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Report:

Information Technology in Business &


Industry

Submitted for:
Mohammad Raisul Alam
Lecturer in Computer Science
BUBT

Course Title: Computer Application


Course No: CIS-202

Submitted by:
Ryhanul islam khan
ID:06072101139
Section: 03
Intake: 12th
Program: BBA

Submission Date:
03 APRIL, 2008

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Bangladesh University of Business &
Technology

Information Technology – A Definition

We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality, information
technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. In some companies, this is
referred to as Management Information Services (or MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS). The
information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information,
protecting information, processing the information, transmitting the information as necessary, and later
retrieving information as necessary.

History of Information Technology

In order to perform these functions, the modern Information Technology Department would use
computers, servers, database management systems, and cryptography. The department would be made up
of several System Administrators, Database Administrators and at least one Information Technology
Manager. The group usually reports to the Chief Information Officer (CIO).

In relative terms, it wasn't so long ago that the Information Technology department might have consisted
of a single Computer Operator, who might be storing data on magnetic tape, and then putting it in a box
down in the basement somewhere.

Four basic periods

Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication
problems of the time:

1. Premechanical,
2. Mechanical,
3. Electromechanical, and
4. Electronic

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Information Technology in Business:

The name of some information technology devices in business with explanation are given below:

 CAD/CMA

 Desktop publishing

 Robotics

 Transaction processing system

 Process control

 Embedded computer

 Telecommunication

CAD/CAM AS A INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:

CAD originally meant Computer-Aided Drafting or designing because of its original use as a
replacement for traditional drafting.Ruing the past ten years, few aspects of manufacturing have
Progressed as rapidly as PC-based CAD/CAM technology. As with most innovations, the market
Presses for improvements, and eager hardware and software developers strive to meet the demands.
But as PC-based CAD/CAM software grows more sophisticated, it becomes difficult for a shop to decide
exactly what they require.

It’s also important to consider what type of work you plan to do in the future. Many shops prefer a system
that lets them purchase the capabilities they need now, and also offers additional functions they can add as
their needs change. This lets them build on their initial software investment and avoids the need to learn a
new system later.

Paragon Enterprises is one of only nine qualified Millwork CAD/CAM companies in the country that
offer Micro vellum CAD/CAM services. We are staffed with experienced Manufacturing Managers and
trained CAD personnel. We offer timely start-to-finish Micro vellum generated shop drawings with
Overdrive Drive Pro database creation, Nested Optimization and G-Code generation. This includes
incorporating Redline Markups and Field Measure adjustments. All of this from our end will allow you to
concentrate on your more pressing business needs, while leaving the entire Shop Drawing, Manufacturing
data process up to us.

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DESKTOP PUBLISHING AS AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:

Use of special programs running on personal computers to design and print professional-quality
documents. These programs assist the user with layout design; the insertion of photographs, sketches, or
graphics; many various typefaces; and the use of multiple input files so that any individual with a personal
computer can produce customized documents to suit specific advertising or marketing needs.

There is also a type of desktop publishing, called electronic publishing, where documents are produced in
a similar manner (although they may require more sophisticated equipment) but are meant to be viewed
on-screen rather than to be printed. These documents are typically highly specialized, featuring sound or
music, animations or video clips, and hypertext links and are generally distributed through computer
networks such as the World Wide Web or on CD-ROMs.

Desktop publishing, or DTP, is the term applied to the process of creating and publishing professional-
looking documents using microcomputers. DTP systems can produce many types of documents, from
simple to sophisticated, including business cards, letterhead stationery, brochures, newsletters, flyers,
maps, coupons, posters, invitations, business graphics, annual reports, proposals, and magazines. For such
projects, a company would need photography equipment, photo-editing software, illustration software,
and page-layout software.

For example, creating a brochure would require photographs of people or products. Photo-editing
software would be used to edit, combine, and give special treatment to the photographs. Illustration
software would be needed to create line drawings or other special effects. And page-layout software
would be needed to arrange all the text and graphic elements. The following sections review the history,
system components, design process and guidelines, features, and management guidelines pertaining to
DTP.

Robotics:

Robots and robotic technologies have an intellectual and emotional appeal that transcends any other type
of engineered product, and this appeal is felt no more so than with children and young adults. Robots and
robotic technologies represent a practical application of physics, computer science, engineering, and
mathematics, and provide a very powerful and flexible approach to demonstrate a variety of engineering
concepts. In addition, robotics appeals to a broad range of interests and allows multiple points of access to
science, mathematics, and engineering for many types of learners. As a result, robotic technology and
robots are being used by an increasing number of educators at the college level to reinforce computer
science and engineering theory, and to teach basic software and mechanical engineering at the grammar
school, middle school and high school levels. But perhaps most importantly for younger students, robots
and robotic technology inculcate an interest in science and increase self-esteem, as well as teach basic life
skills such as problem solving, decision making, goal setting and logical thinking.

Transaction processing system


A transaction processing system (TPS) supports the processing a firm’s business transactions. The TPS of
a university helps perform such tasks as enrolling students in courses, billing students for tuition, and
issuing paychecks to faculty. This transaction processing system associated with large pension fund may

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assist stockbrokers in executing by and sell orders, then help with accounting for the transaction (Ackoff,
1967).

Transaction processing systems keep an organization running smoothly by automating the processing of
the voluminous amounts of paper work that must be handled daily. These systems includes the accurate
recording of transactions, as well as control procedures used in using such documents as paychecks,
invoices, customer statements, payments reminders, tuition bills and students schedules (Maher, 2002).

The TPS of an organization may be far-reaching, extending completely through and out of the
organization, looking together the entire financial system.

Computer based transaction processing Computer based transaction processing systems


Computer based transaction processing Computer based transaction processing systems are often
considered the bread and Butter MIS application. No matter how nervous upper management in a medium
to large organization is about spending in the information system area it knows that it can not pull thee
plug on its TPS and Survive.

Today, many firms consider transaction processing to be their most important computer application. A
surprisingly large number of firms, however, have not carried computer based information processing far
beyond the transaction processing stage. Transaction processing systems in many organizations today are
used in this way as competitive weapons. Additionally, the move from dumb terminals intelligent
microprocessor based workstations is expected to alter transaction processing in other ways, such as by
distributing certain traditionally mainframe-based centralized transactions processing functions closer to
their functional area.

Transaction processing system supports the processing of an organization’s transactions. This includes
accounting for the transactions on its records, as well as providing support activities such as sending out
payment reminders. Recently gaining competitive advantage has become a transaction processing concern
in some firms, especially those that are working to tie customers and suppliers together more closely with
the organization’s transactions TPS via Electronic linkages.

Technical Detail

TP monitor technology is software that is also referred to as Middleware. It can provide application
services to thousands of clients in a distributed client/server environment. TP monitor technology does
this by multiplexing client transaction requests (by type) onto a controlled number of processing routines
that support particular services. These events are depicted in Figure.

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Figure: Transaction Processing Monitor Technology

Clients are bound, serviced, and released using stateless servers that minimize overhead. The database
sees only the controlled set of processing routines as clients.

Process control:

Most businesses have responded by implementing a series of fragmented, tactical, one-off projects to
address governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) issues. These are usually manual efforts that result in
duplicated activities, high costs, and limited GRC effectiveness. But building effective GRC controls into
processes is no simple task. You need to be able to document and monitor business processes that cross
multiple enterprise divisions and regions, span entire process chains, and are supported by multiple,
disconnected IT applications.
With the SAP GRC Process Control application – part of SAP solutions for GRC – you can embed a rich
set of rationalized, automated controls into cross-enterprise business processes. Using the application to
implement effective GRC practices actually improves operational effectiveness by ensuring that daily
business activities align with the strategies and policies developed by executive management. And it can
significantly increase the level of confidence that executives have in the integrity of corporate financial
statements.

Embedded computer:

Method for modeling the performance of an Information Technology system are disclosed. The method
includes the steps of receiving performance data of the system; receiving data of transaction flows and
system topology; and inferring service demand parameters based on the received data. If closed form
expressions are available to characterize the system, an optimization algorithm based on minimum
distance between predicted and measured response times and may be used to obtain the performance
parameters. Alternatively, a discrete event simulator together with a set of meta-heuristic search methods
may be applied to obtain the optimized performance parameters.

Telecomunication:
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Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of
communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore,
flags, or heliograph. In modern times, telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic
transmitters such as the telephone, television, radio or computer. Early inventors in the field of
telecommunication include Antonio Meucci, Alexander Graham Bell, Guglielmo Marconi and John Logie
Baird. Telecommunication is an important part of the world economy and the telecommunication
industry's revenue has been placed at just under 3 percent of the gross world product.Telecommunication
is an important part of modern society. In 2006, estimates placed the telecommunication industry's
revenue at $1.2 trillion or just under 3% of the gross world product (official exchange rate). On the
microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunication to help build global empires. This is self-
evident in the case of online retailer but, according to academic Edward Lenert, even the conventional
retailer Wal-Mart has benefited from better telecommunication infrastructure compared to its competitors
In cities throughout the world, home owners use their telephones to organize many home services ranging
from pizza deliveries to electricians. Even relatively poor communities have been noted to use
telecommunication to their advantage. In Bangladesh's Narshingdi district, isolated villagers use cell
phones to speak directly to wholesalers and arrange a better price for their goods. In Cote d'Ivoire, coffee
growers share mobile phones to follow hourly variations in coffee prices and sell at the best price.

On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Röller and Leonard Waverman suggested a causal link
between good telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth. Few dispute the existence of a
correlation although some argue it is wrong to view the relationship as causal

Due to the economic benefits of good telecommunication infrastructure, there is increasing worry about
the digital divide. This is because the world's population does not have equal access to telecommunication
systems. A 2003 survey by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) revealed that roughly one-
third of countries have less than 1 mobile subscription for every 20 people and one-third of countries have
less than 1 fixed line subscription for every 20 people. In terms of Internet access, roughly half of all
countries have less than 1 in 20 people with Internet access. From this information, as well as educational
data, the ITU was able to compile an index that measures the overall ability of citizens to access and use
information and communication technologies. Using this measure, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland
received the highest ranking while the African countries Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali received the
lowest

Conclusion

The acquisition of new technologies tops the list of initiatives that survey respondents, including CEOs,
hope will improve the level of IT-business alignment. But organizational measures are also prominent: all
executives place strong emphasis on joint project management responsibility between IT and business
managers, as well as the use of cross-functional teams.

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REFERANCE

Class lecture

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology

chronicle.com/infotech

www.it.rit.edu

www.technology.ku.edu

www.penton.com/Market/InformationTechnology.aspx

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