ,
.3.13,. EI x .

.3.13
. M x F :
ab 0 z R

M x = Fz .
bc 0 / 2 M x = FR (1 + sin ) .

(.3.13,).
ab 0 z R
M 1 = 1z .
M 1 = 1R(1 + sin ) .
bc 0 / 2

63

a
M M dz
f = x 1 .
EI x
l

dz = Rd bc M x , M 1 ,
:

fa =
0

F z dz
FR (1 + sin ) d FR
FR
+
=
+
EI x
EI x
3EI x EI x
0
2

3 2

(1 + 2 sin + sin

)d =

1 1
1
FR 1 2

FR 1
2
=
+
+
+

(
1
2
sin

cos

=
+
(

2
cos

sin

=
d

2 2
2 4
EI x 3 0
EI x 3

28 + 9 FR 3
FR 3 1
.
2
=
=
+
+
+

EI x 3 2
4 12 EI x
a .
3.11. k ,
, .3.14, t1 = 100o C ,
t 2 = 120 o C .
3

.3.14
. Vk k .
k
M 1 .
l

Vk =
0

t 2 t1
t t 1
M 1dz = 2 1 l 2 ,
h
h 2

(120 100) 1 2
3 = 7,03 .
0,16
2
wk k
.
l
t +t
t +t
wk = 1 2 N1dz = 1 2 1 l ,
2
2
0
Vk = 12,5 10 6

wk = 12,5 10 6

(120 + 100)
3 = 4,12 .
2

64

f = Vk2 + wk2 = 7,032 + 4,12 2 = 8,15 .

3.12. .3.15,
.
. , ,
. M x ,
. , ,
a ,
N Q (.3.15,).

.3.15
N Q . ,
ab
1
1 M

Ql + M = 0
Q= ,
Mb = 0,
2
2 l
abc
Nl + M = 0
Mc = 0,

M
.
l

M x (.3.15,).
3.5.
N=


M pl ,
(.3.16),
bh 2
(3.9)
M pl = Wx y

y.
M pl =
6


(.3.16).
(,
, , M lim ).
. M lim :
M lim = W pl y

65

M lim =

bh 2
y.
4

. 3.16
2

bh
-
4
.

(.3.17).

W pl =

.3.17

dA = y A1 y A2 = 0 ,
A

A1 , A2 - ,
. x1
A ( x )
1
A1 = A2 = A .
2
x1
.
M lim
M lim = (| S 1x1 | + | S x21 |) y

M lim = cA y ,

- - ( A1 A2 , .3.17)
1, 2

; S x1 -
.
,
, .
.
, ,
( ).
:
M lim .
, (
)

66

.
() M lim : M lim , ,
.
3.13. (.3.18,) q e , pl ,
.
q e =

5
q e , pl . .
4

y .

.3.18
. M x .3.18,. qe , pl

M x max = M pl , M pl = Wx y - max = y .
qe, pl l 2

qe > qe , pl

bh 2
bh 2
=
y q e , pl = 2 y .
2
6
3l
(.3.18,),

(.3.18,).
z el

qe z e2l
= M pl ,
2

M pl =

q e , pl l 2
2

2
qe , pl
qe z e2l qe, pl l
=
z el = l
.
2
2
qe

qe = qe =

5
q e , pl
4

z el = 0,88l .

M x , .. qe > qe , pl ,
M x = y dA ,

dA = bdy .

,
h
2

M x = 2 ybdy .
0

67

2 y
hel

y.

= y = const .

hel
2

Mx = 2
0

y
hel
2

Mx =

h
2

y ybdy + 2 y ybdy ,
hel
2

h2
bh 2
3 e2l
12
h

y .

hel = h 3

12M x
.
bh 2 y

,
Mx =

qe z 2
2

bh 2 y = 3qe , pl l 2 ,

hel = h 3

qe = qe =

2 qe z 2
.
qe , pl l 2

5
l
qe , pl z =
= 0,707h .
4
hel

hel = 0 .
M x max = M lim ,

M lim =

bh
y - :
4
q l2
M x max = e ,lim .
2

qe,lim l 2
2

bh 2
y,
4

bh 2
y.
2l 2
3.14. .3.19, Flim .
.
. , ,
, .

.3.19, M x .
, .
.3.19,
, M lim M x .
.3.19, .
qe ,lim

68

bc

bc
c

= 0,

Rb =

M lim
,
l

. 3.19
ab
M aab = 0,

Rb 2l M lim Flim l + M lim + M lim = 0

3M lim
.
l
Flim (3 M lim
a, c ,
Flim )
Flim = M lim + M lim + M lim ,
= l
3M lim
Flim =
.
l
3.6.
Flim =

,
(.3.20,),
.
(.3.20,).

.3.20
:
M M x
= x + y ,
Ix
Iy
x, y - .

69

(3.12)

M x M y ,
.

I

y = x ctg x .
(3.13)
I


. ,
(.3.20,).

, z (.3.21,).
N = F
.
M x = Fy0 ,
M y = Fx0 ,
x0 , y0 - F (.3.21,).

.3.21
x, y
:
F Fy y F x0 x
,
= + 0 +
(3.14)
A
Ix
Iy
x, y - .

1 y 0 y x0 x
+
+
= 0.
(3.15)
A Ix
Iy
.
, .

: w N ,
u xz , V
yz .
w = 0 ,

= u 2 + v 2 + w2 .
= u 2 +v 2 ,

3.15. (.3.22,)
5/3,2. : F = 500 ; l = 0,5 ;
yt = yc = 320 .

70

.3.22
. .
M x = Fz ;
M x (0 ) = 0 ;
yoz 0 z l ;
M x (l ) = Fl .
l z 2l ;
M x = Fz + Fl ;
M x (l) = 0 ; M x (2l) = Fl .
xoz
0 z 2l ,
M y = 2 Fl = const .
.3.22,. b c ,
. 8510-72
5/3,2 (.3.22,).
x, y :
I x = 2 I x1 = 2 6,17 10 8 = 12,34 10 8 4,
I y = 2l yo = 2 3,26 10 8 = 6,52 10 8 4.

(3.13)
Ix
12,34 10 8
y = ( ctg ) x = (
ctg ) x = (1,89ctg ) x .
Iy
6,52 10 8

ctg =

My

2 Fl
= 2,
Fl

Mx
:
y = 3,78 x.

tg = 3,78 = 75o10 .
b c .3.22,.
1 2.
1
x1 = 32 10 3 ,
y1 = 16 10 3 (3.17)

71

1 =

M x y1 M y x1 500 0,5 (16 10 3 ) 2 500 0,5 32 10 3


+
=
+
= 213 .
Ix
Iy
12,34 10 8
6,5 10 8

2:
x2 = 32 10 3 ;
y 2 = 16 10 3 :
M x
M y
500 0,5(16 10 3 ) 2 500 0,5(32 10 3 )
2 = x 2 + y 2 =
+
= 278 .
Ix
Iy
12,34 10 8
6,5 8

yc 320
ny =
=
= 1,15 .
max 278
3.16.
, .3.23,. : F , E , l , b .
. .
, , x y
(.3.23,). F
x y ,
, . F x y :

Fx = F cos 45o =

2
F;
2

Fy =

2
F.
2

.3.23

2
2
Fl ,
My =
Fl .
2
2
(.3.24)
I
y = ( x ctg ) x ,
Iy

3
h1
h
h1h 3
2
;
ctg 45o = 1 .
Ix =
Iy = 2 ;
12
36
Mx =

h1 = 2b sin 45o = 2b ;

h = b cos 45o =

2
b
2b
4
b

=b .
Ix =
Iy =
36
72

72

2
b.
2

2 2
b
b
2
4
2
2


=b .
12
24

1
y = x,
3

1
tg = = 18o 20 .
3
(.3.24).

2
2
Fl
Fl
M
x
Mxy
12 2
y
2
2
=
x,
+
=
y+
= 4 Fl(3 y + x) .
4
4
b
Ix
Iy
b
b
72
24
:
a
2
x=
b,
2
2
y=
b,
6
b
x = 0,
2
y=
b.
3

.3.24
,
12 2
2
24
b = 4 Fl(3 b) = 3 Fl
3
b
b
12 2
2
2
24
a = 4 Fl(3 b
b) = 3 Fl .
3
2
b
b
,
| a |=| b |
u , V x y

2 3
Fl
Fx l 3
2 Fl 3
,
u=
= 2
=4
3EI y
3EI y
Eb 4

73

2 3
Fl
2 Fl 3
2
=
= 12
.
V=
3EI x
3EI x
Eb 4
Fy l 3

C :
f = U 2 + V 2 = 12,65

2 Fl 3
.
Eb 4

.3.24.
3.17. (.3.25,).
adm .

.3.25
. .3.25,,.
:


4
4
b
b
b4
b4
;
;
; Iy =
;
Ix =
Iy =
Ix =
12
24
72
12
1
A = b2 .
A = b2 ;
2
:


b 2
.
x0 = 0 ; y0 =
2
2
2
x0 =
b ; y0 =
b;
6
2

( )
2 2 24 2 2 72 2
b 4 + 2 ,
b 4 +
max,nt = F
b
2 b 6
b

18F
max,nt = 2 ;
b
( )
2
F
b
2
F 7F
2
max,br =

b+ 2 = 2 .
4
2
b
b
b
12
max,br < max,nt ,

max,nt = adm ,

18Fadm
b2
F
=

.
adm
adm
adm
18
b2

74

3.18. (3.26,) F 2 F ,
. n y . :
F = 15kH ;

b = 10 ; yt = yc = 240 .

. 3.26
.
3b(5b) 3
b(3b) 3 321 4
Ix =
b ,
2
=
12
12
12
b(3b) 3 3b b 3 57 4
Iy = 2
+
= b .
12
12
12
2
A = 9b .
F :
3
5
x0 = b ;
y0 = b .
2
2

y
x
1
= F 0 y + 0 x .
Iy
A
Ix

x I
1 I
y = 0 x x+ x .
y0 I y
A y0
, ,
5
3
2 b; b .
2
2
3b 12 3b
1
0,81F
0,81 15 10 3
5b 12 5b
max 2 = F
;

2= 2 =
4
4
(10 10 3 ) 2
b
2 321 b 2 2 57b 2 9b
max 2 = 121,5 .

ny =

yc
240
=
= 1,98 .
max 2 121,5

3.7.
3.13.4. .3.27,,,, M x Q y .

.
3.53.8. .3.28,,,,
.

75

.3.27
3.93.11.
(.3.29,,,).

.3.28

.3.29
3.12. F adm (.3.30,)
h = 50 =h
nu = 3 , ut = 200 , uc = 1000 , l = 1 .

76

3.13. (.3.30,)
. : Ft = 160 ; Fr = 50 ; E = 2 10 5 ; l = 80 .

.3.30
3.143.16. .3.31,,,
Vk k b .

.3.31
3.17. .3.31,
k . : F = 1 ; l = 1 ; E = 2 10 5 ; a = 10 .
3.183.21. : .3.32,,
b c ; .3.32,
c ; .3.32, d .

.3.32

77

3.223.23.
f a ,
(.3.33,,).

.3.33
3.243.25. .3.34,,
t1 = 80 o C ,
- t 2 = 100 o C .
3.26. .3.34,
: t1 = 25o C ; t 2 5o C ; l = 1 ; = 13 10 6 1/;
h = 0,1 .

.3.34

.3.35

78

3.27.
(.3.34,) , l = 2 ; h = 0,15 ; t1 = 70 o C ;
t 2 = 50 o C ; = 14 10 6 1/.
3.283.30. .3.35,,,
.
3.31. .3.36 qe , pl ,

qe,lim .
3.32. max f
(.3.37,). : M = 400 ; l = 1 ; : 75 50 5 .

.3.36

.3.37
3.33.
(.3.37,).
. : qe = 5 /; l = 1 ; yt = yc = 400 ; n y = 2 .
3.34.
(.3.38) F1 . : F1 = 6 ; F2 = 4 ; l = 1,6 ; b = 120 ; E = 10 4
().

.3.38
3.353.37.
(.3.39,,,).

79

. 3.39

80

4.
4.1.


( ),
[1,2,3].
, , ,
, . , -
.
,
( ) .
.
- ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
( )

.
, ,
.
, - .
.

, ..
.
, , .
,
.
,
. .

.4.1
, .4.1, ,
,
. ,
.
.4.1, .4.1, , d
. 5,
. ,
,
, ,

81

. ,
: .
,
,

.
, .
,
,
,

.
, .
, , (
), .. .
.
(
) :
1. , .
.
2. , .
,
. ,
, ,
, .
3. ( ),
, .
4.2.
.
4.1. , .4.2,,
, .
. 2 .
,
(
). .4.2,,,.

. ,
.4.2,.
, (.4.2,). ,
.4.2, (.4.2,) ,
1 2, ..
1 2 .
:
11 X 1 + 12 X 2 1 f = 0 ,

21 X 1 + 22 X 2 + 2 f = 0 ,

(4.1)

11 - b 1, ..
( ), 1=1,
( );

82

. 4.2

12

- ( ) 2=1,
( );
21 - ,
;
22 - ,
;
1 f , 2 f - ( )
( ).
, ,
, .
, (4.1)
b 1, 2 , .. ,
,
.. . (4.1) .
(4.1) ,
-.
(.4.2,) 1=1, 2=1
(.4.2,,). , (
, ):
4 l4
1 1 2
ll
l
ll
l
(
)
11 =
+

= 3 EI ,
EI X 2 3

83

1
l
l3
(
)
=

,
ll
EI X
2
2 EI X
1 1 2
l3
=
ll
l
=
,

EI X 2 3 3EI X

12 = 21 =
22

qe l 2 qe l 4
,
l l =

2
2
EI
X

2
qe l 4
1 qe l l

2 f =
=

,
l

EI X 2 2
4 EI X
EI x - , X .
(4.1) , (.4.2,):
3
6
X 1 = q e l ; X 2 = qe l .
14
14
(.4.2,). ,

M f M 1 M 2 , X 1

1 f =

1
EI X

X 2 .

, . ,
.4.2,, .

(.4.2,). .4.2,.
, (.4.2,)
(.4.2,)
1 1 3
1 2
1 4
2 2
2 2
2 l
v=
q e l l l q e l l l + qe l l = 0 .

EI X 2 14
3
3 2 14
3 2 14
(.4.2,),
. , .4.2,.
,
(.4.2,) (.4.2,):
qe l 3
1 1 4
1 2
2
2
q
1
q
1
a =

.
l
l
l
l

e
e

EI X 2 12
14 EI X
2 14

, .4.2,.
, (.4.2,), ,
(.4.2,),
qe l 3
1 1 3
2 2
=
.
qe l l =
EI X 2 14
14 EI X
3
4.2. ,
.4.3., .
. (.4.3,) , ..
.
, .
(
). 2 .
, , ..
(.4.3,). ,

84

a ,
X 1 X 2 .

. 4.3
.4.3,.
, ( 4.1),
.
.
(.4.3,) ,
X 1 X 2 (.4.3,,). ,
:
5 l3
1 1 2
2
(
)
11 =

ll
l
l
l
l

= 3 EI ,
EI X 2 3

12 = 21 =

1 f =

1
EI X

1
l 1
l3

(
)
=

,
l
l
l
l
l

EI X
2 2
2 EI X

5 l3
22 =
,
3 EI X

1 qe l 2 1 qe l 2 2 qe l 4
,
l l +
l l =

3
2
2
2
3
3
EI
X

85

1 qe l 2 3
1 qe l 2 3 qe l 4

l =
+
.
l
l

2
2
8
EI
3 2 4


(4.1) , :
13
21
X1 =
qe l
X2 =
qe l .
128
128
.4.3,.
,

c d (
), , .4.3,.
.4.3,.
, .4.3, 4.3, d:
2 qe l 2
1 1 13
1 30
1 13
2 2
2
2

d =
l
l
l
l
1
l
l

1
+
l 1
q
q
q

e
e
e
EI X 2 128

2 128

3 2 128
3 8

2 f =

1
EI X

1
1 30
2 1 21
qe l 2 l +
qe l 2 l = 0 .

3
2 128
3 2 128
4.3. (.4.4,).
. .
.4.4,,.
, , .4.4,.
X 1 = 1
.4.4,,,. X 1 , ,

11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 .
1 f = 0 , M f
.
, .4.4,,
(.4.4,) M f :
2 qe l 2 1
qe l 3

=
.
l


3 8 2 24 EI X
,
.4.4,. .4.4,.
4.4. k-k (.4.5,).
. .
, (.4.5,).
.4.5,. X 1 ,
.
X 1 = 1 .4.5,,. ,
:
5 l
1 1 2
2 1l + (1 l)1 =
11 =
.

EI X 2 3
3 EI X

1 f =

1
EI X

1
EI X

2 qe l 2

3 8

1 1 q l2
l e
2 2 8

X1 =

2
3 qe l 3
.
l =
24 EI X
3

1 f
3
=
qe l 2 .
11 40

86

.4.5,.

.4.4
,
.4.5,,
(.4.5,).
,

1 1 l 3
3 qe l 4
2
k k =
.
l qe l =

EI X 2 4 40
320 EI X
,
(.4.5,):

2 qe l 2 l 1 3
1 3
3 qe l 4
1 17
2 ll
2 l
2 l

+
q
q
q
k k =
2

=
.
l
l
l
l
l
l

e
e
e
EI X 40
2 8 3 8 8 2 40
2 320 EI X
6 2 40
4.3.

(.4.6,)
.
(.4.6,) (.4.6,) .
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
(.4.6,,,).
.
(.4.6,)
. , N

87

, T Q x Q y .

.4.5
,
.
,
.
,
,
( T , Q x , Q y ) , ( M x , M y , N ).


( M x , M y , N ) ,
( Qx , Q y , T ) .
.
4.5. .
- (.4.7,).
. .
, ,
- (.4.7,).
, (.4.7,).
. ,
( ) 2=0.
.4.7,.
.

1.
11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 ,

88

.4.6
1 2
5 l3
2
(
)

ll
l
l
l
l

2
= 3 EI ,
3

X
3
1 Fl l
Fl Fl
,
=
l 2 + l l =

EI X 4 2
4 2 EI X

11 =
1 f

1
EI X

X1 =

1 f
3
= F.
11
10

, X 1
. X 1
(.4.7,), ,
.
- ,

(.4.7,).

(.4.7,). (.4.7,)
(.4.7,), .
1 Fl
Fl 2
1
=
=

,
l

EI X 20
20 EI X
, -
, .4.7,.

89

.4.7

(.4.7,). .4.7,.
(.4.7,) (.4.7,),

1 1 Fl 4 1 Fl 5 1 Fl 2 1 Fl 1
Fl 2
=
=

.
l
l
l
l

EI X 2 4 3 2 20 3 2 4 3 2 20 3
20 EI X
4.6. ,
.4.8,. .
.
- (.4.8,) (.4.8,). ,
, ,

X 1 .
.4.8,. :
11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 .
X 1 = 1 .4.8,,.

4 1 l 2 l 2
2l 3

11 =
=
,
l

EI X 2 4 3 3EI X

1 f

4
=
EI X

M l 2
Ml 2 2
.
l
=
2 EI X
2 4

90

X1 =

1 f 3 2 M
=
.
11
4 l

. 4.8
.4.8,. .
, ,
, , ,
b-b (.4.8,). .4.8,.
(.4.8,) (.4.8,),
1 1 M 1 1 M 2 1 M
bb =
l
l +
l 1

EI X 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2
1 M 2 1 M 1
1 M
l 1
l +
l = 0 .

2 4 3 2 2 3
2 4
. -
(.4.8,). .4.8,.
(.4.8,) ,
(.4.8,) . ,

. .

(.4.9,). X 1 X 2
.4.9,, M 1 M 2 - .4.9,,.
,
. , X 1 ( X 2 )

91

X 2 ( X 1 ) ,
()

. 4.9.

. 4.10
X 1 = X 1 + X 2
X 2 = X 1 X 2 ,
X 1 - ; X 2 - .
M 1 M 2
.4.9,,. (.4.10,)
(.4.10,);
(.4.10,)
(.4.10,).
4.7. , (.4.11,),
M tot .
. ,


.
.4.11,.
X 1 ,

.

92

. 4.11

11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 .

M 1 M f

.4.11,,.

11 , 1 f X 1
11 =

1 l l 2 l l l 7 l 3
2 3 2 3 2 + l 2 2 = 6 EI ,

X
3
2
(Fl 2l ) l = 2 Fl ,
=

EI X
EI X
2

4
EI X

1 f

1 f
2 Fl 3

=
11
EI X

7 l3

6 EI X
.4.11,.

X1 =

12
= F .
7

M tot = M 1 X 1 + M f
,
. X i , .4.11,.
i-i
2 1 6

2 1
1 1 6
i i =
Fll l Fll l + Fll l = 0 .

EI X 2 7

3 7
3 2 7
, .
4.4.

, ,

.
N N
TT
M M
(4.2)
= f 1 dZ + f 1 dZ + f 1 dZ .
EA
GI
EI
X
X
l
l
l

93

, - ,
:
, .
, .
4.8. (.4.12,).

=20EIx/ l 2.

. 4.12
. .

( ), , ,
. , (.4.12,).
.4.12,,
11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 .
M 1 M f

.4.12,,.

11 1 f X 1
11 =

4
EI X

1 f

1 l 2 l
2
13 l 3
(
)
1
1
+
[

]
=
,
l
l

2 2 3 2 20 EI l 2
30 EI X

X
qe l 4
2 1 l 1 qe l 2
,
l
=

2
=

EI X 2 2 2 2
4 EI X
X1 =

1 f 15
=
qe l .
11 26

.4.12,.
.
4.5.

, . ,

. .

94

4.9. , .4.13.
. ,
v = 1/ 4 .

.4.13
. .
, (.4.14,).
, ,
( N , M y , Q x ), . ,
( T , Q y ) .
M x = X 1 . .4.14,.

11 X 1 + 11 = 0 .
,
X 1 ,
, .
. :
I p = 2I x ,
.
G=

E
2
= E.
2(1 + ) 5

2
4
E 2 I X = EI X .
5
5

(.4.14,,).
1
[(1 l )l] + 1 [(1 l )1] = 9 l ,
11 =
EI X
GI p
4 EI X
GI p =

1 qe l 2
1 qe l 2
19 qe l 3

1
1

,
l
l

GI 2
3
2
24
EI
p
X

1 f 19
X1 =
= qe l .
11 54
.4.14,.
.
, .4.14,, (.4.14,).
(.4.14,),

1 f =

1
v1 =
EI X

1
EI X

2 qe l 2 8
1

2l l qe l 2 2l l

GI p
54
3 2

95

2
54 qe l l 2l = 0 .

,
,
(.4.14,)
, .

. 4.14
4.10.
(.4.15). - a .
. ,
(.416,). , ,
( M y , Q x , N ), .

M x .

.4.15

96

.
.4.16,. ,
(.4.16,)
X 1 X 2l = 0 .

11 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 1 f = 0 ,
21 X 1 + 22 X 2 + 2 f = 0 .

.4.16

(.4.15). v = 0,25 ,
E
2
G=
= E,
2(1 + v) 5

I t = 0,141a ;
4

a4
IX =
.
12

,
EI X
1,48 .
GI t

:
1
11 =
[(1 2l )1] + 2 [(1 l )1] = 4,96l ,
EI X
GI t
EI X
1
4,96l 3
1
2 2l 2l 1 GI [(2l l )1] = EI ,

t
X
1 1
12,21l 3
4 1
2 1
2 l l l + 2l 2l l +
[(l 2l )l + (2l l )2l] =
,
=
EI X 2
EI X
3 GI t
3 2
1 f = 0,
1
21 = 12 =
EI X

22

97

1 M l 1 M 1,98Ml 2
2 l +
.
2l l =
EI X 2 2 GI t 2
EI X
,
X 1 X 2l = 0 ,
.
M
,
X 2 = 0,27 .
X 1 = 0,27 M ;
l
.4.16,.
4.6.

2 f =



, .
, ,
.
.
4.11.
EI x (.4.17,).
. .
.4.17,. X 1

X 2 , , .
.4.17,.

11 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 1 f = 0 ,

21 X 1 + 22 X 2 + 2 f = 0 .
,
, , .
(.4.17,) ,
X 1 X 2 (.4.17,,).

2 l
1 l
11 = 22 =
, 12 = 21 =
,
3 EI x
6 EI x

1 f =

2
EI X

qe l 2 2 1
qe l 3

=
l

2 12 EI ,
8
3

X

2 qe l 2 1 1 1
1 qe l 3

q
=

.
l
ll
e

8 EI X

3 8 2 3 2

11
7
X 1 = qe l 2 ;
X 2 = qe l 2 .
60
30
X 1 X 2
, ,
(.4.17,,).
,
.
z 3 q z 4 96
19
( z l) 3
EI X v = D + Cz + qe l e + qe l

60
6
24 60
6

2 f =

1
EI X

98

69
( z 2l) 3 qe ( z 2l) 4 134
( z 3l) 3
qe l
+
+
qe l
.
60
6
24
60
6

. 4.17
.4.18. D C :
1) z = 0 v = 0 ,
D=0;

. 4.18
2) z = l

v = 0,

q l3
19
l3 q l 4
D = Cl + qe l e , C = e .
60
6
24
90
, z = 2l :
qe l 3
l3
19
8l 3 16qe l 4 96
EI X v =
2l + qe l

+ qe l = 0 .
90
60
6
24
60
6
4.12. c
EI x (4.19,).
. .
, .
, (.4.19,).
,
( ) X 1 .
.4.19,. X 1
.

99

11 X 1 + 1 f = 0 .

. 4.19
.4.19,,
, X 1 , - .4.19,.

Ml 2
l3
11 =
, 1 f =
.
3EI X
4 EI X

1 f
3M
X1 =
=
.
11
4 l
,
X 1 (.4.19.).

(.4.19,) (.4.19,)
(.4.19,)
2 1 M 1 1 M 1
Ml
c =
.
l
l =

EI X 2 2 3 2 4 6 8EI X
,
.4.19,. .4.19,.
1 1 M 1 M
Ml
c =
.
l 1
l 1 =

EI X 2 2 2 4 8 EI X
4.13. .4.20, EI x

M x .
. . ,

.
,
, , .
.

100

. ,

.
, .

. 4.20
.4.20,
.

11 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 1 f = 0 ,
21 X 1 + 22 X 2+ 2 f = 0 .
M 1 M 2 M f
.4.20,,,.

l
4l
11 =
; 22 =
;
3EI X
EI X

12 = 21

l
=
;
3EI X

1 f

Fl 2
;
=
8 EI X

2 f = 0 .

,
9
3
X 1 = Fl ;
X 2 = Fl
88
88
(.4.20,) ,
M f M 1 X 1 , M 2 X 2 :
M tot = M f + M 1 X 1 + M 2 X 2 .
,
.
4.7.
4.1. .
(.4.21,).
4.2. (.4.21,).
.
4.3. .
- (.4.22,).
4.4. .
(.4.22,).

101

.4.21
4.5. (.4.22,).
.
4.6.
(.4.23,). .

. 4.22
4.7.
(.4.23,), . .
.

.4.23.
4.8.
(.4.24,). .
4.9.
(.4.24,). .
4.10.
(.4.24,). .

.4.24

102

4.11.
2
(.4.25,,,), EI X = EAl .
4.12. , .4.26,,
. EI X = const .

.4.25

.4.26

103

5.
5.1.

: y , u , y , u
.

.
.
, .
eq 1 2 3 .
(.5.1,),

max
min

x + Z

Z
2
x
+ ,
2

(5.1)

2
.
(5.2)
x z
--, -

eq = 1 3
tg 2 =

eq

1
( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 3 1 ) 2 ,
2
= 1 k 3 ,

eq =

(5.3)

k = yt / yc k = ut / uc .
, ,
,
(.5.1,). ,
. eq
= M x / Wx = T / W p (.5.1,),

.5.1

yt = yc

,
: --

eq = 2 + 4 2 ,

eq = 2 + 3 2 .

104

(5.4)
(5.5)


M x2 + M y2
M tot
T
=
=
,
=
,
a
Wt = 2Wx ,
Wx
Wx
Wt
(5.7) (5.8) :

eq =

M x2 + M y2 + T 2
Wx

- ( ),

(5.6)

3
M x2 + M y2 + T 2
4
( )
eq =
(5.7)
Wx

.
1 k y
1+ k y
eq =
+
2 + 4 2 ,
(5.8)
2
2
k y = y / yc .

.:
1 ku
1 + ku
(5.9)
eq =
+
2 + 4 2 .
2
2
k u = ut / uc .
eq ,
,
[1,2].

ny =

yt
,
eq

(5.10)

nu =

yt
.
eq

(5.11)

eq,max adm .

(5.12)

.
5.2.
5.1. n y ,

.5.2,. yt = yc , F , d - ; l = 10d .
. (.5.2,)
(. 5.2.,,).
, . M x = 20 Fd , M y = 10 Fd ,
T = 2 Fd .
(.5.2,).
, . ,
a b (.5.2,).
,
, a b . ,
a b . .

105

tot = M x2 + M y2 .
a b
M x2 + M y2 10 5 Fd
M tot
=
=
.
=
Wx
Wx
(d 3 / 32)

T
2 Fd
=
=
.
Wt (d 3 / 16)

( 5.10)
3
M x2 + M y2 + T 2
114 F
4
eq = 2 + 3 2 =
=
.
Wx
d2

yt yt d 2
.
=
ny =
eq 114 F

.5.2
, (5.7), (5.6)
,
( ) .
5.2. a , .5.3,.
: adm = 200 ; l = 0,5 ; F = 5 ; qe = 2 10 4 /.
. (.5.3,).
, ,
1 2.
(.5.3,).
I
a ( 2a ) 3 2 4
2a 4 / 3 2 3
IX =
= a , Wx = x =
= a ,
12
3
y max
a
3
3
4
Iy
1
2a a
(a 4 / 6) a 3
a
a3
=
,
=
=
, Wt = 2a a 2 , = .
Iy =
Wy =
2
12
6
(a / 2)
3
x max
4

106

.5.3

1 2. 1 (.5.3,).

M y 3qe l 2
M x 3qe l 2
a ,b =
=
; a ,c =
=
.
Wt
Wy
a3
a3

2q l 2
T
a = 0;
c =
= e3 ;
b = c = 0,8 c ,
Wt
a
( - .2.3).
a (.5.3,). a ,
:
M
M
6q l 2
a = ab + ac = x + y = e3 ,
a = 0 .
Wx W y
a

eq ,a =
c (.5.3,):

1 = a ,

6q e l
.
a3

3qe l 2
2q e l 2
,

=
.
c
a3
33
,
q l2
4,59qe l 2
eq ,c = c2 + 3 c2 = e 3 9 + 3 4
.
a
a3
b (.5.3,):
3qe l 2
b = a ,b = 3 = c ,
b <c .
a

= ac =

107

, eq ,b < eq ,c , , b
, c .
, 1 a :
6q l 2
eq ,a = e3 .
a
2 (.5.3,). :
M y 3qe l 2
M
3 qe l 2
a,b = x =
;

=
=
.
a , c
Wx 2 a 3
Wy
a3
:
q l2
T
c =
= 4 e 3 ; b < c .
Wt
a
a

a = ab + ac = 4,5

qe l
<a,
a3

.. a , a .
b , c , ..
b , c . c :
3q l 2
4q l 2
= ac = e3 ,
c = e3 ,
a
a
2
ql
eq ,c = c2 + 3 c2 = 7,55 e 3 ,
eq ,c > eq ,a .
a
, c 2. a
, c
q l2
eq ,c adm 7,55 e 3 adm .
a
,
7,55 2 10 4 0,25 10 2
=
4,35 10 2 . a = 45 .
a=
8
adm
2 10
5.3. , .5.4,.
: yt = yc = 250 ; M = 500 ; am = 25 10 3 ; v = 0,25 .
3

7,55qe l 2

.
, , ,
. ,
.
.
,
, .
.5.10,. ,
.
(.5.11).
.
t ( 2a m ) 3 a m t 3
am4
10 3
2
,
Ix = 2
+
+ am ta m = am t =
12
3
12
3
Wx =

(a 4 / 3) am3
Ix
= m
=
,
3
y max
am

108

It =

4 A 2 4(2am2 ) 2 t 8 3
4
=
= am t = am4 ,
dS
6a m
3
15
t
2
Wa = 2 At = 2 2 am2 t = am3 .
5

.5.4
:
a m4
EI x
25
3
=
=
.
2
4
GI t
8
E am4
3 15
E

E
E
2
=
= E;
2(1 + v)
1 5
21 +
4
x1 x2
11 x1 + 12 x2 + 1 f = 0 ;
G=

21 x1 + 22 x2 + 2 f = 0 .

x1 = 1 x2 = 1 (.5.4,,,) .
-,
:

109

11 =

1
91 l 3
2 1

+
[

]
=
,
l
l
l
l
l
l

24 EI x
3 GI t

1
[(1 l )1] + 1 [1 l 1] = 33 l ,
=
EI x
GI t
8 EI x

2
EI x

22

1 1
l2

,
1
l
l

EI x 2
2 EI x

1
28 Ml 2
l3 1
[
(
)
]
=

,
M
M
l
l
l

EI x
2 4 GI x
8 EI x
2 f = 0 .

12 = 21 =

1 f

, 1 2
112
924 M
M
0,938 ,
x2 =
M 0,114M .
x1 =
985
l
985 l
.5.4,.
1 2. 1 (.5.4,).
, .
a b ,
(.5.4,).
M
0,824M
M
a = x = 3
2,47 3 ,
(am / 3)
Wx
am
T 0,062M
M
a =
=
0,155 3
3
0,4am
Wt
am

M
eq ,a = 2 + 3 2 = 2,48 3 .
am
a ( a ) 2
M
0,53M
M
a = x = 3
1,59 3 .
Wx (am / 3)
am
T 0,114M
M
a =
=
0,285 3 ,
3
0,4am
Wt
am
M
eq ,a = 3 + 3 2 = 1,67 3 .
am
eq ,a > eq.a , a 1.

a 1
500
M
eq ,a = 2,48 3 = 2,48
= 79,6 .
(2,5 10 2 ) 3
am

yt 250
ny =
=
3,1 .
eq 79,6
5.4. , , M
p (.5.5,). n y . : M = 30

; p = 150 ; d = 10 ; yt = 300 ; yc = 400 .


. 1-1 (.5.5,) , .
a (.5.5,):
1 = 0 ,
2 =3 = p .

110

a (5.3)
300
eq ,a = 0
(150) = 112,5 .
400

.5.5
2-2 (.5.5,).
b (.5.5,):
T
(1,2d ) 3
max =
, W p =
,
16
Wp
30 16
= 88,4 .
(1,2 10 2 ) 3
(.5.5,)

max =

FZ = 0,

[(1,2d )
4

d 2 +2

(1,2d ) 2
4

= 0,

d 2
Z = p 1
= 0,306 p = 45,8 .
1,2d
(.5.5,) ,
r = 150 ,
(5.1)
2

150 45,8
150 + 45,8
2
max
=

+ 88,3 = 97,9 103 .
min
3
2

, 1 > 2 > 3 ,
1 = 5,1 ; 2 = 150 ;
3 = 201 .
b
eq ,b = 5,1 0,75(201) = 156 .
eq ,b > eq ,c ,
ny =

yt 300
=
= 1,9 .
eq ,b 156

111

5.5. F p ,
.5.6,. . : F = 7 ; p = 10 ; l = 1,5 ; a = 1 ; D = 20 = 100 ; yt = yc .

1. F
M x (.5.6,). ,

M x = Fl = 10,5 ;
T = Fa = 7 .
a (.5.6,)
Mx
D 2
max =
,
,
Wx =
4
Wx

max

10,5 10 3 4 20
=
= 267 .
(0,1) 3

T
,
Wp

D 2

7 10 3 2 20
= 89,1 .
(0,1) 3
2
2. p (.5.6,)

Wp =

m t . .
a (.5.6,)
pD 10 20
pD 10 20
=
= 50 ,
=
= 100 .
m =
t =
4
4
2
2
3. a (5.8,)
Z = max + m = 267 + 50 = 317 ,
x = t = 100 .

= 0 ,
(5.1)
2

max
min

317 + 100
317 100
2


+ 89,1 = 208,5 140,4 .
2
2

1 = 348,9 ;

2 = 68,1 ;

3 = 0 .

a (5.3)
1
( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2 = 320 .
=
2
5.3.

5.1. (.5.7,). : y = 400 ;

M = 15Fd m ; d m = 40 10 3 ; F = 0,5 .
5.2. (.5.7,). l = 10bm ; F = 1
; bm = 20 10 3 ; y = 500 .
5.3. (.5.8,) ?
, yt = yc .
5.4. ,
(.5.8,), ,

.
?

112

.5.7

. 5.8
5.5.
(.5.8,) h a .
,
p ? E v .
5.6. a (.5.9,). : F = 5 ;
l = 0,5 ; adm = 200 .
5.7. b (.5.9,). : l = 0,5 ;
yt = 400 ; yc = 500 ; n y = 2 ; v = 0,3 ; F = 5 ;
5.8. bm (.5.10,). : l = 500 ;

qe = 10 4 /; yt = 400 ; yc = 500 ; n y = 2 .

.5.9

.5.10

5.9. M adm

(.5.10,). : v = 0,3 ; adm = 150 ; d = 3 10 2 .

113

6. -
6.1.

-
, ,
[3].
.
,
.
,
. ()
. .
, .
.

,
( ,
). .
, ,
.

:
2 EI min
(6.1)
,
Fcr =
2
( l )
; I min -
; l - ; - .

.
,
, ,
1
= ,
n
n - , .
.6.1
.

.6.1
(6.1) ,
. , ,
:

114

cr pr
cr =
imin =

Fcr
A

2E
pr ,
2

- ;

(6.2)

Ml
- ;
imin

I min
- .
A
(6.2),

pr =

pr

pr :
(6.3)

pr ,

(6.1).
,
:

r = yc ( yc pr )

2
.
2pr

(6.4)

cr .6.2.

.6.2
6.1.

(.6.3).

.6.3
a = 1 .
n = 1 / 2
=2.
n = 2 =2.
= 2 . .

Fcr =

2 EI min 2 EI min 2 EI min


=
=
.
( l) 2
(2 2 l) 2
16l 2

115

2- n = 2 ,
= 1 / 2 .
6.2. , .6.4,.
.
EIv1 = Fv1 ,
0 z l/2.

EIv 2 = Ff ,

l/2 z l.

.6.4

F
= k 2 ,
EI
v1 + k 2 v1 = 0 ,
v2 = k 2 f .


v1 = C1 sin kz + C 2 cos kz ,
1
v2 = k 2 fz 2 + C3 z + C 4 .
2

:
z=0
z = l/2

v1 = 0 , C 2 = 0 .

v1 = v2 = f ,
v1 = v 2 ,

z=l
v2 = 0 .
,
( f )
kl
sin C1 + 0 C3 + 0 C4 1 f = 0 ,
2
2
l
2 l
0 C1 + C3 + 1 C 4 (k
+ 1) f = 0 ,
2
8
kl
k 2l
k cos C1 1 C3 + 0 C 4 +
f = 0,
2
2
0 C1 + 1 C3 + 0 C4 k 2 l f = 0 .

: C1 = C 2 =C 3 = C 4 = f = 0 . v
.
,
.

,
kl kl
ctg = .
2
2

116

sin

kl
2

-1

l2
1
0
l/2
(k
+ 1)
8
=0.
kl
k 2l
k cos
-1
0
2
2
0
1
0
k 2l
, . ,

kl / 2 0,86 .

2 EI
2 EI
2 EI
=
=
,
Fcr =
2
(1,826l) 2 ( l) 2

l

1,72
= 1,826 .
6.3. ,
(.6.5,).
2

.6.5
.
(.6.5,:
Ff
3EIv1 = Fv1 +
z,
0 z l/2.
l
Ffl
EIv2 =
(l z ) ,
l/2 z l .

v1 = C1 sin kz + C 2 cos kz +

f
z,
l

f (l z ) 3
v2 = 3k
+ C3 z + C 4 ,
l
6
2

0 z l/2.
l/2 z l . k2 =

z=0

v1 = 0 ,

z = l/2

v1 = v2 = f ,

z=l

v2 = 0 .

F
.
3EI

v1 = v 2 ,

,
Ci f :
0 C1 + 1 C 2 + 0 f + 0 C3 + 0 C 4 = 0 ,
kl
kl
1
sin C1 + cos C 2 f + 0 C3 + 0 C 4 = 0 ,
2
2
2

117

k 2l 2
l
) f + C3 + 1 C 4 = 0 ,
16
2
kl
kl
1
3
k cos C1 k sin C2 + (1 k 2 l 2 ) f 1 C3 + 0 C4 = 0 .
2
2
2
8
0 C1 + 0 C2 + 0 f + l C3 + 1 C 4 = 0
,
:
0
1
0
0 0
kl
kl
1
sin
cos

0 0
2
2
2
l 1
1
(1 + k 2 l 2 )
0
0
=0.
16
2
1
3
kl
kl
(1 k 2 l 2 ) -1 0
k cos
k sin
8
2
2
2
0
0
0
l 1
,
kl
(kl / 2)
tg =
.
2 (kl / 2) 2 3
kl

1,68 .
2
EI
Fcr 16,93 2 .
l
6.4. c
, .6.6,.
0 C1 + 0 C2 (1 +

.6.6

.
EIv = F ( f v) cf (l z )
v + k 2 v = k 2 f

cf
cf
l+
z,
EI
EI

k2 =

F
.
EI


cf
cf
l+ 2 z.
2
k EI
k EI
,
:
z=0
v = 0,
z=0
v = 0 ,
z=l
v= f .
v = A sin kz + B cos kz + f

118

,
A, B, f :
Cl
B + (1 2 ) f = 0 ,
k EI
C
kA + 2 f = 0 .
k EI
A sin kl + B cos kl = 0 .
(.., ,
)
l
(1 2 )
0
1
k EI
=0.
C
0
k
2
k EI
sin kl
cos kl
0
,

kl , c
EI
tgkl = kl (kl) 3 3 .
Cl
.6.7,

.
c .
c kl 4,49
Fcr =

c 0 kl =

2 EI

(0,7 l) 2

Fcr =

2 EI

.
(2l) 2
( kl )
cl 2
c =
.6.7,.
EI
6.5. ,
.6.8,.
.

.6.7

119

.
(.6.8,).
, .6.8,.

.6.8

. ,
(.6.8,).
,
(.6.8,).
-
cl
=
.
EI
= 1 ,
EI
c=
.
l
,
(.6.8,,).
,
.
c
EIv = Fv + c
z.
l

c
c z
v = A sin kz + B cos kz + 2 2 ,
k EI k EI l

F
k 2 = cr ,
EI

z=0
v = 0,
z=0
v = ,
z=l
v = 0.
,
A, B, :

120


c
=0
0 A + 1 B + 2 = 0 ,
2
k EI
k EI
c
c

k A 2
=,
) = 0 ,
k A + 0 B (1 + 2
k l EI
k l EI
A sin kl + B cos kl = 0 .
sin kl A + cos kl B + 0 = 0 .
,
c(kl)
.
tgkl =

2 EI
c + (kl) ( l )
B+

c =

EI
,
l
tgkl =

kl
.
1 + (kl) 2

kl 3,4 .
(.6.9,).
.

(.6.9,).
1 1 2 cl
=
.
cl =
EI 2 3 3EI
, = 1 ,
3EI
c=
.
l
(.6.9,)
E I v = F v .

v = A sin kz + B cos kz ,

k2 =

Fcr
.
EI

.6.9

z=0
z=l
z=l

v = 0,
v= f ,
v = .

121

B=0 ,
f = A sin kl ,
= Ak cos kl .
2
, c = Fcr f c = k E I f .

(sin kl) A 1 f + 0 = 0 ,
(k cos kl) A + 0 f 1 = 0 ,
0 A + k 2 EI f c = 0 ,
3
tgkl = , kl = 1,2 .
kl
, , .

1,44 EI
kl = 1,2 ,
.
Fcr =
l2

6.2.

,
(6.5)
U =W ,
U - ,
; W - .
1
(6.6)
U = EI (v) 2 dz ,
2l

W = Fcr ,

v( z ) - ;
,

- Fcr ,
=

1
(v) 2 dz .

2l

(6.8)

1
EI (v) 2 dz

2
.
Fcr = l
(6.9)
1
2
(v ) dz

2l
, , .6.10,
W = Fcr .
:
l
1 0
= (v) 2 dz .
20

v( z ) ,
( )
( ). ,
v( z ) .
.
6.6. (.6.10,), EI = const .

122

.6.10
. , ,
, :
z=0
v = 0,
v = 0 ,
z=l
v = 0 , v = 0 .
v = 0 - . ,

dM d
Q=
= ( EIv) = EIv = 0 .
dz dz
(.6.10,)
z
v = A(1 cos )
l

z
v = A( ) sin ,
l
l

z
v = A( ) 2 cos ,
l
l
3 z
v = A( ) sin .
l
l
,
.
(6.9). ,

l
l
EI
EI 2 4 l
1

z
2

U = EI (v ) dz =
A 2 ( ) 4 cos 2 dz =
A ( ) ,

20
2 0
2
l
l
l 2

l
2

l
2

1
(v)2 dz = 1 A 2 ( ) 2 sin 2 z dz = 1 A 2 ( ) 2 l .

l 0
l
l 4
20
2
2

,
2 2 EI
.

l2
6.7. , .6.11,.
.
z = 0, v = 0,
l
z = , v = 0,
2
z = 0 , v = 0 ,
z =l,
v = 0 .
( EIv = M ).
Fcr =

123

.6.11
:
v = a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 + a3 z 3 + a4 z 4 .
.
, v( z ) , (..
).
:
z = 0,
v = 0:
a0 = 0 .
z = 0,
v = 0 : a 2 = 0 .
l
l
l3
l4
a1 + a3 + a4
= 0.
, v = 0:
2
8
16
2
z =l,
v = 0 : 6a3 l + 12a4 l 2 = 0 .

z=

3
a1 = l 3 a 4 .
8

a3 = 2la4 ,

v = a4 l 3 z 2lz 3 + z 4 ,
8

2
v = a4 12lz + 12 z = 12a4 z ( z l ) ,
.
(6.9)
l
l
EI
EI
12
2

=
U=
(
v
)
dz
144a 42 z 2 ( z 2 2lz + l 2 )dz = 72 EIa42 = a 42 EIl 5 ,

2 0
2 0
5

1
1
3

= (v) 2 dz = a42 l 3 6lz 2 + 4 z 3 dz = 0,438a42 l 7


20
2 08

EI
.
l2
.
,

z=0
v = 0,
l
v = 0,
z=
2
v = a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2
,
Fcr 5,48

124

v = a2 z z ,
2

l
EI
EI 2
U=
(v ) 2 dz =
4a 2 l = 2 EIa 22 l

2 0
2
l

a 22
l
1
7 2 3
2

=
(
v
)
dz
a2 l ,
2 z dz =

20
2 0
2
24
U
EI
Fcr = = 6,86 2 ,

l
25,3%.
6.8. (.6.12,)
EI .
. . ,
,
Q ( .6.12,,).
, (6.5), (6.7),(6.8).
Q

2l

2l

M 2 dz
M 2 dz
1
1 Q
Q 2l3
2
+

=
.
U = x + x 1 =
(
Qz
)
dz
z
dz

1
1
2 EI
2 EI
2 EI 0
2 EI 0 2
2 EI

0
0

v z
, (.6.12,,)
1 1
Q
2
z+l
v =
(7 l 2 3 z 2 ) .
Ql 2l + 1(l z )
Q =

EI 2
3
2 6 EI
F (6.8)

. 6.12

1
Q
23 Q 2 l 5
2
4
2 2
4

.
=

+
=
(
v
)
dz
(
49
42
z
9
z
)
dz
l
l
2 0
45 ( EI ) 2
72( EI ) 2 0

23 Q 2 l 5
.
45 ( EI ) 2
(6.5)
0,978EI
.
Fcr =
l2
W = Fcr = F

125

6.3.

,
, ,
,
N adm = ( ) adm A ,

N adm - ; adm ; A - ; ( ) , .
.6.1.
.
6.9. , .6.13,,
. : .3; adm = 160
; yc = 250 ; pr = 220 ; l = 0,5 ; d = 40 .

.6.13
. =

i=

1
(. 6.1).
2
d 4
I
64 = d = 10 2 .
A 4

4

0,5 0,5
= 25 .
10 2

i
.6.1.

( ) 0,95 . , 6.10

F
=N
=
A = 0,95 160 10 6 1256 10 6 = 190 .
adm
adm
adm
,

E
2 1011

95 .
=
=
lim
8

2
,
2
10
pr
, ,
(6.4)

126

cr = yc ( yc pr )

2
25
= 250 (250 220) 248 ,
2
pr
95

Fcr = cr A = 248 10 6 1256 10 6 312 .



ncr = Fcr / Fadm = 312 / 190 1,6
6.1
- ( II-2381)

.3.
.5.
0
1.000
1.000
10
0.988
0.984
20
0.970
0.956
30
0.943
0.916
40
0.905
0.866
50
0.867
0.810
60
0.820
0.740
70
0.770
0.650
80
0.715
0.570
90
0.655
0.482
100
0.582
0.396
110
0.512
0.325
120
0.448
0.273
130
0.397
0.232
140
0.348
0.198
150
0.305
0.173
160
0.270
0.153
170
0.240
0.137
180
0.216
0.122
190
0.196
0.108
200
0.175
0.098
210
0.160
0.089
220
0.146
0.081
6.10. , .6.13,,
. : F = 250 ; l = 1 ; adm = 160 ; .3;
yc = 250 ; pr = 220 .
. : ,
, .

F
250 10 3
A
=
= 1,56 10 3 3, A = 15,6 2.
adm 160 10 6
. 16 ( 8240-72): A1 = 18,1 2;
imin .1 = 1.87 . = 2 .
2 1
l
=
=
107 .
imin,1 1,87 10 2

127

.6.1., , 0,53 . ,
Fadm ,1 = 1 adm A = 0,53 160 10 6 18,1 10 4 153 .
Fadm ,1 < F , .
. 20: A2 = 23.4 2; imin, 2 = 2,2 .

2 1
l
2 =
=
91 .
imin, 2 2,2 10 2
Fadm , 2 F ( 1,84%), , 20
.
,
E

2 = 91 < lim =

pr

2 1011
95 ,
2,2 108

(6.4)
2

2
91
cr = yc ( yc pr ) 2 = 250 (250 220) 222 .
pr
95
Fcr = cr A = 222 10 6 23,4 10 4 519 .
F
519
= 2,1.
ncr = cr =
F
250
6.11. (.6.14,), F , : 1)

; 2)
. :
F = 200 ; l = 1 ; . 3; pr = 200 ; yc = 300 ; adm,c = 160
.

.6.14
. 1. .

R3l Fcr f = 0
M0 = 0 ,

Fcr f
.
3l

EI min v = M .
R=

128

1 ( 0 z 2l )

E 2 I min v1 = Fcr v1 + Rz = Fcr v1 +


z
,
3l

v1 + 2 v1 = 2 f

Fcr f
z,
3l

Fcr
.
2EI min

z
v1 = C1 sin z + C 2 cos z + f .
3l
Fcr f
2 (2l z 3l) EI min v2 = R(3lz ) =
(3l z ) ,
3l
2f
v2 = 2
(3l z ) .
3l
,
2 f

v2 =
(3l z ) 2 + C3 ,
3l
2
f
v2 =
(3l z ) 3 + C3 z + C 4 .
9
1, 2, 3, 4 :
1) z = 0 ,
v1 = 0 ;
v1 = f ;
2) z = 2l ,
3) z = 2l ,
v1 = v2 ;

2 =

4) z = 2l ,
5) z = 3l ,
() z = 0 v1 = 0 , C 2 = 0 .
() z = 2l v1 = f , C1 =
C1

2 f

( )

v2 = f ;
v2 = 0 .

f
3l

f
.
3 sin 2l
3l
5 C 4 = 3C3 l , 4
v1 =

( )

f
.
3 sin 2l

v1 = C1 cosz +

(a)

cos z +

( )

1
l 2 + C3 2l + C 4 = 2 l 2 f C3 l ,
9
9
f
1

C3 = lf + .
l
9
C 3 () 3, () () z = 2l
f
f 2
f
cos 2l + = 2 lf .
3 sin 2l
3l 9
l
,
3l
3(2l)
tg 2l =
tg 2l =
.
2
2(l) 12
(2l) 2 24
f =

129


=
2

l = 3 , 49 .

Fcr
3,49 2 EI min
, Fcr =
,
l2
2 EI min
2

Fcr = 24,4
( )
Fcr =

EI min
l2

()

2 EI min
,
( 3l) 2

= 0,212 .

1
2. . A = a 2 ,
2

1
I min = I y = a 4 ,
72

imin =

I min
a4 2 1
=
= a.
A
72 a 2 6

F = adm ,c A

= 1 ,
A=

adm,c

200 10 3
= 1,25 10 3 2,
6
160 10

a = 2 A = 2 1,25 10 3 = 5 10 2 .
, a = 0,06 .
1
i = 6 10 2 = 1 10 2 ,
6

3l 0,212 3 1`
=
=
64 .
1 10 2
i
.6.1 1 = 0,82

1
Fadm ,1 = 0,82 160 10 6 (6 10 2 ) 2 = 236 .
2
Fadm ,1 F ,
a = 55 .

1
1
i = a = 55 10 3 = 9,17 10 3 .
6
6

3l

0,212 3 1
70 ,
i
0,917 10 2
6.1 2 = 0,81

130

Fadm, 2

1
F = adm, 2 = 0,81160 10 6 (5,5 10 2 ) 2 = 196 .
2
F , a = 55 .

ncr = F cr / F .
Fcr
> lim
, = 70

lim =

2E
2 2 1011
=
= 100 ,
pr
200 10 6


A ,
Fcr = yc ( yc pr )

lim
2

70
6
4
3
Fcr = 10 300 (300 200)
15,2 10 = 382 10 .
100

ncr = 381 / 200 1,91 .

6.4.
6.16.6.
(.6.15,,,,,,),
, .
6.7. ,
(.6.16,).
6.8. ,
(.6.16,), .
.6.96.10.
(.6.16,,).

.6.15

131

.6.16
6.116.12. ,
(.6.17,,).
6.136.14.
(.6.17,,).

.6.17

132

7. .
7.1.
7.1.1.

.
, , [1].
,
. , ,
.
, . ,
.
,
:
1. . , ,
, ,
.
.
2. . , ,
, ,
.

-.
.7.1, h , ,
Z . ,
Z .
w , (.7.1,).
(.7.1,).

.7.1
(.7.1,)

Qr

[/]; M r M t - [/].
, ..
. Q
(.7.1,),
:

d
M r = D
+v ,
r
dr

(7.1)

133

M t = D + v
,
dr
r
D =

Eh 3
.
12(1 v 2 )

r t , .7.1,,
:
12M
r = 3 r z ,
h
(7.2)
12M t
t = 3 z .
h
z = h / 2 .
6M
r max = 2 r ,
h

t max

6M
= 2t .
h

(7 3)

(+) (-) .
,
r .
.

1
= c r + c [r Qdr ]dr ,
(7.4)
1
2r
1 2- .
c1 c 2 ,
,
.
.7.2 Q (
Q .7.1,,) .
(7.4) , (7.1)
M r M t , w
dw
=
.
(7.5)
dr
w .

F
Fz = 0 Q = 2r .
: r = 0 , = 0 ; r = R , = 0 .

r
Fz = 0 , + Q2r + P 2r2 = 0 Q = r2 P .
: r = r1 , M r = 0 ;

r = r2 , M r = M .


(r22 r 2 )
Fz = 0 , + Q2r + (r r ) = 0 Q = 2r .
:
r = r1 , = 0 ;
2
2

134

r = r2 , M r = 0 .

.7.2
7.1.2.
7.1. , .7.3,
M r M t ,

, . : r1 = a ; r2 = b = 3a ;
2

h = (1 / 20)a ; k y = 1 ; v = 0,3 ; t e = pa .

.7.3
.
(7.1)
d
d
+v
M r = D
,
()
dr
dr
.

c
1
()
= c1r + 2
r Qdr dr ,
r Dr
Eh 3
D =
; c1 c2 -
12(1 v 2 )
.
(.7.3,)
Q :

135

= 0,

Q 2r p (r 2 a 2 ) = 0 ,
Q=

p(r 2 a 2 )
2r

( )

() (),
r
r
c2
1 ( pr 2 a 2 )
r
dr dr .

r Dr a a
2r

,
c2
r
r 4 a4

4a 2 r ln ,
= c1r +
r 16 D r
a

= c1r +

c
d
r
2 a4
3r + 2 4a 2 4a 2 ln .
= c1 22
a
dr
16 D
r
r
c1 c2 :

r = a,

Mt = m ;
Mr = 0;

r = b = 3a ,

c2
pa 2
c1 (1 + v) 2 (1 v) =
,
a
D

c
p 2
a4
b
c1 (1 + v) 22 (1 v)
b
(
3
+
v
)
+
(1 v) 4a 2 4a 2 ln (1 + v) = 0

2
b
16 D
b
a

2
pa 2
=
,
a2
D
c2 pa 2
pa 2
1,3c1 0,077 2
18,72
0,3 4,499 = 0 ,
a 16 D
16 D
pa 2
pa 4
C1 = 0,985
; c2 = 0,401
.
D
D
a2
r
pa 2
0,985 + 0,463 2 + 0,25 ln ,
=
r
D
a
r
1,31 0,7

()

d pa 2
a2
r2
r
1,235 0,463 2 0,1875 2 + 0,25 ln .
=
dr
D
a
r
a
() ()

a2
r2
r
M r (r ) = pa 2 1,53 0,324 2 0,206 2 + 0,325 ln ,
a
r
a

M r (a ) = pa 2 ;

M r (3a ) = 0 ;

M r max (1,3a) = 1,075 pa 2 .

a2
r2
r

M t (r ) = pa 1,35 + 0,324 2 0,118 2 + 0,325 ln ,


a
r
a

2
2
M r (3a) = 0,679 pa ;
M t (a) = 1,56 pa
2

M t (1,3a) = 1,43 pa 2 ; M t (2a) = 1,18 pa 2


M r M t (. 7.3,).

136

eq = 1 k y 3 ,

ky =

yt
= 1.
yc

(.7.3,):
6M t 6 1,5 pa 2
6M r
6 pa 2
r = 2 =
= 2400 p ;
t = 2 =
= 3744 p .
2
2
h
h
a
a


20
20
:
1 = 3744 p ; 2 = 2400 p ; 3 = 0 .
:
eq ,max = eq , A = 3744 p .
r = a :
3a

w = dr ,

w = dr

3a

c
p r a
r

4a 2 r ln dr =
w = c1r + 2
a
r 16 D r
a
r2
p r4
r2 r
a 4 ln r 4a 2
= c1
+ c 2 ln r
ln +
16 D 4
2 a
2
3a

+ 4a 2

r 2 3a
9a 2 a 2
3a
= c1
+ c2 ln
a
4a
2

3a
3a
9a 2 a 2
p 81a 4 a 4

;
a 4 ln
4a 4 4,5 ln
+ 4a 2
16 D
4
4
a
a

pa 4
pa 4
pa 4
pa 2
2
(1,25 0,068 1,23 + 0,5) = 3,93 .
4a + 0,401
1,098
w = 0,985
D
D
D
D
4
pa
w(a) = 3,93
.
D
7.2. .7.4, ,
,
r = a. : b = 3a; d = 5a; h = (1/10)a; ky = 1; v = 0,3.
.
. :

d
d

M ri = Di i + v i ;
M ti = Di i + v i ,
r
dr
dr
r
- ,

c
1
i = c1i r + 2i
r
Q
dr

dr ,
i
r Di r r r

i - .
: I ( a r b ) II ( b r d ).
I
c
Eh 3
1
I = c1I r + 2 I
r
Q
dr
dr
;
.
D
=
I
I
12(1 v 2 )
r
DI r

137

.7.4
(.7.4,)
QI = 0 .

c
dI
c
I = c1I r + 2 I ;
= c1I 22I .
r
dr
r
II
c
1
II = c1II r + 2 II
r QII dr dr ;
DII = DI = D .
r
DII r
(.7.4,)
b
QII = P .
Fz = 0 ; QII 2r P 2b = 0 ,
r

r
r
c
1
b
II = c1II r + 2 II
r
P dr dr ,

r
Dr b b r
c
Pb r 2 r r 2 b 2
ln
.
II = c1II + 2 II
4
r
Dr 2 b

II
r

= c1II +

c2 II Pb
r
b2

+
2
ln
1
r 2 4 D
b
r 2

dI dII
.
=
dr
dr
1) c1I a +

()

dII
c
Pb
r
b2
2 ln + 1 2 .
= c1II 22II
dr
r
4D
b
r


d
d
DI I + v I = DII II + v II
r r =b
r r =b
dr
dr

Fz = 0

c2 I
= 0,
a

138

()

c2 I
c
= c1II b + 2 II ,
b
b
c2 I
c2 II
3) c1I 2 = c1II 2 ,
b
b
c2 II Pb d 2 d d 2 b 2
ln
= 0.
4) c1II d +

4
d
Dd 2
b
,
c1I = c1II = c1 ,
c2 I = c2 II = c2 ;
2) c1I b +

Pa
Pa 3
,
c2 = 0,297
.
D
D
() ():
I
Pa
Pa
Pa a 3
1 ,
= 0,297
0,297 2 = 0,297
r
D
D r 2
Dr
c1 = 0,297

dI
Pa
Pa 3
Pa
a2
= 0,297
+ 0,297 2 = 0,297
(1 + 2 ) ,
dr
D
Dr
D
r
3
II
Pa
Pa
Pb
r
b2
2 ln 1 + 2 ,
= 0,297
0,297 2
r
D
4D
b
Dr
r
d II
Pa
Pa 3 Pb
r
b2
2 ln + 1 2 .
= 0,297
+ 0,297 2
dr
D
4D
b
Dr
r
I:


a2
d
M rI = D I + v I = 0,297 Pa (1 + v ) + (1 v ) 2 ,
r
r
dr

d
a2

M tI = D I + v I = 0,297 Pa (1 + v ) (1 v ) 2 ,
dr
r
r

M rI ( a ) = 0, 297 Pa (1,3 0,7 ) = 0,594 Pa ,


M tI (a) = 0,297 Pa(1,3 0,7) = 0,178Pa ;

M rI (3a) = 0,297 Pa1,3 + 0,7 = 0,409 Pa ,


9

M tI (3a ) = 0,297 Pa1,3 0,7 = 0,369 Pa .


9

II:

Pa 3
d
M rII = D II + v II = 0,297 Pa(1 + v) + 0,297 2 (1 v)
r
r
dr

M tII

1 r
b2
3Pa ln (1 + v) + 0,25(1 v) 0,25 2 (1 v) ;
r

2 b
3
d
Pa

= D II + v II = 0,297 Pa (1 + v) 0,297 2 (1 v)
dr
r
r
2

1 r
b
3Pa ln (1 + v) 0,25(1 v) + 0,25 2 (1 v) ;
r

2 b

M tII (3a) = 0,362 Pa ;


M tII (5a) = 0,280 Pa .

M rII (3a ) = 0,409 Pa ;


M rII (5a ) = 0,936 Pa ;

139

eq = 1 k y 3 ,

ky =

yt
= 1.
yc

(.7.4,):
6M
P
6 0,936
r = 2r =
Pa = 562 ,
2
a
h
a

10
6M
P
6 0,280
t = 2 t =
Pa = 168 .
2
h
a
a

10
:
P
P
1 = 562 ;
2 = 1`68 ; 3 = 0 .
a
a
:
P
eq ,max = eq , A = 562 .
a
r = a .
I
r

wI = c3 I I dr .
b

II
r

wII = c3 II II dr .
b

c3 I c3 II :
r =b,
wI = wII ;
r=d,
wII = 0 .
d

, c3 I = c3 II = c3 c3 = II dr ;
b

5a
c2 Pb r 2 r r 2 b 2
dr ,

c3 = c1r +
ln

r
Dr
b
2
4
3a

Pa 25a 2 9a 2
Pa 3 5
c3 = 0,297

0,297
ln
D
2
D
3
2
2
2
2
5 25a 9a
9a
5
P3a 25a
Pa 3
.
ln
ln
= 1,22

+
3
3
4
4
D 4
D
r = a :
a
Pa 3 b
wI = c3 I dr = 1,22
+ I dr ,
D
a
b
3a
c
Pa 3 r 2
Pa 3
Pa3 b
9a 2 a 2
wI = 1,22
+ c1r + 2 dr = 1,22
+ c1
+ c2 ln r
= 1,22
+ c1
+ c2 ln 3

a
D
D
D
r
2
2
a

3
Pa
wI (a ) = 2,08
.
D

140

7.3. (.7.5,) ,
,

. : b = 5a ; h1 = 2h ; h2 = h ; k y =

yt
= 1 ; v = 0, 3.
yc

.

d
d

M ri = Di i + v i ,
M ti = Di i + v i .
r
dr
dr
r

c
1
i = 1r + 2
r Qi dr dr ,

r
Dr r r

i - .
1 (0 r a )
Q1
pr
(.7.5,) Fz = 0 , Q1 2r pr 2 = 0 Q1 =
.
2

c
1 r r pr
dr dr
1 = c1r + 2
r
r
D1r 0 0 2
c
pr 3
1 = c1r + 2
,
r

()

16 D1

c
3 pr 2
= c1 2
.
dr
r 2 16 D1

d 1

2 ( a r b )
(. 7.5,)

= 0,

Q2 2r pr 2 = 0 Q2 =

pr
.
2

2 = c3 r +

c4
pr 3

,
r 16D2

()

d2
c
3 pr
= c3 42
.
dr
r
16 D 2
2

c1 , c2 , c3 , c4 :

1) r = 0 ,

1 = 0 ;

2) r = a ,

1 = 2 ; 3) r = a ,



d
d
2 = 0 ;
D1 1 + v 1 = D2 2 + v 2 ; 4) r = b ,
a
a
dr
dr
E (2h2 ) 3
Eh23
D1 =
D
=
,
,
2
12(1 0,32 )
12(1 0,32 )
1) c1 = 0 ,
2) c1a

c
pa 3
pa 3
= c3 a + 4
,
16 D1
a 16 D2

3) D1c1 (1 + v) = D2 c3 (1 + v) 42 (1 v) ,
a

141

M r1 = M r 2 ,

D1 = 8D2 .

c4
pb 3

=0.
b 16 D2
2,3,4
c
pa 2
c1 = c3 + 42 0,437
,
a
D1
c
c1 = 0,125c3 0,00673 42 ,
a
2
c
pb
c3 = 0,5
42 .
D1 b
,
4
pa 2
pa 2
pa
c1 = 2,29
; c2 = 0 ;
3 = 12,9
;
4 = 10,17
.
D1
D1
D1
4) c3b +

c1 , c 2 , c3 , c 4 () (),

pa 2
pr 2
= 2,29
0,0625
,
r
D1
D1

d1
pa 2
pr 2
= 2,29
0,187
,
dr
D1
D1

pa 2
pa 4
pr 2
= 12,9
+ 10,17
0,5
,
r
D1
D1r 2
D1

d2
pa 2
pa 4
pr 2
= 12,9
+ 10,17
1,5
.
dr
D1
D1r 2
D1
1 :

pr 2
M r1 = D1 c1 (1 + v)
(3 + v) = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 0,206 pr 2 ;
16 D1

M r1 (0) = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 = 2,98 pa 2 ,


M r1 (a ) = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 = 2,77 pa 2 .
pr 2
M t1 = D1 [c1 (1 + v)
(1 + 3v)] = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 0,119 pr 2 ;
16 D1
M t (0) = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 = 2,98 pa 2 ,
M t (a) = 2,29 pa 2 1,3 0,119 pa 2 = 2,86 pa 2 .
2 :

c
pr 2
M r 2 = D2 c3 (1 + v) 42 (1 v)
(3 + v) ,
r
16 D2

12,9 2
10,17 4
pr 2
pa 1,3 +
pa

0
,
7

3,3 ,
8
8r 2
16
M r 2 (a ) = 2,77 pa 2 ; M r 2 (5a) = 33,02 pa 2 .

M r2 =

c
pr 2
M t 2 = D2 c3 (1 + v) + 42 (1 v)
(1 + 3v) ,
r
16 D2

2
12,9 2
10,17 4
pr
M t2 =
pa 1,3
pa 0,7
19 ,
2
8
8r
16
M t 2 (a) = 1,085 pa 2 ;
M t 2 (5a) = 0,91 pa 2 .

142

eq = 1 k y 3 ;

ky =

yt
=1
yc

(.7.5,):
6M
6M
pa 2
pa 2
t = 2 t = 5,46 2 ;
r = 2 r = 18,12 2 .
h
h
h
h

pa 2
pa 2
1 = 18,12 2 ;
2 = 5,46 2 ;
3 = 0 .
h
h
:
pa 2
eq ,max = eq , A = 18,12 2 .
h
:
r

w1 = c5 1dr ,

w2 = c6 2 dr .

c5 ,c6
r = a,
w1 = w2 ,

r

c5 = c6 .
r

w1 = c5 1dr ,

w2 = c6 2 dr .

c5 , c6

r = a,

w1 = w2 ,

5a

c6 = 2 dr ,

w2 = 0 ,

r = 5a ,

c5 = c6 ;
a

c
pr
pa 4
dr = c3 12a 2 + c4 ln 5
9,75 ,
c6 = c3 r + 4
r 16 D2
D2
a
pa 2
pa 4
pa 4
c6 = 12,9
12a 2 10,17
1,61
8 9,75 ,
D1
D1
D1
5a

c6 = 60,4

pa 4
.
D1

( r = 0 )
a
a
0
pr 3
pa 4
pa 4
pa 4
1 dr = 60,4
+ 1 dr =60,4
+ (c1 r
w1 = 60,4
)dr ,
D1 o
D1 0
D1 a
16 D1
pa 4
pa 4
pa 4
w1 = 60,4
+ 2,29

,
D1
2 D1 64 D1
pa 4
w1 = 61,5
.
D1
7.2.
7.2.1.

( , , ..)
.

143


,

.
, :
.

, , ,
.
.

:

t m
(7.6)
+
= ,
t m h
t m - ; t m -
;
; h - .
,
,
(.7.6,)
m 2rhSin = F .
(7.7) :
1. ,
,
, .
2. - ,
,
.
. .7.6,, ,
() .
F = r 2 .
.7.6,, , .
Z . ,
, . .7.6,
F = V , V . .7.6, ,
.
.7.6, Z ,
F = V , V - .

. , ,
.
7.2.2.
7.4. n y ,

, p = 5 10 5 (.7.7,). : R = 0 ,4 ;

= 45o ; h = 3 ,5 10 3 ; y = 200 .
. 1. . ,
(.7.7,).

144

m 2rhSin = pr 2 ,

= 0,

.7.6

m =

pr
pr
=
.
2hSin 2h

r = t Sin , m = t = R .
(7.6)
p
pR pR
t = t m t =
,

h
m
h
2h
pR
t =
.
2h
2. .
,
(.7.7,).
Fz = 0 , m 2Rh = pR 2 ,

pR
.
2h
pt = R .

m =

p m = ,
(7.6)

145

p t m t
pR

=
.
h
m
h
3. (.7.7,). z
,
. r ,
, , z : r = z tg .

m = ,
t = ztg / cos .

t =

.7.7

Fz = 0 , m 2rh cos = pr 2 ,

pr
ptg
m =
=
z.
2h cos 2h cos

p

p tg
t = t m t =
z.
h
m h cos
z = H
pH tg
pH tg
m =
,
t =
.
2h cos
h cos
.7.7, = 45 :
z = H . ,
,
pR
pR
1 = t =
2 , 2 =m =
2 , 3 = 0.
h
2h
. -- (
)
pR 2 5 105 0,4 2
eq = 1 3 =
=
= 8 10 7 /2=80
3
h
3,5 10
o

146

n y =

y 200
=
= 2,5 .
eq 80

:
.

1
1 v pR
.
t , = ( t v m ) =

E
E 2h

1
2 v pR
t , = ( t v m ) =

.
E
E
2h
,
.
.
7.5.
(.7.8,),
.
. z
tg
m =

t = z
.
cos

2
g 2
2 / 3H z H
p = 0.
0 z H ,
p = ( H z) .
3
3

.7.8
,
2
H zH.
3
p
t = t = 0 .
h
2
0 z H :
3
gtg 2
p

t = t =
H z z .
h
4 cos 3

147


z = H /3
gH 2tg
.
t max z = H / 3 =
9h cos

, z
.
2
0 z H (.7.8,).

3
1

2
Fz = 0 , m 2rh cos = g 3 H z r 2 + 3 g r 2 z ,
gtg
m =
( H z ) z . ( ).
3h cos
m
d m
gtg
1
=
= ( H 2 z ) = 0 z = H .
3h cos
2
dz
2
gH tg
.
m ,max 1 =
z = H
3
h
cos

2
H z H (.7.8,).
3

Fz = 0 ,

1 2
3 3

2
3

m 2rh cos = H tg Hg ,

4 gH 3tg
,
r = z tg .
81hz cos
m t .7.8,,.
7.6. (.7.9,),

m =

= 1 10 4 /3. : d = 1 ; H = 1
; = 45o . adm = 50 .
,

. (.7.9).
3
3

0 z d (.7.9,): p = 3H + d z ;
2
2

Ctg
= 45o ; r = zCtg ;
t = z
; m = .
Sin
3
3
d z 3H + d (.7.9,):
2
2
3
3
3

t = d ;
m = .
p = 3H + d z ; r = d ;
2
2
2

148

.7.9
3
3
3H + d z 4 H + d (.7.9,):
2
2
3
3
p = 0;
r= d;
t = d ;
m = .
2
2
m = , t
(7.6),
p
t = t .
()
h
3
0 z d .
2
3

3H + d z
2
zctg ( ).
()
t =
h
sin
d t
= 0 z , t

dz

3
3
z = H + d .
2
4
3
z > d t
2
3
z = d :
2
9 2 Hd
.
t ,max =
2
h
m ,
z (.7.9,).

149

m 2rhSin = r 2 z + r 2 3H + d z .
2

= 0,

3
2 zctg
3
2

3H + d z =
3H + d z .
2h sin
2
3 2h sin
2
3
m

m =

( )

d m
3
3
= 0 z = 3H + d .
dz
4
2
m .
3
z = d :
2
3dctg
3
2d 9
3

m,max =
H + d.
3H + d d =
4h sin
2
4
h 4

3
3
d z 3H + d .
2
2
t , (),

t =

3
2
h

3
2

3H + d z d

3
z= d
2

9 dH
;
2 h

()

,
3
z =3 H + d
2

= 0.

m
(.7.9,).

2
2
1 3 2 3
3
3
3
3
3

Fz = 0 , m 2 2 dh = 3 2 d 2 d + 2 d z 2 d + 2 d 3H + 2 d z .

d 9
3
m = H + d = const .
()
h 4
8
3
3
3H + d z 4 H + d .
2
2
() t = 0 .
m
(.7.9,).
,
3
1 3 2 3

3
3
F
=
0
,

3
+
dh
=
d
d
d
H

,
z
m
2
2
3 2 2

d 9

3
H + d = const .
h 4
8
( - )
.7.9,.

m =

150

( )

m t ,

3
z = d .
2
m t ,
9 2 Hd
3 d
9
; 2 = m = 2 H + d
;
3 = 0 .
2
h
4 h
4
-- (
)
9 2 Hd
eq = 1 3 =
.
2
h
h
9 2 Hd
eq adm ,
= adm ;
2
h
9 2 Hd 9 2 1 1 10 4
h=
=
= 1,26 10 3 .
2 adm
2 50 10 6
, h 1,5 .
7.7. n y

1 = t =

(.7.10,)
3

= 1 10 /3. : h = 1 10 ;
H = 4 ; d = 1 ; y = 200 .
. .
d
m = .
0 z H . p = z ; r = t = ;
2
H z 2 H .
p = z ;
r = t = d ; m = .
t
p
t = t .
h

dz
dH
t zH =
t =
;
.
t z =0 = 0 ;
2h
2h
m
(.7.10,)
Fz = 0 , m = 0 ,
.

2dH
dH
dz
t z =H =
t =
;
; t z =2 H =
.
h
h
h
(.7.10,)
2 d2
d
,
2
=
F
=
0
,

dh
H
z
m
4

m =

3 dH
= const .
8 h

151

.7.10
: ,
(.7.10,). .

(.7.10,).
t m .7.10,.
(.7.10,):
2dH
3dH
1 = t =
;
2 = m =
;
3 = 0.
h
8h
(
--)
2dH 2 10 2 1 4
eq = 1 3 =
=
= 80 .
1 10 3
h

y 200
ny =
=
= 2,5
eq 80
7.3.
7.3.1.
, ,
( , ,
..), .
r , , z (.7.11,).
z ,
.
, p1
p 2 (.7.11,), (.7.11,)
[1].
B
r ,t = A m 2 ,
(7.7)
r

152

.7.11

. , p1 p 2
(.7.11,), :
r = r1 r = p1 ,

r = r2 r = p 2 .

(7.7),
2
2
p r p2 r2
A = 1 12
,
r2 r12
B=

( p1 p2 )r12 r22
.
r22 r12

z
. , , , F
(.7.12,):
Fz = 0 , z (r22 r12 ) + F p1r12 = 0 ,
r12
F
(7.8)
.

2
2
2
r2 r1 (r2 r12 )
.
,
(.7.12,).
r = r1 r = p ,

z = p1

r =
(7.7),
A = 0,

r =0

B = pr12 .

r12
r ,t = m p 2 .
r2

p (.7.12, ).

r = 0,
r = r1 (r1 = 0)

153

r = r2 (r2 = d / 2)

r = p .

.7.12

A = p

r22
,
r22 r12

B = p

r12 r22
;
r22 r12

pr22 r12
1 .
r
t
(7.9)
r22 r12 r 2
, p (.7.13,).

r1 = 0 r2 = d / 2 ,

t = p .

, (.7.13,) ,
(.7.13,), ,

( z = 0 ) :
2r22
.
(7.10)
r22 r12
,

2r22
r22 r12
eq = p y 2 2 = y p y = y
.
r2 r1
2r22
: p y = y / 2 .
, (.7.13,).

.
/ rk
,
pk =
2
2
1 r22 + rk2

(7.11)
1 rk + r1
2
2
v1 +
+ v2
2
2
E1 rk r1
E2 r2 rk

eq = p

E1 , E 2 ,v1 ,v 2 -
.
, .

r r
T (r ) = T0 2
,
(7.12)
r2 r1

154

T0 = T1 T2 ;
T1 T2 -

.7.13

r = C r

r13 r12 r23 r13


,
1
r 2 r 2 r22 r12

r 3 r 2 r 3 r 3
t = C 2r + 12 1 + 12 22 12 ,
r
r r2 r1

r3 r3
z = C 3r 2 22 13 ,
r2 r1

(7.13)

ET
; -
3(1 v)(r2 r1 )
.
7.3.2.

C =

7.8. p

M (.7.14,) n y . :
p = 150 ; r2 = 100 ; y = 500 ; M = 200 .
.
(7.7).
r = r1 ,
r = p;

r = r2 ,
2
1

r
A= p 2
;
r2 r12

r ,t =
r
(7.8)

pr12
r22 r12

r =0.

pr12 r22
B= 2
.
r2 r12
r2 2
1 m .
r

(7.14)

t . 7.14,.

z = p

r12
= 50 .
r22 r12

155

.7.14

Mr
,
Ip

Ip =

d 4
32

= 0,1(2 10 1 ) 4 = 1,6 10 4 4.

r =r1 = 62 ,5 ; r =r2 = 125 .


z .7.14,.
:
1) (.7.14,) r = r1 -

2
50 + 250
250 50
2
max =

+ 62,5 = 150 118 ;
2
2

min
1 = 268 , 2 = 32 , 3 = 150 , eq , A = 1 3 = 418 .
2) ( .7.14,) r = r2 -

2
50 + 100
100 50
2
max =

+ 125 = 75,5 127 .
2
2

min
1 = 202 ; 2 = 0 ; 3 = 51 ; eq , B = 1 3 = 253 .
, , eq , A > eq ,B .
n y =

y
eq, A

500
= 1,2 .
418

7.9. ,
(.7.15,) ,
, (.7.15,). :
: r1 = 20 ; r2 = 45 ; p = 300 . : r1 = 20 ;

r2 = 45 ; = 4,5 10 2 ; rk = 30 .

. 1. :
(7.14)
2
pr12 r2
r ,t = 2
1 m ,
r2 r12 r

156

r r =r = 300 ; r r =r = 0 ; t r =r = 448 ; t r =r = 148 .


1

.7.15
,
(.7.13,),
1 = 448 ;
2 = 0;
3 = 300 .
--
eq = 1 3 = 748 .
n y , =

y
= 1,07 .
eq

2. :
(7.11)

pk =

E (rk2 r12 )(r22 rk2 )


= 57,7 .
2rk3 (r22 r12 )

r t (7.9)
(7.14):
1) p k :

=
r
t

r r =r = 0 ; r r = r = p k = 57,7 ; t r =r
1

r12
1 2 ;
r
= 208 ;

pk rk2
rk2 r12
1

t r =r = 150 .
k

2) p k :
2
pk rk2 r2
r = 2 2 1 m ,
t
r2 rk r

r = rk

= pk = 57,7 ; r

r = r2

= 0; t

r = rk

= 150 ; t

r = r2

= 92 .

.7.15,.
, (.7.16,),
, (.7.15,)
(.7.15,).

, :

(.7.16,).

157

. 7.16

.7.15
:
(.7.16,)
1 = t , A = 390 ;
2 = 0;

3 = pk = 150 .

--
eq, A = 1 3 = 540 .
(.7.16,)

1 = t ,B = 240 ;

2 = 0;

3 = 300 .

eq , A = 1 3 = 540 .

, .
y 800
=
= 1,5 .
ny =
eq 540
7.4.
7.1. (.7.17,),
P [/],
M r M t , wmax

n y . F ; r1 ; r2 ; h ; y - .
7.2. (.7.17,)
p [/2].

. : p ; r1 ; r2 ; y .
7.3. , ,
te r1 , .7.17,.

r max , t max wmax . : te ; r1 ; h .


7.4. 2 R = 0,2 , .7.17,,
F = 1 , (
p = 0 ). h ,
wadm = 0,5 .

158

.7.17
7.5. 2 R = 0,1
( E = 1 105 ; v = 0,32 ; adm = 60 ) p = 0,2
(.7.17,. F = 0 ). -
h .
7.6. h
p (.7.18,).
.
7.7.
(.7.18,). ,
. adm = 60 ,
--.
7.8.
h = 20 (.7.18,). ,
, adm = 60 . --.

. 7.18
7.9. n n
m m (.7.18,),
p . . : d = 50 ; h = 1 ; p = 4 ; M = 150 ;

yt = yc = 250 .
7.10. ,
(.7.18,), , H = 5 .

159

H = 2 , = 60 o , h = 3 10 3 .
= 1 10 4 /3.
7.11. -
(.7.19,), (),
p = 200 . D = 400 , :
d = 10 , = 2 . ,
, F = 200 H . -
yt = yc = 450 .
7.12. , d 2 = 400 ,
d1 = 200 , p = 40
(.7.19,). , ,
yt = yc = 90 . ,

h = 50
(.7.19,)? yt = yc = 300 . v = 0,25 ;
= 0,3 .

.7.19

160

8.
8.1.
8.1.1.
(,
, ..).

.
(, )
. .
(, ),
.
(
) .
, ,
, , .
. ,
, .

. 8.1


, ( )
. (.8.1,)
[1]. , , ,
.
- ; .
. 8.1, h .
h r2.
,
d
h
h + + 2 h = 0 .
(8.1)
t
dr r
r r

( ) (

u t r :
u
du
= , =
.
t r
r dr
, :
E
Et
=
+
,
t
t
r
1
1 2

=
r

(
)
E
Et
(
)
,
t
2 r
1

1
t - ; - .

161

(8.2)

(8.3)

(8.1...8.3)
:
B 1 + 3
(8.4)
2 r 2 + E[F (r ) t (r )],
t = A +

2
8
r
(8.5)
B 3 +
r = A
2 r 2 EF (r ),

8
r2
(8.6)
1 r
F (r ) =
t ( )d ,
1 r ,

r 2 r1
r1 ; t (r ) .
.
[14].
:

r
B (1 + ) 1 2
(8.7)

u = A(1 ) +
2 r 2 + r [(1 + )F (r ) t ].
2
E
8

r
A
.
. .8.2 ,
. r = r2 r =r2
r=0 (. 8.2, ). r=r1
.

.8.2
, r1=0.
,
,
1
(.8.2,) u-ub = , u ub
2
(, , ),
ub = 0. (.8.2,6).

r1 = (0,01...0,05)r2,
r1=t1.
8.2.
8.1.
F (.8.3,).
,
.
.
, ne ( 8.3, ).
.
ne=Aa,
(a)

162

. 8.3
- ; - ; .
, z
dz (. 8.3, ).
z , :
Fz=N + dN + ne dz N=0,
N .
ne (),
dN
= A ,
dz

N = - pAaz.
:
z = , N - 0 => = 0 ,
Fz
.
z= l , N = -F => a =
l
,
Fz
N = -Aaz =
,
l
N
=
= az .
A
,
.
, .
. wz z z
z
z
z 2
d =
.
w z = ( )d =
2E
0
0 E
. 8.3.
8.2. , ,
.
- ; . 8.4,.
. , z .

(, 8.1), 8.1,
z, = g .

d ( z ) = d 1 + ,
l

163

A ( z ) = A0 1 +
l

0 - . (, 8.1)

3
z
1

N = C gA0l 1 + .
3
l
1
z=O N=O, C= gA0 l.
3
3

z
1

N = gA0 l 1 1 + ,
3
l

3
(a)
z

1 1 +

gl
l

.
=
2
3
z

1 +

.
x, z + x = l .
(),
g l 3 (2l x )3
.

=
3
(2l x )2

g l 2 x
2lx x 2
g x l 3 ( 2l ) 3
,

d =
w( x ) =

2
3 E 0 ( 2l ) 2
3 E 2( 2l x )

0 x .

. 8.4
. 8.4, , . , l =
6, = 2,78103 / 3 ( ), d = 0,1
7
max = gl = 90 ,
12

1
w max =
g l 2 = 44 10 6 .
3E
8.3. l
, (. 8.5, ).
. . 8.5.
z
ne(z)=A2z.
(a)

164

dz (. 8.1),
dN=-A2zdz.
()
, z = l , .
, ()
N=-A2( l 2 -z2}.
z = 0
1
1
max = 2 l 2 max = V 2 .
2
2
V = l . . 8.5,
ne N.

. 8.5

. 8.6

8.4. l m
(.8.6).
, .
. (.8.6) :
N
=
= const.
A( z )
,
N=cA(z),
dN=cdA(z).
(, 8.3),

dA
c
= 2 zdz.
A

2 2
A = D exp(
z ).
2c
D , z = l , = 0 ,
2 l 2
.
D= A0 exp
2c

,
2 2

A = A0 exp
l z 2 .
2c

N=m2 l , c (
) :
m 2 l
.
c=
A0

165

A l z 2
.
A = A0 exp 0 1
2

2m l
8.5. ,
(.
8.7,).
. .
qe = 2R, ,
(. 8.7,).

, u .
N.

.8.7

(.8.7,) ,
2N = qe2R. ,

qe R
= 2R2.
A

u.
2R, - 2(R+), ,
= u/R. ,
, :
R 2 R 3
u=
=
.
E
E

. 8.8
8.6.
(. 8.8,). ,
= 7,8 103 / 3; n = 6000 /; r2 = 0,2 ; = 0,24.
. r, t ,
. (8.4 8.5) = 0 .
:
3 +
r=r2 r=0 A=
2 r22 .

8
(8.4), (8.5), (8.7),

166

2
3 +
1 + 3 r
2 r22 1
2 ;
8
3 + r2

r2
3 +
r =
2 r22 1 2 ;
8
r2
1 + 3 r 2
r (3 + )(1 )
2 2
u=
r2 1
+ tr.
8
3 + r22
E

,
.
, ,
, . ,
.
. 8.8,, r , t

t =


).

u , (
=

,
2 22

uE
.
2 r23
,
u=

t max=r max=0.4052 r22 =0.405V2.

V=r2 .
Vadm:

adm

adm

0,405

adm .
t max=r max=50 = n/ 30 = 628-1.
umax = 2,2 10 -5 .
8.7.
. (.8.9,).
r1 = 0,03; r2 = 0,15; = 0,004r1 ; = 7,8. 10 -3 / 3; = 0,24; = 2,1 l O5 MGa..
. 0

.
: r=r1,
r=0 r = r2 r = 0. (8.5)
B 3 +

A 2
02 r12 = 0,
8

r1

B 3 +
A 2
02 r22 = 0.
8
r2

02 r12 = a ,

3 + r22 + r12
;
a
8
r12
(8.4), (8.5) (8.7)

A=

167

B=

3 + 2
ar2 .
8

r 2 r 2 1 + 3 r 2
a 1 + 22 + 22
,
3 + r12
r
r1
3 + r22 r22 r 2
r =
a 1 + 2 2 2 ,
8
r1
r1 r
r22
r12 1 2 r 2
r 3 +
a.
u=
(1 ) 1 + 2 + (1 + ) 2
E 8
3 + r12
r
r1

t =

3 +
8

.8.9
= /a u = uE /( ar1 ) ,
. 8,9,,.
0 , r=r1
, ..
2 2 2

3 + 0 r1 r2 1
=

+
,
2 3 +
4
r
E

r
1
1

, 0 =1200-1 (n=11500 /).


8.8. (.
8.10).

qe = 2 r22 . ,

r2/r1=3; =0,25; t (r ) = t 2 (r 2 r12 )/ (r22 r12 ); =0,625; , , E, r1 t2 .


r1 r2 - ; t2
.
. , F(r):
(r 2 r12 ) 2
t 2 r 2 2
t 2
1
.
F (r ) =

r1 d =
r2
4 r22 r12
r 2 r22 r12 r1
F(r) F2,
F1,:
t 2 2 2
F1 = 0;
F2 =
r2 r1 .
4r22
:
r = r1, r = 0; r = r2, r = qe .

B 3 +
A

2 r12 = 0,
2
8
r1

168

B 3 +

2 r22 EF2 = qe ,
A
2
8
r2

qe =

2 2 r22
4

.8.10

3 +
A=
8

r2
ar 4
r 2 EF
a1 + 22 + 2 22 2 + 22 22 ,
r2 r1
r1 4r1 r2 r1
ar24
r22 r12
3 + 2
B=
ar2 +
+
EF2 ,
8
4 r22 r12
r22 r12

a = r1 .
t r,
. , ,
2
F2 = t 2 ,
A = 0,25 Et 2 + 6,6a;
9
B = (0.25Et 2 + 6,19a )r12 .
F(r1), (8.4) (8.5),
r 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 r12
t 2 E
r2
r2

1 = (6.6 + 6.19 12 0.218 2 )a + 1 + 12 + 2 12


4

r
r1
r2 r1 r 2
r
4 ,
2
2
2
2
2
2
r
r r1 r2 r t 2 E
r
1 = (6.6 + 6.19 12 0.406 2 )a +
.
r
r1
r 2 r22 r12 4

. . 8.10,
, a . 8.10,
. , - t2E.
, .
,
- , ..
r
2
t dr = 0 .
r
1
8.9.
0 (.8.11). npa=2500 /
=25 .
--.
: 30; y = 300; t=50; r1 = 14; r2=100 , =
0,3; E = 2105; q = 7,8103/3.
.
.
2 2

169

.8.11

3,14 2500
= 262c 1.
30
30
, ,
P 25 103
M = =
= 95,5H .

262

( f = 0,15).
( nadm=l,5 )

M=

Mf
nadm

Mf = Pk f r1 tr1 ,
pk
M n
95,5 1,5
adm =
p
p
=
= 15,5 .
k
adm
2r12 tf
2 3,14 0,014 2 0,05 0,15
,
pk = padm, a pk
1

E r22 r12
r22 + r12
r1

=
+
p
=
.
1 +
k
2
2
2

2 E

4r2 r1
r2 r1

4r 2 r
2 1
,
=
p

adm
2
2

E r r
2 1

4r22 r1
4 0,12 0,014
6
=
= 15,5 10
,
.p
adm
E r22 r12
2 1011 0,12 0,014 2

= 4,4310-6.
0 (8.8)
2 r1 (3 + ) 2 (1 ) (1 ) 2
= 0
r2 +

r ,

2
E
E 1
E
2 2
3 + r1r2
= 0

,
E
2

170


2 2
3 + r1r2
3,3 7,8 10 3 262 2 0,014 0,12
0 = +

= 4,43 10 6 +
= 5,05 10 6 .
11
E
2
2 10 2
--.

r = rd + rk ,
,
t = td + tk ,

d k .
(8.4), (8.5).
r=r1
rd = 0,
3
2
2
(3 + )r22 + (1 )r12 = = 7,8 10 262 3,3 0,12 + 0,7 0,014 2 = 4,44 .
td =
4
4
r=r2,
rd=0,
3
2
2
(3 + )r22 + (1 )r12 = = 7,8 10 262 3,3 0,014 2 + 0,7 0,12 = 1,02 .
td =
4
4

p1r12 p 2 r22
p1 p 2 r12 r22 1
rk
tk =
m
,

r22 r12
r22 r12
r2

p1 p2 .
p1 = pk = padm; p2 = 0,

p
r12 r 2
rk
adm
2
tk =
1 m 2 .
2
2
r2 r1 r
:
r=r1
rk = -padm = -15,5 ,
r12 + r22 15,5 10 6 0,014 2 + 0,12
tk = p adm
=
= 16,12 .
r22 r12
0,12 0,014 2

r=r2

rk=0

r12 2 15,5 10 6 0,014 2


adm
=
tk =
= 0,62 .
r22 r12
0,12 0,014 2
2p

,
:
r=r1
r = rd+rk = - 15,5 ;
t = td+tk = 4,44+16,12 = 20,56 .
r=r2
r=rd+rk=0 15,5 = = 15,5 ;
t=td+tk=1,02 + 0,62 = 1,64 .

171

, .
(tr=)

= tr = pkf,
= 15,50,15=2,325 .
.8.11,.

2
t +r
t r
+ 2 ,

1,3 =
2
2

2
20,56 15,5
20,56 + 15,5
2
1,3 =

+ 2,325 = 2,53 18,18.
2
2

, 1 = 20,71 ; 2 = 0; 3 = -15,65 .
--
eq = 1-3 = 20,71-(-15,65)=36,36 .

y
300
ny =
=
= 8,25.
eq 36,36
8.2.
8.2.1. .


( , - , ,
.).
,
.
.
,
[].
; , .
.
,
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
"" , .
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
, ..
.

172

,
( , ) .
.
, ,
. ,
. . 8.12,
y,din y,st .

.8.12
,
,
.
.
.
m, V0,
, . , ,
,
: , , .
.
, ,
.
( ).

2
mV02 C din
=
,
K0 = U
2
2
din - (); -
,
m
din = V0
.
c
,

Fdin = C din = V0 mc.


,
.
m (.8.12,).
V0 m ; din -
.

173


K0+ = U,
(8.8)
2
mV0
; ==
K 0 =
2
mgdin -
2
c din

din; U =
2
.
, (8.8)
1
1
= C 2 ,
mV02 + mg
din
2 din
2

V02
2
din 2 st din
= 0.
(8.9)
g st
mg
= st ,

c
Fst = mg . (8.9)

V02

din = st 1 + 1 +
(8.10)
.
g st

din
V02
(8.11)
K
=
= 1+ 1+
din
st
g st
.
,
F

K
= din = din = din ,
din
st
st
Fst
Fdin - (); Fst = mg
.
,

.
, V0 = 2 gh , (8.11)
K

din

= 1+ 1+

2h

st

(8.12)

( V0 = 0 h = 0 ) din = 2.

m
m1 (.8.12,). 0 =

m1 g

c

, m1, .
, , ..
""
V1 (. 8.12,). V1, (m + m1 )

174

MV0+m1V01 = (m+m1)V1,

V01=0,

V1 =

m
V0 .
m + m1

, .
, ,
, ,
.

1
1
1
2
m + m1 V12 + m + m1 g
+ C 02 = C 0 +
.
din
din
2
2
2

( ),
( )
, m1, (
). ,
. (8.13)
V02 st
2
din
=0,
2 st din
m1
1 +
g
m

mg
st =
- , m
C
.

2
V0

din = st 1 +
.
m1

1 +
g st

K din = 1 +

V02
.
m1
1 +
g st
m

(8.14)

m
, V0 = 2 gh 1 + 1 st = st + 0 ,
m

K din = 1 + 1 +

2h
.
st + 0

(8.15)

(8.14, 8.15) m1
( 0 = 0) (8.11, 8.12). (8.14, 8.15)
, ( ) .
8.10. ,
m = 2 V0 = 0 / (.8.13,).
0 = 40 , D = 60 ,
d = 6 , i = 10 . ,
G = 8 10 4 .
.

175

.
mV02 C 02 C ( din + 0 ) 2
+
=
.
2
2
2
din + 0
mV02
+ 02 .
C

din + 0 =

C=

Gd 4 8 10 4 (6) 4
=
= 6 /=6103 /.
8 D 3 i 8 (60) 3 10

mV02
2
2 32
2
din + 0 =
+0 =
+ 4 10 2 67,8 .
3
C
6 10
,
Fmax = C ( din + 0 ) = 6 67,8 = 405 .
,
8F D
T
8 4,05 10 2 60 1,13
max =
K = max3 K =
= 323 ,
Wp
d
63

K - , ( K = 1,13
D / d = 10 ).
8.11. , (.8.13,)
m = 2 , V0 = 5 /.
D = 40 , d = 6 , i = 12 . ,
m1 = 1,5 ,

.8.13

G = 8 10 4 . .
. , ,

m
V1 =
V0 .
m + m1
, ,
.
(m + m1 )V12 = C din2 ,
2
2

mV0
din =
.
(m + m1 )C

C=

Gd 4 8 1010 6 10 3
=
= 1,69 10 4 /=16,9 /.
3
3

2
8D i
8 4 10 12

176

din =

mV0

(m + m1 )C

52

(2 + 1,5)1,69 10

= 41 10 3 .

,
Fmax = din C = 41 10 31,69 10 4 = 693 .

D
Fmax
2
2 K = 8 Fmax D K = 8 693 4 10 117 = 381 .
max =

3
Wp
d 3
(6 10 3 )
8.2.2.


- ,
, . ,
, m , (.8.14,),
(8.12) (
). st (8.12)
, m ,

Nl mgl
st =
=
,
EA EA
. ,

hEA
(8.16)
K din = 1 + 1 + 2
.
mgl

mg
hEA
1 + 1 + 2
.
din = K din st =
(8.17)
A
mgl
(8.17) ,
, (
), l
, .. ,
. , ..
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
. -
,
(.8.14,).
, (8.12).
st .

Mg (l l 2 ) l 2
st =
+ ,

E A1
A2

177

st =

Mgl
,
EA1

st =

Mgl
.
EA2

A2
= a,
A1

l2
= b,
l

1
b

( st ) a : ( st ) : ( st ) b = 1 b + : 1 : .
a
a

.8.14
(8.12) 2

st

, , ,
h
. 1 < 2
.

st

,

h
K din = 2
.

st

a
:1: a .
a ( a b) + b
(8.17)

mg
mg
( din ) a = ( K din ) a
= ( K din ) a
,
aA1
A2

mg
( din ) = ( K din )
,
A1

mg
mg
( din ) b = ( K din ) b
= ( K din ) b
,
A2
aA1

1
1
( din ) a : ( din ) : ( din ) b =
:1:
.
2
a
a (1 b) + ab
( K din ) a : ( K din ) : ( K din ) b =

, , = A2 / A1 = 0,5 ; = l2 / l = 0,5 ,

178

( K din ) : ( K din ) : ( K din ) = 0,815 : 1 : 0,707 .



( din ) a : ( din ) : ( din ) = 1,63 : 1 : 1,4 .
, ,
.
, ,
(
), .
.

, , ,
.

.
.
,
, (8.15).
m h (.8.15,).
.

V0 = 2 gh .
,
V - . ,


z
V = V0 .
l
.
dz (.8.15,).
dm = Adz ,
- ; .

l
V 2 dm A V02 l
.
K =
=
2
2 3
0
M = Al - ,
1 2
M V0
2
1 MV0
3
K=
=
.
(8.18)
2
3 2
, ,
V0 ,
. ( 1/3)
. (8.18)
MV 2
(8.19)
0 ,
K =
2
- .

(, ).
m h (.8.15,,).

179

K 0 = A lg h ,
- ; .
,
. ,
(), ,
, ,
(.8.15,).

.8.15
,

z
z = st ,max ,
l
st ,max - .
, dz
z , :
2
2
z2
dU st = z Adz = st max A 2 dz .
2E
2E
l
, ,
l
st2 ,max z 2
st2 ,max
U st =
A 2 dz =
Al .
2E
6E
l
0
, ,

U din =

din ,max

2
din
, max

Al ,
6E
- .

U din K 0
, :
6 EK 0
din ,max =
= 6 Egh .
(8.20)
Al

V0 .
, h = V02 /(2 g ) , (8.20)

din ,max = V0 3E .
8.12. ,
5 l . d = 3 (.8.16,).
. , ,
(8.17).

180

din =

mg
EA
1 + 1 + 2
.
A
mg

,
, m , .

mg
2mgE
5 9,8 4
2 5 9,8 2 1011 4
+
=
+
1730 .
2
2
A
A
(3 10 3 )
(3 10 3 )
8.13.
(.8.16,). Q = 45 ,
V = 1 /, l = 18 ,
=1600 2, =2105 .
. (8.17)
, Q , .
.


EA st2 EA st2
QV 2
+ Q( din st ) =

,
2g
2l
2l

din =

.8.16
din - ; st - ,
Q.
, Q = st / l ,

V
.
K din = din = 1 +
st
st g
din st

st

Ql
45 10 3 18
=
= 2,53 10 3 .

11
4
EA 2 10 16 10

din

= 1+

g
st

1
2,53 10 3 9,8

= 7,35 .


Q
45 10 3
= 7,35
= 207 .
din
din st
din A

4
16 10

(). Kdin
, .

=K

=K

181

8.2.3.
.


( ) , ,
.
,
, ..
.
(.8.17,).
,
, (8.12).
st
, .
,
mgal
mga 2 l
a=
st = a =
,
GI
GI
- , ; G -
d 4
- .
; I =
32
,
.
,
(.8.17,6).
.

.8.17

J 2
,
2
J - ; - .

T2 l
U = din ,
2GI
K=

din - () ; I -
. ,
din,

JGI
d 4 GJ
T
=
=
.
din
4
2l
l

182

max =

Tdin

=4
W
d

GJ
.
2d

8.2.4.
.

, ,
8.2.1, .
,
(8.12). st
, , . ,
, . 8.18,
mgl 3
st =
,
3EI x
Ix - ,
.
6 EI x h
K din = 1 + 1 +
,
mgl 3
din = K din st ,
din = K din st ,
din - () ; din -
() .
, st .
, ,
, 8.2.2.

(.8.18,). ,
. : - ,
M=, - .

M V12
,
K1 =
2
V1 - ( ).

l MV 2 dz
K =
,
2
l
2
0
/ l - ; V - z
. 1 = 2 ,
2
M
1 l V
=
=
dz.
M
l 0 V
1
, ,
,
V
y
= .
V1 f

183

.8.18
F
(.8.18,):
EI x y = Fz + Fl .

z2
EI x y = C F + Flz ,
2
Fz 3
z2
EI x y = D + Cz
+ Fl .
6
2
, D:
z=0
y = 0 C = 0
z=0
y=0D=0
f = y z =l =

Fl 3
.
3EI x

V
y z 2 (3l z )
= =
.
V1
f
2l 2

l
1 V
33
= dz =
.
140
l 0 V1

(8.15)
2h
= 1+ 1+
K
.
din
+
0
st
, 0 - ,
; st -
, m
M g l3
Mg l 3 11 Mgl 3

=
=
=

,
0
3EI
3EI
140 EI
x
x
x
mgl 3
.
=
st 3EI
x
din

din = Kdinst.

184


mgl
din = K din st = K din
.
Wx
8.14.
(.8.19,). .
. (8.15)
st ,
m.
- (.8.19,)
2 mg l 2 1
2mgl 3 mgl 3
l
l
l
l
mg
st =
+
[

]
=
+
.

EI x 2
3 GI t
3EI x
GI t
0,25,

EI x Ea 4 2(1 + )
=
1,48
GI t
12 Ea 4
( = 0,0141).

mgl 3
st = 2,15
EI x
,
hEI x
2h
.
K din = 1 + 1 +
= 1 + 1 + 0,93
st
mgl 3

.8.19
, m,
.
. 8.19,
M
T
T
5mgl
mgl 6mgl
= x = 3 3 ,
=
= 3 3 ( = 0,2) .
Wt a
Wx a / 6
a
a
,

mgl
eq ,st = 2 + 4 2 11,7 3 .
a

185

=K
.
eq, din
din eq, st
8.15. m1
m (. 8.20). : m = m1 = 10 ; l = 0,5 ; h = 5 ; = 20 ; H =
45 ; = 5 /. - , = 2 105 .
. din
(8.15). 0 m1,
, . :
3
m1 g m1 gl 3 10 9,8
10 9,8 (0,5) 12
+
=
+
0 =
= 25,7 .
48EI x 5 10 3 48 2 1011 2 10 2 5 10 3 3
c

st m1 , m,
, 0, . (8.15)
H
45
K din = 1 + 1 +
= 1+ 1+
= 2,66.
0
25,7

. 8.20

din = Kdinst = 2,66.25,7 =68,4 .
8.3.
8.1. , .8.21,
, .
8.2. l m (.8.21,).
.
.

8.21
8.3. (.8.21,)
.
.
8,4. (.8.22,) ,
. - m, - 0,1m. , ,
, 0,02R.
.
.
8.5.
. : r2 = 10 r1; ; adm ; .

186

8.6. .3 (y=300 ) (
) =0,003 r1 (y =800 )(.8.22,).

.
6000 /. , ,
. :
=7,8103-3; = 0,25; = 2105 ; r1 =300 ; r2 = 360 .

.8.22
8.7.
(. 8.23,). . :Q = 1 - ; 1 =
22; 2 = 4 2; l 1 = 200 ; l 2 = 400 ; =2105 ; h = 100 .
8.8. , , e
h (. 8.23,). .
. : Q = 100 H; h = 40 ; = 30 ; b = 10 ;
D = 20 - ; d = 4 - ; 1 = 4 -
; = 2105 ; G = 8104 ; l = 0,5 .

. 8.23

. 8.23

8.9
(.8.24,). : m1 = 20 ; m = 1 ; V0 = 4 /; d = 20 ; l =400 ; = (5 / 2)G; G =
8104 . .
8.10. , ,
Q V0 ,
h. (. 8.24,).
. : Q = 45 ; V0 = 1 /; h = 18 ; = 16 2 -
; = 375 /; - 2105 .

187

9.
9.1. ,

,
.
, ,
.

,
[4].

. 23.207-78 ,


. ,
, .
(.9.1,):
( ) max(max),
( ) min(min).
m(m) a(a)
:
1
1
m = max + min ,
a = max min .
2
2
,
, .
r : r = min/max .
r .
, r = -1, . . max = -min (. 9.1,)
.
, , r=0 , ..
(. 9.1,).
, r -1, (.9.1,).

.9.1

,
(.9.2,) . r. ,

188

1 , () - 0 .
, ..
.
,
.

.
( ).
max ( a),
, , N =108 . N =107
.
,
.

.9.2

(.9.2,). a- , a 1 - ,
lg N 0 lg N
lg N 0 / N
tg =
=
= m,
a lg a lg
1 lg a / 1
No- .

N0 a
,
=
N 1

N am = N 0 m1 = const .
(9.2)
m

(9.1)
(9.2)


N = N 0 = 1 .
(9.3)
a
.. [9] No =(3...5)106
No=107 .
m = 320. .. m = 9,
- m = 6.

.
.

189

(.9.3)
(.9.4).

.9.4

.9.3

(
-). ,
: A [0, 1 ] - ; B [o/2,o] ; [ ut , ut ]- ""
(.9.5).

.9.5
. 9.6
(.9.6)
, A[0, 1 ]
B[o/2,o/2] - . ,
, 45 , ,
, ..
max = m+a ut .

( .9.6)
a = 1 m ,
(9.4)
2 1 0
- .
=
0

.
Kd <1
(Kd <1), -1d ( -1d)
-1 ( -1) (d = 7,5 ):
K d =

1d
,
1

190

K =

1d
1

(9.5)

25.504-82 Kd = d.
, ..
.
, , , , ,
, ..
. ,
() , .

. ,
: nom = F/A , nom
= M/Wx , nom = T/Wt , F,M,T- , ;
A ,Wx , Wt - ,
.
-
,
1 , 1
d
1k , 1k , d, ..
K =

1 , K = 1 1.
1k
1k

(9.6)

,
, .
,
(K)r = (K)-1 ,
(K)r = a/ak, (K)-1= -1/ -1k -
(-1 ,-1 -
; a , ak ,
m).

. K/Kd

K
=
(9.7)
,
K
1
L

d
0,5 + 0,5

88,3 G
Kd ,

K d = F , ,
G

K d
K =
,
L

F ,
G

- ; G -
; L -
(.9.7);

191


1 L
L


;
F , = 0,5 + 0,5
G

88,3 G
- ,
.

.9.7

,
, , .

c Kf , f., .
:
1 (Rz )
Rz>1 K f =
,
(9.8)
1 (Rz 1)
Rz1
Kf = 1,
-1(Rz) - Rz;
-1(Rz1) - ;
Kf = 0,575Kf + 0,425.
-
- . ,

K=

1kop
,
1

1kop , 1 -

.
,
,

K =

1dynp
,
1d

(9.9)

1dynp , 1d - .

192

Ka =

1non
,
1npod

-1 - ,
( , ,
..); -1 - , .
, Kd (9.5),
K (9.6), Kf (9.8)
Kv (9.9) Kd,
-
1
K
1
K d = +
,
1
(9.10)
K K
K
K
f
a
d

1
K
1
.
Kd = +
1
K
K

d K f
9.2.

, a
m, .
-
.
,
.
,
:
n =

n =

1d
1
=
,
a
K d a
1d

= 1 .
a
Kd a

(9.11)


(.9.):
1

n =
,
K d a + m
(9.12)

1
n =
.
Kd a + m
9.3.

,
, , -
. ,
?
.
(
).

193

n=

n n
n2 + n2

(9.13)

n , n -
(9.7).

, ..

n nadm,

n nadm,

n nadm ,
nadm = 1,3,,3,0.
9.4.
9.4.1.

, , ,
, .
. ,
. ,

.

, .. .
,
,
[9].

L
,
,
D
.. [7].

,
.
9.4.2. .


:
- , -

;
- ,
;
- ,
;
- : , ,
, ..

194


,
.
a , X1,
X2 Xn, :
n

X = X i / n,

(9.14)

Xi = l gNi ; Ni - i- .
X
()
2

S=

(X

X)

n 1

n
X i2

n
i
X 2 .
n 1 n

(9.15)

= l gN
.

mi , i- . ,
,
m
pi = i ,
(9.16)
n

pi = 1.
i

,
, .
.
, ,
, , , ,
.

p ( X 1 ) = 0,
p ( X 2 ) = p1* ,

p * ( X 3 ) = p1* + p 2* ,


k 1
p * ( X k ) = p i* ,

i
k

p * ( X k +1 ) = p i* = 1,

(9.17)

k - ; Xk - .

, , 2
2
k
(
mi npi )
2
=
,
(9.18)
npi
i =1
mi - i- ; n - X;
pi - i- ; - .
2, r = - S (S -
, :

195

p
i =1

*
i

= 1, , ..)

,
,
2. ,
.

(
)
(X X )2
x
1

dX .
P( X ) =
exp
(9.19)

2 S
2
S

dP/dX
(X X )2
dP
1
.
P( X ) =
=
exp
(9.20)
2
dX

2 S
S
2

i ,
,
= l gN,
j (.9.8,).
, (.9.8,).
( () = const)
. .9.8,
.
(, , ) ,
j ,
.

.9.8
9.4.3. .


.

max d ,
G P .

196

.. [7]

L
(9.21)
lg( max u ) = AL B lg + u p S ,
G
A , B , u - , u = ( 1 )d = -
L
-
x = lg ( max u ) = AL Blg
G
X ; G - ; L ; S - X ; u p
- , P ;
xx
,
up =
S

x = x + upS .
(9.22)
L
(9.22) x = lg ( max u ) x = AL Blg

G
(9.21). u p P .
(9.21)
x = lg ( max u ) L / G ,
: , L / G ,
, max .
9.4.4.

, , ,
.

,
.
, ..
.

,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
, , , ,
.

(.9.9).
(
).

197


, ,
(.9.10). .

.9.10
. , ,

, .

.
, ,
.
- ,
. ..

, ..
(.9.11).

.9.11
9.4.5.



.
,

. ,

. ()
, ..
,
. ,
. ,

.
D,
.

198


, ,
Dn = K ( )n v ( ) ,
n ; Dn - , n ; ; V( ) , ; K( )
.
N, Dn
=1, (9.23)
(9.24)
K ( ) = N V ( ) .
,
, .. V ( ) = V = const .
(9.25)
n V
Dn = ( ) .
N
, , V=0,751,25,
V =1,
n
Dn = .
(9.26)
N

Dn = N 1 .
(9.27)
(9.27) ,

, .. .
, i -
(.9.12) (9.26),
,
:
n
(9.28)
i Ni = 1 .
i
(9.28) , ai > 1d .
, , ,
(9.28) ni N i
, ..

ni
= a,
Ni

(9.29)

a - , .

. ,
..

.9.12
:

199

- ; ni -

ai ; N i -

ai ; N -
(.9.11).
ni = N i .

(.9.12). (. 9.2) ( )
m 1d N 0
(9.31)
.
Ni =
m ai
(9.30) (9.31) (9.29),

N i m ai
=a.
m 1 d N 0

(9.32)


[7]
ap :

a max
K
1d
,
ap =
a max
K
1d
ai

N i

a max N

(9.33)

- a max N (.9.11);

=0,50,7 , , ..
ai < (0,5.....0,7) 1d
.
(9.33) ,
ai > (0,5...0,7) 1d .
(9.32) (9.33)
, :
p m1d N 0
(9.34)
=
.
m

N
ai i
i

9.5.
9.1. (.9.13)
M x T . ,

T . n y
n . : M x = 50 ; T = 60 ; D = 30 ; d = 20 ; r = 5
; :

ut = 700 ; yt = 450 ; yc = 550 ;

1 = 400 ; 1 = 160 . , .

.9.13

200

. : ,
(.9.14). :

M
50 32
a = x =
= 62,5 ,
Wx 0,02 3

60 16
T
max =
=
= 37,5 .
W p 0,02 3

.9.14
.. M x ,
.
,
yt yc

eq =

1 vT
2

yt
vT =
= 0,82 .
yc

ny =

1 + vT
2

2
a2 + 4 max
,

a max , eq = 94,4 .
yt
eq

450
= 4,77 .
94,4


(9.13)
na n y
()
n=
.
2
2
n + n


(9.11) (9.12)

1d
1
=
,
a
Kd a
1
n =
K a + m

n =

, K d K d (9.10)
1
K
1
Kd = +
1
,
K K
K
K
f
a
d
1
K
1
Kd = +
1
.
K
K
K
f

d

201

()

, K a = 1. K / K d K / K d
K
=
K d

1 L
0,5 + 0,5

88,3 G

K
=
K d

1 L
0,5 + 0,5

88,3 G
, ().
. 17.1 . 17.2
d 20
r
5
=
= 0,7
= = 0,17 ,
D 30
D 10

= 1,5 ,

()

= 1,25 .

(.17.3):
2 2 2 2
G= + = +
= 0,5 -1,
r d 5 20
1 2 1 2
G = + = +
= 0,3 -1.
r d 5 20

L
62,8
l g = lg
= lg125,6 = 2,1 ,
G
0,5
L
62,8
l g = lg
= lg 209,3 = 2,32 ,
G
0,3
L = d = 62,8 .
v v :
v = 0,2000 0,0001 u = 0,2000 0,0001 700 = 0,13 ;
v = 1,5v = 0,195 .
.17.1
L

F , v = 0,993 , F , v = 0,927 .
G

(),
K

1,5
=
=
= 1,51 ,
K d
L
0,993
F , v
G

()
K

1,25
=
=
= 1,35 .
K
L
0,927
d
F , v
G

u = 700 (.17.15)
K f = 0,9 ;
K = 1,2 (. 17.9).
K f , K () ():
1

1
K d = 1,51 +
1
= 1,35 ,
0,9 1,2

202

d = 1,35 + 0,9 1 1,2 = 1,22 .


n n () = 0,13
1
400
n =
=
= 4,74 ,
K l a 1,35 62,5
1
160
n =
=
= 6,5 .
K a + m 1,22 18,75 + 1,13 18,75
d
K

(),
4,74 6,5
n=
= 3,8 .
2
2
4,74 + 6,5
n nadm = 1,3...3,0 .
9.2.
(.9.15),
. :
D2 = 100 ; D3 = 200 ; = 60 ; - 45 ; ut = 610 ;
y = 360 ; 1 = 275 ; y = 0,6 y = 216 ; u = 0,6 ut = 360 ;

1 = 0,6 1 = 165 ; N = 10 ; = 10 /; p = 20 ( ).
.
. 1.
.
,
N 10000
M =
=
= 1000 .

10
F2 , F3 F2 r , F3r ,
:
M
1000
F2 =
=
= 20 ,
0,5 D2 0,05

.9.15
F ~ = F2 tga0 = 0,4 20 = 8
2a
a 0 = 20 o - .
M
1000
F3 =
=
= 10 ,
0,5 D3
0,1

203

F3r = 0,4 F3 = 0,4 10 = 4 .


.9.16,
F2 , F3 F2 , F3r . F2 , F2 r , F3 , F3r

(.9.17), 2
3 XZ
F2 x = F2 cos 45o F ~ cos 45o = (20 8) 0,71 = 8,52 ,
2a
o
F3x = F3 cos 60 F3r = cos 30o = 10 0,5 4 0,87 = 1,52 ,
YZ
F2 y = F2 Sin 45o + F2r Sin 45o = (20 + 8) 0,71 = 19,88 ,
F3 y = F3 Sin60 o F3r Sin30o = 10 0,87 4 0,5 = 10,7 .

M = F2 D2 / 2 = 1 .
, (.9.16,)
.
2. M x , M y , M tot , T .

M
M
M
M

x ( A)

= F2 y l F3 y 2l + B y 3l = 0 ,

x( B)

= F3 y l F2 y 2l + Ay 3l = 0 ,

y ( A)
y( B)

= F2 x l F3 x 2l + Bx 3l = 0 ,
= F3 x l + F2 x 2l Ax 3l = 0 .

Ax = 6,19 ; B x = 3,853 ; A y = 9,687 ; B y = 0,507 .


Fx = 0 ,
Fy = 0 .

.9.16
2 3 YZ XZ:

204

M x 2 = Ay l = 9687 0,2 = 1937 ;

M x 3 = B y l = 507 0,2 = 101 ;

M y 2 = Ax l = 6190 0,2 = 1238 ;

M y 3 = Bx l = 3853 0,2 = 771 .

.9.17
M x M y (.9.16,)
YZ XZ.
M x M y
M tot

M tot = M x2 + M y2 .
2 3
M tot 2 = 1,937 2 + 1,238 2 = 2298 ,
M tot 3 = 1012 + 7712 = 778 ,
(.9.16,).
.9.16,.
3. (
-).
2 3 :
M eq 2 = 1937 2 + 1238 2 + 1000 2 = 2506 ;
M eq 3 = 1012 + 7712 + 1000 2 = 1267 .

, 2.
,
,
K ( K ) , K d ( K d ) ,
K f .. ,
:
)
. ,
,
,
nadm = 4...6 ;
) .
n 1.3 n 3 ,
.
nadm = 4 ,

adm =

y
nadm

205

360
= 90 .
4

eq = M eq / W x adm 32 M eq / d 3 adm .


32 M eq 2
32 2506
d2 = 3
=3
= 6,57 10 2 =65,7 ,
aadm
90 10 6
32M eq 3

32 1267
= 5,24 10 2 =52,4 .
6
adm
90 10
6636-80:
d 2 = 65 ;
d 3 = 50 .
.9.18,.
4. .
,
.
: 1, 4, 7 8 ,
;
2 3 , p = 20 ;
5 r = 2,5 ; D / d = 65 / 60 ;
6 r = 2 ; D / d = 60 / 50 .
: 2,3 6 ; 5
.
:
M tot 2 = 2,298 ; M tot 3 = 0,778 ;
M x 5 = Ay (1 + 0,03) + F2 y 0,03 = 1,63 ;
d3 = 3

M y 5 = Ax (l + 0,03) F2 x 0,03 = 1,17 ;


M tot 5 = M x2 5 + M y2 5 = 2,01 ;

M x 6 = B y (l + 0,03) F3 y 0,03 = 0,22 ;


M y 6 = B(l + 0,03) + F3 x 0,03 = 0,841 ;
M tot 6 = 0,869 .
2, 3, 5 6
(, ,
):
M
M
2298 32
778 32
2 = tot 2 =
3 = tot 3 =
= 85 ;
= 63 ;
3
W3
0,053
W2
0,065
2010 32
869 32
5 =
6 =
= 95 ;
= 71 .
3
0,06
0,053
1000 16
1000 16
T
T
=
= 19 ;
=
= 41 ;
2 =
3 =
W p 2 0,065
W p 3 0,053
1000 16
1000 16
6 =
= 24 ;
= 41 .
3
0,06
0,053
.
2 3 3, ,
. 6 (
5 6). 2 5
2 ( , ),
2.

5 =

206

:
, (..9.14). :
2 = 85 , 2 = 19 .
: m 2 = 0 ; max 2 = 19 ;
min 2 = 0 ;
a 2 = 85
;
m 2 = ( max 2 + min 2 ) / 2 = 9,5
;
max 2 = 85
;
a 2 = ( max 2 min 2 ) / 2 = 9,5 .

n=

n n
2

n + n

()

n , n -
, :
n =

1
,
Kd a 2

n =

1
.
Kd a 2 + m 2

()
,

1
K
1
K d = +
1
,

K K
K
K
d

v
a

()
1
K
1

Kd =
.
+
1
K
K
K
d


K a = 1 . 2 , K = 1 .
Rz 1,75 ,
() K f = 0,96 (.17.15 17.16).
K f = 0,575 K f + 0,425 = 0,575 0,96 + 0,425 = 0,977 .

.9.18
(
) K d = K d = 0,68 ( 2 .17.9).

207


. .17.4 17.5,
K = 1,76 K = 1,5 .
K / K = 2,59 K / K d = 2,21 .

K K
,
=
K d K d 0

( K / K d ) = 3,2 (.17.5);
: = 0,305 + 0,00139 u= 0,305 + 0,00139 610 = 1,15 ;
= 0 65 + 0 014 p = 0,65 + 0,014 20 = 0,93
(
p 25
).

K / K d = 3,2 1,15 0,93 = 3,42 K / K d = 3,42 .



( , ..)
K / K d , K / K d . , K / K d = K / K d = 3,42 .
():
K d = [3,42 + 1 / 0,96 1] = 3,46 ,
Kd = [3,42 + 1 / 0,977 1] = 3,44 .
= 0,075 .
():
275
165
n =
= 0,94 ,
n =
= 4,91 .
3,46 85
3,44 9,5 + 0,075 9,5
()

0,94 4,91
n=
= 0,92 .
0,94 2 + 4,912
1,3n3 , ,
2 .
0,91,5
. .17.7
K = 2 ,5 ,
1
= 1,384 ,
K d = 3,46
2,5
1
= 1,376 .
Kd = 3,44
2,5

275
165
n =
= 2,34 ,
n =
= 11,97 .
1,384 85
1,376 9,5 + 0,075 9,5

2,34 11,97
n=
= 2,3 .
2,34 2 + 11,97 2
1,3n3 , ,
.
.
,
,

208

360
= 4,13 .
87
, n = min{n = 2,3 n y = 4,13}, .. n = 2,3 .

eq = 22 + 4 22 = 87 ; n y =

9.3. M = 10 , (.9.19),
F = Fa sin i t , 8
: 5 i = 1 = 118 1/; 2 1 = 2 = 177 1/; 1
i = 3 = 236 1/.

.9.19
,
. . :
40; u = 650 ; y = 320 ; 1 = 290 ; N 0 = 10 7 ; m = 6 ; l = 0,5 ;
K / K d = 4,25 ( ); Fa = 103 ; K f = 1 ; KV = 1 ; K a = 1 . :
.
. 1. . F ,
, .9.19,.
.
14
Fa = 10 3 . , M max =
Fl .
27
M
0,5185 103 0,5
max = max =
= 28,8 10 6 .
5
0,9 10
Wx

y
320
ny =
=
= 11,1 ,
max 28,8
.. .
2.

p=

C
=
M

1
,
M 11

11 - ( F).
F=1 (.9.19,) (.9.19,)

20l 3
11 =
,
81EI x
I x - ( I x = 13,5 10 8 4), p = 295,7 1/.
3.

209

1 =

= 1,19 .
2
118
1

295,7
1
2 =
= 1,56 ,
2
117
1

295,7
1
3 =
= 2,77 .
2
236
1

295,7
4.
. .9.19,
F ,
.
.
12
Fl
a1 = 1st 1 = 27 1 ;
Wx = 0,9 10 5 3;
Wx

1 1
p

0,44 10 3 0,5
1,19 = 0,293 108 .
5
0,9 10
a1 = 29 ;
a 2 = 38 ;
a 3 = 681 .
.
i - Ti

a1 =

(.9.20): Ti = 2 / i (.). (3600 .) 3600

i /( 2 ) . i-

3600
1800
i = i
i ,
2

i - i - .
1800
N1 = 5
118 = 338216 ;
Ni = i

N2 = 2

1800

117 = 202930 ;

1800
N3 = 1
236 = 135286 .

.9.20
( ) .9.21.
6.
1
K

1
K d +
1d = 1 ;
= 4,25 .
1
K
K
Kd
V
d K f

210

1d =

290
= 68 .
4,25
K 1d = 0,55 68 = 37,4 .

.9.21
(29 ) (37,4
), .
7. (9.34)
a m N
= p 1md 0 .
ai N i
i

( 9.33)

a max
K
1d
ap =
.
a max
K
1d

( ) .9.22.
68 135216 + 38 202930
=
= 0,74 ; K = 0,55 ;
a p = 0,42 .
68(135216 + 202930)
=

0,42 686 10 7
= 30 .
686 135286 + 386 202930

.9.22
9.4.

, (
- i i - - N Bt ) 1
20% .9.1 .
18, u = 1150 . ,

lg ( 1d a u ) = lg ( 1d a u ) + u p S ,

1d - ; a -

; u - ; u p -
; S = 0,06 -

211

X = lg ( 1d a u ) .
9.1

i ,

145

125

104

83

62

42

21

N Bi ,

620

383

352

629

667

1653

10810

d = 49,4 , ,
, m = 9 , ,
, N 0 = 10 7 .
. (9.34)
a p m N 0
1d
()
=
,
m
i N Bi
i
i , N Bi - i -
; a p -

i max
K
1d
ap =
,
i max
K
1d

= i N Bi /( N B i max ); i max - ;

N B - ; K = 0,6 -
.
(9.33) (9.34) > 0,6 1d ,
.

, (9,34) .

, (), .

( -). ,
() .
- y
Y , [0, 1],
( Y ).
1d ()
()
X = X + S ,
X = lg ( 1d a u ) ; X - X ; -
M [ ] = 0 D[ ] = 1 .
1d u .
d 0 = 7,5
( 1 ) d 0 = 0,6( 1 ) d 0 = 0,6 0,5 u = 345 ,

( 1 )d 0 - .

212

1d =

( 1 ) d 0
,
Kd

K f = 1 ;

1
K
1
Kd = +
;
1
K
K
K
d

KV = 1,4 ;
K = 2,8 ( );

K d = 0,7 .

, Kd = 2,85

1d = 122 . [8] u = 0,5 ( 1 ) d 0 = 158 ( -

). () ()
X = lg (122 2,8 158) + S .

X = lg ( 1d a u ) .

10 x + u
1d =
.
a
X [a, ] ,
X
X = a + Y ( a ) .
i N Bi 20%

i = (0,8 + 0,4Y ) i ,
N Bi (0,8 + 0,4Y ) N Bi .

87 i , N Bi 1d ()

j .
87 j
= 8480 .
j =1 87

12 .

pk =

mk
,
87

mk - - .
k (9.17)
F (1 ) = 0 ,
F (2 ) = p1 ,
F (3 ) = p1 + p2 ,
12

F (13 ) = p k = 1 .
k =1

.9.2 F ( ) ,
(9.17), .9.23 .


.

213

9.2
,
F*()

1000
0,160

4000
0,530

8000
0,715

12000
0,789

16000
0,826

.9.23

214

20000
0,888

25000
0,913

30000
0,950

90000
0,999

10.
10.1.


.
n- n
.

, -
. , - (10.1)
y
y1
Y = 2 .
(10.1)
M

y n
, ,
, (10.2). ,
W
V

(10.2)
Y =
Y=
,
Qr
Q


M 1r
M
( V ,W
, , Q , M ,

M 1 ).

,
d
Y = FY + g ,
dx
F - (n x n) ; g n
.

.
(10.3):

d
(10.3)
Y = f (Y , x) ,
dx
=Y .
0
0

, , - -.
,
.

d
Y = FY + g
dx
Y

x=x

215

n . , m
( x = x ) r = n m ( x = l)
0
. (10.4)
n
Y ( x) = Y ( x) + C Y ( x) ,
0
i i
(10 5)
i =1
Y0 ( x) - - ; Yi ( x) - ( ,
- ,
(10.6)
d
Y = FY .
(10.6)
dz
Y ( x) n , (10.5)

y1, i
y1 y1,0

y
y
y
n

(10.7)
2 = 2,0 + C
2, i .

M
1 M
M
i =1


y
y n y n,0
n, i
(10.6):
y1,1 y1,2 L y1, n

y 2,1 y 2,2 L y 2, n
(10.8)
Y ( x) =
i
M
M
M

y y L y

n, n
n,1 n,2


1
= 2.
M

n
(10.7)
Y ( x) = Y ( x) + Y ( x)C .
0
i
Y0 ( x ) Yi ( x) , .
Y0 ( x) - (10.4),
, , :
0
0

(10.10)
Y (x ) = .
0 0
M

0
(10.4)
(10.4) (10.10).
Yi (x) ,
(10.6), . ,
( )

216

1 0 0 K 0
0 1 0 K 0

Y ( x ) = 0 0 1 K 0 ,
i 0

M M M M
0 0 0 K`1

(10.11)


0
0
1
1
0
0
Y (x ) = ; Y (x ) = ;
Y (x ) =
1 0
n 0
M
M
M 2 0



0
1
0
, .
(10.8),

(10.11),

(10.6) .
Y0 ( x)
Yi (x) i,
(10.5), n =0 = l .
.
,
,
. Yi ( x0 ) (10.11),
m =0 m ,
n i . n m = r .
Yk ( x )
(k =1,2,,r),

Yk ( x )

Yi (x) ,

Y0 ( x) ,
Y (x ) = Z ;
Y (x ) = Z ,
(10.12)
k 0
k
0 0
0
, Zk Z0 ,
r
Y (x ) = Z + C Z ;
0
0
k k
k =1
= 0 k.

r
Y ( x) = Y ( x) + C Y ( x).
(10.13)
0
k k
k =1
C r=nm k
= 0 , = l r
k.
Yk n x r
y1,1 y1, 2 L y1,r
y y

2 ,1 2 , 2 L y 2 , r

.
Y=
M M
M

y n ,1 y y , 2 L y n ,r
(10.13)

217

Y ( x) = Y ( x) + Y ( x)C ,
0
C
C 1
C = 2 r .
M

C r

.
, n- , m
x = x0 , (10.13),
r=n-m ,
Yk ( x0 ) = Z k .
r .
.

. r
C k
r
Y (l) = Y0 (l) + C Y (l) ,
k =1 k k
, x = l .
. .
C k ,
(10.13). Yk , Y0
, . Y (x)


d
Y = FY + g
dx

r
Y ( x0 ) = Z 0 + C Z .
k =1 k k


. ,
(10.4) ,
, ..

218

11.
11.1.
11.1.
.2.2,.
, max ,
. : M = 2 ; t e = 10

/; G = 810 4 ; l = 400 ; d1 = 50 ; d 2 = 90 .
. . .11.1,.
.

M x = 0 , M te l + M c = 0 M c = te l M .


T = M .
1 ( 0 z l )
T = t e ( z l) M ;
T z =l = M ; T z = 2 l = t e l M .
2 ( l z 2l )
3 ( 2l z 3l )
.11.1.

T = M + t e (2l l) .

.11.1

Ip =

d4;

Wp =

d3 ,

32
32
d - .
d
0 zl
d1 ,

d = (d 2 d1 ) z + (d1 2l d 2 l) /( 2l l), l z 2l .

2l z 3l
d2 ,



d = dz ,
(11.1)
= T / GI p - ( ).

219

(11.1).
z ,
z

= dz + C ,
0

(11.2)

- .

(11.3)

~ = dz ,
0

~ - , (11.2)
(11. 4)
= ~ + c .
(11.3) . [0, l ]
n (.11.2,) z = l / n . ()
i = 1,2,..., n + 1 , .11.2,.

zi = z (i 1) .
(11.4).
,
.

.11.2
, .
, .. z1 = 0
~ = ~ = 0 ,
z =0

~ - .

1

(11.5)

(11.5), i + 1 :
z1 +1

~
i +1 = i + dz .
z1

, , ,
.
( .11.2,):
z1+1
+
i +1 = dz = i i +1 z .
2
zi

~i +1 = ~i +

i + i +1
2

z ,

220

i = 1,2,..., n .

(11.4)

i = n +1 ,
n+1 = 0

~n+1 + C = 0 ,

C = ~n+1 .
, (11.4)
i = ~i + C .

max,i =
zi ,

Ti
.
W pi

i , i , max,i .

.11.3.
11.1.1.

.11.3

( ):
K ;
F ;
T max ;
ZZ z ;
IP Ip;

221

WP Wp;
M T;
M1 M;
M2 te;
l1, l 2 - ;
l - ;
D1 d1;
D2 d2;
H z;
N n;
d d;
. 11.1,.
11.1.2

Program VAL; { }
Uses CRT;
Const kl=50;
Var i,n,n1:integer;
l,ll,l2,d,d1,d2,M1,M2,G,z,h,Ip,zl:real;
T,F,K,M,Wp,ZZ:array[1..k1] of real;
Otlet:char;
Begin
Clrscr;
Writeln( );
Writeln(l(m),l1(m),l2(m),d1(m),d2(m));
Readln(l,l1,l2,d1,d2);
Writeln( M1(H*m),M2(H*m));
Readln(M1,M2);
Writeln( G();
Readln(G);
Writeln( n);
Readln(n);
Writeln( );
Writeln;
Writeln(z mm MH*m T M
F
Wp 3);
Writeln;
h:=l/n;
n1:=n+1; { }
For i:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
z:=h*(i-1);
ZZ[i]:=z;
If (z>=0) and (z<=l1) then M[i]:=-M1;
If (z>l1) and (z<=l2) then M[i]:=-M1+M2*(z-l1);
If (z>l2) and (z<=l) then M[i]:=-M1+M2*(l2-l1);
If (z>=0) and (z<=l1) then d:=d1;
If (z>l1) and (z<=l2) then d:=((d2-d1)*z+(d1*l2-d2*l1))/(l2-l1);
If (z>l2) and (z<=l) then M[i]:=-d:=d2;
Ip:=3.14*exp(4*ln(d))/32;
Wp[i]:=2*Ip/d;
T[i]:=M[i]/Wp[i];

222

K[i]:=M[i]/(G*Ip);
End;
F[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do F[i+1]:=F[i]+h*(K[i]+K[i+1])/2;
c:=-F[n1]:=0;
For I:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
F[i]:=F[i]+c;
Writerln(ZZ[i]*100:6:0,M[i]:8:0,T[i]/1E6:12:5,Wp[I]*1E6:8:0);
End;
Readln; End.
11.2. C
11.2. (.11.4)

t e = const . ,

z m
d = d 0 1 + ,
l
d 0 - ; m - .

, max

. : te = 10 /; d 0 = 50 ; l = 300

; m = 5 / 7 ; G = 810 .
. .
(.11.4,),

l
Tdz
a (t e l, X ) = 0

0 GI p = 0 .
, (.11.4,):
T = te z x .

t e zdz l xdz
0 GI 0 GI = 0 .
p
p
l

z m
I p = d = d 1 + ,
32
32 l

4
0

te
0

zdz

[1 + ( z / l) ]

m 4

X
0

dz

[1 + ( z / l) ]

223

m 4

=0.

. 11.5
. 11.4

= z / l ,

1
d
d

l
= 0.
X
m 4

(1 + )
(1 + m ) 4
0
0

tel 2

d
,
(1 + m ) 4
0

M 0 = te l ,

C=

d
,
(1 + m ) 4
0

B=


X = M 0C / B .
:
1.
T = te z X
= z / l
T = t e l X = ( q) M 0 ,

X
X
q=
=
.
te l M 0
2.
t zX
T
,
max =
= e
Wp
Wp

max :

d 03

m
z
=
Wp =
1 + .
16
16 l
= z / l ,
16(t l X ) 16
T
= 3
max = 3 e
.
m 3
d 0 (1 + ) d 0 (1 + m ) 3

16
1
0 = 3 , W =
,
(1 + m ) 3
d 0

d 3

max = 0WT .

3. (.2.19,).

224

z ( z = 0 , (0) = 0 )
z

(t z X )dz
Tdz
.
= e
GI p 0
GI p
0

=
= z / l

l(t e l X )d 32t e l 2 ( X / t e l)d


=
=
.
Gd 04 0 (1 + m ) 4
d 04
m 4
0
G
1+
32

. 11.6

0 =

32t e l 2
,
Gd 04

( X / t e l)d
( q )d
,
=
m 4
m 4
(
1
+

)
(
1

)
0
0

P=

= 0P .

T ( ) , 0 1 .
[0,1] n h = 1 / n (.11.5,).

i = (i 1)h ,
i = 1,2,..., n + 1 - .
,
max .
.11.6.
11.2.1.

Program VAL1; { }
Uses CRT;
Const k=50;
Var i,n,n1:integer;
M,d0,l,Te,G,h,mr,d:real;
Z,Ip,Wp,I1,I2,t,Tau,T:array[1..k] of real;

225

Otlet:char;
Begin
Clrscr;
Writeln( );
Writeln(d0(m),l(m));
Readln(d0,l);
Writeln( Te(Hm/m),);
Readln(Te);
Writeln( G();
Readln(G);
Writeln( m);
Readln(m);
Writeln( n);
Readln(n);
Writeln( );
Writeln;
Writeln(z mm MH*m T M
F
Wp 3);
Writeln;
h:=l/n;
n1:=n+1; { }
For i:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
z[i]:=h*(i-1);
If (z[i]=0) then d:=d0 else d:=d0*(1+exp(m*ln(z[i]/l)));
Ip[i]:=3.14*exp(4*ln(d)0/32;
Wp[i]:=2*Ip[i]/d;
End;
I1[1]:=0; i2[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do
Begin
I1[i+1]:=I1[i]+h*Te*(z[i]/Ip[i]+ z[i+1]/Ip[i+1])/2;
i2[i+1]:=i2[i]+h*(1/Ip[i]+ 1/Ip[i+1])/2;
end;
Mr:=I1[n+1]/i2[n+1];
Writeln( Mr=,Mr:4:0,H*m);
Writeln;
For i:=1 to n1 do
Begin
T[i]:=Te*z[i]-Mr;
Tau[i]:=T[i]/(Wp[i]);
End;
F[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do
F[i+1]:=F[i]+h/G*(T[i]/Ip[i]+T[i+1]/Ip[i+1])/2;
For I:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
Writerln(z[i]:5:3,T[i]:8:0,Tau[i]/1E6:9:1,F[i]:13:6);
End; Readln; End.

226

11.3

(.11.7)
, ,
T, max, , .
:
1. , , 11.1.
2. .
3. T, max, , , Wp.
4. .
5. , . ,
max. ,
, te,adm.
6. te,adm , .
.
7. T, max, , , .

. 11.7

227

12.

12.1.

[1]
: V
dV
(12.1)
,
=
dz
V .12.1, (
; z ; y
, ; ,
).

. 12.1
= d / dz M x

M
d
= x ,
(12.2)
dz
EI x
M x I x z .
:
dQ y
dM x
(12.3)
= Qy ,
= q (z ) .
dz
dz
Q y , M x
q e (z ) .12.1,.
(12.112.3)
. (12.3),
, . M x
,
z .

(12.1), (12.2):
d
dV
=,
= .
(12.4)
dz
dz
, V
. , (. 12.2,)
V (l ) = 0 ,
V (3l) = 0 .
.
(12.4)
z , :
z

= dz + C1 .
0

228

(12.5)

C1 z = 0 .
(12.5)
z
~
(12 6)
= dz
0

(
).
~
= + 1 .
(12.7)

(3.8) .
~
V = V C1 z + C 2 ,
C 2 , z = 0 ;
z

~
~
V = dz .

(12.8)

(3.13) .
1 , 2 . ,
(.3.5,) V (l) = 0 , V (3l) = 0 ,
~
~
~
~
V (l) V (3l)
3V (l) V (3l)
(12.9)
C1 =
, C2 =
.
2l
2

(12.7) (12.8) .
~
~
V , .
n h = L / n , L - (,
).
~ ~
~ ~
i , i , Vi . , V
~
z1 , z 2 ,, z n+1 . , 1 = 0
~
~ h( i + i +1 )
,
i = 1,2,..., n .
i +1 = i +
(12 10)
2
~
, V1 = 0 ,
~ ~
~
~ h(i + i +1 )
Vi +1 = Vi +
,
i = 1,2,..., n .
(12 11
2
12.2.

,
.
= M x / W x , Wx
.
12.1. ( E = 2 1011 ) , . 12.2.
: ,
=30 , b1 z ,
0 z l
b1 = B ,
( B b)( z l)
(12.13)
b1 = B
l z 4l
3l

229

.12.2
=120 , b = 80 , l =300 , .
.
R1 , R2 (.3.5,)
F
9
3
3
R2 = qe l ,
R1 = F + qe l ,
4
2
2
4
5
3
qe = 1 10 /, F = 2 10 .

0 zl
M x = Fz ;
qe ( z l) 2 3
3

l z 3l
M x = Fz
+ F + q e l ( z l ) ;
2
4
2

(12.14)
2
qe (4l z )
Mx =
3l z 4l
.
2
4 l 20 ( n = 20 ).
( n1 = n + 1 = 21 ). z = l 6-,
. (12.10),
z = 3l 16-
C1 , C 2 ,
~ ~
~ ~
V6 V16
3V6 V16
C1 =
,
C2 =
,
(12.15)
2l
2
~ ~
V6 , V16 (3.13) z = l , z = 3l .
.3.6.
T, V, S, ZZ, K,M,
, , , z , ,
, ( z1 = 0 ,
z n+1 = 4l) .

230

Read l ,
B, b, H , qe /, F H, ,
n.

.12.3
( 4l ), n + 1 ,
( z1 h ). 4-
.
z , M x
(12.14) z , (12.13),

b H3
b H2
,
,
Wx = 1
I x = 1
12
6

= M x / Wx , K = M x /( EI x ) . z , M x ,
, K .
~
( z i )
(12.11) .
: (12.12)
~
V ( zi ) , i = 2,..., n + 1 . 1 , 2 (12.15).

(3.16), (3.12) V z , , V , ,
M x . , .
12.2.1.

Program BALKA;
Uses CRT;

231

Const kl=50;
Var i,i1,i2,n,n1:integer;
a,l,h,bb,b,b1,c1,c2,q,E,F,z1,z,R1,R2,Ix:real;
T,V,S,K,M,Wx,ZZ:array[1..k1] of real;
Otlet:char;
Begin
Clrscr;
Writeln( );
Writeln(l(mm),h(mm),bb(mm),b(mm));
Readln(l,h,bb,b);
Writeln( q(H/mm),F(H), (M);
Readln(q,F,E);
Writeln( n);
Readln(n);
Writeln( );
Writeln;
Writeln(z mm MH*m S M
V mm T );
Writeln;
a:=4*l;
z1:=a/n; { }
n1:=n+1; { }
R1:=3*F/2+3*q*1/4; R2:=9*q*1/4-F/2;
For i:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
z:=z1*(i-1);
ZZ[I]:=z;
{ }
If (z>=0) and (z<=l) then M[i]:=-F*z;
If (z>l) and (z<=3*l) then M[i]:=-F*z+R1*(z-l)-q*(z-l)*(z-l)/2;
If (z>3*l) and (z<=4*l) then M[i]:=-F*z+R1*(z-l)-q*(z-l)*(z-l)/2+R2*(z-3*l);
{ }
If (z>=0) and (z<=l) then b1:=bb;
If (z>1) and (z<=4*l) then b1:=bb-(bb-b)*(z-l)/(3*l);
Ix:=b1*h*h*h/12;
Wx[I]:=2*Ix/h;
S[i]:=M[i]/Wx[i]; { }
K[i]:=M[i]/(E*Ix); {}
end;
T[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do T[i+1]:=T[i]+z1*(K[i]+K[i+1])/2;
V[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do V[i+1]:=V[i]+z1*(T[i]+T[i+1])/2;
c1:=(V[6]-V[16])/(2*l);
c2:=V[6]+c1*l;
For I:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
T[i]:=T[i]+c1; { }
V[i]:=-V[i]+c1*ZZ[i]+c2; {}
Writerln(ZZ[i]:6:1,M[i]/1E3:9,S[i]:9:2,V[i]:8:2,T[i]:11:5);
End;
Readln; End.

232

, ,
(. 12.2).

.
.
12.2.
(.3.7,). F = 2000
qe = 10 4 /; l = 0,3 ; D = 0,12 ; d = 0,08 .
. Ra = F + 4qe l , M a = 8qe l 2 + 4 Fl , (.12.4,),
M x :
qe (4l z ) 2
F (4l z )
(12.16)
2
( z ).
(.3.7,), z ,
:
0 z l d1 = D ;
(12.17)
( D d )( z l)
l z 3l d1 = D
;
2l
3l z 4l d1 = d .

d14
d13
Wx =
Ix =
,
.
32
64
(12 18
z = 0 , 1 , 2 .
20, 10
.
Mx =

.12.4
1. :
Writeln ( );
Writeln ( l (), dd (), d ());
Readln ( l , dd, d);

233

2. M x (12.16)
M [i ] = q * (4 * l z ) * (4 * l z ) / 2 F * (4 * l z ) ;
3. d1 ( 12.17),
I x , Wx (3.22)
If (z>=0) and (z= l ) then
d1:=dd;
if (z> l ) and (z<=3- l ) then
d1:=dd- (dd-d)*(z- l )/(2* l );
if (z>3* l ) and (z<=4- l ) then
d1:=d;
Ix:=3.14*exp (4*ln(d1))/64;
Wx[i]:=2*Ix/d1.
4.
c1:=0; c2:=0.
, ,
, (. 12.14,,,).
13.3. , .12.5,
.
,
.
.12.5,,,.

.12.5
12.2.2.

Program BALKA;
Uses CRT;
Const kl=50;
Var i,i1,i2,n,n1:integer;
a,l, b,h1,h2, h,c1,c2,q,E,z1,z2,z3,z,R1,R2,Ix,t1,t2:real;
T,V,S,K,M,Wx,ZZ:array[1..k1] of real;
Otlet:char;
Begin
Clrscr;

234

Writeln( );
Writeln(l(mm),b(mm),h1(mm), h2(mm),t1(mm),t2(mm));
Readln(l,b,h1,h2,t1,t2);
Writeln( q(H/mm), (M);
Readln(q,E);
Writeln( n, z2, z3(mm));
Readln(n,z2,z3);
Writeln(
);
Writeln;
Writeln(z mm MH*m S M
V mm T );
Writeln;
a:=4*l;
z1:=a/n; { }
n1:=n+1; { }
i1:=trunc(z3/z1+1); { }
i2:=trunc(z3/z1+1); { }
R1:=7*q*l/2; R2:=R1;
For i:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
z:=z1*(i-1);
ZZ[I]:=z;
{ }
If (z>=0) and (z<=l) then M[i]:=-q*z*z/2;
If (z>l) and (z<=2*l) then M[i]:=- q*z*z/2+R1*(z-l)-4*q*(z-l)*(z-l)/2;
If (z>2*l) and (z<=3*l) then M[i]:=- q*z*z/2+R1*(z-l)-4*q*l*(z-3*l/2)+R2*(z-2*l);
{ }
If (z>=0) and (z<=l) then h:=h1+(h2-h1)*z/l;
If (z>1) and (z<=2*l) then h:=h2;
If (z>2*l) and (z<=3*l) then h:=h1+(h2-h1)*(3*l-z)/l;
Ix:=b*exp(3*ln(h))/12-(b-t1)*exp(3*ln(h-2*t2))/12;
Wx[I]:=2*Ix/h;
S[i]:=M[i]/Wx[i]; { }
K[i]:=M[i]/(E*Ix); {}
End;
T[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do T[i+1]:=T[i]+z1*(K[i]+K[i+1])/2;
V[1]:=0;
For i:=1 to n do V[i+1]:=V[i]+z1*(T[i]+T[i+1])/2;
c1:=(V[6]-V[16])/(2*l);
c2:=V[6]+c1*l;
For I:=1 to n1 do
Beqin
T[i]:=T[i]+c1; { }
V[i]:=-V[i]+c1*ZZ[i]+c2; {}
Writerln(ZZ[i]:6:1,M[i]/1E3:9,S[i]:9:2,V[i]:8:2,T[i]:11:5);
End;
Readln; End.
12.3.
1.4 (.12.6) :
8. .

235

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

,
, .
.
, z ,
.

.

, ,
.

. 12.6

236

13.
13.1.

[5].

(.13.1,): M 0 f M kf ,
f , + qe l 2 / 8 ,
, - qe l 2 / 8 , . ,
EI .
.
, -
.13.1,, ( )
.13.1,.
l
M f M 1dz
2
l 1
1

2 ( M 0i + M ki ) 1
=
=
+ M M + (M M .
M M + )M M + f

EI

EI 2

0f

0i

ki

0i

kf

0i

ki

0i

(13.1
)

(13.1)
2l 2l l
6 EI 6 EI 6 EI M 0 f
.

(13.2)
= [M 0i 0M ki ] 0 0 0 f
l 2l 2l

M kf
6 EI 6 EI 6 EI
:
Mi
- ;
Mf
- ;

- :
2 2 1
l .
= 0 0 0
6 EI
1 2 2

(13.2)
= M iT M f .

(13.3)
(13.4)

, , (13.4) ,
T

M i , M


M iT =

[M 01

0 M k 1 M 02 0 M k 2 M 03 0 M k 3 ...]
1
2
3

M 01 f
f
1

M k1 f

= M 02 f
f2

M k2 f
M

237

(13.5)

(13.6)

.13.1
1

2

0
,

(13.7)

2 2 1
li
i =
0 0 0 ; l i , I i - I- .

6 EI i
1 2 2

,
, ,
[1].
(1, 2, 3, )
:
(13.8)
M tot = M f + M 1 X 1 + M 2 X 2 + M 3 X 3 + ... ,

- ; M 1 , M 2 ,

M 3 - X 1 = 1 , X 2 = 1 ,
X 3 = 1 . .
,

.
,
.
,
.

b f b1 , b f -
, .

238

b1 Xi = 1 .
b1 3n , n - :
M 012
M 013
M 011

0
0
0

M k11
M k12
M 13

M 022
M 023
M 021

0
0
0
b1 =

M k 22
M k 23
M k 21
M 031
M 032
M 033

0
0
0

M
M k 32
M k 33
k 31

X 1 = 1 X 2 = 1 X 3 = 1

(13.9)

,
, S:
S = b f + b1 X ,
(13.10)
X -
X1
X = X 2 .
M

(13.11)

[1]
11 X 1 + 12 X 2 + ... + 1 f = 0 ;
21 X 1 + 22 X 2 + ... + 2 f = 0 ;

(13.12)

m1 X 1 + m 2 X 2 + ... + mf = 0 .

D11 X + D10 = 0 ,

D11 - [m m] :
11 12 K 1m

22 K 2 m ;
D11 = 21
M
M
M

m1
m2
mm

(13.13)

(13.14)

D10

-
:
1 f

(13.15
2f .
D10 =
M
)

mf
,
D11 = b1T b1 ;
(13.16)
T
D10 = b1 b f .
(13.17)
(13.13)
X = D111 D10 ,

239

(13 18)

D11 - , D11 . (13.10)

(13.19)
S = b f + b1 X = b f b1 D111 D10 .
Z1
X ,
.
Z1 = b1T S = 0 ,
(13.20)
.
, :
1.
- M f ,
X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , , - M 1 , M 2 , M 3 ,

2. b f , b1 .
3. D11 = b1T b1 D10 = b1T b1 .
1

4. D11 .
5. X = D111 D10 .
6. b1 X .
7. S = b f + b1 X .
8. (13.20).
13.2.

.13.2.1,
.
[1212],
. ,
. ( )
EI i / l i .
, b1 , b f

. () .

.
13.2.1.

Program RAMA;
Uses Crt;
Const
KK=12; MM=12;
Type
Wect=array[1..kk] of real;
Matr=array[1..kk, 1..mm] of real;
Var
I,J,L,K,M,LL :Integer;
B1,DE,BT,C,D11,DD,E,D,D10,A,X,BP,S2,S:Matr;
F:array[1..3, 1..3] of real;

240

{ }
Procedure GMTRA(A:Matr; Var B: Matr; M;K: Integer);
Begin
For I:=1 to M do
For J:=1 to K do B[j,i]:=A[i,j];
End;
{ }
Procedure GMPRD(A,B: Matr; Var C: Matr; M,N,K: Integer);
Begin
For I:=1 to M do
Begin
For J:=1 to K do
Begin
C[i,j]:=0;
For L:=1 to N do C[i,j]:=C[i,j]+A[i,L]*B[L,j];
End;
End;
{ }
Procedure getMinor)var Mat:Matr; N,l,m:integer;var Minor: Matr);
{ Mat N Minor,
l- m- }
var i,j:byte;
begin
for i:=1 to N do
if (i<l) then
for j:=1 to N do
if (j<m) then Minor [i,j]:=Mat[i,j]
else Minor [i,j]:Mat[i,j+1]
else
for j:=1 to N do
if (j<m) then Minor[i,j]:=Mat[i+1j]
else Minor[i,j]:=Mat[i+1,j+1];
end;
{ }
function det (Mat:Matr; N:Integer):real;
{ Mat N.USES: getMinor}
var
i,j:byte;
Minor;Matr;
sum:real;
begin
if (N=1) then det:=Matr[1,1]
else begin
sum:=0;
for i:=1 to N do
begin
getMinor(Mat,N,1,i,Minor);
if Odd(i) then sum:=sum+Mat[1,i]*det(Minor,N-1)
else sum:=sum-Mat[1,i]*det(Minor,N-1);
end;
det:=sum;
end;

241

end;
{ }
Procedure MinV(Mat:matr; N:Integer; var Inverse_Mat:Matr);
{ Inverse_Mat Mat N.
Uses:det, getMinor, Transponir}
Var
i,j:Byte;
determinant:real;
Minor:Matr;
Begin
Determinant:=det(Mat,N);
If (determinant=0_then begin
Writeln(#10,#13,`=0. `);
halt(0);
end
else
for i:=1 to N do
for j=1 to N do begin
getMinor(Mat,N,i,j,Minor);
ifOdd(i+j)thenInverse_Mat[i,j]:=-det(Minor,N-1)/determinant
else Inverse_Mat[i,j]:=det(Minor,N-1)/Determinant
end;
GMTRA(Inverse_Mat,Inverse_Mat,N,N);
End;
Procedure Stop;
Var ch:char;
Begin
While KeyPressed do ch:=ReadKey;
Readln;
End;
BEGIN
Clrscr;
{B1(M,K)-
, .
BP(M)-
}
M:=12;
K:=2;
Writeln(` B1(M,K)`);
For I:=1 to M do
For J:=1 to K do Read (B1[i,j]);
Writeln(` B1(M,K)`);
For I:=1 to M do
Begin
For J:=1 to K do Write(B1[i,j]:8:1);
Writeln
End;
Stop;
Writeln(` BP(M)`);
For I:=1 to M do
Read(BP[i,1]);
Writeln(` BP(M)`);

242

For I:=1 to M do Write(BP[i,1]:7:3);


Writeln;
Stop;
{ DE}
For I:=1 to M do
For J:=1 to M do DE[i,j]:=0;
F[1,1]:=0.333;
F[1,2]:=0.333;
F[1,3]:=0.167;
F[2,1]:=0;
F[2,2]:=0;
F[2,3]:=0
F[3,1]:=0.167;
F[3,2]:=0.333;
F[3,3]:0,333;
L:=1;
Repeat
For I:=1 to 3 do
For J:=1 to 3 do DE[I+L-1,J+L-1]:=F[i,j];
L:=L+3;
Until L>M;
Writeln(` DE`);
For I:=1 to M do
Begin
For J:=1 to M do Write(DE[i,j]:6:3);
Writeln;
End;
Stop;
{ }
GMTRA(B1,BT,M,K);
Writeln(` BT`);
For I:=1 to K do
Begin
For J:=1 to M do Write(BT[i,j]:5:1);
Writeln;
End:
GMPRD(BT,DE,C,K,M,M);
Writeln(` `);
For I:=1 to K do
Begin
For J:=1 to M do Write(C[i,j]:6:3);
Writeln;
End;
Stop;
GMPRD(C,B1,D11,K,M,K);
Writeln(` D11`);
For I:=1 to K do
Begin
For J:=1 to K do Write(D11[i,j]:12:3);
Writeln;
End;
MINV(D11,K,D);

243

Writeln (` D`);
For I:=1 to K do
Begin For J:=1 to K do Write(D[i,j]:12:3);
Writeln;
End;
GMPRD(D11,D,E,K,K,K);
Writeln (` E`);
For I:=1 to K do
Begin
For J:=1 to K do Write(E[i,j]:12:3);
Writeln;
End;
Stop;
LL:=1;
GMPRD(C,BP,D10,K,M,LL);
Writeln(` D10`);
For I:=1 to K do Writeln(D10[i,j]:12:3);
Writeln;
GMPRD(D,D10,X,K,K,LL);
X[1,1]:=-X[1,1];
X[2,1]:=-X[2,1];
Writeln(` `);
Writeln(`X1=`,X[1,1]:7:3,`X2=`,X[2,1]:7:3);
GMPRD(B1,X,S2,M,K,LL);
For I:=1 to M do S[i,1]:=BP[i,1]+S2[i,1];
Writeln;
Writeln(` `);
For I:=1 to M do Write(S[i,1]:12:3);
Writeln; Writeln(` `);
GMPRD(C,S,A,K,M,LL);
Writeln(` `);
Writeln(`A1=`,A[1,1]:7;4,`A2=`,A[2,1]:7:4);
Readln;
END.
13.3.
. .13.2, ,
.
. .13.2,. ,
, M f (.13.2,,).

M 1 X 1 = 1 (.13.2,,) M 2 X 2 = 1 (.13.3,,).
: .13.2, ,
.
(, ,
), b f b1 .
b f , M f
(.13.2,),

244

0
1/ 8

1/ 2

0
0

b f = q e l 2 .
1/ 2

0
3/ 2

5/ 2
1/ 8

9/ 2

()

b1 M 1 (. . 13.2,) M 2 (.
13.3,):
0 ! 0
0 ! 0

0 ! 0


0 ! 0

0 ! 0
2 ! 0

b1 = l.
2 ! 1

0 ! 0
2 ! 2

2 ! 2
0 ! 0

0 ! 2

()

, ,
2 2 1

0 0 0

1 2 2

2 2 1
0

0 0 0

1 2 2
l
.
=

2 2 1
6 EI

0 0 0

0
1 2 2

2 2 1

0 0 0

1 2 2

245

()

.13.2

.13.3

246

.13.4
, , .13.1,,
, .
b f
b1 , () ().
qe l 2 .
b1 b f , D11 ,
X 1 X 2 , S
. :
, f .
, , .13.3,.

[1,3], ,
. , , .13.4,,,
(.13,4,,,),
.
13.4

. 13.5
.
: ,
.
1. f Mi.
2. bf, b1, .
3. D11=b1T b1 D10=b1T bf.

247

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

D11-1.
X= - D11-1 D10.
b1X.
S=bf+ b1X.
(13.20).

6
5
4
.13.5

248

14.
14.1.

(.14.1)

[10].
T1 ( r ) u( r )
d u
1+ v u 1 v2
1+ v
T1 +
t ,
=

+

dr r
r r Ehr
r

(14.1)

dT1 Eh u 1 v
Eh
T1
t 2 hr ,
=

dr
r r
r
r
T1 = r h [/]- ; u / r - ; t ; h - ; - ; -
; E - ; v - ; -
; t (r ) - ; r t -
.
T1 (r ) u (r )

(, , ).
(14.1) - ,
.

:
d
{y} = [F ]{y}+ {g},
(14.2)
dr
T
{Y } = u / r , T1 - , (
) {u / r} T1

{}

, T - ;
1+ v 1 v2

Ehr - , u / r
[F ] = r
1 v
Eh

r
r
T1 ;

1 + v
0

{g} = rEh t 2 - . T2
rh

r
r , t

T2 = vT1 + Eh t ,
r

T
T
r = 1 , t = 2 ,
h
h

249

(14.3)

(14.1) ,
( r = r1 ) ( r = r2 ) .
:
1. .
T1 (r1 ) = 0,

r = r1

r = r2

T1 (r2 ) = 0 .

. r = r1 , u ub = / 2 , ub
. , ub << u
2.

.
u (r1 ) = / 2 .
3. p1 ,
T1 = p1h1 ,
p 2 , . , r = r1
r = r2 T1 = p2 h2 , h1 h2 -
.
4. . , r = 0 T1 = T2
Eh u

T1 = 0 t ,
1 v r

u = 0 , u / r - ; h0 - .
(14.1) r = 0 ,
r (, r = 10 4 ).

(14.2) {Y }
.
, ..
{Y }
( : 1,3,4), ( ).
, .


({g } = 0)
d
{y1 } = [F ]{y1 }
(14.4)
dr
( ) {y1 ( r1 )} . ,

, C{y1 ( r )}, C - ,
(14.4). (14.2)
{y 0 ( r1 )} - (14.2).
.
{y (r )} = C y1 (r ) + y0 (r ) ,
(14.5)

}{

{y1 ( r )} {y 0 ( r )} ,

{Y ( r )} r = r1 C .
, 1,2,3,4
{y1 ( r1 )} {y 0 ( r1 )} :
1)
2)
3)

{y1 (r1 )} = {1,0}T ;


{y1 (r1 )} = {0,1}T ;
{y1 (r1 )} = {1,0}T ;

{y0 (r1 )} = {0,0}T ;


{y0 (r1 )} = { /(2r1 )0}T ;
{y0 (r1 )} = {0, p1h1}T ;
250

4)

{y1 (r1 )} = {1, Eh0 /(1 v)}T ; {y0 (r1 )} = {0,0}T ;


r1 = r .

, {y( r )} r = r2 ,

. ,
1

y2,1 (r2 ) + y2,0 (r2 ) = 0 ,

y2,1 (r2 ) = T1,1 (r2 ) ;

y2,0 (r2 ) = T1,0 (r2 ) .

: ;
: 1- (14.4), 0-
(14.2). , y 2 ,1 ( r2 ) = T1
(14.4) r = r2 , y 2 ,0 ( r2 ) = T1
(14.2) r = r2 .

2 .
,
r = r1
(14.6)
{y(r1 )} = C{y1 (r1 )} + {y0 (r1 )}.
(14.2) (14.6),
.
(, ,
, r , t ..)
.
14.2.
14.1. (.14.1,), ,
n = 3000 /. r , t u . :

E = 2 1011 ; v = 0,3 ; = 8 103 /3; r1 = 25 ; r2 = 250 ; r3 = 50 ; r4 = 225 ;


h = 60 .
. :
r = 0,025 T1 = 0 ,

r = 0,25
T1 = 0 .

{y} (14.2) .

1
{y1 (0,025)} =
0

{g} = 0

y 2,1 (0,25) , .. T1 .


0
{y0 (0,025)} =
0
{g } 0 r = 0,25 ,

y 2,1 (0,25)C + y 2, 0 (0,25) = 0 ,

251

C = y 2,0 (0,25) / y 2,1 (0,25) .


y 2,0 (0,25) = T1, 0 (0,25) y 2,1 (0,25) = T1,1 (0,25) .
(14.2)
{y (0.025)} = {y1 (0,025)}C + {y0 (0,025)} = {C ,0}T

.14.1


u
r=

T
1

1
0 C .
C + =
0
0 0


( T2 (14.3))

{y( r )} T2 .
.
-.

y = f ( x, y ).

[x 0 , x n ]

(.14.1,)

y( x )

, y( x 0 ) = y 0 .
n
xi = x0 + ih ,
i = 0,1,2,...., n - (); h -

h=

x n x0
.
n

252

xi y( xi ) = y i ,

xi +1 = xi + h
xi + h

yi +1 = yi + f ( x , y )dx .
xi

, ,
y [xi , xi +1 ] , f ( x , y ) .
,
yi +1 yi = h < f > ,
< f > - f ( x, y ) .
- < f > P0 , P1 , P2 , P3
( )
1
< f >= ( P0 + 2 P1 + 2 P2 + P3 ) .
6
yi +1
h
yi +1 = yi + ( P0 + 2 P1 + 2 P2 + P3 ) ,
6

P0 = f ( xi , y i ) ,
h
h
P1 = f ( xi + , yi + P0 ) ,
2
2
h
h
P2 = f ( xi + , yi + P1 ) ,
2
2
P3 = f ( xi + h, yi + P2 h) .

, P0 - y , P1 ,

P2 - P3 - .
,
,

y( x1 ), y( x 2 ),..., y( x n ) .
.

d
{y} = { f ( x, y )}, {y ( x0 )} = {y0 },
dx
{y} - - , -:
{P0 } = { f ( xi , yi )},

{P1 } = f ( xi + h , yi + P0 h ) ,

2
2

{P2 } = f ( xi + h , yi + P1 h ) ,
2
2

{P3 } = { f ( xi + h, yi + P2 h)},
{y( xi+1 )} = {yi } + h ({P0 } + 2{P1} + 2{P2 } + {P3 }) .
6
14.3.

253

3 (.14.1,).
: n1 = 16 , n2 = 96 , n3 = 6 . :
(r r )
(r r )
(r r )
h1 = 3 1 ; h2 = 4 3 ; h3 = 2 4 .
n3
n1
n2
.
.14.3.1.
, .
:
Y(2) ;
XS(4) , ;
NN(3) ;
KR(3) ;
Y1(2),P0(2),P1(2),P2(2),P3(2) RK;
NP ;
KP ;
;
;
(2) ;
RN ;
RO ;
OM ;
N - ;
Y(N) ;
H ;
NI ;
NS ;
TH(X) - .
u, r , t
.14.1,.
14.3.1.

Program DISK;
Uses Crt;
Label 1;
Const
N=2; RN=3000; RO=8E3; AL=0; Cp=0.3;
Type
Wect=array[1..4] of real;
Var
Ns,Ni,Ip,I,Np,Kp,:integer;
H,x,Tx,Thx,Ex,Ur,T2,Sig1,Sig2,C,C2:real;
Y,XS:wect;
NN,KR:array[1..3] of integer;
{ }
Function T(x:real):real;
Begin
If Ns=1 then T:150+892.9*(x-0.019);
If Ns=2 then T:165+3311*(x-0.0358);
IfNs=3 then T:=510+6667*(x-0.140);T:=0;
End;

254

{ }
Function TH(x:real):real;
Begin
If Ns=1 then TH:=0.052;
If Ns=2 then TH:=0.03-0.006*(x-0.0358)/0.0521;
If Ns=3 then TH:=0.022; TH:=0.06;
End;
{ }
Function E(x:real):real;
Begin
E:=1.8E11-1.25E8*(T(x)-150); E:=2e11;
End;
{ }
Procedure FCT(x:real; Y:wect; var P: wect);
Var
OM,ALT,CPP,CPM,TE,XX,A11,A12,A21,A22,G1,G2,SG:real;
Begin
OM:=3.1416*RN/30;
ALT:=AL*T(x);
CPP:=1+CP;
CPM:=1-CP;
TE:=E(x)*TH(x);
XX:=1/x;
A11:=CPP*XX;
A12:=A11*CPM/TE;
A21:=TE*XX;
A22:=CPM*XX;
G1:=A11*ALT;
G2:=A21*A1t+RO*TH(x)*OM*OM*x;
SG:=1;
If NI=1 then SG:=0;
P[1]:=-A11*Y[1]+A12*Y[2]+SG*G1;
P[2]:=A21*Y[1]-A22*Y[2]-SG*G2;
End;
{ }
Procedure RK(var z:real; var Y:wect; H:real);
Var
I:byte;
Y1,P0,P1,P2,P3:wect;
Begin
FCT(x,Y,P0);
For I:=1 to N do
Y1[i]:=Y[i]+H*P0[i]/2;
FCT(x+h/2,Y1,P1);
For I:=1 to N do
Y1[i]:=Y[i]+H*P1[i]/2;
FCT)x+H/2,Y1,P2);
For i:=1 to N do
Y1[i]:=Y[i]+H*P2[i];
FCT(x+H,Y1,P3);
For I:=1 to N do

255

Y[i]:=Y[i]+H*(P0[i]+2*P1[i]+P2[i]+P3[i])/6;
X:=x+H;
End;
BEGIN
Clrscr;
XS[1]:=0.025; XS[2]:=0.05; XS[3]:=0.225;XS[4]:=0.250;
NN[1]:=16; NN[2]:=96; NN[3]:=6; KR[1]:=4; KR[2]:=6; KR[3]:=2;
Y[1]:=1; Y[2]:=0;
Writeln(`R`,`H`,`T`,`E`,`U`, `T1`,`T2`,`SIG1`,`SIG2`); Writeln;
Writeln(`()`,`()`,`()`,`()`,`()`,
`(H/)`,`(H/)`,`()`,`()`);
Writeln;
For Ni:=1 to 3 do
Begin
If Ni=2 then Y[1]:=0;
If Ni=3 then Y[1]:=C;
If Ni>1 then Y[2]:=0;
For Ns:=1 to 3 do
Begin
X:=XS[Ns];
H:=(XS[Ns+1]-XS[Ns]/NN[Ns];
Np:=NN[Ns] div KR[Ns];
Kp:=KR[Ns]+1;
For Ip:=1 to Kp do
Begin
If Ni<3 then goto 1;
Tx:=T(x);
Thx:TH(x);
Ex:=E(x);
Ur:=Y[1]*x;
T2:=Cp*Y[2]+Ex*THx*
(Y[1]-AL*Tx); Sig1:=Y[2]/
Thx; Sig2:=T2/Thx;
Writeln(x`:6:4,Thx:7:3,Tx:6:0,`
`,Ex:9,`
`,Ur:9,`
`,Y[2]:9,
`,T2:9,Sig1/1E6:6:0,Sig2/1E6:6
if Ip<Kp then
for I:=1 to Np do RK(x,Y,H) else end;
end;
if Ni:=1 then C2:=Y[2];
if Ni:=2 then C:=-Y[2]/C2;
end; Readln; END

256

15.
15.1.


(, , ..).

, .
- .

.15.1
, (.15.1,)
M r , M t Q .
: M r , M t [/], Q - [/]. ,
z > 0 , Q > 0 ,
z .
12M t
12 M r
(15.1)
r =
z , t =
z.
h3
h3
,
, ,
r

1 r
(15.2)
p(r )2rdr + P 2r ,
Q=
k
pk
2r r
k
1

r1 - ,
, r
( , z ).
, (..15.1,)
,
d
(15.3)
M t ( M r r ) = Qr .
dr
M r , M t
:

d
d

M r = D
+ v , M t = D + v
,
(15.4)
r
dr
dr
r

257

Eh 3
[]- .
12(1 v 2 )
, D -
. (15.3) (15.4) . [1].

dW
= .
(15.5)
dr

W , M r

D =

r. - Y = (W , , rM r )T ,
. ,
W, , , , .
d
, (15.4)
, M t M r , :
dr
Eh 3
M t = vM r +
.
(15.6)
12 r
(15.315.5)

dW
= ,
dr
(15.7)
1
d
= v +
(r M r ) ,
dr
r Dr
d
Eh 3
v
(rM r ) =
+ (rM r ) Q r .
dr
12r
r
(15.7) (15.5),
d / dr (15.4), (15.3),
M t (15.6).
(15.7) ,
, (15.7)

d
y = Fy + g ,
dr
F g :

(15.8)

1
0
0

F = 0
v/r
1 /( Dr ),
0 Eh 3 /(12r )
v / r

0
g = 0 .
Qr
(15.8) .
, .
( )
, M r , ,

,
M r . W=0 ,
.

258

.15.1 ( z-
). r=0
= 0.
, r=0
. ,
r ( - <
>, ), = 0
:
aM r = D(1 + v) ,
(15.9)
D- .
(15.9).
= Br (
r ). r d / dr = / r ,
(15.4) (15.9).
15.1

,
(15.8), , ,
M r , ,
, , , - .
[5].
(15.8) (-
Q) . ,
, , yi (r )
(i = 1,2,3) y0 ( r ) .
(15.8),
dyi
= Fyi (i = 1,2,3). ,
dr

259

y (r ) = Ci yi (r ) + y0 (r ) , Ci ,
i =1

.

. , , ,
( r = r1 r = a - ),
Ci , ,
,
y (r ) = C1 y1 (r ) + C 2 y 2 (r ) + y0 (r ).
y1 ( r1 ), y 2 ( r1 ), y d ( r1 ) ,

r = r1 C1 , C 2 .
,
, ( W = C 2 )
= 0 , M r = 0 .
,
(15.10)
y (r ) = C1 y1 (r ) + C 2 (1,0,0) T + y 0 (r ).


r = r1 .
1.

y1 (r1 ),

y0 (r1 ),

M r

(r1 ) = 0 ( r = r1

r1 ). ,
y1 (r1 ) = (0,0,1)T ,

y0 (r1 ) = (0,0,0)T .

2. M r (r1 ) = 0 ( r = r1 ),

y1 (r1 ) = (0,1,0)T ,
y0 (r1 ) = (0,0,0)T .
3. ( r = r1 ) t e :
y1 (r1 ) = (0,1,0)T ,
y0 (r1 ) = (0,0, r1t e )T .
4. . ( r = a )
y1 (a ) = (0,1, D(1 + v))T ,
y0 (a) = (0,0,0) T ,
D .
C1 ,
( r = r2 )

y (r2 ) = C1 y1 (r2 ) + C2 (1,0,0)T + y0 (r2 )

M r .
, M r = 0 C1
,

C1 y31 (r2 ) + y30 (r2 ) = 0 (


, ). C1 C 2

, . r = r0
. :
C1 y11 (r0 ) + C2 + y10 (r0 ) = 0 ,

C2 = C1 y11 (r0 ) y10 (r0 ),


y11 (r0 ) , y10 (r0 ) - y1 y 0 r = r0 .
W(r1) = 0, 2 = 0.

260

1, 2
r (15.10).

y 1 ( r ), y0 ( r )

(15.8), , y1 ( r )
g = 0 ,
:
dY
(15.11)
= FY + G ,
dr
Y ( r ) = ( y1 ( r ), y0 ( r )) ; G = ( 0, g ) - ,
, g .
, y0 ( r ) - Y.

2 (.. y12, y22, y32).
(15.11).
15.2.


(. . 15.2.1),
.
.
,
, .
15.2.1.

Program KRUG_PLAST;
Uses Crt;
Const
CP=0.3; E=2E11; NU=2; N=3; M=2;
TYPE
Matr:array[1..3, 1..3] of real;
Amatr:array[1..50, 1..3, 1..2] of real;
Var
NU1, NS : integer;
CCP, H, RR: real;
NN, KR : array[1..N] of integer;
RG: array[1..NU+1] of real;
{ }
Function DD (R;real):real;
Begin
DD:=E*EXP(3/LN(TOL(NS,R)))/(12/ccP);
End;
{ }
Procedure NUS (Var Y:Matr);
Var
i,j: integer;
Begin
For i:=1 to 3 do
For j:=1 to 2 Y[I,j]:=0;
Y[2,1]:=1;

261

End;
{ }
Procedure GUS (Var Y: Matr; Var C1, C2 :real; Z: Amatr);
Begin
C1:=-Y[2,2]/Y[2,1];
C2:=-C1*Y[1,1]-Y[1,2];
End;
{ }
Procedure FCT (R: real; Y: Matr; Var P:Matr);
k, i, j : integer;
F, G : Matr;
Begin
For i:=1 to 3 do
For j:= 1 to 3 do
Begin
F[i,j]:=0; G[i,j]:=0;
End;
RP:=1/R;
F[1,2]:=-1;
F[3,3]:=CP*RR;
F[2,2]:=-F[3,3];
F[2,3]:=RR/DD(R);
F[3,2]:=RR*DD(R)*CCP;
G[3,2]:=-R*Q(NS,R);
For j:=1 to 2 do
Begin
For i: = 1 to 3 do
Begin
P[i,j]:=0;
For k:= 1 to 3 do P[i,j]:= P[i,j]+F[i,k]*Y[k,j];
End;
P[i,j]:= P[i,j]+G[i,j];
End;
End;
{
-}
procedure RKM (Var X:real; Var Y : matr);
Var
i,j: integer;
Y1, P0,P1,P2,P3: matr;
Begin
FCT(X,Y,P0);
For i:= 1 to N do
For j:= 1 to M do Y1[i.j]:=Y[i,j]+H*P0[i,j]/2;
FCT(X+H/2, Y1, P1);
For i:=1 to N do
For j:=1 to M do Y![i,j]:=Y[i,j]+P1[i,j]/2;
FCT(X+H/2, Y1, P2);
For i:=1 to N do
For j:= 1 to M do Y1[i.j]:=Y[i,j]+H*P2[i,j];
FCT(X+H, Y1, P3);
For i:=1 to N do

262

For j:= 1 to M do Y1[i.j]:=Y[i,j]+H*(P0[i,j]+2*P1[i,j]+2*P2[i,j]+P3[i,j])/6;


X:=X+H;
end;
{ }
Procedure PLAST;
Var
Y:Matr;
Z :Amatr;
R,C1,C2,MR,MT,W,TETA:real;
I,J.K,K1,IK,NP,KP,IP:integer;
S:array[1..N] of real;
RZ,HZ,DZ,QRZ:array[1..50] of real;
Begin
Clrscr;
K:=0; K1:=0;
NUS(Y);
For i:=1 to NU do K1:=K1+KR[i];
K1:=K1+NU;
For NS:=1 to NU do
Begin
R:=RG[NS];
H:=(RG[NS+1]-RG[NS])/NN[NS];
NP:=NN[NS] div KR [NS];
KP:=KR[NS]+1;
For ip:=1 to KP do
Begin
K:=K+1;
RZ[K]:=R;
HZ[K]:=TOL(NS,R);
DZ[K]:=DD(R);
QRZ[K]:=Q(NS,R);
For i:=1 to N do
Begin
For j:=1 to M do Z[K,I,J]:=Y[I,J];
End;
IF(IP<>KP) Then
For IK:=1 to NP do
RKM (R,Y)
Else break;
End;
End;
GUS(Y,C1,C2,Z);
Writeln (`C1=`,C1,`C2=`,C2);
Writeln;
Writeln(` R()`,` H()`,`Q(H/)`,`W()`,
`
Mr(H*/)`,` Mt(H*/)`,` Teta()`);
Writeln;
For i:=1 to K1 do
Begin
For j:=1 to N do S[j]:=C1*Z[i,j,1]+Z[i,j,2];
W:=S[1]+C2;
MR:=S[3]/RZ[i];

263

MT:=DZ[i]*CCP*S[2]/RZ[i]+CP*MR;
TETA:=S[2];
Writeln(RZ[i]:10,``,NZ[i]:10,``.QRZ[i]:10,``,
W:10,``,MR:10,``,MT:10,``,TETA:10);
End;
End;
Begin { }
KR[1]:4; KR[2]:=8;
NN[1]:=16; NN[2]:=80;
RG[1]:=0.02; RG[2]:=0.04; RG[3]:=0.125;
NU1:=NU+1;
CCP:=1-CP*CP;
PLAST;
Readln;
END.
.
:
NU ;
NU1 (NU1=NU+1);
RG(NU1) ( ) ,
;
NN(NU) ;
KR(NU) ;
, NN
KR (
).
PLAST,
.
PLAST :
Y Y = ( y1 , y0 ) ;
Y1,P0,P1,P2,P3 32;
RZ,HZ,DZ,QRZ , ,
, ;
Z ,
;
S , .
50,
: RZ,HZ,DZ,QRZ,Z.
:
M, N Y (M=2; N=3);
K, K1
.
NUS(Y),
Y ( r1 ) , r1 - ,
.
:
1) NS,
2) IP,
3) IK.
R ,
H, NP I
KP ; .

264

, KP , K
, RZ, HZ, DZ, QRZ, Z , , ,
Y.
RKM,
(15.11).
PLAST
GUS(Y,C1,C2,Z), C1, C2.
K1 I y( r )
(15.10) .
: , , , , M r
M t .
( ),
M t .
PLAST .
, ,
(. 15.3).
NUS(Y) y1 ( r1 ), y0 ( r1 )

( r = r1 )
.
GUS(Y,C1,C2,Z)
: 1 , M r

( r = r2 ) , 2 , W.
- , 2

(15.12)
C2=-C1*Z(K,1,1)-Z(K,1,2).
,
( r = r0 ), , .
, 2=0,
, Z (15.2)
Y, Z
GUS.
RKM(X,Y)
dY/dX=f(Y,X) -,
X R;
Y ;
Y1, P0, P1, P2, P3 - N M;
H - .
(15.11) FCT(R,Y,P).
RKM FCT .
- TOL(R,NS) Q(R,NS) h
Q R NS.
- DD(R)
Eh 3
.
D=
12(1 v 2 )
,
, NUS, GUS - TOL Q.
(. 15.1).
(. 15.2).

265

15.3.
15.1. .15.2, M r ,

M t W n y .
E = 2 105 , v = 0,3 , P = 10 5 /, y = yc = y = 200 .
.15.2, .
-.
.
:
1-0,02 r 0,04 ;
2-0,04 r 0,125 .
( )
0,02 - 1 (NS=1);
H(R)
0,01+0,01(r-0,04)/0,085 - 2 (NS=2).
-
TOL(R,NS).
Q [/] ,
r.
:
(. 15.2,)
Q 2r = 0 ,
(. 15.2,)
Q 2r = P 2rp ,
rp = 0,04 , =105 /.
0, 1 (NS=1);
4103/r, 2 (NS=2).
- Q(R,NS).
M r = 0 ( r = r1 = 0,02 )

Q(R)=

y1 (r1 )

y 0 ( r1 )
y1 (r1 ) = (0,1,0) T ,

y 0 (r1 ) = (0,0,0) T .

, Y ( r1 )
0 0

Y (r1 ) = 1 0 .
0 0

NUS(Y); Y
, Y(2,1) .
( r = r2 = 0,125 )
=0, W =0
(15.10)
y 21C1 + y 20 = 0;

y11C1 + C 2 + y10 = 0,

C1 =

y 20
;
y 21

266

C 2 = y11C1 y10 .

y1 (r2 ) , y0 (r2 ) ,
(15.11) Y ( r1 ) .
C1 , C 2 GUS.

yij -

. 15.2

NU,
(0,02; 0,04; 0,125) RG(3). :
. KR(2).
NN(2) 16 80.
(CP =0,3)
(=21011 ).
(.15.2,) W
M r , M .
,
, (z=h/2)
H

r=0.04 . M r = 1,5 10 3
; M t = 7,3 10 2
; h = 0,01 .

- .
r t
6 M r 6 1,56 10 3
r = 2 =
= 9,36 10 7 = 93,6 ,
2
h
0,01
6M
6 7,36 10 2
t = 2 t =
= 4,42 10 7 = 44,2 .
2
h
0,01
-

eq = r2 + t2 + r t .
267

r t ,

eq = 93,6 2 + 44,2 2 93,6 44,2 = 81,1 ,


y 200
ny =
=
= 2,47.
eq 81,1
15.2. (.15.3,) , ,
r0 = 0,3 , p=1 ,
W M r

M t . v = 0, E = 2 105 .
. :

.15.3
1
0,001 r 0,1 ;
2
0,1 r 0,3 ;
3
0,3 r 0,5 .
, ,
a = 0 , 001 .
3 , 5 .
15 30
.
h :
0,05 1 (NS=1);
H(R)=
0,05-(r-0,1)/16 2 3 (NS=2, NS =3).
.
Q0
Q0 2r0 = pr22 ,

268

Q0 =

pr22
,
2r0

r0 = 0,3 , r2 = 0,5 .

Q 2r = pr 2 ,
pr
Q=
.
2
,
Q0
Q 2r = pr 2 Q0 2r0 ,
Q0
Q = p r / 2 r22 /(2r ) .
,
pr/2 1 2 (NS=1, NS=2);
Q(R)= p(r-r22 /r)/2 3 (NS =3).
y1 ( r1 ) , y 0 ( r1 ) ,
r1=a=0,001 ,
(. 4 y1 ( r1 ) , y 0 ( r1 )) :

0
Y (r1 ) = 1
D(1 + v)

0
0 ,
0

Eh 3
D =
- (h=0,05 ).
12(1 v 2 )
NUS ( 15.1)
: Y[3,1]:=2E11*EXP(3*Ln(0.05))/12/7.
C1,
r=r1, M r = 0 r=r2.
(15.10) y31C1 + y30 = 0 ,

C1 =

y30
,
y31

yij - r=0,5 .
C2, ,
r0=0,3 ,
. (
) 10 11 (
). GUS, ,
:
C1:=-Y[3,2]/Y[3,1];
C2:=-C1*Z[10,1,1]-Z[10,1,2].
.
(.15.3,) W, M r , M t .
15.3. (.15.3,),
r=rp P t e . ,

269

P , 15.1. t e t e = 10 3
/.
. 15.1 ,
M r , t e ,
. ( z )
+

M r = M r + m , M r , M r - M r
.
y 0
, .. r = rp = 0,04 y30 = y30 + y30 ,
+

y30 = t e = 40 [].
PLAST NS

If NS=2 Then Y[3,2]:=Y[3,2]+40.
.

270

16.
16.1.

, ,
.
.
,
, ( )
, , .
,
, ()
.
.
. ,
[1].

.16.1

[5]
(.16.1) 1, 2.

(.16.1,). .16.1, : R
; F1 = C1 y1 F2 = C 2 y 2 - ,
( ).
d2y
EI ( z ) 2 = Fy + Rz I c1 y1 ( z l 1 ) II c2 y 2 ( z l 2 ) III .
(16.1)
dz
(16.1) ,
. ,
, .
(16.1) . :
y
y
z
y
= , = , 1 = 1 ,
2 = 2 ,
l
l
l
l
l2
l1
1 = ,
2 = ,
(16.2)
l
l
Fl 2
F0 =
,
EI 0

Rl 2
R0 =
,
EI 0

271

c1l 3
,
c1 =
EI 0

c2 l 3
.
c2 =
EI 0

f ( ) =

EI ( z )
,
EI 0

(16.3)

EI 0 - - , , = 0 .
(16.1)
d 2
1
=
F0 + R0 I c11 ( 1 ) II c2 2 ( 2 ) III .
2
(16.4)
d
f ( )

(16.4)

d
= ,
d
(16.5
d
1
)
=
F0 + R0 I c11 ( 1 ) II c2 2 ( 2 ) III .
d
f ( )
( = 0 ) = 0 (0) R0 - (
).
( = 1 ) . , (16.5) ,
(1) (1)
(0) R0
(1) = a11 (0) + a12 R0 ,
(1) = a21 (0) + a22 R0 .
(1) = 0 (1) = 0 ,

a11( 0 ) + a12 R0 = 0 ,
a21( 0 ) + a22 R0 = 0.

(16.7)

, (16.7) ,

a
a12
= 11
= 0.
a 21 a 22
. ,
(0) R0 .
(16.5)
-. F,
. ,

. (16.5)
(0) = 1 R0 = 0 , a11 a21
(16.6). (16.5),
(0) = 0 R0 = 1 , a12 a22 .
(16.7). ,
F F ,
. ,
, . .
16.2.

.16.2.1 ,
. ,

272

. ,
EI1 , EI 2 EI 3 . f ( )
. EI 0 = EI1 , :
f ( ) = 1 , f ( ) = EI 2 /( EI1 ) , f ( ) = EI 3 /( EI1 ).
: DL1 -
( l 1 ), DL2 ( l 2 ) DL (1)
; EI1, EI2 EI3 [2];
1 2 [/]; [];
P[H] DP[H].
:
1 2 (1, 2);
DZ1 b DZ2 ( 1 ) ( 2 );
F1 F3 - f ( ) ;
F;
H .

DP . 2
(0) = 1 R0 = 0
(Y(2)=1 R0=0). 1 2.

(0) = 0
R0 = 0 (Y (2) = 0 R 0 = 1) .
3 ;.
DET0 2
PP+DD. , ,
DET. DET0, , ,
PP+DD,
. 4
, .
, DET , DET0,
2, ,
, , DET .
16.2.1.

Program STERGEN;
Uses Crt;
Label 1,2,3,4;
Type
Wect=array[1..2] of real;
Var
M:Integer;
Y:Wect;
DL1,DL2,DL,C1,C2,EI1,EI2,EI3,P,DP,HH,CC1,CC2,DZ1,DZ2:real;
F2,F3,PP,DD.H,X,R0,A1,A2,A3,A4,DET0,DET,PK,YY1,YY2: real;
Procedure FCT(X1:real; Y2: Wect;Var D: Wect);
Begin {FCT}
If (X1>=0) And (X1<=DZ1) THEN
Begin
D[1]:=Y2[2];
D[2]:=-PP*Y2[1]+R0*X1;

273

YY1:=Y2[1];
End
If (X1>DZ1) And (X1<=DZ2) THEN
Begin
D[1]:=Y2[2];
D[2]:=(-PP*Y2[1]+R0*X1-CC1*(X1-DZ1)*YY1)/F2;
YY2:=Y2[1];
End;
If (X1>DZ2) and (X1<=1) THEN
Begin
D[1]:=Y2[2];
D[2]:=(-PP*Y2[1]+RO*X1-CC1*(X1-DZ1)*YY1-CC2*(X1-DZ2)*YY2)/F3;
End
End; {FCT}
{ -}
Procedure RK(Var X0: real; Var Y0: Wect);
Var
I:integer;
Y1,P0,P1,P2,P3:Wect;
Begin {RK}
FCT(X0,Y0,P0);
For I:=1 to 2 Y1[I]:=Y0[I]+H*P0[I]/2;
FCT(X0+H/2,Y1,P1);
For I:=1 to 2 do Y1[I]:=Y0[I]+H*P1[I]/2;
FCT(X0+H/2, Y1, P2);
For I:=1 to 2 do Y1[I]:=Y0[I]+H*P2[I];
FCT(X0+H,Y1,P3);
For I:=1 to 2 do 0[1]:=Y0[I]+H*(P0[I]+2*P1[I]+2*P2[I]+P3[I]/6;
X0:=X0+H;
End; {RK}
{ }
BEGIN
Clrscr;
Writeln (` DL1, DL2,DL `);
Read (DL1,DL2,DL);
Writeln(` C1,C2 H/`); Readln(C1,C2);
Writeln(` EI1,EI2,EI3 H**`);
Readln(EI1,EI2,EI3);
Writeln(` P H`);
Readln(P);
Writeln(` DP d H`);
Readln(DP);
Writeln(` `);
Readln(HH);
CC1:=C1*DL*DL*DL/EI1; CC2:=DL*DL*DL/EI1; DZ1:=DL1/DL;
DZ2:=DL2/DL; F2:=EI2/EI1; F3:=EI3/EI1; PP:=P*DL*DL/EI1;
DD:=DP*DL*DL/EI1; H:=HH/DL; M:1;
2:
X:=0; Y[1]:=0; Y[2]:=1; R0:=0;
Writeln X<1 do RK(X,Y);
A1:=Y[1];
A2:=Y[2]; X:=0; Y[1]=0; Y[2]:=0; R0:=0;
While X<1 do RK(X,Y);

274

A3:=Y[1]; A4:=Y[2];
If M>1 Then Goto 1;
DET0:=A1*A4-A2*A3; M:=M+1; PP;=PP+DD;
Goto 2;
1: DET:=A1*A4-A2*A3;
If DET0*DET<0 Then Goto 3;
If DET0*DET=0 Then Goto 4;
DET0:=DET; PP:=PP+DD; M:=M+1;
Goto 2;
3: PP:=PP+DD*ABS(DET0)/(ABS(DET)+ABS(DET0));
4: PK:=PP*EI1/DL/DL;
Writeln; Writeln(` P=`,PK,`H`); Readln; END.
,
, .16.1. , , ,
( c1 =
c2 = ).
,
(.16.1),
, (16.1)
FCT.
, .16.2,.
, .16.2,.
:
d2y
EI ( z ) 2 = Fy + M 0 ,
0 z l1
dz
d2y
(16.8)
EI ( z ) 2 = Fy1 + M 0 ,
l1 z l .
dz

.16.2

M 0 ,
. , ,
Y(1)=0 Y(2)=0 X=0 (v=0 =0 z=0). R0 M0
0=1.0. ,
, 3 4.

DET0=A2 DET=A2
(16.8) FCT.
FCT .

275

16.3.
16.1. .16.3 .
: EI1=1,6103H2; EI2=3,2103H2; C=100 kH/; l = 0 ,5 .

I1

I2

.16.3
. .16.2.1 ,
. =0,
EI1=1,6103H2.
:
2 EI1
Fcro =
,
( 2l ) 2
= 0,7 . ,
Fcro = 32,2 .
: DL1=0,5 , DL2=1 , DL3=1 ; : 1=1,6103
2; EI2=3,2103 2, C1=1105 H/, C2=0,0. :
=001 , DP=100
P=3,22104 H. Fcr 53 .
16.4.
16.116.5. .16.4
. : EI=2,5103 2; =120 /; l = 0,8 .

. 16.4

276

17.

K d

K d

. ,

, K

Kd

:
K
a
K
a
=
, =
K
L
K d
L
d
F , v
F , v
G

1 L
F , v = 0 .5 + 0 .5

88 . 3 G

;
v

1 L
L

F , v = 0.5 + 0.5
.
88.3 G
G

F . 17.1.

a , a .
a , a ,
., - ,
..( . 17.117.3).
L. L
, ,
.
L (.9.7) . 17.2.
17.1
L

F , v
G

lg =
v
-0,5
0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0

L
G

0,04

0,08

0,10

0,12

0,16

0,20

1,125
1,100
1,070
1,045
1,020
0,997
0,975
0,953
0,933
0,912
0,890
0,877
0,860
0,845

1,280
1,215
1,150
1,095
1,043
0,995
0,951
0,912
0,876
0,843
0,812
0,785
0,760
0,737

1,380
1,280
1,200
1,120
1,055
0,994
0,940
0,892
0,850
0,812
0,778
0,747
0,720
0,697

1,485
1,355
1,245
1,150
1,065
0,993
0,928
0,873
0,825
0,783
0,747
0,715
0,687
0,663

1,730
1,529
1,350
1,205
1,090
0,990
0,907
0,837
0,782
0,734
0,695
0,662
0,635
0,612

1,040
1,725
1,470
1,270
1,110
0,987
0,887
0,807
0,743
0,693
0,654
0,662
0,595
0,578

277

.17.1. (0,05</D<1,00)

.17.2. (0,05</D<1,00)

.17.3.
G [ 1 ] .
G , G , t, ,
. 17.3.
v ,v ,v -
,
; v 0,05...0,20 ; v
, .

278

v , v ,
( u < 1800 )

v = 1,5v .

v = 0,2000 0,0001 y ;

17.3
G

D
1,5
d
D

1,5
d

2 2
G = +
d

G =

2(1 + )

G =

H
1,5
h
H

1,5
h

G =

G =

G =

2(1 + )

G =

2
h

G =

2
d

2,3(1 + )

2
d

2
h

2,3

2,3(1 + )

G =

D
1,5
d
D

1,5
d

2,3

-
2
G =

G =
J=

G =

2
d

2,3

2,3(1 + )

G =

2
d

1 2
G = +
d

2,3

2,3(1 + )

G =

G =

1,15

1,15

2
d

2
d

1
4 t/ +2

K
K
. ( ) 0
K
K
d
d
.17.5.
( u = 500 p 30
).

u = 500 p 30
K K
=
K d K d

279

K

K d

K
K d

- , . 17.5;
0

- , ;
- , , .
:
=0,305+0,00139 u ;

=0,65+0,014, 25 ;
=1 >25 .

K

K
d
u = 500 , p 30 :

.17.4.

1- ;
2- .
K .

. 17.4 . 17.5 .
17.4
K

u ,

500

600

700

800

1000

1,6

1,75

1,9

2,0

2,3
17.5

u ,

500

600

700

800

1000

1,5

1,6

1,7

1,8

1,9

K . ( K )0
D
( K )0 ( = 2 , d = 30...50 )
d

280

r

d

.17.5. ( K )0 : D/d=2,
d=3050
. 17.517.6. K

D
d

K = 1 + [( K )0 1 ] ,
D
, . 17.8.
-
d

.17.6. ( K )0 :D/d=2,
d=3050
K d . K d

.17.8. K d = K d .

. = 0 ,1...0 ,2

- ;

= 0 ,2...0 ,3 - (

= 0 ,05...0 ,1 ; = 0 ,1...0 ,15 ).

.17.7.

D
: 1-, 2 .
d

. 17.8. K d :1-
; 2


; 3-
; 4-

K . K
:

281

K = 1 + [ K )`1]
- (.17.11),

( K )` - , .17.10
t / f = 1 / d u .
- K
. K
.
K = 1 + 0,6( K 1),
K - , ;
K K .

.17.12, .17.13.; -

.

.17.9.

. 17.10.

:
1- u = 1000 ; 2- u = 500

.17.12.

.17.11.




:
:
1-a/d=0,050,1;
a/d=0,050,25;
2-a/d=0,150,25.
d=3050
(d=3050 )
K . K
- d=12 .17.14.
.

282

.17.13.

. 17.14.
: 1-; 2 -
; 3- ; 4-
; 50
( K f ). K f

.17.1517.16 .
K f . 17.6.
17.6
K f


Rz
0,51
1,52
410
1015
2030
50100

K
1,00
0,960,98
0,870,94
0,840,88
0,780,83
0,700,75

. .,
( ),
.17.17. . 17.18


. ,
,

.

.17.15.
K f = 0,575 K f + 0,425


(. 17.18).

283

.17.16.

.17.17.

: 1- , 2- , 3

q.

q,

,
.17.19.

.17.18.
: 1- ( ); 2-
( ); 3- ( )

.17.19. q=f( u )

.17.20.

284

.17.21.

K . K
. 17.717.9.
17.7

,
720
3040
720
3040


1,31,6

1,22,5

1,62,8

1,52,5

20
1,2
: .
0,91,5 .
.
17.8
-



0,10,4

;

730..970

( ,
)


0,20,6



0,2

815
3040
815
3040

1,151,25
1,101,15
1,93,0
1,32,0

815
3040
815
3040
815

1,22,1
1,11,5
1,52,5
1,22,0
1,8
17.9

285

,
720
3040
720
3040
720
3040
720
2040
8

1,21,4
1,11,25
1,52,2
1,31,8
1,11,3
1,11,2
1,42,5
1,11,5
1,051,15
17.10

10
20
30
35
40
45
50
60
20
65
30
15
15-32

.
-59

.
.

35

45

46

62

210
300
300
350
320
240
360
450
650
380
700
410
280
420
440
700
125
360
850
1300
380
1700
150

340
500
500
600
540
500
610
750
900
640
900
690
460
570
750
900
150
600
1100
1500
600
2200

1t

180
180
215
220
270
325
230
325
165
205
270
325
530
240
440
600
240
460

160
225
225
270
220
230
270
340
405
290
405
310
205
265
340
405
770
300
550
750
300
660
70

80
135
135
160
130
140
165
20,5
245
17,5
245
180
125
150
200
245
400
170
320
430
180
330
50

: ; ;
; ; ;
, , HRC.

286

1.1. n y =

18.

yA

. ,
ne l
. 18.1,.
1.2. W = U = 2 Al 3 / 6 E . N, w . 18.1,.
5

1.3. max = 70 ,2 10 ; wmax = 17 ,5 10 . N, w


. 18.1,.
1.4. W = U = 13F 2 l / 2 EA . N, w . 18.1,.
3

1.5.

max = 500 ; wmax = 5 10 2 ; n y = 4 . N, w

.18.1,.

max = 60 ; wmax = 4 10 2 . N, w . 18.1,.


3
1.7. max = 24 ; wmax = 24 10
. N, w .

1.6.
18.2,.

1.8. max = 120 ; wmax = 0 ,6 . N,


w . 18.2,.
1.9. A = 368 3; = 0 ,066 . N, w . 18.2,.
1.10. 1 = 49 ; 2 = 97 ,6 ; w = 0 ,044 (). N, w
. 18.2,.
1.11. 1 = 24 ; 2 = 32 ; w = 0 ,29 (). N, w
. 18.2,.
1.12. 1 = 2 = 250 ; wB = 0 . N, w .18.2,.
1.13. N 1 = 60 ; N 2 = 30 ; A = 400 2.

1.14. N 1 = 38 ,14 ; N 2 = 84 ,75 , n y = 1,4 .

1.15. 1 = 50 ; 2 = 12 ,15 .
N1 sin + N 2 (a + b) = 0 .

. 18.1

. 18.2

287

N l
a + b N1l1
+ t1l1 ) = a( 2 2 t 2 l 2 ) .
(
sin EA1
EA2

2
1
N1 = (t1 + 2t 2 ) EA ; N 2 = (t1 2t 2 ) EA
9
18
(, N1 N2 ).
1.16. F pl = 192 ; Flim = 216 .
1.17. F pl = 87 ,5 ; Flim = 105 .
1.18. F pl = 288 ; Flim = 336 .

1.19. Flim = 2 ,5 y A .

2.1.
.18.3,.
2.2.
.18.3,.
2.3. .18.3,.
2.4. .18.3,.
2.5. d=30 ; a = 29 . .18.3,.

2.6. d1=2,9410-2 ; d2=3,710-2 ; d3=d1. .18.3,.


2.7. 30 , 300 .
2.8. Tmax = 1,19kH .
3
2.9. z = l .
4
.18.4,.
2.10. a = 148 . , max
.18.4,.
2.11. M lim = 10 kH.
2.12. M lim = 63,67 kH.

d 3
2.13. M lim =
y .
6
.18.4,, cd - .18.4,.
3.1. M x , Q y .18.4,.
3.2. M x , Q y
.18.4,.
3.3. M x , Q y .18.5,.
3.4. M x , Q y .18.5,.
3.5. M x .18.5,.
3.6. M x 18.5,.
3.7. M x .18.5,.
3.8. M x .18.5,.
3.9. a = 37 .

288

.18.3
3.10. b=2,13 .
3.11. a = 34 ,2 .
3.12. F
= 2,78 kH.
adm
3.13. max = = 0,292 .
5 qe l 4
23 qe l 3

;
b =
.
3.14. =
k 36 EI
72 EI x
x
37 q l 4
11 qe l 3

.
3.15. = e ;
k
b 48 EI
48 EI x
x
4
38 q l
136 qe l

= e .
3.16. =
b
k
9 EI x
9 EI x

.18.4

3.17. k = 0 ,224 10
=2,21 .
, .
44 Fl 3
8Fl 2
3.18. w =
; c =
.
b
3 EI x
EI x
32 Fl 3
32 Fl 2
; c =
.
3.19. w =
b
EI x
2 EI x
c = 0 ,0168 .
3.20. c = 16 ;

3.21. d = 0 .
, .
MR 2
3.22. a = 3,72
,
a = 57 030` -
EI x
a .

289

FR 3
3.23. a = 1,85
;
EI x

a = 74 0 20`

a .

32 b 3
y.
3.24. qe,lim =
9 l2
3.25. qe,lim = 30 kH/.

3.26. Flim = 187 ,5 kH.


3.27. qe , pl = 0 ,88
3.28.

3
l

y;
2

max = 75 ;

3.29. = 45 ,4 ;
3.30.

max = 12 ;

.18.5

qe ,lim = 1,5

3
l2

y.

max = 6 .
= 11,2 ; = 5 0 20` .
1 = 19 ,1
= 42 0 .

3.31. a = 6 ,32 ;
3.32. a = 40 ;
3.33. d=124 .
4.1. .18.6,.
,
, .18.6,.
(.18.6,) (.18.6,)
. , .
4.2. .18.6,.
(.18.6,).
4.3. Mtot
.18.6,.

290


(.18.6,). ,

Fl 2
=
.
8EI x
(.18.6,).

.18.6
4.4. .18.7,,
.18.7,.
q l4
.
= e
24 EI x

. 18.7

291

4.5. .18.7, .

(.18.7,).
4.6.
.18.7,.
4.7. EIx=1,48GIt; = 0 ,25 /
.18.8,.

.18.8
4.8.

k =

5 Fl
.
18 EI x

.18.8,.
4.9. ,
.18.8,. :
11
z
EI x y = EI x y0 + EI x0 z +
qe l I
32
5
3
3
( z l / 2)
21
( z l)
( z l) 4
qe l
qe l
qe
II +
III .
6
16
6
24
:
z=0

y = 0 y0 = 0 ,

7 qe l 3

.
192 EI x
z = 2l .
7
11
( 2l ) 3
(2l l / 2) 3 21
( 2l l ) 3
qe l
+ qe l

EI x y z =2 l =
q e l 3 2l +
qe l
192
32
6
6
16
6
z=l

y = 0 0 =

292

(2l l) 4
= 0.
24
4.10. .18.8,

(.18.8,). :
37 qe l 3
k =
.
192 EI x
qe

4.11. ) = 7qe l 2 / 40 EA ;

) = Fl / 2 EA ;

) = 14 Fl / 11EA .

11 Fl 3
.
15 EI x
5.1. , ,
: 10 F Dm 5 F d m 15 F d m .
eq = 102
4.12. ) k = 0,137 qe l 4 / EI x ;

) k =

n y 3,9 .
5.2.
10 F d m .
418 .
n y 1,2 .
5.3. .
5.4. - :
1 = F / A ;
2 =3 = 0 .
1 2
(1 2 )h
5.5. A = 2 = 2
p;
A = A A =
p.
E
e
5.6.
a = 50,4 .
5.7.
.18.9,. .
, b = 29,8 .
5.8. .18.9,. ,
. , a 80,6 .
5.9. .18.9,.
, .
, M adm = 491.5 .
6.1. = 1,13.
6.2. = 1,55 .
6.3. = 1,77 .
6.4. = 0,436 .
6.5. = 0,526 .
6.6. = 0,436 .
EI
6.7. Fcr = 1,5 2 .
l
EI
6.8. ne ,cr = 19,3 3 .
l
EI
6.9. Fcr = 26,26 2 .
l

293

EI
.
l2
EI
6.11. Fcr = 6,03 2 .
l
EI
6.12. Fcr = 3,9 2 .
l
6.13. c c
6.10. Fcr = 2,02

( ). c c
( ) (.18.9,).

.18.9
6.14. Fcr c .18.9,.
yh2
Fr 3
r
7.1. n y =
wmax = 3,1 1 = 2 = 2 = 0 ,3 .
;
18Fr1
D
r1

c
Fr
= c1r + 2 + 2 r lnr .
r 2D
: r = r1 M r = 0 ; r = r2 M r = 0 .
,
1 Fr
DC1 (1 + ) DC 2 (1 ) 2 + 2 [lnr1 (1 + ) + 1] = 0 ,
r1
2
1 Fr
DC1 (1 + ) DC 2 (1 ) 2 + 2 [lnr2 (1 + ) + 1] = 0 .
r2
2
,

Fr r 1

2
1 +
1
= 12
l
n

l n 2 l n ,

2
2

2 D 1 + 1
1 1

294

Mr =

Fr2
1
(1 + )
ln ( 2 1) + ln ,
2
2

Fr2
2
1
2 2
1
,
(1 + )
Mt =
ln ( 2 + 1) + ln +
l n
2
2
2

1
1 +
1

r2
r
, = .
r1
r1
= 2 = 0,3 .18.10,.
,
y
y h2
6M 18Fr
ny =
max = 2 t = 2 1 ;
=
.
max 18Fr1
h
h

wmax (7.5)

= dr + C.

: r = r1 w = 0 . ,

Fr12 r2 3 + 2 2
1 +
2
2
(
l
n

)(
1

)
4
l n l n + 2 2 l n .

2
8D 1 + 1
1 1

=
w=

7.2. n y = 0.235

yh2

pr12

wmax = 3.8

pr14
D

= 2 = 0,3 .

r2
1 pr 2
l
r
nr
+

2
.
r 4D
4
= 0 ; r = r2
Mr = 0.

= C1r + C 2

: r = r1
M r M t

1 0

+ (1 + )

1 + (1 + )ln (3 + ) 2 (1 + ) 1 2

M r = r22


2
2
4
16
16
(1 ) + (1 + )

2 (1 ) + 4(1 + ) 2 ln + (1 + ) ,

+ (1 + )

+ (1 + )ln (1 + 3 ) 2 (1 + ) 1 2

2
M t = r2

+
4
16 (1 ) + (1 + ) 2
16 2

2 (1 ) + 4(1 + ) 2 ln + (1 + ) .

= 2 = 0 ,3 .18.10,.
:
4,2 r12
r12
1 =

;
=
0
,
71
;
3 = 0
2
h2
h2

295

eq =

4,25 r12
;
h2

ny =

y
.
eq

w : r = r1 w = 0
:
r14
(1 + ) + (1 ) 2 + 4(1 + ) 2 ln
(1 + 2 ) 2 + (1 4 ) +
w=
1(1 2 2
2
64 D
(1 ) + (1 + )
(1 + ) + (1 ) 2 + 4(1 + ) 2 ln 2
+4
ln + 8 2 2 ln ] .
2
(1 ) + (1 + )
r
r
= , = 2 , = .
r1
r1
7.3. r max = t max = 1,39

t e r12
te
w
;
=
0
.
13
.
max
D
h2

:
1
;
r
1
r1 r 4r1
1 = c3 r + c4 ;
r
: r=0 1 = 0 r = r1 1 = 2 M r1 = M r 2 + t e r = 4r1 2 = 0 .
8 D2 = D1 , D1 D2 = D 1- 2- ,
120(1 + )t e
M r1 = M t1 =
;
137 + 105
te
1

M r2 =
(1 + ) + 16r12 (1 ) 2 ;

137 + 105
r
te
1

M t2 =
(1 + ) + 16r12 (1 ) 2 .

137 + 105
r
.18.10,.
:
t
6M
r max = t max =
= 1,39 e2 ;
2
( 2h)
h
t
1 = 2 = 1,39 e2 ; 3 = 0 ;
h
t
eq = 1,39 e2 .
h

w1 = c5 1dr ;
w2 = c6 2 dr .
0 r r1

1 = c1r + c2

: r = r1 w1 = w2 ; r = 4 r1 w2 = 0 .
,
2

r
t e r12

w1 =
3r lnr 15 ;
r
2 D(137 + 105 ) 1
1

296

r
r
16(1 + 2ln ) .
w2 =
2 D(137 + 105 ) r1
r1

r = 0
7.4. h=6,2 .
7.5.h=6,5 .
7.6. m , t eq .18.10,.
t e r12

7.7.
eq , = g 2 / h ; eq , = 6 g 2 / h .
7.8. adm = 0,08 .

.18.10
7.9. n n n y = 2 , m m

n y = 2,1 .

.18.10, (
).
( H H1 + z ) zctg
zctg
2
( H H1 + z ) ;
t =
.
7.10. m =
h sin
2h sin
3
z m t H 1 . z=0
d m
m t .
=0
dz
3
Z = ( H H 1 ) , m
4
.
d t
( H H1 )
Z 1 =
=0.
2
dz
, Z Z 1 0 z H 1 . m t

z = H 1 .
.18.11 m t [].
7.11. n y = 1,1

T = 0 ,5 FD .
, eq = 424 . r = 200 ;

t = 217 ; z = 8,33 ; zt = 40,8 .


7.12. eq = 106,7 ; n y < 1 .
eq = 88,2 ; n y = 1,02 .
8.1.
.
.18.12.

297

8.2. z (.18.13),
N ( z)
gdz
dA( z )

= const
=
,
A( z )
C
A( z )

A
A( z ) = A0 exp( 0 z ) .
m

.18.11

.18.12

.18.13

.18.14

8.3. max,b = b ( N ) + b ( M x ) = 2 2 l 2 +

A l

2 3

Wx

; max,b > max,c .

M x N .18.14,,,.

adm
2
.
r1 (301 + 99 )
8.6. min(n=0,97 ; n=2,6 ) n = 0,97
868
=
= 1,38 .
628

8.5. adm =

8.7. din ,1 = 224 ; din , 2 = 112 ; din = 0,22 10 3 .


8.8. din , = 106 ; dinin . = 221 .
8.9. K din 11 ; din = 27,6 ;
din = 55,2 .
8.10. din 54 .

298

1. .. . - .: , 1986.-512.
2. .. . .
.: , 1976. - 392.
3. .., .., .., ..
, . -:
..-, 1989. - 208.
4. .., .. ,
.--:..-, 1982. 136 .
5. .., .., .. .
. : - ,1994. - 127.
6. .., .. .
: , 1969. 200.
7. .. , .
.:, 1977. - 232.
8. .., .., ..
. .: , 1985. 223.
9. .. ,
.-.:- . , 1978. - 58.
10. .. . .: , 1977.
488.
11. .., .. ..:, 1980. 224.
12. .. .
. .:-
,1987. 80.

299

..

14.03.2005. 60/84 1/8. ... 34,88. .-.. 34,00.


., .. 300 .
. .-, ., 40,

300