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PERT/CPM CONSTRUCTION

Draw the network diagram and determine the critical path.


ACT PRECEDES DUR

A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

D,F E H END G END I J K END M N O END

2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

ACT

PRECEDES

DUR

A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

D,F E H END G END I J K END M N O END

2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

I 2

7 3
E 7

J 3

8
K

4
G 5

4 H 2

A 2

D 6 F 3

5
10
N 6

END

O C 5

M 1

11

ACT A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

PRECEDES D,F E H END G END I J K END M N O END

DUR 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

I 2 8

7 3
5 E 7

J 3 15

8
K 4 H 2 17 10 20 O 8 11
END

4
G 5

1
0

A 2

D 6 F 3

5
10
N 6

C 5

M 1

12

11

ACT

PRECEDES

DUR

A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

D,F E H END G END I J K END M N O END

2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8 9 0

B 2

11

I 2 8

7 3
11

13 J 3 E 7 15

8
18

16 K

4
G 5

4 H 2 20 20 20 O 20
END

1
0 0

A 2

D 6 F 3 5

12

5
10

15

C 5

M 1

N 6

12

12

11

ACT A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

PRECEDES D,F E H END G END I, E J, H K END M, G N O END

DUR 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

I 2

7 3
E 7

J 3

8
K

4
G 5

4 H 2

A 2

D 6 F 3

5
10
N 6

END

O C 5

M 1

11

ACT A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

PRECEDES D,F E H END G END I, E J, H K END M, G N O END

DUR 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

I 2 2 D 8 6 5

7
E 7

J 3

8
K 4 H 2
17 10 20
END

15

4
G 5

0 0

A 2

11

F 3

5
5

C 5

M 1

10

N 6

12

11

ACT A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

PRECEDES D,F E H END G END I, E J, H K END M, G N O END

DUR 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

11

I 2 2 D 8 6 5

13 18

J 3

8
18

16

11

K 4
11
17 10 20
END

3
11

E 7

15

4
G 5

0 0
0

H 2

3 2

2
12

F 3

5
5

15

C 5

15 5

M 1

10

N 6

12

11

12

ACT A D E H F G B I J K C M N O

PRECEDES D,F E H END G END I, E J, H K END M, G N O END

DUR 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 1 6 8

B 2

11

I 2 2 D 8 6 5

13 18

J 3

8
18

16

11

K 4
11
17 10 20
END

3
11

E 7

15

4
G 5

1
0

A 2

H 2

2
12

F 3

5
5

15

C 5

15 5

M 1

10

N 6

12

11

12

Definition of Terms Critical Path the longest route in the network of activities representing the project - duration of CP = duration of the project - there maybe more than one CP in a project and may shift as the project moves towards completion Forward Pass
Earliest Start Time (ES)
earliest time an activity can start ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors

Earliest finish time (EF)


earliest time an activity can finish earliest start time plus activity time

EF= ES + t

Backward Pass

Latest Start Time (LS) Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time LS= LF - t

Latest finish time (LF) latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time LS = minimum LS of immediate predecessors

ACT A D E H F G B I DM1 J DM2 K C DM3 M N O

D 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 0 3 0 4 5 0 1 6 8

ES

EF

0 2 8 15 2 5 0 2 2 4 4 7 0 5 5 6 12

2 8 15 17 5 10 2 4 2 7 4 11 5 5 6 12 20 C 5 5 0 0 D 6 5 5 B 2 2

I 2 2 8

7
E 7

J 3

8
K 4 H 2
17 10 20
END

15

4
G 5

A 2

11

F 3

5
10
N 6

O
12

M 1

11

ACT A D E H F G B I DM1 J DM2 K C DM3 M N O

D 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 0 3 0 4 5 0 1 6 8

LF

LS

5 11 18 20 15 20 11 13 11 16 18 20 5 15 6 12 20

3 5 11 18 12 15 9 11 11 13 18 16 0 15 5 6 12 C 5
9

B 2

11

I 2

7 3

13 18

J 3

8 4
G 5
18

16

11

K 4 H 2

D 3 A 2

1
0

2
12

11

E 7

F 3

5
10

15

END

20

15 5

M 1

N 6

11

12

ACT A D E H F G B I DM1 J DM2 K C DM3 M N O

D 2 6 7 2 3 5 2 2 0 3 0 4 5 0 1 6 8

ES 0 2 8 15 2 5 0 2 2 4 4 7 0 5 5 6 12

EF 2 8 15 17 5 10 2 4 2 7 4 11 5 5 6 12 20

LF 5 11 18 20 15 20 11 13 11 16 18 20 5 15 6 12 20

LS 3 5 11 18 12 15 9 11 11 13 18 16 0 15 5 6 12

Float TF 3 3 3 3 10 10 9 9 9 9 14 3 0 10 0 0 0

Total Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays completion of the project

TF = LS - ES

Construct a Network Diagram and Deter mine the Critical Path

ACT A B C D E F G H I

PRECEDES C, D, F F, D E, G, I E, G, I H G, I H END END

DUR 4 7 5 10 2 6 4 8 9

ACT A B C D E F G H I

PRECEDES C, D, F D, F E, G, I E, G, I H G, I H END END

DUR 4 7 5 10 2 6 4 8 9

A 4
START

C 5 J 0

E 2 K 0

H 8

D 10

G 4

END

B 7

F 6

I 9

ACT A B C D E F G H I

PRECEDES C, D, F D, F E, G, I E, G, I H G, I H END END

DUR 4 7 5 10 2 6 4 8 9

0
START

A 4 1

4 2

C 5 J 0 4

9 4
17

E 2 K 0

19

6
21

H 8

29

0 B 7

D 10

G 4
17

7
26

END

F 6

13

I 9

ACT A B C D E F G H I

PRECEDES C, D, F D, F E, G, I E, G, I H G, I H END END

DUR 4 7 5 10 2 6 4 8 9

0
START

A 4

4 2
7

12

C 5

9 4
17

19 17

E 2

19

21

6
21

H 8
29 29

1
0

J 0 4 B 7 7 3

D 10
7 11

K 0
17

G 4
17 29

7
26

END

F 6

13

20

I 9

ACT A B C D E F G H I

PRECEDES C, D, F D, F E, G, I E, G, I H G, I H END END

DUR 4 7 5 10 2 6 4 8 9

0
START

A 4
3

4 2
7

12

C 5

9 4
17

19 17

E 2

19

21

6
21

H 8
29 29

1
0

J 0 4 B 7 7 3

D 10
7 11

K 0
17

G 4
17

7
26

END

F 6

13

20

I 9

Reducing Time and Cost


1. To avoid penalties for not completing the project on time. 2. To take advantage of monetary incentives for completing the project on or before the target date. 3. To free the resources such as money, equipment, and men for use on other project. 4. Reduce indirect cost associated with the project such as: 1. Facilities and equipment cost 2. Supervision cost 3. Labor Cost 4. Personnel Cost

Crashing - spending more money to get something done more quickly. - The key is to attain maximum decrease in schedule time with minimum cost.
Which Method is Best? Increasing Your Resources - this essentially means decreasing the time it takes to perform individual activities by increasing the number of people working on those activities. Pros: This makes sense, at first glance. For example, if it takes Junior 4 hours to complete an activity, it would logically take Bob and Thirdy 2 hours to complete the same activity. Cons: Adding resources isnt always the best solution, though. Sometimes it ends up taking more time in the long run. Consider the following: New resources aren't going to be familiar with the tasks at hand, so they will probably be less productive than current team members. Who will guide the new members up the learning curve? Usually it will be the most productive members of the team, who could themselves be working to get the task finished more quickly.

Which Method is Best? Fast Tracking - which involves over-lapping tasks which were initially scheduled sequentially. Or you might be able to optimize your schedule in other areas. For example, maybe you can split long tasks into smaller chunks to squeeze more work into a shorter period of time reduce lag times between tasks or reduce the scope to eliminate less important tasks.

When NOT to Crash The key to project crashing is attaining maximum reduction in schedule time with minimum cost. Quite simply, the time to stop crashing is when it no longer becomes cost effective. A simple guideline is: Crash only activities that are critical. Crash from the least expensive to most expensive. Crash an activity only until: It reaches its maximum time reduction. It causes another path to also become critical. It becomes more expensive to crash than not to crash.

Requirements for Crashing Time


1. Regular time and crash time estimates for each activity 2. Regular cost and crash estimates for each activity. 3. A list of activities that are on the critical path.

Procedure in Crashing Project Time


1. 2. 3. 4. Obtain an estimate of regular and crash time plus the cost of each activity. Determine the length of all path and their float time. Determine which activities are on the critical path. Crash the critical activities in the order of increasing costs as long as crashing cost do not exceeds the benefits.

From the following data, develop an optimum time cost plan assuming that total crashing cost is P15, 000. Act A B C D E F A 8 1 C 7 3 D 6 4 E 9 Normal Time 8 12 7 6 9 4 2 Crash Time 8 10 6 2 7 2 P6,000 2,000 6,000 4,500 7,000 B 12 5 Cost/day to Crash

F 4

Path 1-2-5-6 or A-B-F = 8+12+4 = 24days Path 1-3-4-5-6 or C-D-E-F = 7+6+9+4= 26days Critical Path

A-B-F = 24days C-D-E-F = 26days Critical Path Rank the Critical Path activities in order of lowest crashing cost.
Act Normal Time Crash Time Available Days Cost/day to Crash

C E D F

7 9 6 4

6 7 2 2

1 2 4 2

2,000 4,500 6,000 7,000

A 8 1 C 7 3

2 D 6

B 12 5 4 E 9

F 4

Shorten the project one day and then check after each reduction to see which path is critical

Shorten Activity C by 1 day at P2,000/day CP1 = 26 1 =25 days Shorten Activity E by 1 day at P4,500/day CP2 = 25 1 =24 days A-B-F = 24days C-D-E-F = 24days Critical Path

A 8 1 C 7 3

2 D 6

B 12 5 4 E 9

F 4

Act

Normal Time

Crash Time

Available Days

Cost/day to Crash

Path A-B-F

Activity A B F C D E F

Crash Cost/day No more Reduction 6,000 7,000 No More Reduction 6,000 4,500 7,000

C E B D F

7 9 12 6 4

6 7 10 2 2

1 2 2 4 2

2,000 4,500 6,000 6,000 7,000

C-D-E-F

A-B-F = 24days C-D-E-F = 24days

Critical Path 1

A 8 C 6

2 D 6

B 12 5 E 8

F 4

Try shorten B and E 23 days, Cost = 10, 500 Shorten F, 23 days, Cost = 7,000

Thus, Shortening F is more practical. Results, 23 days Project Duration, Total Crashing Cost = 2000 + 4,500 + 7, 000 = 13, 500