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Unit 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition

ACTIVITIES
UNIT 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition: 1st part:

Biology and Geology. 3 ESO

1. Define: a. Basal metabolism: it is the rate that measures the minimal amount of energy that our organism needs at rest condition b. Food bolus: It the result of the transformation of food when it has suffer the first steps of digestion in the mouth. c. Digestive tract: It is a long tube (about 8m long) which starts in the mouth and ends at the anus. d. Accessory Glands: They are organs that secrete substances which are released into the digestive tract, but they dont belong to the digestive tract. e. Uvula: it is a small fold, located at the end of the mouth, whose function is to prevent food from getting into nasal cavity f. Chyle: Its the noun that receives the food after suffering the digestive transformation in the small intestine. g. Cardias; it is the valve or sphincter that connects esophagus and stomach. When it is opened, it allows food to go into the stomach. h. Amylase: it is the enzyme located in the saliva whose function is to start the digestion of glucid in the mouth i. Peristaltic mov: they are the movement of some structures of digestive system whose objective is to allow food go ahead in the digestive tract. j. Digestion: it is the set of processes that transform food into nutrients which will be absorbed and used by our organism to carry out the vital functions k. Chyme: it is the noun that receives the food after having suffered the digestive processes in the stomach. 2. Explain the differences between a. Feeding and nutrition Feeding is the way in which we introduce or provide the nutrients, contained in food, to our organism, however, nutrition is the set of processes, by which our organism receive, incorporate (add) and use the nutrients. b. Food and nutrients Food is the complex mixture of substances that contains the nutrients, but nutrients are the substances that must have three basic functions in our organism: energetic, structural and regulating. 3. Which are the functions that nutrients must carry out? Connect each nutrient to its function Energetic function (E): those nutrients that provide the necessary energy to carry out all the vital functions Structural function (S): those nutrients that are necessary to form structures in our body Regulating function (R): those nutrients that are necessary to control the chemical reactions in our body Water: S + R Mineral substances: S + R Glucid: E Lipid: E + S Proteins: S + R ( + E) Vitamins: R 4. Tongue: explain its structure and its functions It is a muscular organ with many taste buds which give us our sense of taste. Its function consists on helping to reduce the size of food and mix it with saliva. It is a physical process. 5. Liver: a. What is it? It is an accessory gland of the digestive system. It is the largest gland in the body. b. Locations: It is placed on the right side of the abdomen, on the stomach. c. Functions It has different functions but the most important one related to the digestive process is to secrete bile which it is necessary to the digestion of fat.

Unit 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition

ACTIVITIES

Biology and Geology. 3 ESO

6. Do a chart about accessory glands, which substances do they produce? Whats the function of these substances? For example: Gland Salivary glands Gastric glands Secretions Saliva Gastric juice Mucus Secretion functions It contains an enzyme (amylase) that starts the digestion of glucids in the mouth. It contains: pepsin: enzyme whose function is to begin the digestion of proteins HCl whose function is to activate pepsin and destroy bacteria. Mucus protects the wall of the stomach from the acid. It contains: Enzymes: it contains enzymes: o To transform glucids into glucose (simple molecule) o To transform lipid into fatty acids (simple molecule) o To transform proteins into amino acids (simple molecule) Bile contains emulgents substances that help to digest fats or lipids. It contains: Enzymes: it contains enzymes: o To transform glucids into glucose (simple molecule) o To transform lipid into fatty acids (simple molecule) o To transform proteins into amino acids (simple molecule)

Intestinal glands

Intestinal juice

Liver Pancreas

Bile Pancreatic juice

7. What is the difference between physical and chemical processes? Name where each one occur (the physical and chemical processes) Physical processes have two main objectives: to reduce the size of the food and to facilitate the substances go down through the digestive tract. However, the chemical processes are in charge of transforming food into nutrients thanks to different substances that digestive juices contain. 8. Absorption process: explain all you know about it. It is the final stage of digestive process. It takes place in the small intestine where the nutrients obtained thanks to digestion, are absorbed to be used by cells to carry out the metabolismThe absorption is carried out through villi and microvilli (specific cells of the intestine). From these cells the nutrients reach the blood vessels and will be transported all over the body. Large intestine absorbs most of water and mineral salts. 9. Which of this process is essential for the digestion of oil: a. Production of enzyme pepsin c. Mastication b. Secretion of bile d. Swallowing Then, explain how the process occurs. Bile is a substance secreted by the liver. This substance is stored in the gall bladder and is poured into the duodenum once fats reach the small intestine. Bile acts as an emulgent, this means that it collaborates in the digestion of fats. 10. Answer these question: a. Why does your throat burn when you vomit? Because of the hydrochloric acid that is a component of the gastric juice. b. What would happen if the small intestine didnt have villi? It happens that the absorption function couldnt be carried out in an effective way and as a consequence, most of the nutrients would go directly into the large intestine to be expelled as feces. Therefore, we wouldnt get the required nutrients to keep a healthy state. c. Once chemical digestion is complete, which simple nutrients can be found in the small intestine? Where do these nutrients go?

Unit 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition

ACTIVITIES

Biology and Geology. 3 ESO

When the digestive process finishes, the nutrients that we can find in the small intestine are: glucose, fatty acid, amino acid, water and mineral substances. Most of these nutrients will be absorbed by villi into the bloodstream d. Where can we find enzymes that carry out the digestion of proteins? Where do they come from? We can find them in: The stomach: the enzyme called pepsin that is part of gastric juice and is produced by gastric glands. The small intestine: the enzymes that are part of intestinal juice and are produced by intestinal glands. Pancreatic juice: the enzymes that are produced in the pancreas and are poured into the duodenum. 11. Look at this table. It shows the amount of nutrients found in the foods ingested during a meal, and the amount of the same substances found in feces. What conclusion can you draw from this information?

My conclusions are: Regarding carbohydrates, all of them are absorbed into the bloodstream with the exception of cellulose since we dont have enzymes which digest this substance. Almost all fats are absorbed just like the most of proteins. However, I observe that a small percentage of water is expelled in feces because water is necessary to make defecation easier.

Unit 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition

ACTIVITIES
UNIT 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition: 2nd part:

Biology and Geology. 3 ESO

1. Define: a. Nephron: it is the structural and functional unit of the excretory system. It is the real structure that carries out the urine formation. b. Alveoli: they are the small sacs located inside lungs where the gas exchange process between the blood and the lungs takes place. c. Mitral valve: it is the valve that communicates left auricle and left ventricle. d. Capillaries: they are very small vessels that connect the veins and the arteries and reach all the cells in our body, there, the nutrients leave the blood to reach all the cells e. Hemoglobin: it is the protein (located in erythrocytes) in charge of transporting oxygen from alveoli to tissues and CO2 from tissues to alveoli. f. Platelets: they are a type of blood cells (fragments of cells) which contain substances that allow the blood to coagulate and prevent hemorrhages. g. Auricle: it is one of the upper cavities into which heart is divided. They receive blood through the veins. h. Plasma: it is a liquid (which the blood is composed of) made up of water with different substances dissolved in it: nutrients, waste i. Gall Bladder: it is the structure where the bile produced by the liver is accumulated j. Urine: It is a liquid obtained from the blood and made up of water, various mineral and different waste products. 2. Match the system and the definitions a. Respiratory S: 3: Captures the oxygen that has to be delivered to the cells and expels carbon dioxide produced during cellular metabolism. b. Excretory S: 4: Expels remains which are produced during metabolism and are transported by circulatory system. c. Circulatory S: 2 Delivers nutrients and oxygen around the body and takes waste away d. Digestive S: 1 Processes food to obtain nutrients for cells 3. Explain, briefly, which are the differences and similarities between two breathing mechanism that we have studied Both of them, inhalation-exhalation and gas exchange, have the same objective: to ensure that all the cells receive oxygen and remove the CO2 produced by cellular respiration process. However, the inhalation-exhalation processes produce the entrance and exit of air (with oxygen and carbon dioxide) from the environment to the lungs and the other way round (vice-verse), whereas gas exchange process consists in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and blood, and between blood and cells. 4. Name the main characteristic of veins and arteries a. Artery: they carry the blood away from the heart to the organs. Their walls are thicker than those of veins. Arteries are elastic. b. Veins: they transport the blood from the organs to the heart. Their walls are thinner than the artery ones. There are valves inside the veins which allow blood to come back to the heart but not the other way round. 5. Why do we say that the circulatory circuit is a double circuit? The circulatory Circuit is a double system because it is made up of the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. The pulmonary circuit carries blood from heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the heart. The systemic circuit carries blood around the body to deliver the oxygen and returns blood with carbon dioxide and waste, to the heart. 6. Complete the text: When we breath in, our diaphragm moves (down) and (contracts)... The ribs move (up) and the volume of the chest cavity (increases) When we breath out, our diaphragm (relaxes). It moves (up).. The ribs move (down) and then the volume of chest cavity (decreases) Words: up, down, increase, decrease, contract, relax. (Use the correct tense) 7. Copy and choose the correct word. Listen and check your choice:

Unit 2-3 Feeding and Nutrition

ACTIVITIES

Biology and Geology. 3 ESO

Arteries carry the blood away/back from the heart. As they get nearer to/further from the heart, they branch out into narrower/wider vessels. These vessels then multiply/divide into larger/smaller ones called capillaries. 8. Explain, briefly, the mechanism to form urine The urine is produced by means of two main mechanisms: Glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Thanks to the filtration the nephrons obtain a liquid (coming from the blood) similar to plasma but without proteins. By means of reabsorption process, this filtering liquid travels through the tubules of nephrons where some substances are reabsorbed to come back into the blood. The liquid that stays in the tubules of the nephron, makes up the urine. 9. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Note that in same case negative form is needed a. Blood (pump) out to the rest of the body by heart (is pumped) b. The heart (divide) into two halves (is divided) c. The two haves (connect) (arent connected) d. The heart (make up of) muscle (is made up of) e. Blood (flow) from the ventricle to the auricle in the heart. (doesnt flow) 10. Choose the correct preposition a. Blood moves inside/around our circulatory system b. Cells depend on/of the heart to receive nutrients and oxygen c. The heart is made of / from muscle tissue and is divided in/into chambers. d. Between/in the auricle and the ventricle on/at each side, there is a valve called tricuspic and mitral. e. The mitral valve allows blood to flow from/to the auricle from/to ventricle. 11. Answer these questions. You can use these phrases to express your opinion: I think, In my opinion, This is because, As a consequence a. Who has more erythrocytes, someone who lives at a high altitude or someone who lives at sea level? In my opinion people who live at a high altitude will have more erythrocytes because in high altitude the concentration of oxygen is lower; as a consequence, they will need more red blood cells to capture the largest amount of oxygen as possible. b. Who has more leukocytes, a healthy person or someone with an infection? I think that someone who has an infection will have more leukocytes or white blood cells because they are in charge of defending our body from harmful agents.