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Fayoum university

Faculty of science
Botany department

PLANT
TAXONOMY

For
2nd year students

Prepared by: Asmaa Khamiss Revised by: Dr. Hesham Elfayoumi

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Inflorescence
It is the arrangement of group of flowers on a
floral axis which, called peduncle.
Sometimes flowers are solitary (one flower on one axis)
and do not form inflorescence.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Types of
inflorescence

Racemose Cymose Mixed

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Racemose inflorescence Cymose inflorescence
(Indeterminate) (Determinate)

The main axis dose not The main axis terminates with
terminate with a single flower, but a single flower.
the axis continues it’s growth to
give lateral flowers in acropetal
succession. Sympodial lateral branching.
Monopodial lateral branching. The flower openning from
upward to downward [or from
The flower openning from inside to outside]
downward to upward [ or from i.e.: the elder flowers are
outside to inside] upward or inward.
i.e.: the elder flowers are
downward or outwards.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Types of racemose Types of cymose inflorescence
inflorescence
1. Simple raceme. 1. Monochasium .
2. Compound raceme. * Simple
3. Corymb. ** Compound
4. Compoud corymb. # Scorpoid
5. Umbel. # Helicoid
6. Compound umbel. 2. Dichasium
7. Catikin. * Simple
8. Panicle. **Compound
9. Spike. 3. Polychasium
10. Compound spike.
11. Capitulum.
12. Head.
13. Simple spadix.
14. Compound spadix.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
(A) Racemose inflorescence
1- Simple raceme:
Elongated inflorescence with pedicellate flowers.
e.g.: Antirhinum majus

Pedicel

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


2- Compound raceme :
Each node with simple raceme.
e.g.: Tamarix

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


3- Corymb :
The lower flowers have pedicels longer than the upper
ones, so they appear at the same level as corymb.
e.g.: Solanum nigrum

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


4- Compound corymb:
Each node with simple corymb.
e.g.: Pyrus

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


5- Umbel:
The pedicels are of the same length and arise from one
point forming umbrella-like structure, where the
internodes reduced.
The elder flowers with long curved pedicels .
e.g.: Hoya

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


6- Compound umbel:
Branched inflorescence, each branch arise at each node
represents simple umbel.
e.g.: Umbelliferae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


7- Catkin:
Weak downward axis.
e.g.: Salicaceae.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


8- Panicle:
Each node with catkin (compound catkin).
e.g.: Avena.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


9- Spike:
Un-branched elongated inflorescence with sessile flowers,
each flower arises in axile of membranous bract.
e.g.: Plantago.

Younger flowers

Elder fertilized flowers

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


10- Compound spike:
Branched axis, each branch arises at each node
represents simple spike (spikelet).
e.g.: Triticum vulgare.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


11- Capitulum:
Dense inflorescence with compressing aggregation of
sessile or pedicellate flowers, which arranged on
flattened axis and subtended by involucre.
It characterized by presence of two types of flowers (disc
& ray florets) on the convex receptacle.
e.g.: Compositae. L. S.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


12- Head:
Discoid axis with sessile flowers.
It differs from the capitulum type because of absence of
receptacle.
e.g.: Trifolium, Medicago, Acacia.

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Flowers Fruits
(Legume
s)

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Head
coils

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


13- Simple spadix:
Large thick fleshy succulent axis with unisexual flowers,
subtended or surrounded by large bract called spathe.
e.g.: Araceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
14- Compound spadix:
Each node with simple spadix.
e.g. : Phoenix

♂ ♀

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
(B) Cymose inflorescence:
1- Monochasium:
Only one lateral branch.
There are two types:
# simple: 1-2 flowers. e.g.: Vinca

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


# Compound:
* Scorpoid:
Flowers = 2(3) and alternate
with each other forming
Zig-zag shaped branch.
e.g.: Rannunculus bulbosus
* Helicoid:
Flowers = 2(3) at one side and
alternate with their bracts,
which are on the other side
forming helix.
e.g.: Juncus

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


2- Dichasium :
# Simple :
the terminal bud forms the elder flower,
then two flowers arise at the same time
from the axile of the two nearest leaves.
e.g.: Gypsophila
# Compound:
the terminal bud forms the elder flower,
then two simple dichasia arise at the
same time from the axile of the two
nearest leaves.
e.g.: Convolvulus
Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
3- Polychasium:
The oldest flower arises at the main axis, then many
flowers arise at the same point [looks-like the umbel
raceme type but differs in the flowers opening].
e.g.: Allium

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


(C) Mixed inflorescence:
It is a combination of racemose and cymose inflorescences, this type
represented by cymes arranged on raceme axis.
e.g.: Ocimum basilicum

Taxonomy of the flowering plants-Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi