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The following systems of irrigation are suitable for the Indian topography 1.Tank irrigation 2.Canal irrigation 3.Well and tube-well irrigation TANK IRRIGATION: A tank is nothing but a depression formed on the surface of the earth by naturally or artificially to store the water by building a bund around or a side of the depression. If the tank is nearer or on the way of the stream of the river it is easy to store the water. CONDITIONS FOR TANK IRRIGATION: 1.Land should have an undulating relief feature so that depression could be available 2. should have a hard layered rock and little percolation of water so that water can be retained for a long period 3. nearness of the river course so that water can be easily filled in the depression AREAS FULLFILLING THE ABOVE CONDITIONS: Most parts of peninsular india especially most areas of Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh, eastern parts of karnataka, eastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and a few parts in north india. ADVANTAGES OF TANK IRRIGATION: 1.Most of the tanks are natural and do not involve heavy cost for their construction. 2.even an individual farmer can have his own tank. 3.tanks are generally constructed on rocky bed and have longer life span. 4.in many tanks fishing is also carried on. This supplements both the food resources and income of the farmer. DISADVANTAGES OF TANK IRRIGATION: 1.many tanks dry up during the dry season and fail to provide irrigation when it is needed the most. 2.silting of the tank bed is a serious problem and it requires desilting in regular intervals. 3.evaporation loss is very high. 4.some times it is difficult to take water from tank to the irrigation field because of the hard rock. CANAL IRRIGATION Canals are man-made channels for flow of water.

CONDITIONS FOR CANAL IRRIGATION: 1.areas of low and level relief so that water flow would be by the gravitation force 2.deep soft rock layer so that canal excavation would be easy 3.perennial source of water AREAS FULFILLING THE CONDITIONS: North plains of india especially the areas comprising Punjab; Haryana and uttar Pradesh and the coastal and delta regions of the south india. ADVANTAGES OF CANAL IRRIGATION: 1.most of the canals provide perennial irrigation and supply water as and when needed. 2.canals carry a lot of sediment brought down by the rivers. This sediment is deposited in the agricultural fields which adds to the fertility of soil. 3.some of the canals are parts of multipurpose projects and, therefore, provide cheap source of irrigation. 4.although the initial cost involved in canal irrigation is much higher, it is quite cheap in the long run. DISADVANTAGES OF CANAL IRRIGATION: 1.the canal water soaks into the ground and leads to the problem of water-logging along the canal route 2.the marshy areas near the canals act as breeding grounds of mosquitoes which result in widespread diseases 3.many canals over flow during rainy season and flood the surrounding areas. 4.canal irrigation is suitable in plain areas only. WELL&TUBE-WELL IRRIGATION A well is a hole dug in the ground to obtain the subsoil water. A tube well is a deeper well with a tube surrounding the peripheral from which water is lifted with the help of a pump set. CONDITIONS FOR WELL AND TUBE-WELL IRRIGATION: 1.sufficient sweet ground water should be available 2.soft rock


Large part of great plain, the deltaic regions of the Mahanadi, the godhavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery, parts of the narmada and the tapi valleys and the weathered layers of the deccan trap. ADVANTAGES OF WELL AND TUBE-WELL IRRIGATION: 1.simplest and cheapest source of irrigation and the poor Indian farmer can easily afford it 2.well is an independent source of irrigation and can be used as and when the necessity arises 3.several chemicals such as nitrate, chloride, sulphate, etc. Are mixed in well water. They add to the fertility of soil when they reach the agricultural field along with well water 4.there is a limit to the extent of canal irrigation while a well can be dug at any convenient place DISADVANTAGES OF WELL AND TUBE-WELL IRRIGATION: 1.only limited areas can be irrigated 2.the well may dry up and may be rendered useless for irrigation if excessive water is taken out of it 3.tubewells can draw a lot of ground water from its neighbouring areas and make the ground dry and unfit for agriculture 4. for tube-wells electricity or diesel needed.