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THE CONCEPT OF TAMADHHUB (FOLLOWING MADHHAB FIQH)

ACCORDING TO SAD RAMA N AL-B


Muhammad Andrie Bagia
e-mail: m.andriebagia@gmail.com
Abstras!
Pada umumnya, pandangan para ulama mengenai ibadah menggunakan
fiqh di kalangan umat Ilam terbagi men!adi dua. "ebagian ulama menganggap
umat Ilam a#am haru bertaklid kepada Im$m Madhhab. "ebagian ulama
melarang hal itu dan me#a!ibkan etiap mulim untuk beri!tihad endiri. "alah
eorang ulama kontemporer, "a%&d 'ama $n al-B( & mempunyai pen!elaan
lengkap akan maalah terebut. Argumentainya banyak tertuli dalam buku-buku
dan program tele)iinya yang men!adi ru!ukan umat Ilam dunia.
Menurut al-B( &, tamadhhub adalah euatu yang dibolehkan ecara i!m$%
ulama. Ini karena tidak etiap mulim memiliki kemampuan untuk beri!tihad
terhadap permaalahan yang ia hadapi. Maka maalah ini bia dipercayakan
kepada Im$m berkualifikai yang memiliki otorita untuk mencari hukum yang
benar dari permaalah terebut. Maka tidak ada ke#a!iban bagi Mulim a#am
terebut kecuali mengikuti pendapat ang Im$m.
Bagaimanapun, maih banyak golongan yang terlalu fanatik dan melarang
praktik bermadhhab, menganggapnya ebagai bid%ah yang eat. Padahal ini
bukan #aktunya untuk aling menyalahkan, tapi ekarang adalah #aktunya umat
Ilam untuk beratu dan ber!alan berama, mela#an etiap maalah ebenarnya
yang datang dari luar, dan angat berbahaya !ika diabaikan. *arapannya, etiap
Mulim adar akan maalah ini dan mulai merapatkan barian untuk beratu dan
aling menguatkan atu ama lain.
+ey#ord: taqld, ittib, ijti d, fiq , ma ab,imm
,
Abstra"t
-enerally, the perpecti)e of cholar in #orhiping by Ilamic !uriprudence
.fiqh/ among common Mulim di)ided into t#o #ay. "ome of them )ie# that Mulim
mut follo# Imm madhhab that ha ability to ijtihd. "ome of them )ie# that the act of
follo#ing .taqld/ i forbidden, e)ery Mulim mut make hi o#n ijtihd. 0ne of famou
Mulim cholar in thi era, "a%&d 'ama $n al-B( & had clear argumentation for the real
concept of follo#ing madhab (tamadhhub) for e)ery Mulim. *i )ie# can be een in
hi book and tele)iion program and it ha been reference for any Mulim #ho #ant to
kno# problem ol)ing of thi matter.
According to al-B(t& tamadhhub i omething allo#ed by ijm .conenu of
Mulim cholar/. It i becaue not e)ery Mulim i able to make hi o#n ijtihd for
e)ery problem he faced. 1hu, thi can be entruted to the qualified imm #ho ha the
authority to take eence of la# from that problem. "o there i no obligation for him
e2cept follo# imm% opinion.
*o#e)er, there are till group #ho force other Mulim to became fanatic and do
the forbidden practice, blame other practice a herey and !udge the doer of it a heretic.
It i time to e)ery Mulim to unite one another. It i the time for e)ery Mulim to
concentrate the real problem that attacked dangerouly. 1hu, if thi a#arene ha been
adhered in the mind of each, the emerging of trong and united Mulim community a
happened in the pat #ill be reali3ed again.
+ey#ord: taqld, ittib, ijti d, fiq , ma ab,imm
Ba"#r$%&' St%'(
1he hitory of Ilamic mo)ement tated that Mulim cholar in the econd
century ha)e a merit in de)eloping fiqh or Ilamic !uriprudence. 1hey mobili3ed
their effort for earching the core of fiqh from the na4 al- 5ur%$n and adth
.thi effort #a kno#n a ijtihd/. 1hen there #ere group #ho follo#ed thee
cholar till emerged the term of madhhab or chool of Ilamic !uriprudence in
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ne2t period. And there are 7 famou chool of Ilamic !uriprudence till kno#n
till thi era4 anaf&, M$lik&, "h$fi%&, and anbal&.
1
After e)eral centurie, the human effort for digging up Ilamic
8uriprudence became #eak. Mulim tended to follo# one chool and uggeted
the door of ijtihd had been cloed.
2
1he blind fanatic mo)ement emerged. A
group #ho follo#ed certain of chool .of Ilamic 8uriprudence/ claimed their
chool had the true )ie# and other chool #ere fale.
3
According to thi condition, there #a a group tried hard to lea)e from
chool and called their follo#er to merely hold on the main core of Ilam, al-
5ur%$n and adth . Becaue of thee point, there are e)eral quetion #ant to
be aked uch a4 I madhhab unneceary again in thi era9 I there the ad)antage
of follo#ing certain chool9 and more imilar quetion.
0ne of contemporary Mulim cholar that ha deeply reearched thi cae
#a "a%&d 'ama $n al-B( & of "uriah
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. *e tated the neceary of follo#ing
1
1he #ide e2palanation can be een in Trkh Tashr .*itory of Ilamic :a#/ belong
to Mann$% 5a $n, 6;;,, Publihed by Maktabah <ahbah, =airo. p. ,,->? and @>-,?7. A book
that e2plore the de)elopment of Ilamic la# .include fiqh or Ilamic !uriprudence/ phae by
phae.
2
1he tatement of cloing of ijtihd paed on fourth century of *i!riah. "ee Ahmad
*anafi, Pengantar dan "e!arah *ukum Ilam, "e)enth edition. .8akarta: P.1. Bulan Bintang, ,@@A/,
p. 6;B. and Imam Makum, Pintu Ijtihad Tertutup? .Indoneian/ 8urnal of A*+AM, Colume ,,,
Dopember 6;;@. p. ,,@. 1he #ider e2planation about the real meaning of the door of ijtihad had
been cloed can be een in M. *amdani Euuf, Perbandingan Mahab, De# edition. ."emarang:
P1 =ipta 8ati Akara, ,@@7/, p. B;-B7
3
: )
1999 ( ! 1 . . " 6 - 10
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*i complete name i Mu ammad "a%&d ibn Mulla 'ama $n ibn FGmar al-B(t&. Al-B(t& #
#a born in Bu an .1urkey/ in ,@6@. Al-B(t& #a dead becaue uicide bomb attack #hen he
gi)ed the Tafsr leon in Im$n Moque, Hamacu, "yria on 1hurday, March 6, 6;,>. 1hi
attack #a happened after t#o year conflict bet#een Aad regime and hi oppoition. Al-B(t&
paed a#ay in B7 year old. al-B(t& became a lecture in !harah faculty in Hamacu Gni)erity
ince ,@I,. 1he lat he #orked a Profeor of Ilamic "iqh in Hamacu Gni)erity. *e preache
)ery often and i highly repected by many of the leading cholar in the Mulim #orld. *e ha
ignificance influence from hi poition a a central figure in the Mulim cholarly etablihment,
#riting cloe to A; book that ha)e garnered coniderable critical acclaim. *i book dicued
about fiqh and it u #l , Philoophy, Jducation, :iterature, and cience of al-5ur%$n. "ee Indah
<ulandari, et al. $l%&uthi 'ugur !aat Mengajar Tafsir( 'epublika .Indoneian ne#paper/.
"aturday, March 6> 6;,>. p. ,, and "ee alo 8ohn Jpoito, et al. The The )** M+st Influential
Muslims, Kirt Jdition. .<ahington H.=.: -eorgeto#n Gni)erity: 1he 'oyal Ilamic "trategic
"tudie =entre, 6;;@/. p. II.
>
chool for Mulim. *e oppoed the practice of lea)ing chool .anti%madhhabism/
and #rote 6 book for thi cae. 1hee book are: ,$l%lmadhhabi-ah $kh aru
&idatin Tuhaddidu as%!-arah al%Islmi-ah.
5
#hich ga)e the rebuttal for #ho
denied the neceary of follo#ing chool. 1he econd book i ,$l%salafi-ah,
Mar alah /amani-ah Mubr akah l Madhhab Islmi-.
6
, a book that e2plain the
true meaning of !alaf and dicue a group #ho refued the practice of follo#ing
Madhhab. Al-B( & not only #rote a book about thi matter, he alo dicued #ith
one of leader of thi group to find the root of thi problem. *e tried to become o
ob!ecti)e in order to be not trapped in fanatical undertanding. 1he F#ar of
thought% bet#een al-B( & and thi group became the famou dicuion of thi
topic in the contemporary era.
?

T)* +*a&!&# $, madhhabiyah
0n hi book, al-B(t& ued madhhabi-ah or madhhabism for ho#ing the
practice of a peron #ho follo# madhhab. Al-B(t& ued madhhabi-ah a the
ynonym of tamadhhub. It doe not matter becaue ometime one cholar ued
different terminology than other cholar .becaue the different of place and time/
for ho#ing the ame definition,
B
Al-B(t& aid:
5
It mean F$nti%Madhhabism, the dangerou herey threat Ilamic la#%.
6
It mean F"alafi, the bleed period, not a chool of Ilamic la#%.
7
"ee the e2planation of A3i An#ar Kachrudin, the tranlator of al-B( &% book to
Indoneia. "a%&d 'ama an al-B(t&. Menampar Pr+paganda ,0embali 0epada 1uran.( Kirt
Jdition. .8og!akarta: Putaka Peantren, 6;,>/, p. ,,-,7
8
1he e2ample of it alo can be found in &id-atul Mujtahid of Ibn 'uhdi #ho ha o#n
terminology for ho#ing ome term uch a he ued al%2adth Thabit for 2adth a i that i
deri)ed from Bukhari-Mulim #hile ma!ority of cholar ued muttafaq 3alai. Many different
term #ere ued by Ibn 'uhdi #hile not commonly ued by ma!ority of cholar. "ee the
e2planation of tranlator in Introduction of Ibn 'uhdi, &id-atul Mujtahid, .1ranlated into
Indoneian by Imam -ha3ali "a%id et.al./ 1hird Jdition. .8akarta: Putaka Amani, 6;;?/, )ol. I, p.
l)iii-l2
7
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9
1hi definition can be meant a the practice of peron or #ho doen%t reach
ijtihd degree that follo# madhhab of imm mujtahid either by keeping one
opinion conitently or changing to one another .depending on the condition
happened then/. 1hi definition ha the imilar meaning #ith common meaning a
told in chapter t#o. Although al-B(t& ga)e additional condition by telling thi
practice i done conitently depending on one imm or not.
Another book that ued the term of Madhhabi-ah i belonging to M$ni% ibn
*amm$d al-8uhn&, #ho #rote in al%Mau #ah al%Mu-assarah , he defined
Madhhabi-ah a:
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1here i no different definition bet#een al-B( &% and M$ni%% .M$ni% !ut
added F#ithout aking the argumentation from al-Al-5ur%$n or sunnah%/. It can be
concluded that madhhabi-ah according to them ha alo ame meaning #ith
tamadhhub #hich mean to follo# indi)idual #ho ha ability to ijtihd either by
holding on him fore)er or ometime change to other opinion.
W)*& t)* M%s-!+ !s $b-!#at*' t$ -*a.* madhhab/
9
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It i not abolute for e)ery Mulim to follo# madhhab. 1here are t#o
condition for the follo#er of madhhab to lea)e the opinion of their imm and
not to follo# it. Al-B(t& tated:
a. Kirt condition: <hen a peron achie)e the undertanding of the problem .of
e)eral problem/ #ith rational undertanding and ha enough argumentation
and the ability for ummari3ing the la# of the problem. 1hi peron mut
follo# hi o#n opinion .ijtihd/ rather than follo# hi imm% opinion.
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b. "econd condition: If he ee an Prophetic adth that i on the contrary #ith
the opinion of imm madhhab #ho he follo# and he i ure #ith the )alidity of
that adth and it e)idence of the la#. "o he mut follo# the )alid adth
12
than madhhab opinion. 1hi i becaue all Im$m of four chool had
commanded their friend and pupil to make a mo)e to )alid adth if it i
difference from their opinion. 1herefore the mo)ing to )alid adth i the core
of madhhab of four Im$m.
,>

C-ar!,!"at!$& $, S)0,!1 stat*+*&t2 I, t)* adth !s tr%* s$ t)at !s +( madhhab
1here #a agreement reached from e)ery famou Im$m of cholar that their
opinion mut follo# the )alid adth . A Im$m "h$fi%& aid hi famou tatement,
Q4
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LIf the adth i true o that i my madhhab.M
,7
11
H6% K1' . . " 119
12
<e kno# it by 2adth a . 1here are e)eral le)el of the )alidity of 2adth. 1he
2adth that can be ued to be e)idence of la# came from the firt and econd le)el of the highet.
1hey are 2adth a and 2adth asan .
13
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14
1hi i the famou #ording that #a claimed coming from "h$fi%&. *o#e)er there #ere
e)eral #ording )erion of "h$fi%&% tatement about the topic abo)e, the nearet tatement in
#hich imilar #ith it i narrated from Ab( <al&d M($ ibn Ab& al-8$r(d #ho aid: "h$fi%& aid:
I
0n the other #ay, not e)ery Mulim ha authority to note adth that eem
ha)ing a contradiction #ith the ijtihd of hi imm and then it mut be follo#ed.
1here i requirement .a tated abo)e/ for e)ery reearcher to be undertood
carefully to reult the right concluion of la#.
15
In thi point, al-B(t& narrated Im$m Da#a#i% tatement from hi book $l%
Majmu #hich gi)e clarification about "h$fi%&% tatement a follo#:
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15
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16
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?
A peron #ho ha competence to decide #hether a adth can be practiced i
he #ho ha Mujtahid degree. And thi i difficult requirement #hich not e)ery
peron can attain it. "h$fi%& alo told that he left many adth that he kno#
becaue there #ere condition made lea)ing them i permiible .uch a the
adth i man #kh or peciali3ed not to be ued/.
,?
1he core of adth i more eential than it e2plicit meaning .ahir adth /,
and only mujtahid ha the competence to ee it core.
Al-B(t& added Ibn 1aimiyah% tatement that there are ten requirement for
lea)ing Imm madhhab to hahir adth . Beide that, it i permiible to the
cholar to lea)e the practice of adth if it i not reconnoitered yet becaue the
undertanding of Ilamic kno#ledge i #ide.
18
Al-B(t& argued that i the )alid e)idence from Ilam for the permiible of
taqld or follo#ing madhhab for #ho doen% ha)e mujtahid degree. 1hi i the
proof that the follo#er are permitted to chooe certain madhhab that he truted.
19
T)*r* !s &$ 3r$)!b!t!$& ,$r '$!&# taqld b*"a%s* !t !s a--$4*' !& Is-a+
(mashr) a""$r'!&# t$ t)* "$&s*&s%s $, M%s-!+ s")$-ars
1here are t#o #ord uually ued in defining the #ord Ffollo#% in Arabic4
ittib and taqld. Al-B(t& had a notion that there i no different meaning among
17
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18
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19
V K1' ." 120 - 121
B
them.
20
It i baed on 5ur%$nic )ere e2plaining about ittiba that e2pree the
meaning taqld, Allah aid:
x_: __ ac o _ ac_
axx__x :_ _:::_x _o __, _:_x
__ ac_ c:_ cx e:_ 'e x_e_e:
_xo :_ ax_: ' q : _ _o__ _ _oq | :_x
__::o _xq|_ a __x _. _o: o _
,$nd the- sh+uld 4+nsider 5that6 7hen th+se 7h+ ha8e been f+ll+7ed
disass+4iate themsel8es fr+m th+se 7h+ f+ll+7ed 5them6, and the- 5all6 see the
punishment, and 4ut +ff fr+m them are the ties 5+f relati+nship( Th+se 7h+
f+ll+7ed 7ill sa-, 9If +nl- 7e had an+ther turn 5at 7+rldl- life6 s+ 7e 4+uld
disass+4iate +ursel8es fr+m them as the- ha8e disass+4iated themsel8es fr+m us(9
Thus 7ill $llah sh+7 them their deeds as regrets up+n them( $nd the- are ne8er
t+ emerge fr+m the "ire(.
21
By thee )ere al-B(t& concluded that the meaning of ittiba i ame #ith
taqld.
22
According to al-B(t&, taqld i follo#ing one% opinion #ithout kno#ing
it argumentation behind. "ometime the follo#er ha kno#n the reaon #hy he
follo# the certain mujtahid cholar, but he doen%t kno# the reaon #hy the
mujtahid follo# certain e)idence.
23
According to al-Ahqari, taqld can be defined a taking one% opinion
#ithout kno#ing it argumentation or to return to one% opinion in #hich doen%t
20
1hi i on contradiction #ith "alafi group tatement that ittib i different #ith taqld
a e2plained before. 1he #riter agree #ith al-B( &% tatement. Becaue of that, all #ord deri)ed
from ittib and taqld !ut tranlated by ame #ord: follo#, and #ho do thi action !ut called by
follo#er.
21
Al-Baqarah: ,II-,I?
22
V K1'
23
V K1'
@
ha)e argumentation behind. 1he doer of taqld made hi imm% opinion a hi
argument abolutely #hether it i appropriated #ith sunnah or #rong by the
)ere or adth that are contradiction #ith it.
24
0ppoite #ith al-B( &% opinion, al-Ahqari ee that the in)iting for taqld i
danger in)itation. It can in)ite Mulim to the tagnancy of Ilamic thinking. It
make people tupid #ithout any effort to undertand Ilamic la#.
25
Al-B(t& ga)e three reaon #hy taqld or follo#ing one% opinion i allo#ed
in Ilam, epecially for #ho doen%t ha)e ability to do ijtihd.
a5 F!rst r*as$&2
Allah aid in al-5ur%$n :
$nd :e sent n+t bef+re -+u e;4ept men t+ 7h+m :e re8ealed 5<ur
message6( !+ ask the pe+ple +f the message if -+u d+ n+t kn+7(
26

1he common cholar ha)e agreed that thi )ere i command for #ho
doe not kno# the la# or it argumentation to follo# #ho kno# about it.
1he cholar of u #l made thi )ere a firt upport that al%3mi mut
follo# mujtahid #ho ha kno#ledge.
27
1he imilar )ere dicued about thi argumentation can be een in
at-1aubah: ,66 a follo#:
24
' (' . K1' XP . . " 174 C ,! 03
:9/!" 2/179 7&; %& :<1 2/143 + -=>?" :7Y 2 / 387
25
V .K1'
26
An-Dahl: 7>
27
H6% K1' . . " 97
,;
$nd it is n+t f+r the belie8ers t+ g+ f+rth 5t+ battle6 all at +n4e( "+r
there sh+uld separate fr+m e8er- di8isi+n +f them a gr+up 5remaining6 t+
+btain understanding in the religi+n and 7arn their pe+ple 7hen the-
return t+ them that the- might be 4auti+us(
In fact, Allah ha forbidden human to go to the field of #ar and jihd
entirely. 1here mut be one of them #ho tay and learn the kno#ledge
until #hen they come home they found #ho i able to ho# them about
their religion and Allah% la#, and teach them #hether the thing i
forbidden or allo#ed.
28
Another cholar dicue about the concept of taqld, 1aqi Gthm$n&,
*e ho#ed other 5ur%$nic )ere related to the comman of taqld a
follo#:
,/ Al-DiaN: A@
9< -+u 7h+ belie8e= "+ll+7 $llah> f+ll+7 the Messenger and th+se
+f auth+rit- ($mr) am+ngst -+u(9
?@
6/ Al-DiaN: B>
9$nd 7hen there 4+mes t+ them a matter 4+n4erning (publi4)
safet- +r fear, the- rela- it( If the- had +nl- referred it t+ the
28
V K1' ." 98 'D C ,! = 7&@ 0&A+' %B :
8/293 + 294
29
1aqi Gthmani, Taqleeds P+siti+n in Islam, 1ranlated from 1urkey by Mohammed
Amin +hol#adia, pdf )erion, /:ombard: Harul 5aim, ,@@B/, p. ,,-,6
,,
Messenger and t+ th+se +f auth+rit- ($mr), th+se 7h+ 4an
in8estigate and e;tra4t (inf+rmati+n) am+ng them 7+uld kn+7 (the
rum+rAs 8alidit-)((((9
B*

1hoe )ere ho# that Allah commanded Mulim to follo#, obey
and entrut their matter to *im, *i prophet and their leader, not to be
indi)idual and make o#n #ay and eparate from their leader.
.Al-B(t& alo ga)e the e)idence from prophetic adth that ho#
e)ery Mulim mut follo# their imm in order to be afe from the badne.
It% narrated from Bukh$ri and Mulim by link of *udaidah ibn al-Eaman
that he aid:
1he people aked 1he Prophet about goodne and I aked him about
the badne, becaue of fear that it #ill uffer me. I aked: L0.. the Prophet of
Allah, #e #ere in jahili-ah and bad life, then Allah gi)e u thi goodne
.Ilam/. <ill after thi goodne come badne .again/9M 1he Prophet aid:
LEe.M I aked, L<ill after the badne come the goodne9M *e aid, LEe,
but there #ill be dakhan
31
in it.M I aked, L<hat i dakhan in it9M *e an#er,
LA group of people #ho doen%t ue my guidance, you #ill kno# about them
and refue.M I aked again, L<ill after thi goodne come the badne9M *e
an#ered, LEe, there are people #ho in)ite to the door of jahanam. 1he
people #ho accept their in)itation #ill they plunge into it.M I aid, LPleae,
tell their characteritic for u, 0 the Prophet of AllahOM *e aid, L1hey are
from our group and peak #ith our language.M I aked, L<hat #ill you order
to u if it bear do#n upon u9M *e aid, L*old on the jamaah .community/
of Mulim and their imm.M
32
30
Ibid( p. ,>
31
Cakhan -a e2plained by Ibn *a!ar al-FAqalani in "athul &ari- ha e)eral meaning:
malice, calumny and broken in heart. 0ther aid it i ame #ith dukhan .moke/ that connotati)ely
mean chaotic that co)er a moke that become pollution. "ee the tranlator note in Al-Bouty.
Menampar Pr+paganda ,0embali 0epada 1uran.( +p(4it( p. ,@I.
32
V K1' ." 176 - 177
,6
1hi adth ho# that e)ery Mulim mut follo# hi Imm and hold on
the community of Mulim. It mean forbidden to make o#n ijtihd #ithout
follo#ing Imm epecially if he ha not capability to be Mujtahid. 1hi i on
contradiction #ith "alafi% opinion that e)ery Mulim mut make o#n ijtihd
and follo#ing Imm% opinion i herey.
b5 S*"$&' r*as$&2
It come from ijm
33
of the Prophet% =ompanion. It i truly that the
undertanding of Ilam belonging to Prophet% =ompanion #a different
one another. And not e)ery one of them are $hlu "at7 or able to gi)e
fat7. 1hi #a Ibn +hald(n aid: 1here #a no religion .undertanding/
taken from all of them.
34
<hile it #a mujtahid in their circle but the number of them #ere
little. It% different #ith the number of follo#er #ho need fat7 #ho #ere
in great quantitie. 1he muft
B)
in thi era did not teach the la# #ith
e2plaining the argumentation behind to the mustaft
36
. 1he Prophet .peace
be upon him/ hi elf ent the faqh from hi companion to the place
#here it people didn%t kno# about Ilam, it 3aqdah and the con)iction
of it pillar. "o thi people follo# e)erything #hat fqih deli)ered from
act, #orhip, relationhip and tranaction, hall and harm. "ometime
he found the problem #hich i not e2plained in al-5ur%$n and !unnah,
then he made the ijtihd and ga)e it to them and they follo#ed it.
Al-B(t& narrated al--ha3ali% #riting in hi book al%Musta f in the
chapter Taqld and Istift that the obligation of al%3mi i to follo# .taqld/
the ijtihd. 1he reaon of it i ijm of the Prophet% =ompanion. 1hey
33
=onenu of opinion
34
V K1' ." 98
35
<ho gi)e fat7
36
<ho eek the fat7
,>
ga)e the fat7 to lay Mulim and didn%t command them to attain the
ijtihd degree.
37
Al-B(t& alo ga)e al-Pmid&% tatement on hi book al%Ihkm .>Q,?,/
that aid:
LIt had been ijm that common people in the =ompanion and Tbiun
era -before the emerging people #ho are dipute in opinion- al#ay aked
fat7 to mujtahid and follo# them in la# of shari. 1he cholar
immediately an#ered their quetion #ithout telling it argumentation.
Dobody denied it. 1hen, thi matter became ijm that common people are
allo#ed to follo# mujtahid.M
38
1he famou companion #ho #ere truted to gi)e fat7 in thi era
#ere al%0hulafa al%$rbaah .Abu Bakr, FGmar, Gthm$n and FAl&/,
Abdull$h Ibn Ma%(d, Ab( M($ al-Ah%ari, Muadh ibn 8abal, Gbay ibn
+a%b, Raid ibn 1h$bit. 1he area of ijtihd had been e2tended in the tabiun
period. Jach of the Mulim follo#ed the ijtihd of Prophet%
=ompanion. Hepite of it, the ijtihd pattern on thi period ourced to t#o
ma!or chool: Madhhab $hlu al%DaA-i and Madhhab $hlu al% adth .
J)ery madhhab ha o#n cholar and ometime dicuion bet#een thee
cholar culminated in conflict. J)enthough, the lay Mulim #ho follo#
their opinion didn%t feel thi conflict #ithout denying one another.
39
"5 T)!r' r*as$&2
Al-B(t& tated the rational reaon can be een in #hat al-FAll$mah
Abdull$h Harr$3:
37
V K1' ." 99 . Q6?a! ,! -=>?" :7Y 2/385
38
V K1'
39
V K1' ." 99 - 100
,7
LS the rational argument i if an indi)idual #ho doen%t ha)e ability
to madhhab face #ith fari-ah cae, .there are t#o poibilitie #ill be
done/4 ometime gi)e it la# #ithout any foundation at all. And thi i
#rong according to ijm4 and ometime gi)e it la# baed on
reearching the e)idence that e2plained it la# or by taqld. 1he firt
.reearching hi elf/ i forbidden becaue in that cae thi man Tha)e
broken hi right .#ho doen%t ha)e ability to madhhab/ and other right- #a
ne)er able reearch the e)idence of many cae. *e i buy #ith hi
li)elihood, .reearch the e)idence of many cae/ can make him lea)ing
hi profeion and #ork, breaking the #orld becaue of ignoring #ork field
and hi inherit, and the principal, lea)ing hi elf from taqld. 1hat i )ery
difficult .to be happened/ S 1hat% #hy the enough action i taqld and
that mut be done to do the obligation.M
40
It mean if a Mulim doen%t ha)e ability to ijtihd and there
happen the incident #hich i categori3ed a fari-ah or branch matter
.not principal matter, and include the dipute matter among conenu of
cholar/. And the proce of concluding the la# i difficult for him, then
the lat choice he cannot do but taqld.
T)*r* !s &$ 3r$)!b!t!$& ,$r M%s-!+s t$ ,$--$4 "*rta!& madhhab
Al-B(t& reaffirmed that the obligation of lay Mulim #ho don%t ha)e
kno#ledge about ijtihd i taqld or to follo# mujtahid% opinion. 1hi command
clearly ha been tated in Al-5ur%$n :
40
V K1' ." 100 - 101 . C ,! jM % 9 N+ >
C&!" :%HM 4/22 : 96U B bQ D + 7Y B
-=>?" .
,A
$nd :e sent n+t bef+re -+u, 5< Muhammad6, e;4ept men t+ 7h+m :e
re8ealed 5the message6, s+ ask the pe+ple +f the message if -+u d+ n+t kn+7(
41

A non-mujtahid Mulim i obligated to follo# mujtahid in e)erything he
doen%t undertand about it baic argumentation. 1hi command i obligated
#ithout any requirement among thee: the obligation to change the Imm or to
keep one Imm fore)er.
42
A addition of that, 1aqi Gthm$n& narrated #hat Ibn +hald(n #rote in hi
book about taqld, he aid:
L1he taqld of four Im$m became popular throughout Mulim citie and the
taqld of other cholar #a foraken. 1he door of di)ere opinion #ere cloed #ere
cloed becaue o many academic term #ere being ued to denote o many different
concept and becaue it had become o difficult to reach the tage of a mujtahid. 1here
#a the apprehenion that the title of mujtahid be attributed to one #ho #a not
#orthy, or omeone #ho i inauthentic .and cannot be truted/ in hi opinion and in
hi religiou practice. "cholar declared that attaining the tage of a mujtahid #a not
poible and retricted people to follo# a particular imm. 1hey pre)ented people
from follo#ing imm alternately a thi #a tantamount to playing .#ith Ilam/.M
43
T)* ,$rb!''*& tamadhhub t$ b* '$&*
Kor dicuing #hat Tamadhhub that i forbidden to be done by Mulim, al-
B(t& had e2plained there #ere three undiputed principle .um#r l khilf fh/ by
the conenu of 3ulam .Mulim cholar/ and had been #ritten in their book.
41
Al-Anbiya: ?
42
V K1' ." 102 .
43
1aqi Gthm$n&. +p(4it(, p. >@. "ee alo Ibn +hald(n, Muqaddimah, Kirt Jdition, .H$rul
+utub al-FIlmiyah: 6;;@/( p. >AA
,I
1he tatement of Imm ibn al-5ayyim, FI33ud&n ibn FAbd al-"al$m, "hah al-
Hahla#i and other cholar about taqld and ijtihd ranged about thee three
matter. Krom thee matter, e)ery Mulim i able to undertand #hether
tamadhhub act that i forbidden or not. 1hee agreed principle can be tated a
follo#:
a. Kirt: that an indi)idual #ho follo# certain madhhab .muqallid/ i not
obligated by shari to follo# that madhhab continuouly. Do prohibition for
muqallid .follo#er/ to change to other madhhab. Mulim community ha)e
agreed that muqallid i allo#ed to follo# Mujtahid he #ant, if he i able to
undertand madhhab and it opinion. Muqallid i alo allo#ed to follo# one
of the four Imm of madhhab fore)er. If there i tatement that changing
taqld from one madhhab to another i omething bad, thi i kind of bad
fanaticim that de)iate from Mulim agreement.
44
1hi kind i forbidden
Tamadhhub to be done.
b. "econd: <hen an indi)idual i able to undertand the problem deeply and it
argumentation from al-5ur%$n, sunnah and ijtihd method, he mut lea)e
from taqld. 1hi peron #ho hi quality of cience ha filled the requirement
and ha ability to ijtihd, i forbidden to taqld. 1hi principle had been agreed
either by cholar or Imm of madhhab. And of coure, thi peron i not
allo#ed to propoe Imm% opinion a uperior than hi ijtihd in that cae
.#hich he ha eriouly reearched it argumentation and method. If there are
group #ho denied from thi agreement, thi i blemihed fanaticim
phenomena that mut be a)oided by Mulim. 1hat% kind of forbidden
tamadhhub.
c. 1hird: All four Imm are true. It mean if they feel unure #ith the truth of
ijtihd la# that Allah #ant to *i-er)ant, their ijtihd are tolerantly
accepted by Allah. 1hen there i no #ay for each Imm but to follo# hi
ijtihd product. 1herefore, #hen muqallid follo# certain Imm of madhhab he
#ant, i ame #ith follo# the right path. If he chooe one Imm of madhhab,
44
H6% K1' ." 48
,?
he i not allo#ed to blame another madhhab. Becaue of that, Mulim
cholar ha)e made agreement that the follo#er of anaf& chool are allo#ed
to pray behind "h$fi%& or M$lik& chool, or it oppoite.
7A

Al-Ahqar alo ha #ritten the negati)e ide of tamadhhub uch a many
dipute, di)iion, impairment among Mulim becaue ome follo#er of
madhhab #ho a# that their madhhab i the true one than other.
7I
1hi i #hat happened today. Many Mulim become blind fanatic till
conider that praying on congregation bet#een different madhhab i not allo#ed
in IlamO 1hen they make a number of group of praying for different madhhab
and o on in many imilar cae.
47
1hi in)ite di)iion and hotility bet#een
Mulim community and make them hard to be united #herea the other problem
like the attack of non-Ilam #ho #ant to detroy the foundation of Ilam #a )ery
much. 1hi tamadhhub fanaticim i forbidden in Ilam. 1here i no foundation
can be found in shari. J)ery Mulim i obligated to a)oid thee action.
Al-B(t& alo tated that Imm Al-Hhahab& forbid the follo#er of madhhab to
be not fanatic for their Imm and belie)e that madhhab they follo# i the right
one. *e aid:
LHon%t belie)e that your madhhab i the main madhhab and the mot belo)ed
by Allah. Eou ne)er ha)e any argumentation about that. And o the people #ho
oppoe you. J)enthough all Imm are bet. 1#o re#ard for their true opinion of
cae, and one re#ard for the fale.M
48
45
V K1' ." 50 - 53
46
' (' XP E" -3 8 F8" ( G"
.= $%E >+P ) (P Vd: M: + :K*N6 1996 ( ." 170
47
H6% K1' .
48
V K1' ." 112 . V'X ,* , % 9 '=! , '8) ,
('J %& EHI .<1 ) $%I! 6=^ $!h 1404 ( O ." 35
,B
Kor ol)ing thi problem, a contemporary cholar E(uf Al-5ar a#& gi)e
uggetion in order to unite e)ery Mulim in one mo)ement, they are:
7@
,. "eing the tatement, not #ho tate it.
6. Admitting elf default and recanting opinion bra)ely and unreer)edly.
>. Dot embittering about other critic.
7. "elf intropection and ree)aluation.
A. Aking ad)ice and )aluation from other.
I. 'ecanting elf opinion #hich i included branch matter to hold the unity of
Mulim community.
?. 1aking benefit .cience, good act, reult of reearch/ from other.
C$&"-%s!$&
According to al-B(t& tamadhhub i omething allo#ed by ijm .conenu
of Mulim cholar/. It i becaue not e)ery Mulim i able to make hi o#n
ijtihd for e)ery problem he faced. 1hu, thi can be entruted to the qualified
imm #ho ha the authority to take eence of la# from that problem. "o there i
no obligation for him e2cept follo# imm% opinion.
Al-B(t& alo emphai3e that the eence of problematic matter of
tamadhhub had been ol)ed by cholar and imm of madhhab. 1hey had built
the tandard foundation till e)ery Mulim only need to de)elop thi building to
be rele)ant and conte2tual #ith the condition in thi era. Many contemporary
problem #ere faced by Mulim o)er the #orld mut be ol)ed immediately.
And the cholar and imm of madhhab had gi)en the guideline to ol)e thee
problem.
49
"yaikh Akram +aab, Met+de Cak7ah Eusuf $l%1aradha7i, 1ranlated by Muhyidin
Ma 'ida to Indoneian, Kirt edition, .8akarta, Putaka Al-+autar: 6;,;/, p. 6BI
,@
Al-B(t& tated that the dangerou problem come to the Mulim
community in thi modern era are: the thought of atheim, moral decadency, and
ecularim of religion .from it foundation/. J)ery Mulim hould think about
thee matter eriouly.
1he implementation of al-B(t&% )ie# about ijithd mut be taken place
!udiciouly and proportionally. 1he conte2tuali3ing of it mut be baed on the
ocial condition of Mulim community that being difference one another
according to their place li)e in. 1hi i in order to a)oid from crah and di)iion
that emerge becaue group fanaticim that )ie# rigidly different opinion came
from other group. :all u alam(
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Jpoito, 8ohn, et al. 6;;@. The The )** M+st Influential Muslims. Kirt Jdition. <ahington H.=.:
-eorgeto#n Gni)erity. 1he 'oyal Ilamic "trategic "tudie =entre.
*anafi, Ahmad. ,@@A. Pengantar dan !ejarah 2ukum Islam. "e)enth edition. 8akarta. P.1. Bulan
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+aab, "yaikh Akram. 6;,;. Met+de Cak7ah Eusuf $l%1aradha7i( 1ranlated by Muhyidin Ma
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Makum, Imam. Pintu Ijtihad Tertutup? Indoneian 8urnal of A*+AM. Colume ,,. Dopember
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1hird Jdition. 8akarta. Putaka Amani.
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+hol#adia. pdf )erion. :ombard. Harul 5aim.
<ulandari, Indah, et al. $l%&uthi 'ugur !aat Mengajar Tafsir( 6;,>, "aturday, March 6>.
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Arab!"
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