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Marketing of Elephant foot yam-An upcoming commercial crop in India

T.Srinivas, M.Nedunchezhiyan and R.S.Misra

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Thiruvananthapuram 695 017 Kerala India

M.Nedunchezhiyan and R.S.Misra Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Thiruvananthapuram 695 017 Kerala India

Introduction

Commonly known as "Suran" or "Jimmikand". Traditionally cultivated on commercial scale in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Kerala states Slowly spreading to other States like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and so on. Tubers have both nutritional and medicinal value.

Introduction

In northern and eastern states, local cultivars are grown. The most popular variety for commercial cultivation in India is “Gajendra”. Generally used as vegetable and for making pickles and indigenous ayurvedic preparations for various ailments. Highest income earner to the cultivator irrespective of the production system and temporal variations.

Statistics

State

Area

Production (Mt)

Yield (t ha -1 )

(ha)

West Bengal Kerala Andhra Pradesh Other states Chattisgarh Tamil Nadu Bihar Gujarat Jharkhand Total

11,730

163,560

13.94

11,182

279,550

25.00

3,439

100,829

29.32

3,000

54,000

18.00

898

8,675

9.66

807

20,175

25.00

408

17,883

43.83

350

14,400

41.14

198

8,250

41.67

32,012

667,323

20.85

Source: Unpublished statistics from Department of Agriculture/Horticulture of various states, 2008-09

Objectives

To understand the role of various functionaries involved in the market. To identify channels of marketing. To estimate price spread in different channels of marketing. To identify the constraints in the marketing elephant foot yam, and To generate information on the end uses of tubers in different parts of the country.

Methodology

Identified production centres of the crop through different surveys conducted earlier.

A rapid appraisal of production centres of elephant foot yam was made to locate the important marketing places in the country.

Detailed survey of identified market places was made to identify market channels and to estimate price spread in each identified channel.

Methodology

Detailed market survey for elephant foot yam was made in

Andhra Pradesh Kerala West Bengal Bihar Tamil Nadu New Delhi

-Krishna, Guntur, East and West Godavari -Ernakulam and Wayanad -24 Parganas and Nadia -Samstipur, Muzaffarpur and Vaishali, and -Tirunelveli -Azadpur market

Interviewed the farmers, wholesalers, middlemen/ commission agents, retailers and consumers using structured interview schedule.

Results

Difference in planting time and staggered harvesting of the crop in different months and in different places enabled traders to supply throughout the year. Village agents, commission agents, wholesalers, semi- wholesalers, retailers and consumers are the different market functionaries involved. No organised marketing of elephant foot yam tubers in practice. Marketing is dominated by commission agents. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and New Delhi are the main marketing and distributing centres for elephant foot yam.

Results

Grading of tubers is done by the commission agent/ trader at farm level itself according to size, marketing place and quality (infested or not) of tubers. Storage of Elephant Foot Yam tubers from February – March for two to three months in anticipation of high price in the period of June-July is practiced. Traders in Bihar are practicing hedging to minimize the effects of price fluctuations.

Production and marketing centers of elephant foot yam

State

Andhra Pradesh

Tamil Nadu

Production Centres

East Godavari West Godavari Krishna Guntur

Tirunelveli

Erode

Marketing Centers

Orissa West Bengal Tamil Nadu Maharashtra

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Ernakulam- Manyali Wayanad- Pulpally Malappuram- Perinthalmanna

Kerala Tamil Nadu

West Bengal

24 Paraganas Nadia

West Bengal North Eastern states

Bihar

Samastipur, Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and Begusarai

Bihar and West Bengal

Gujarat

Surat- Chikki Ahmedabad- Billimora

Gujarat New Delhi

Uttar Pradesh

Jaunpur

Uttar Pradesh

Production and Marketing Seasons of Elephant Foot Yam

State

 

Planting Season

Harvesting season

Marketing center

Andhra

1.

June –July

December-March

West Bengal, Orissa, Tamil Nadu

Pradesh

(Krishna & Guntur

districts)

 

2.

November-December

June-July

(East & West Godavari

districts)

Kerala

1.November-December

June

Kerala and Tamil Nadu

(Manyali & Perinthalamanna) 2.April-May (Wayanad)

November-December

West Bengal

January-March (24 Paraganas & Nadia)

October-November

West Bengal and North Eastern states

Tamil Nadu

June -July

January

Tamil Nadu

Gujarat

June-July (Surat, Ahmedabad)

February - March

H.P, Punjab & New Delhi

Bihar

March-April (Samastipur, Muzaffarpur)

November-December

West Bengal

Market preference for Elephant Foot Yam tuber size

Size/Weight

Market Places

1.5 - 2 kg

Hyderabad market, Mumbai

 

2 kg

Tamil Nadu

2

- 3 kg

Tamil Nadu & Mumbai

2

- 4 kg

Andhra Pradesh

5

- 6 kg

West Bengal

6

- 7 kg

Kerala

Market Channels for elephant foot yam in India

Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Primary
Farmer
Village Trader/
Commission agent
Secondary
Retailer
Wholesaler
Wholesaler
Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Primary Farmer Village Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler
Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Commission agents in other states Exports Consumer

Commission agents in other states

Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Commission agents in other states Exports Consumer
Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Commission agents in other states Exports Consumer
Exports
Exports
Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Commission agents in other states Exports Consumer
Trader/ Commission agent Secondary Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Commission agents in other states Exports Consumer

Consumer

Market channels for elephant foot yam

Channel 1: Producer-Consumer Channel 2: Producer-Village Agent-Consumer Channel 3: Producer-Commission agent –Primary wholesaler- Secondary wholesaler-Retailer-Consumer Channel 4: Producer-Commission agent in A.P-Commission agent in Other states-Wholesaler-Retailer- Consumer Channel 5: Producer-Commission agent-Wholesaler-Retailer- Consumer

Price Spread in Elephant Foot Yam Marketing in India

 

Channel

Channel

Channel

Channel

Channel

1

2

3

4

5

Producer's price (Rs/kg)

4.20

3.00

3.00

3.00

9.00

Marketing cost (Rs/kg)

 

0.80

0.80

3.09

3.71

4.24

Marketing margin (Rs/kg)

 

0

1.20

3.42

3.29

4.72

Consumer's price (Rs/kg)

 

5.00

5.00

9.50

10.00

18.00

Price spread (Rs/kg)

 

0.80

2.00

6.50

7.00

9.00

Producer's share in consumer's rupee (%)

84.00

60.00

31.58

30.00

50.00

3 Channel

4

2 Channel

5

1 Channel

Channel

Channel

Price Spread, marketing costs and margins in marketing of elephant foot yam in india (Rs/kg)

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Rupees
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Rupees

Market Channel

Producer's price (Rs/kg)Marketing cost (Rs/kg) Marketing margin (Rs/kg) Consumer's price (Rs/kg) Price spread (Rs/kg)

Marketing cost (Rs/kg)Producer's price (Rs/kg) Marketing margin (Rs/kg) Consumer's price (Rs/kg) Price spread (Rs/kg)

Marketing margin (Rs/kg)Producer's price (Rs/kg) Marketing cost (Rs/kg) Consumer's price (Rs/kg) Price spread (Rs/kg)

Consumer's price (Rs/kg)Producer's price (Rs/kg) Marketing cost (Rs/kg) Marketing margin (Rs/kg) Price spread (Rs/kg)

Price spread (Rs/kg)Producer's price (Rs/kg) Marketing cost (Rs/kg) Marketing margin (Rs/kg) Consumer's price (Rs/kg)

Producer's share in consumer's rupee in different market channels of elephant foot yam marketing in India

100 80 60 40 20 0 Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Percentage
100
80
60
40
20
0
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Percentage

1

2 3

4 5

Market channels

Producer's share in consumer's rupee

Producer's share in consumer's rupee

Planting –April-May Harvesting- October-November

Planting –April-May Harvesting- Octo ber-November
Planting –April-May Harvesting- Octo ber-November
Planting –April-May Harvesting- Octo ber-November
Planting –April-May Harvesting- Octo ber-November Pulpally EFY Local Commission agent in Pulpally Monocrop in low
Pulpally EFY
Pulpally EFY
–April-May Harvesting- Octo ber-November Pulpally EFY Local Commission agent in Pulpally Monocrop in low lands

Local Commission agent in Pulpally

Pulpally EFY Local Commission agent in Pulpally Monocrop in low lands Inter crop in Black Pepper
Pulpally EFY Local Commission agent in Pulpally Monocrop in low lands Inter crop in Black Pepper

Monocrop in low lands Inter crop in Black Pepper Orchards

Wholesaler in Angamaly market

Wholesaler in Angamaly market
(November-December Planting)

(November-December Planting)

Wholesaler in Angamaly market (November-December Planting)
Wholesaler in Angamaly market (November-December Planting)
in Angamaly market (November-December Planting) Local Commission agent in Manyali Wholesaler in

Local Commission agent in Manyali

Planting) Local Commission agent in Manyali Wholesaler in Perinthalamanna market (January-February

Wholesaler in Perinthalamanna market (January-February planting)

in Perinthalamanna market (January-February planting) Local Commission agent Wholesaler (Thrissur, Palakkad)
Local Commission agent

Local Commission agent

Local Commission agent
Local Commission agent
market (January-February planting) Local Commission agent Wholesaler (Thrissur, Palakkad) Retailer Wholesaler

Wholesaler (Thrissur, Palakkad)

Local Commission agent Wholesaler (Thrissur, Palakkad) Retailer Wholesaler (Coimbatore) Consumer Market channel

Retailer

Commission agent Wholesaler (Thrissur, Palakkad) Retailer Wholesaler (Coimbatore) Consumer Market channel for

Wholesaler

(Coimbatore)

(Thrissur, Palakkad) Retailer Wholesaler (Coimbatore) Consumer Market channel for Elephant Foot Yam in Kerala

Consumer

Market channel for Elephant Foot Yam in Kerala

Price spread in elephant foot yam marketing in Kerala

Farm harvest price (Rs. per kg)

9

Weighing Charges

0.04

Deductions

0.25

Agent Commission (8%) from farmer

0.8

Agent Commission (8%) from wholesaler

0.96

Loading charges

0.07

Transport charges

0.75

Market cess

0.03

Unloading charges

0.06

Marketing cost of commission agent

1.2

Commission charges of commission agent

1.76

Purchase price of wholesaler /Sale price of commission agent

12

Price spread in elephant foot yam marketing in Kerala

Weighing charges

0.05

Loading charges

0.07

Rent for shop

0.07

Transport to local market

0.05

Marketing cost of wholesaler

0.24

Marketing margin of wholesaler

1.76

Sale price of wholesaler/Purchase price of Retailer

14

Rent for shop

0.07

Transport charges

0.2

Loading charges

0.07

Weight loss

0.7

Marketing cost of retailer

1.04

Marketing margin of retailer

2.96

Sale price of retailer/Consumer price

18

Producers share in consumer 's Rupee

50.00

Price Spread

9

Total Marketing Cost

4.24

Total Marketing Margin

4.72

Problems in marketing of elephant foot yam

Glut in the market during harvest season. Farm harvest price decreases and farmer will get less income.

Tubers cannot be stored for long in Kerala due to immature harvest and in West Bengal due to peeling of outer skin while harvesting.

Labour availability during harvest season is a problem.

No value addition to the tubers.

Commission agent exploitation is high.

Farmers depend mostly on commission agents for procuring seed material as well as for selling the harvested produce.

Elephant Foot yam cultivation in Manyali, Ernakulam dt. In Kerala

Elephant Foot yam cultivation in Black Pepper orchards in Wayanad district in Kerala

Storage of Elephant Foot Yam tubers for seed purpose in Wayanad dt.

Elephant Foot Yam tuber stored for seed purpose

Elephant Foot yam tubers yet to be harvested

Farmers selling the Elephant Foot Yam tubers directly in the Rajamundry (AP) market

Elephant Foot Yam tubers collected by the commission agent

Elephant Foot Yam tubers packed in gunny bags and ready for sale

Taro+Yam cultivation in Andhra Pradesh

Elephant Foot Yam, Bombay Yam cultivation in Banana orchard

Bombay Yam cultivation in Banana orchard

Harvesting Elephant Foot Yam in Krishna dt. Of AP

Packed Elephant Foot Yam tubers for sale at Vijayawada market

Growing Black gram in the Elephant Foot Yam field

Elephant Foot Yam from Gujarat sold in Azadpur market, New Delhi

Weighing Elephant Foot Yam tubers

Weighed produce for delivery

Packed Elephant Foot Yam tubers ready for sale

Farmer himself selling in weekly markets

WEST

BENGAL

Weighing elephant foot yam tubers

Farmer bringing the harvested tubers to weekly market

Elephant Foot Yam tubers Packed in bamboo baskets

Value addition in elephant foot yam

Vermicelli produced from elephant foot yam