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-Caffeine1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine

-Index-

Certificate ..3 Introduction .4 Aim .7 Extraction Procedure8 Observations. 12 Inference. 14 Conclusion. .15

Bibliography.....1

DELHI PRIVATE SCHOOL DUBAI

CERTIFICATE
Certified that this practical file is the bonafide work of Master / Miss Class Div. Roll No... recorded in the school laboratory during academic year 2013 to 2014.

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External Examiner

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Teacher in-Charge

-Introduction-

Caffeine is the active ingredient in the world most popular beverage, Coffee. Also widely used in soft drinks and energy drinks. The origin of caffeine use, in the from of coffee and tea can be traced as far back as the 13th century. Though the place of origin is not clear, it was first cultivated by Arab farmers in the 14th century. Its popularity grew exponentially and by the 17th century was a common beverage all over the world. At the time people did not fully understand its effects and some criticized it by calling it a Bargain with the Devil that allowed you to work faster but shortened your lifespan. But the effects of caffeine were beneficial to mankind as it ushered in a new era of scientific and technological development. The world had discovered a new beverage that was a stimulant, all thanks to a little eight-carbon alkaloid.

Caffeine was evolved in plants primarily as a defense mechanism against certain insects that would try to eat the plants seeds, leaves or fruits. Technically caffeine is a poison, but its only poisonous to small insects. Caffeine however does have some effects on humans. These include, increased alertness, increased concentration, better memory and some long-term health benefits. Considering this, it is not surprising it is so popular. Caffeine achieves its hallmark stimulant effect as its tricks the brain into thinking its not tired. The feeling of fatigue arises when a molecule called adenosine binds with receptors in the brain; caffeine binds to these adenosine molecules. Effectively inhibiting their effect, and reducing tiredness.

Caffeine is the worlds most used psychoactive drug. But it is not classified as a narcotic as it does not
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activate the pleasure circuits in the brain that other stimulants like cocaine activate.

It is very difficult for caffeine to be lethal and there have been no recorded deaths due to excessive consumption of caffeinated beverages as the amount of caffeine required to be dangerous is very high and our body continuously excretes ingested caffeine through urine. However, caffeine in its pure form (present in diet pills) can be harmful in excess.

-Aim-

To extract and analyze the caffeine present in one regular tea bag. Regular tea bags contain a good amount of caffeine that can be extracted chemically and isolated.

-Extraction Procedure-

1) Boil Tea Leaves extract/tea bag in 10 mL of 1M


Na2CO3 Solution for 5 minutes adding distilled water to keep solution at 10 mL 2) Cool for a minute then cool with ice bath. Remove tea bag squeezing out extra solution absorbed by it. 3) Adding appropriate quantities of Hexane/ isopropanol Solution shake gently and then centrifuge for 3 - 6 minutes.

4) Pipet out the upper layer avoiding the lower


aqueous layer.

5) Repeat above Extraction process twice, let


extract rest.

6) Add small amount of Na2SO4

7) Decant the solution leaving behind the


undissolved Na2SO4 crystals.

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8) Heat this solution in the sand bath at approx.


90C, caffeine will coat the bottom of the funnel.

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9) This caffeine can be further purified by


sublimation with the use of ice to form pure crystals of caffeine.

-ObservationsThe caffeine coats the funnel and can be seen clearly, the funnel can now be weighed to calculate the amount of caffeine in the tea bag.

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Initial mass of glass funnel Mass of tea bag Mass of empty tea bag Mass of tea

= = = =

198.446 g 2g 0.5 g 1.5 g

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After deposition of Caffeine on funnel: Mass of Glass Funnel =

198.478 g

Final funnel mass Initial funnel mass = Mass of caffeine deposited 198.478 198.446

= 0.032 g = 32 mg

32 milligrams of caffeine deposited on funnel.

-Inference-

There is 32 milligrams of caffeine present in 1.5 grams of tea. Therefore, there is 1 gram of caffeine per 46.9 grams of tea.
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-ConclusionCaffeine, less commonly known as 1,3,7 Trimethylxanthine is present in tea and many other beverages, derived from several plants and seeds.

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Present in small quantities and non-lethal regular adult humans, it is a highly effective stimulant and tastes bitter in its pure powder form. Caffeine has even been shown to have medical benefits, reducing the chance of getting Diabetes and protection from Cardiovascular Disease and Parkinsons disease.

-Bibliography

wikipedia.org youtube.com fda.gov webmd.com


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