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# Hey guys, what do you think about doing the exam together?

having half of the people do 10-20 and write the steps here. Replace the numbers with variables?? I dont know if thats legal. Is it? Okay Here is a cleaner version of this doc that I just made. This has what appear to be the most accurate and agreed upon steps so far and Ill try and keep it that way: https://docs.google.com/document/d/19oMfRdccxOBfCQOjeHD2n8daF-iSOPXOE1OLyNIY8E/edit?usp=sharing You guys go check out Abigails study guide^^ Its a lot neater/more organized! :) Exam 1 Bonus Study Guide I suggest someone make backup copies at all times just in case someone is malicious; Ive done things like this before and people would wipe hard work.

1. Im pretty sure there was a question like this on the test (#3 on Progress Check 5): Consider the following two-step reaction. O3(g) + NO(g) O2(g) + NO2(aq) 1NO2(g) + O(g) NO(g) + O2(g) Identify which component is a catalyst and which is a reaction intermediate. Explain your answer. The nitrogen monoxide is a catalyst because it enables the reaction to move forward but is not consumed in the overall reaction. The nitrogen dioxide is a reaction intermediate because it is produced in one step of the reaction and consumed in the next.

2.There was one question about finding the empirical formula? Theres a progress check question like this, but cant quite figure out how. Does anyone know how to do Progress Check 4, #3? Yeah, so you know that an Alkali metal halide will split into 2 ions, so i=2; Set up equation: FP=2*1.86*((grams halide/X)/kg H2O) and solve for x. Then subtract the weight of one mol of the metal to find the matching halides molar mass

4. Finding boiling points and freezing points of certain mixed and using variable to determine osmotic pressure. * T=iKm * pi= c(or M)RT

5. Being able to determine whether a unit cell is primitive, body-centered, or face-centered with the density and the edge cell length (which is pm). d=m/v should help here. This is not hard, it just takes practice. To figure this one out you have to do trial and error elimination. So ALWAYS start with Body-Centered. SO if they give you a density. USE D=M/V

you got the density and you calculate the mass by take 2 [atoms in in body centered] divided by 6.022E23 that will give you the mass **I wouldnt suggest trial and error. That waste time. ESPECIALLY when you're talking about unit cell calculations. Youre given density and you are given the side length of a unit cell probably in picometers or angstroms. First Convert the side length to centimeters Then cube this value to get the volume in cm cubed multiply this value by the density to get the mass of the unit cell in grams. Now that you have the mass in grams you can multiply (I thought you divide not multiply?) this value by the molar mass of the element that is supposed to be given and convert from moles to atoms. The final answer will either give you 1.99999, 3.999999, or 0.99999999 (essentially 2 for bcc, essentially 4 for fcc, and essentially 1 for primitive) or maybe 1.0099999, 2.00111333...etc. depends on your calculator.

6. Being able to use Raoults Law P=Xa . Pknot. They will give you the milliliters for two different solutions and you must be able to determine moles from that (moles needed for mol fraction)(they will give you enough info to do it ). I cant remember what exactly it was. but you find the pressures of both using the above equations and the you add the two pressures together This is like a question on progress check 4 :)

7. For the 2 students and as to who was correct, the order is solute first THEN add the water. ^^^ THAT IS INCORRECT. IT DEPENDS IF THEY ARE ASKING FOR MOLALITY (m) OR MOLARITY (M) . The one that puts water first is MOLALITY. Molarity is the other one.

8. The concentration question with the semi-permeable osmotic membrane: particle size does not determine osmotic pressure, so the molar masses at the bottom only serve as distraction. Also remember that ionic compounds have a higher effective concentration based on how many ions it splits up into and that osmosis flows from low to high. --Um, pretty sure water moves from high concentration to low concentration. If there is the same concentration of two different compounds, each with the same number of ions, will it move at all? Nope. **Well for my question it gave me the weight percent of each compound...and in that case...the molar masses were used to convert weight percent to molarity. So if they had different number of ions, same concentration, which way would it move? Towards the one that has less ions?

^^^Consensus on this question? Are the molecular weights important or not? They are important when you are given weight percent instead of molarity. For example, the last two parts on my test were given something like 8% of two different compounds. You have to use the molecular weight to find the concentrations of each compound to see which one was bigger.

9. Know how to calculate rate equation and rate constant. Using experimental data I remember there being A B and C and I think C was not at all in the rate expression (because when it alone changed, and A and B stayed constant, the rate did not change)? Anyone else remember this? Can anyone verify this? And I think A was first order in the rate equation, because it proportionally changed with the rate How do we find B? Progress check 4 question 2 I think that there was a problem like this in the problems Carrun posted on eLC.

10. Rank cations based on increasing heat of hydration. This is based off of Lattice Energy and Ion size. Since the chosen ions were alkali and alkali earth metals, I liked to think of it as heat of hydration increased as reactivity decreased-- just something that helped me :) This question is exactly like #4 on Progress Check 1: Place these metal cations in order of increasing heat of hydration. Be sure to separate the ions with less than symbols (<). Were these the exact choices given? Li +; Be2+; Na+ ANSWER: Na+ < Li+ < Be2+ ; this is the answer because the most important factor to consider in heat of hydration is FIRST the magnitude of the charge. Since Be2+ has the BIGGEST charge out of all 3 cations, it will have HIGHEST heat of hydration. The second factor to consider if the magnitude of the charge is the same (like Li and Na), is the ion size. The SMALLER the cation, the HIGHER the heat of hydration. Since Li is smaller than Na, it will have a higher heat of hydration.

11. Be able to rank chemicals in increasing order for freezing or boiling points for this question, is it the same for freezing and boiling point? as in, the higher the molality times van hofft factor, the higher the freezing/boiling point? *********I'm pretty sure a higher molality times vant hoff factor does make higher boiling point but a LOWER freezing point. It makes either end more extreme. -so lets say C6H12O6 was 0.1 m KNO3 was (.2)(2)= .4 C12H24O12 was .6 the order of freezing point from highest to lowest would be? *van't hoff factor affects boiling point elevation/ freezing point depression

12. Be able to identify triple point and critical point on a graph. Triple point is where the three states meet. Critical point will be the point when no phase boundary exist.

13. Identify IMF in given compounds(highest to lowest = Ion-Ion, Hydrogen, Dipole-Dipole, London) ********* mine also had ion-dipole as a choice, does anybody know how to tell the difference between ion dipole and dipole-dipole???

14. There was one question about calculating the enthalpy or something( it is about the lattice energy). Cant remember exactly, but it gave you like 4-5 balanced equations with enthalpy and you had to find 1. Hess law

15. Know what can bond with Hydrogen. I had something like #4 from Progress check 1 on my test, Im not sure if it was the exact same. Alcohol groups can hydrogen bond but not lone oxygens attached to carbons.

Hydrogen bond donor: the molecule that has an H attached to either F, O, or N Hydrogen bond acceptor: the molecule that has an F, O, or N (they do not have to be attached to an H)

## **H attaches to FON

16. ??? I feel like there may have been a clausius equation one...on mine there was ^^^^^^^^^^^ there was 1!! They give you the equation though. You just have to be sure to convert everything to the right units. Usually there is a J to kJ conversion because R is given in J, and energy is given in kJ. normal temp = 273K, normal pressure = 760 mmHg/Torr yeah and R = 8.3145 J/mol K I just dont remember if we had to find the second Temperature or the Hvap or one of the Pressures?? They said normal which means P1= 760 mmHg or torr However, Im pretty sure for me (thinking about it now) it was T2 that i had to find. Either way its algebra stuff to solve for the variable.

**Are there any other conceptual based ones that anyone can think of or are we missing other calculation based questions??? Wasnt there one about why is the dissolution of gases always exothermic? Yes there was something like that I know there was 1 conceptual one, but I cant remember what it was. Had to know if this happens, this increases/decreases - There was one like this too There was also another gimme question from the progress check that look like.

## 17. Wouldnt it be ethane<methylpropane<propanone<2-butanol? and this tooo

these two problems were also on my test.(just pointing that out) First off when you look at the organic molecules the only dominant forces present are London dispersion. However, london dispersion forces become stronger with more surface area. So methylpropane will be slightly stronger than ethane. I think you could also factor in electronegativity for the above two pictures For the first one, first off, the O-H bond is ionic, so it will be the toughest one to break = greater heat of vaporization it takes more energy to break this bond. From the other three options left, two are just C-H molecules. For these, the more C-H bonds there are, the more energy it takes to break up the whole structure, so ethane would not take as long to break up as methylpropane. In regards to propanone, the double bonds between C=O are harder to break than single C-H bonds (I believe we went over this concept as well in biol1107, if anyone is/has taken it and could explain this better than I.) Second, when comparing 2-butanol and propanone you can look at the structure and the name that 2 butanol contain hydrogen bonding whereas propanone only contains dipole-dipole moment with the double bonds connecting carbon to oxygen. The other question is literally just asking which ones contain hydrogen bonding.

17. Be able to use Henrys Law to determine the solubility of a solution. S=KxP

18. For EXOTHERMIC reactions, are solute-solvent interactions LESS THAN/GREATER THAN solute-solute interactions? -According to the link below, solute-solvent interaction is greater/stronger than solute-solute for exothermic For ENDOTHERMIC reactions, are solute solvent interactions LESS THAN/GREATER THAN solute-solute? -According to the link below, solute-solute interaction is greater/stronger than solute-solvent for endothermic Does anyone know the answer to these??? I dont even remember how it was worded exactly. I remember the question but I dont know what the right answer is...I think that exothermic is greater than and endothermic is less than? Im not sure: I found this link online that seems somewhat helpful: http://chemistry.osu.edu/~rzellmer/chem122/homewk/122ch13a.pdf 19. Also, wasnt there a question that was something like

Consider the following reaction representing the decomposition of nitramide, H2NNO2. H2NNO2(aq) N2O(g) + H2O(l) A researcher proposes the following mechanism for the decomposition reaction. 1: H2NNO2(aq) HNNO2(aq) + H +(aq) [fast] 2: HNNO2(aq) N2O(g) + OH (aq) [slow] 3rd step: H +(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) [fast]

(b) Determine the simplified rate law for the proposed mechanism in terms of the starting reagent. (Rate expressions take the general form: rate = k . [H2] . [Cl2].) rate = k . [H2NNO2]1/2 Correct.umm...