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LAWS OF MOTION Uniform motion needs concept of velocity but non-uniform motion needs concept of acceleration in addition.

In laws of motion we study the cause of motion and the force that governs the motion of the objects. An external force is needed in order to move a body from rest. Similarly an external force is also required to stop or retard it. Force doesnt need to be something that makes a contact with the object physically such as pushing a rock, but it could anything that could make it feel a push, such as in electrostatics a charge could attract other charge at a distance without touching it i.e. it does so by creating an electric field, similarly if we drop a stone from a height the earth pulls it towards itself i.e. the gravitational force. A force is required to put a stationary body in motion or to stop a moving body, and some external agency (or factor) is needed to provide this force. The external agency may or may not be in contact with the body. Now what Aristotle said was that: An external force is required to keep a body in motion. According to him anything that is in motion has force acting on it at every instance until it is moving. For example if we shoot an arrow then according to Aristotle the arrow moves because the air behind it pushes it forward cause a force, Aristotle was a great thinker and had elaborate ideas but this view of force was not true as Galileo first gave the precise and satisfactory explanation of a force. Aristotles explanation would seem actual to the motion of most objects on Earth as if a child has to move a non-electric car then he would have to pull it with a string in the direction of motion, as he stops pulling the car comes to rest but this is not because the child stopped pulling but because of friction. Galileos thought of motion and its cause was simple he took a table with was frictionless (i.e. Smooth) and rolled a ball on it he found out that there was no force required externally to keep the ball in motion, thus the object should move at a constant speed. Another experiment by Galileo was about inclined planes, he took two smooth inclined planes and let the ball roll over the first and then go to the other plane, he found out that the height the ball overs is same or less than the height at which it was left off. He then decreased the slope of the second inclined plane and this time also the ball rose tom the same height but covered a little more distance, the third time he took the slope of the second inclined to be zero then the balls motion would remain same and constant on the smooth surface, it would cover an infinite distance, but it will stop after a finite distance as the force of friction is never fully eliminated. Thus, no external force is needed to keep a body in uniform motion. In Short we could say that if the net external force on the objects is zero then it is at rest and a body in motion continues to be in motion with constant velocity. This property is called inertia i.e. Resistance to change. The law of inertia could be stated as a body does not change its state of rest or uniform motion, unless an external force compels it to change the state. Galileos ideas were revolutionary and were taken up and explored single-handedly by Isaac Newton, one of the greatest scientist of all times. He created a whole new mechanics and laid down these foundation just on three laws, the laws of motion, Galileos first law of motion was

the starting point which he formulated the first law of motion. It states that: Every body continues to be in its state of rest or uniform motion in straight line unless compelled by external force to act otherwise. Here, the state of rest or uniform motion just simply means no acceleration. Thus the first law can also be expressed simply as: If the net force on a body is zero then the acceleration is zero. Acceleration can be non-zero if there is a net external force on the body. If an object is unaccelerated then it is either at rest or in uniform motion. It does not imply that an object having no force is unaccelerated, but if an object has no net force then it is at rest, if two forces cancel each other out then the object will be unaccelerated. On earth, there are many forces present for real world objects like friction, viscous force, gravitational force etc. Considering the example of a book on a table, it looks as if it is at rest but for it to be at rest the net force on it need to be zero, the gravitational force on it is downwards then how is the book at rest? There should be another force, a force that acts opposite and has a same magnitude as that of the gravitational force this force is exerted by the table on the book and is called the normal force. We encounter inertia in our everyday lives, let us consider the view of a standing person in a stationary bus, as the bus starts suddenly the person experiences a backward jerk but as his feet are in contact with the surface and under friction, with the help if his muscular forces he then comes back to his comfort state, but if there were no friction on the buss floor then he would simply stand there itself and hit the back of the bus, due to inertia. Even a car in order to pick up, needs friction if there were no friction then the wheels would simply move and the car would stay at the same place internal forces such as engine or etc. cant be accounted for accelerating the object. The second law of motion is concerned with a body having a net force on it. To sense this law one should know what momentum is. Momentum is simple the product of mass and velocity and is denoted by p. As it is product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector), then it is a vector, and is more comprehensively denoted as . Mathematically,

Momentum is an important quantity concerned with the effect of force on motion. Momentum could be understood by considering two bullets of the same mass fired with different velocities, the one with the higher velocity would pierce a human body and go past but that with a lower velocity would not go through. The one that has a greater velocity has a greater momentum and thus exerts more force; the one that has less velocity has less momentum and thus exerts less force. Also if a stone with a larger mass and a stone with a lower mass are thrown to catch, then one would feel easy to catch the stone that has a lighter mass as the stone that has higher exerts more force.

While catching a cricket ball with fixed hands is too hard as compared to catching it with bringing the hand down in the direction of ball and exerting a little force. Thus the force also depends on the rate of change of momentum. The greater the rate of change of momentum the greater is the force. If we exert equal force on a heavy object and a light object for a certain time interval, then after the end of the time interval the velocity of the lighter object is more than that of heavy object but they both have the same momentum after that interval. Thus the same force for the same time causes the same change in momentum. This forms the concept to the second law of motion. The second law of motion states that: The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction I which the force acts. Mathematically, the initial momentum is and the change I it could be represented as , then according to second law we have,


Where k is a constant of proportionality, by taking the limit of time becomes the derivative of with respect to t, denoted by For a body of fixed mass m we have

, the term

. Thus

= m

Thus, the second law can also be written as, k m

This shows that the force is proportional to mas and velocity, the above law on considering k=1, becomes m

By this equation we can also find the SI unit of force i.e. kg ms-1 which is called a Newton denoted by N. The second law of motion agrees with the first law as when 0, then . The second law of motion is a vector law thus for space could be divided into three coordinates for space.

Any internal forces are not to be included in . Thus, force at any point is related with the acceleration at that instant and hence applies to all point objects. m

Momentum of the particle has the same direction as that of the velocity of the particle. To understand the third and the final law of motion we need to know what impulse is, Taking an example, if a ball is thrown on the wall it comes back, thus its motion or the velocity gets reversed and as the velocity is reversed thus the momentum is reversed, but this change in momentum is brought by the force that the wall exerts on the ball at the instant of contact, but the ball remains in contact with the wall for just a fraction of milliseconds then how come it could change its momentum or say reverse its momentum, Thus a large force acting for a short time to produce a finite change in momentum is called an impulsive force or impulse. Thus impulse is the product of force and the time duration which is further equal to the change in momentum. Impulse = Force time duration = Change in momentum An external force is needed to cause acceleration of a body from the second law, thus this external force arises from an external body, which exerts the respective force. In simple lets take the example of a spring, a highly coiled spring in we compress the spring the spring in return exerts a force on our finger, or if we shoot a bullet we get the recoil jerk backwards and the bullet goes forward, thus, Forces always occur in pairs, and the mutual forces between two bodies are equal and opposite. Thus the third law could be stated as: To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Mathematically according to the third law,

Which means force on A by B is equal and opposite to force on B by A. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM This simply means that as forces act mutually, they act in pairs thus the total momentum of an isolated system of interacting particles is conserved. Taking an example of a gun, when a bullet is shot then two forces act on it one is which pushes it forward and the other is the bullet itself exerts a force on the recoil. Thus these two forces are equal and opposite. Then the momentum of the gun and the bullet is conserved.

Where the momentum of the gun recoils and is the momentum of the bullet. What it means by conservation of momentum is that momentum of a body does not just flies away anywhere in space; it gets transferred from one body to another. We could prove conservation of momentum considering collision of two bodies which is an important

application of conservation of momentum. Lets consider two bodies A and B having an initial momenta and then the bodies collide and then the final momenta is and . Then by second law we have, Then by third law we have, On simplifying becomes, Thus the momentum is conserved. = =

EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE Equilibrium in mechanics refers to a situation where the net external force on an object is zero. Again according to first law this implies that the object could be at rest or in uniform motion. To maintain an equilibrium if two forces act on an object then the need to be equal and opposite. If three forces are acting then their net vector sum should equal to zero i.e. In other words the resultant of should be equal and opposite to the third force

This also implies that the components of force in x, y or z axes are also zero when summed up. Where ,

and are components of along x, y and z directions respectively.

COMMON FORCES IN MECHANICS Gravitational force can act at a distance without the need of any intervening medium. Mostly in mechanics we come across contact forces, i.e. the forces which we need to make a contact with the object in order to exert a force on it such forces are contact forces (electrical and magnetic forces are non-contact forces and will be considered later). By third law of motion, we could say that two objects have a mutual contact force. On a more realistic view this contact force has two components one which is parallel to the surface i.e. friction, and the other which is normal to the surface called the normal reaction. Contact forces also arise when solids are in contact with liquids as when a solid is immersed in a liquid it feels a upward buoyant force. Two other forces are tension in a string and force due to a spring. When a spring is compressed or pulled then a restoring force is generated. This force is usually proportional to the elongation (for small displacements). The spring force is usually written mathematically as,

Where x is the displacement and k is the force constant. The negative sign denotes that the force is opposite to the displacement. This restoring force when present in a string is called tension, and tension is denoted as T. There are many forces in nature but in mechanics only gravitation and electrical forces are of major concern. The different contact forces such as viscous, air resistance, friction etc. fundamentally arise from electrical forces. This seems unreal as in mechanics we are considering uncharged and non-magnetic object, but if we go deep into the microscopic world all bodies are made up of charged constituents (electrons and nuclei) and the various forces arising due to the elasticity of bodies, molecular collisions and impacts etc. can be ultimately related to the electrical forces between the charged particles of different bodies. The detailed microscopic origin of these forces is not useful for mechanics on macroscopic level. This is why they are treated as different types of forces with different characteristics. FRICTION If a book is kept on a table and a horizontal force is applied to it, then by laws of motion we could say that it would move but if the applied force is very small then in real experiences the book does not moves as another external force is present with the force we are applying i.e. frictional force. For a very small force the book does not displaces this opposing frictional force is further of two types static and kinetic. This force is parallel to the surface of the body in contact with the table. We denote as the static friction and as the kinetic friction.

Static friction does not exist by itself, when there is no applied force there is no static friction. As the applied force increases, the static friction also increases but only up to a certain limit keeping the body at rest, hence it is called static friction. Static friction opposes the impending motion. The term impending motion means motion that would take place, but does not actually take place under the applied force, if friction were absent. If the force applied on a body exceeds a certain limit i.e. then the body begins to move. Experimentally the value of static friction of area of contact and varies with the normal force (N) as: is independent

Where is the constant of proportionality depending upon the nature of surfaces in contact. The is the coefficient of static friction. The law of static friction may thus be written as

If the applied force exceeds then the body begins to move on a surface. Once the body is in motion then the static frictional force decreases and then kinetic or sliding friction comes into play, this friction is independent of velocity and area of contact and has almost same expression of formulation as that of static friction. Where

is the coefficient of kinetic friction and depends on the nature of surfaces in contact. has a less value than . and

Experiments have shown that

According to the second law of motion, for this relative motion acceleration is respectively for a body in motion with constant velocity, i.e. no acceleration. motion. Friction is essential too.

Frictional force does not oppose motion but it opposes relative