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RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (REIA & EMP) FOR JAISINGPUR IRON ORE MINE OF M/S. ASHA MINING COMPANY, HOSPET

1.0

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER – 1

1.1 Profile of project proponent and background – M/s. Asha Mining Company Hospet, Bellary, Karnataka are well experienced in the mining and iron ore business for more than 20 years. The applied area for mining lease is falls in R.M. Bock, Sandur range Forest, Bellary Division, Karnataka State. Proponent is also running a logistic company for transport of minerals.

1.2 Genesis of the Project – This is an applied mining lease area for iron ore extraction over an extent of 10.12 Ha. The project is named in the style as “Jaisingpur Iron ore mine”. For this purpose a mining plan has been prepared and obtained approval from IBM, Bangalore vide their approval letter No.279/794/20104/BNG dated 18/08/2004. The proposed production of iron ore is 70,000 tpa. There will be an incidential production of 5000 tpa of subgrade ore analyzing 58 to 62% of Fe. Application for mining lease has been made to the Govt. of Karnataka. Govt. of Karnataka has asked the proponent to submit mining plan , clearance from MOEF and Karnataka State Pollution Control Board for granting the mining lease. Hence a rapid EIA & EMP has been prepared and submitted along with Form I, MOEF has issued Terms of Reference (TOR) and asked the proponent to incorporate TOR and submit application to KSPCB seeking Public Consultation (Refer Annexure-I).

1.3 Brief description of nature, size, location of the project and its importance to the region and country The subject applied lease area falls in Ramgad RF of Sandur taluk, Bellary district of Karnataka state. The total extent of the lease area is 10.12 Ha and entire area forms part of forest land.

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Liberalisation of exports and increase in the demand of iron ore in the international & domestic market for low grade iron ore, lessee can cater to the increased market requirements by the proposed iron ore production from this lease.

1.4 If the lease area/bufferzone is ecologically fragile justification for the project The entire portion of the lease area falls in forest land. There is ecologically sensitive site existing within the lease and bufferzone area. No houses exist within the Mining Lease area.

1.5 Status and stage of regulatory clearance like approval of the mining plan, forestry clearance etc.

The lessee has to obtain Environmental Clearance from MOEF, New Delhi as per the Environmental Notification 2006, for new mining projects. In this respect a presentation for Terms of Reference was made at Environmental Appraisal Committee (MOEF) meeting held on 15.03.2007. Application is being submitted to Karnataka Sate Pollution Board (KSPCB) to conduct Public Hearing Process. A mining plan was got approved from IBM, Bangalore vide their approval letter No.279/794/20104/BNG dated 18/08/2004. The final REIA & EMP with regulatory scoping carried out including the terms of reference is thus being presented under the category of new mining projects. A Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment (REIA) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is prepared based on the baseline information of the project covering a 5 kms radius bufferzone around the mining lease area. Baseline data has been generated covering the pre-monsoon month of April

2007.

The impact of the proposed mining project has been discussed and the net effect is summarized using impact prediction models. Finally, the steps to be initiated to mitigate the adverse effects have been spelt out here with a view to maintain the original environmental quality of the area.

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CHAPTER – 2

2.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1 General Description of the Project – M/s Asha mining Company, Hospet has applied for mining lease for iron ore in RM Block, Sandur Range Forest, Bellary Division, Karnataka State over an extent of 10.12 Ha. Lessee proposes to produce iron ore @70,000 tonnes per annum by using semi-mechanised opencast mining method. The lease area is located at Latitude N15 o 10’05” and Longitude E 76 o 26’00. The general location plan is enclosed vide Figure No.2.1 showing the disposition of the project site and the surrounding features. A lease sketch is enclosed showing the project site layout vide Figure No.2.2 The lease area forms part of Ramgad RF of Sandur Range Forest . The run of the hill range is NW-SE. The aspect is NE & SW. The highest and lowest elevations of the area are 948m and 860m above msl respectively. The rain water valleys drain the water to the bottom. The rain water from area is coursed to natural drainage nallah which drains the water into village tanks which are situated nearby in villages. The vegetation around the ML area is scant and does not have any timber yielding varieties.

2.2 GEOLOGY AND RESERVES

Regional Geology :

The rock formations in this region belong to the Dharwar super group of the iron ore stage. The Bellary-Hospet region forms a part of the ‘Sandur Schist Belt’. The lithological units include green stones which are the metamorphosed basic igneous rocks occupying the valley regions, phyllitic-quartzites forming canoe – shaped amphitheatre of hills trending NNW - SSE. The host rocks are Banded Hematite Quartzites which gave rise to secondary deposits of iron ore which form the peaks of the hill ranges as they are weather resistant. The lateritisation of the ferruginous quartzites followed by leaching of silica, alumina and alkalis has given rise to the iron ore deposits of the area. The general strike direction of the formations is NW-SE. The dips vary from 63 0 to 65 0 towards NE. The quality of ore is good analyzing 63% to 65% of Fe.

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Local Geology :

The general sequence of rock formations found in the lease is as given below:

Soil Mixed with Iron Ore float Laterite exposures Iron ore Shale/phyllite BHQ The general strike direction of the formations is Northwest & Southeast. In the applied area the laterite cap is about 5 m to 6 m above iron ore deposit and this laterite cap, the recovery of ore is only 80% and balance 20% is considered as intercalated waste having shale/phyllite and below lateritic cap iron ore deposit is observed in old workings in the applied area .

Exploration :

The lessee intends to put 5 nos. of boreholes with a depth of 20m to 60m each or up to the full depth of ore body. The places of the proposed boreholes are shown in the geological plan vide Fig. No. 2.3 enclosed. It is proposed to use the Core Drill bits to get core of the proposed boreholes to know the quality and behavior of the ore body in depth. Entire strike length is exposed at the surface as the deposit is outcropping. The total exposed strike length is 150m with an average ore body width of 20m.

2.2.2 Geological Reserves:

From the exposed ore zone and other available information, geological

reserves have been estimated. The estimated geological reserves have been put at 1.29 million tonnes. Category wise reserves are given below:

 

Units:

In Tonnes

Proved reserves

 

47,000

Probable reserves

 

933,000

Possible reserves

 

313,000

Total

 

12,93,000

Geological plan and sections is enclosed vide Figure No.2.3.

2.2.3 Mining :

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The proposed method of mining will be opencast. The mine will be developed systematically by maintaining a bench height of 6.0m. The semi mechanized opencast mining shall be adopted for achieving the target of 50,000 tonnes initially to 70,000 tonnes of production per annum during the 5 year of plan period.

The pit position at the end of 5 year plan period and Conceptual Stage is shown vide Figure Nos.2.4 & 2.5 respectively.

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CHAPTER - 3 BASELINE DATA

3.0

DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT

For assessing the anticipated Environmental Impact caused due to Jaisingpur Iron ore mine, an area of 5 kms radius was considered. The 5 kms radius was split into two zones viz., Core and buffer zones. The core zone represents the mining lease area, which is a potential source of pollution. The buffer zone consists of the balance of 5 kms radius area.

3.1

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (Source – Nearest IMD station)

3.1.1

Climate and Meteorology :

-

Distance as the crow flies of the nearest IMD station The nearest IMD station is located at Bellary which is at a distance of 60kms.

-

On site hourly meteorological data in respect of wind speed and direction, temperature, cloud amount and height (type), average daily rainfall.

Meteorological data has been collected using weather monitoring station located at the project site during the study period. The parameters like daily maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction were collected for the summer season 2007.

The maximum and minimum temperature during April 2007 was found to be 40.5 0 C and 23 0 C. The relative humidity ranged from 45% to 90%. The day maximum wind speed recorded was 17.5km/hr during the study period. The

predominant wind direction was NE direction

Metrological data collected during

study period is enclosed vide Annexure II. The annual average rainfall for the past 10 years was found to be 735.1 mm/year.

-

Wind rose at site

Using the hourly meteorological data i.e., wind speed & wind direction a combined wind rose diagram is drawn depicting the predominant wind direction with the wind speed. Refer Figure No.3.1 enclosed.

3.1.2

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Location (distance and direction) of monitoring stations. Chosen /to be selected conforming to wind rose;

STATIONS

WITH RESPECT TO ML AREA

DIRECTION

DISTANCE (Km)

Core zone

--

--

Buffer Zone

   

Jaisingpur village

NNE

1.38

Siddapur village

SEE

4.50

Gunda village

SW

4.50

The ambient air monitoring stations were selected based on the predominant wind direction for the past 10 years and also considering the windrose at the site for the study period. Location of air monitoring stations is shown in Figure No.3.2a and Graphical representation of Mean Air quality levels is shown in Figure No.3.2b.

Ambient air quality data from the buffer zone villages of 5 kms radius is obtained. The locations of air monitoring stations were fixed after considering the previous years meteorological data of predominant wind direction. Totally Four stations were fixed during summer season, out of these four stations one station represents the core zone activities and remaining three stations represent the air quality status in the buffer zone. The air samples were collected continuously for 24 hours per sample basis for core zone & buffer zone stations. The parameters such as SPM, RPM, SO 2 , NOx & CO were monitored.

- Terrain feature around air quality monitoring stations to assess likely impact of the terrain characteristics on air quality.

The area where the mining activity is proposed is located on the top of the hill and the monitoring stations are located on the general ground level. The highest and lowest elevations of lease area are 948 and 860m above msl. The villages are located about 600 m above msl.

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- Air pollutants : SPM, RSPM, SO 2 , NOx, CO, trace of heavy metals (Fe, Mn,

Pb etc) in SPM in core zone and buffer zone (24 hourly monitoring) and any

other project specific pollutants like radiological parameters e.g. radon in

mine exhaust air, radium and uranium in mine water and radionuclides etc.

from atomic minerals for one season except monsoon.

The frequency of sampling is as given below.

For Buffer zone and Core zone Stations :

1 station x 1 (24 hrly.) sample/day x 2 days/week x 4 weeks/season = 8

samples/season for buffer zone villages and core zone

- Maximum, minimum and 98 percentile of air quality data and applicable air

quality standards.

Units: µgm/m 3

 

SPM

RPM

SO 2

NOx

CO

Core Zone

122 – 224

44

– 74

15-18

19-23

BDL

Buffer Zone

79 – 185

35

– 93

8 – 21

10 – 22

BDL

Permissible limits Rural/Residential areas Industrial areas Sensitive area

200

100

80

80

2000

500

150

120

120

5000

100

 

75

75

30

1000

The carbon monoxide (CO) for the above buffer zone stations were found to be below detection limit of <100 μg/cu.m

A details of ambient air quality data collected in field and Statistical

representation of air quality is enclosed are enclosed vide Annexure No. III,

IV & V.

- Fugitive emissions around the mining operations, crushing operations, ore

processing operations and ore beneficiation plant as also along the

transportation routes.

Not applicable as this is a new mining project.

3.2

3.2.1

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ENVIRONMENT OF NOISE :

Locations of monitoring stations in accordance with direction and distance

STATIONS

WITH RESTPECT TO ML AREA

DIRECTION

DISTANCE (Km)

Core zone

--

--

Buffer Zone

   

Jaisingpur village

NNE

1.38

Siddapur Village

SEE

4.50

Gunda village

SW

4.50

Venkatagiri village

N

2.70

Noise was monitored at one core zone station and three buffer zone villages.

Location of Noise Monitoring stations is shown in Figure No.3.3

Terrain feature be provided along with noise quality monitoring stations to

assess the likely impact of the terrain characteristics on noise quality.

The mine lease area is having an elevation of 948 above msl located on a

hill top and villages are located in the valley portions between hill ranges at 600

m above msl.

3.2.3 Noise levels i.e., Leq (day) and Leq (night) for each station in core zone and

3.2.2

buffer zone viz. along with applicable standards.

From the monitored data, the Leq noise level during day time at core

zone station is 55 dB(A). The Leq during day time at buffer zone villages range

from 37.0 to 51.5 dB(A) and Leq during night time ranges from 35.0 to 41.2

dB(A). In forest area Leq day time is 38.9 dB(A) and Leq during night time is

33.8dB(A).The noise level recorded during study period is given vide Annexure

No.VI

The data show that all the buffer zone villages and corezone stations

have noise levels below the permissible limits of CPCB.

3.2.3 Noise levels due to mining activity, ore processing units, beneficiation

plant and transportation routes.

Not applicable as no mining operations have been commenced.

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3.2.4

Vibrations caused due to blasting operations.

Drilling is proposed to be conducted using jackhammer holes of 32/33

mm dia using m.s. delay detonators. Total quantity of explosives being 76 Kgs,

vibration caused shall minimum. Also villages are located more than 1.38 Kms

away at an elevation difference of 300 m.

3.3

WATER ENVIRONMENT :

3.3.1

Locations of monitoring stations with direction and distance

Sr.

STATIONS

WITH RESTPECT TO ML AREA

No.

DIRECTION

DISTANCE (Km)

 

Buffer Zone

   

1

Jaisingpur village bore water

NNE

1.38

2

Siddapur Bore water

SEE

4.50

3

Venkatagiri village bore water

N

2.70

4

Gunda village bore water

SW

4.50

Total 4 ground water samples were collected during summer season

2007. The locations were selected based on the potential pollution indicators,

topography and by field situation. The location of water sampling stations are

given vide Fig No. 3.4.

3.3.2 Rainfall data, runoff and sediment data from nearby reputed institution

should be used.

The annual average rainfall for the past 10 years was found to be 735.1

mm/year.

3.3.3 Physico-chemicals including toxic heavy metals, biological and

bacteriological characterization of surface and ground water resources for

assessment of water quality, upstream and downstream surface water

quality with respect to mining lease area.

The analysis results of surface water samples show that all the

parameters are within the permissible limit of IS: 10500- 1999 norms (DWS). The

analysis results are given vide Annexure No. VII.

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3.3.4 Delineation of water sheds and water drainage pattern in study area using cadastral/area/remote sensing satellite imageries as are normally available The terrain around the mining area is highly undulating with vegetative cover. Water on the hill slopes and valley areas gets collected in low lying area and is partly absorbed in the upper laterite material besides contributing to seasonal streams. The valleys drain the rain water to the bottom. The rain water from the area is coursed to natural drainage nallah which drains the water into village tanks which are situated in the area.

3.3.5 Surface water balance of river in study are and withdrawal of surface water for project activity Surface water balance is a book keeping of the total inflows and out-flows in a given watershed during a given monsoon season.

3.3.6 Hydrogeology and Aquifer characteristics of the area Hydrogeology :

Jaisingpur Iron Ore Mine of M/s. Asha Mining Company, Hospet is located latitude of 15 0 10’05”N and longitudes of 76 0 26’00”E in Jaisingpur village of Sandur taluk of Bellary district, Karnataka. The extent of ML area is 10.12 Ha. Keeping the mining lease at the center, a radius of 5 kms area was identified as a buffer zone in order to study the ground water conditions. The study area covers an area of 78.5 sq.km encompassing 4 villages including small hamlets. The study is intended to assess the available ground water resources, ground water draft and future scope for ground water development and also to assess the likely impact of ground water abstraction due to mining activity in the area. Topography and Drainage :

The ML area forms part of Ramgad Reserve Forest. The run of the hill range is NW to SE. The aspect is SW & NE. The highest and lowest elevations are 948m and 560m above msl respectively. The rain water valleys drain the rain water to the bottom. The rain water from the area is coursed to natural drainage nallah which drains the water into village tanks which are situated around M.L. areas. A drainage plan is enclosed as Figure No.3.5

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The lease area is a part of slope of residual hills and pediment over Darwar group with narrow bands of resistant ridges which has poor ground water potential of ground water is observed along structurally controlled zones. Most of the buffer zone area forms a part of pediment over peninsular gneiss, residual hills and resistant ridges / homoclinal ridges which acts as poor to moderate ground water potential areas moderate to good along fractures and homoclinal ridges along dip ward side. The mining of iron reef shall be confined to 874m msl where as the valley floor is at 560m msl. The water table occurs at an elevation of 530m above msl. At no time the mine workings shall cross the water table. For working of this mine we need water for dust suppression on the haulage road and mine working area 40 KLD, green belt / afforestation 5 KLD and domestic and drinking 2 KLD making a total of 47 KLD. This water is procured from the village borewells.

- If mining will be intersecting ground water

Mining does not intersect the water table at any stage. Water table shall be more than 300m below the deepest working. 3.3.7 Groundwater potential including water harvesting; recharge and water balance of the area: Groundwater recharge and balance available for present and future use. Mine workings shall not intersect the ground water table. Hence there is no scope of depletion of ground water. Water harvesting – harvesting of the mine pit discharge and rainwater to recharge the aquifers can be the important part of keeping the groundwater regime unaffected. The mine pit discharges can be put either on the plateaus by making large pits to recharge both shallow and deep aquifer or it can be pumped into the contour parallel trenches on plateau slopes so that the groundwater is recharged continuously. This not only recharges the shallow aquifers but also the silt can be effectively filtered. The second option would be to dig a pit of 3m by 3m size to a depth penetrating the entire thickness of the laterite. This well type trench should be dug on the plateau top or slope close to the village side and filtered mine pit water should be filled into this pit. This also can regenerate the groundwater levels.

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3.3.8

Water requirement and waste water production from mine lease area, mining townships, ore processing & beneficiation plant and other facilities; Total water requirement for this mining is 47 KLD to be obtained from borewells in the villages From this mine no waste water shall be produced. There are no townships and beneficiation plants using wet methods.

3.3.9

Waste water treatment, recycle and reuse of effluent No waste water shall be generated during mining operations, the only water that is encountered during the mining activity is rain water. Which is very small as the area is draught prone with scant rainfall

3.3.10

Rainwater harvesting to reduce impact on groundwater The pit itself forms a major rainwater harvesting structure and also enhances the groundwater level to certain extent.

3.3.11

Details of existing water bodies and water bodies to be created as a result of mining activities both in the core zone and buffer zone in pit to certain extent. The valleys drain the rain water to the bottom. The rain water from the area is coursed to natural drainage nallah which drains the water into village tanks which are situated in the area.

3.4

Land Environment :

3.4.1

Representative locations of monitoring stations with direction and distance

STATIONS

WITH RESTPECT TO ML AREA

DIRECTION

DISTANCE (Km)

Core zone (Top soil)

   

Top soil (Corezone)

--

--

Buffer Zone

   

Jaisingpur village ag. soil

NNE

1.38

Siddapur village ag. soil

SEE

4.50

Gunda village ag. soil

SW

4.50

Venkatagii village ag.soil

N

2.70

Location of Soil sampling stations are shown in Figure No.3.6.

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3.4.2 Collection soil samples from monitoring stations and their texture representing core and buffer zone, physico-chemical and microbiological characterization Flora and fauna of any area depend largely upon the quality of soil. Therefore, it is essential to know the quality of soil in the core zone and buffer zone areas. The soil quality data obtained will help one to plan properly plantation and green belt development. For this five soil samples were collected within the buffer zone of 5 kms radius. Out of five stations, one station is located at ML area depicting mine top soil. The remaining four stations are located at agricultural field soils at Jaisingpur, Siddapur, Gunda and Venkatagiri villages.

At the above mentioned sites, 2 kgs of soil samples were collected by means of augur and core cutter in polythene bags and sent to the laboratory for analysis. The soil samples were collected over a depth of 15 cms that represents the top soil layer.

3.4.3 Fertility status of soil samples at different sampling stations The analysis results are given vide Annexure No.VII . The results show that most of the soil samples are clay except mine top soil which is Silty clay in nature and most of the other parameters show the normal quality. For better crop yield addition of urea and phosphorous-based fertilizers is required.

3.4.4 Study of land – use pattern, cropping pattern, vegetation cover etc. employing remote sensing techniques (if available) and ground truthing and also through secondary data source. The landuse pattern within the study area is shown vide Fig.No.3.7. Most of the area within the study area of 5 km buffer zone is covered by forest area/natural cover of 72.94%. The different land use pattern with percentages is given in the table below.

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Table No. 3. 1 : Buffer zone Landuse

Sl.

 

AREA

PERCENTAGE

No.

LAND USE

(Sq.Km)

(%)

1

Forest land

57.25

72.94

2

Agriculture land

13.55

17.25

3

Railway track

0.02

0.03

4

Roads

0.04

0.05

5

Revenue/waste land

7.20

9.17

6

Settlement area

0.16

0.20

7

Water bodies

0.28

0.36

 

TOTAL

78.50

100.00

3.4.5

Study in relation to the trend of change in land use pattern for the last 10

years based on remote sensing data and its extrapolation to future 10 to 20

years with and without EMP for mining activity.

 

The ultimate land use pattern with in the core zone is shown in the table

below and shown in Figure No.3.8.

 

Table No. 3.2: Landuse (Core zone)

Sl. No.

LAND USE

Ultimate (Ha.)

 

1

Area under mining

3.95

2

Overburden / waste

4.32

3

Roads

0.25

4

Virgin area

1.60

 

TOTAL

10.12

3.4.6

Determination of leaching properties of overburden samples to define the

load of heavy metal pollutants in run-off water

 

From the study of the run off water and ground water samples for any

leachants discharging heavy metals into the ground water in the mining area no

adverse results were detected. Therefore, it is presumed that there are no

deleterious effects of leachants on ground water or surface run off water.

 

3.5

Biological Environment

 

Data have been collected from various Government departments such as

Forest, agriculture, fisheries and animal husbandry to establish the biological

environmental conditions.

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3.5.1 Assessment of plant species with respect to dominance, density, frequency, abundance, diversity index, similarity index, Importance Value Index etc. within the study area in different ecosystems, mangroves in wetland area wherever applicable. The status of Flora & Fauna within the core zone and buffer zone were collected from the local forest department and also limited field studies were conducted to identify the different species that are prevalent. The forest area is dry deciduous type. 3.5.2 Collection of primary/secondary data (authenticated) on forest and non forest flora in impact zone with respect to above parameters and forest area and floristic structure, rare and endangered species, endemic species, ethno botanical aspects, medicinal plants, major & minor forest produce, afforestation / social forestry. Flora :

a) Core zone : The core zone falls in the Ramagd Reserve forest which is drydeciduous in nature. The core zone consisting of bare residual hill containing hard rock formation enriched with iron ore as such the conditions are not much favorable for tree growth as very little soil exist on the hill. The flora does not contain many timber yielding species nor do they have good green cover. The predominant species are Anogeissus latifolia, Accacia catechu,Albizzia Amara, Chloroxylon swietenia, Dalbergia Paniculata, Ptrerocarpus marsupium. Emlicaofficinalis, Tamrindus Idica .

b) Buffer zone : In the buffer zone covering 5 kms radius area the floral

species are covered to assess the baseline environmental quality. In the study area we come across dry deciduous forest types. Most of the species that exist in the core zone area also spread in the buffer zone area. The predominant species are, Tectona grandis,Cassia fistula, Chloroxylon swietena,

Limonia acidissima, Anogeissus latifolia, Dalbergia Paniculata,Pterocarpus marsupium, Soymida febrifuga, Sterospermum chelonoides, Bosewellia Serrata, Dendocalamus strictus.

Fauna :

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a. General :

Presently the mine is not working as the same will be reflected in the

faunal content, distribution, proliferation etc. So the study of fauna within the

core zone and buffer zone to assess the baseline environmental status was

established.

b. Species :

In the core zone commonly found animals are crow pheasant, green bee

eater, red vented bulbul, house crow, house sparrow.

The mammals found are Wild boar, Fox, mongoose, Peacock, common

mouse. The reptiles found are cobra, common krait and lizard.

In the bufferzone, most of the corezone fauna also spread. The other

faunal animals are Wild cat, Hare, Wild boar, leopard, Fox, rat snake, Bennet

Macaque, Common langur, Porcupine, Jackal etc.

3.5.3 Information on the dependence of the local people on minor forest produce

and their cattle grazing rights in the forest land.

The area does not support and generate forest produce and hence no

one depends upon the forest produce.

3.5.4 Collection of secondary data on agricultural activity, crops and their

productivity and irrigation facilities.

In the buffer zone 17.25% of agriculture land is available in 5 km radius.

Most of the farmers depend on rain as a water source for agriculture purpose.

Land available is dry land. Some farmers are depending on ground water with

pumping facility for water source. But in summer all the bore wells get dry due to

depletion of ground water level. Only one crop is achieved in dry lands & two

crops are grown in wet lands. No other irrigation facilities provided by Govt. like

lift irrigation or canal etc., Crop pattern in the bufferzone area is as given below:

   

Present Year Yield / Acres (Quintal)

Previous Year

 

Sl.

No.

Crop

Name

yield /Acres

(Quintal)

Remarks

 

1 Shorgum

7

to 8

6

Decrease in rainfall

 

2 Jowar

7

to 8

6

 

3 Maize

6

to 7

6

 

4 Sunflower

 

5

4

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3.5.5

Estimation of number and types of trees and shrubs, which would be cut during deforestation for mining activity and other facilities. The ML area is in Ramghad Reserve Forest which is dry deciduous in nature. No major trees and medicinal plants are present in the corezone area. Thorny bushes are present in the proposed mining area. Tree density of the area is 0.10. The land utilized for mining purposes shall be reclaimed by afforestation and backfilling & afforestation proposed in worked out pits shall bring the area to greenery

3.6

SOCIO-ECONOMIC COMPONENT

3.6.1

Collection of baseline data on human settlements, health status of the community and existing infrastructure facilities for social welfare including sources of livelihood, job opportunities and safety & security of workers and surrounding population The baseline data on socio-economic aspect are meant to cover the following.

(i)

Demographic features

(ii)

Amenities like educational facilities, medical facilities etc.,

(i) Demographic Profile:

There are 2 villages & 2 hamlets falling within the buffer zone of 5 kms radius. The population breakup of all villages falling within the buffer zone as per 2001 census data is given in Annexure No. IX. From the data it is seen that the total population within the buffer zone is 2938 as per 2001 census. Population breakup of the study area is shown in Fig No. 3.9 a. The schedule caste and schedule tribe population in the buffer zone works out to be 31.52% and 41.06% respectively. The male & female population comprises of 50.82% & 49.18% respectively.

a) Literacy :

The literacy levels within the buffer zone are given in Annexure No. IX. The literacy level is depicted pictorially in Fig. No. 3.9 b. The literacy levels within the buffer zone is 31.92% of the total population. The literacy rate of male is 43.15% as compared to 20.32 % for female.

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b) Occupation :

The details about the occupation of the population within the buffer zone are tabulated in Annexure No. IX. Occupational pattern within the buffer zone is shown in Fig. No. 3.9 c. There are 1444 workers forming 49.25% of total population comprising agricultural workers, cultivators, quarry workers and house industries workers, marginal and other workers. Remaining population of 1488 or 50.75% are non-workers. Non-workers in the area include children and old

people.

ii)

Amenities available in the buffer zone :

The study area is provided with good basic amenities like education,

medical, drinking water and approach roads.

a) Transportation & Communication - All the villages in the buffer zone

are well connected by roads and public transport facility.

b) Educational facilities - In village panchayats educational facilities are V

available upto primary standards. For higher education the students of this area have to go to Hospet and Sandur towns. However Post Graduate centere of

Gulbarga University are located at Bellary city & Nandihalli near Sandur town. Hospet has number of higher education colleges such as Engineering, Polytechnic & Ayurveda College.

c) Medical Facilities -

In bufferzone village no Govt. primary health centers are available only private dispensaries are available for primary health check up. Trained Medical Nurses and Health supervisors visit village once or twice in week for Health checkups especially for children and women. Apart from medical and health care rendered to the mine workers, there is also a Govt. hospital at Sandur & Hospet town to meet the medical requirement of mine workers, staff and bufferzone villagers. Iron ore cess Welfare Fund hospital is located at Kariganur whose doctors attend mine workers and extend medical facilities to the needy.

20

d) Drinking water supply :

Most of the villagers depend upon the ground water for meeting the drinking water requirements. Some villages have piped water supply for domestic and drinking purpose.

e) Post, telegraph and telephone facilities:

Postal, telegraphic and telephone facilities are available in all villages mobile signals are also reachable in almost all buffer zone villages, thus wireless communication is available for mines and other places.

f) Electricity :

All the villages in the buffer zone are serviced by state electricity

department.

g) Marketing facility :

In bufferzone villages petty shops available for daily purchase of grossaries and vegetables. Besides these people depend on Hospet & Sandur towns for bulk purchases.

3.6.2 Collection of information with respect to social awareness about the developmental activity in the area and social welfare measures existing and proposed by project proponent Villagers are socially conscious about the welfare schemes of Govt. The amount earmarked for socio-economic welfare measures for the nearby villages shall be Rs.5 lakh / annum from the project proponent. The money shall be spent for education, sanitation, water supply, health and community activities in the neighboring villages. Majority of the employees shall be drawn from the local villages

3.6.3 Collection of information on sensitive habitats of historical, cultural and ecological importance. No ecological sensitive habitats of historical importance exist within the bufferzone area.

21

3.6.4

If private land owners are in the core zone, census study should be carried out to suggest rehabilitation action plan. Not applicable as no private land is involved in mining . The entire lease area is forest land. No human settlement are present within corezone, hence rehabilitation plan is not required.

3.7

Occupational Health

3.7.1

Number of workers to be employed and category of hazardous jobs assigned and the duration Total number of proposed workers shall be - 67 For loading & unloading Job – 8 Duration – 8 hour per day Drilling & blasting – 4 Drilling activity – 8 hour per day

3.7.2

List of hazardous operations/activities. Drilling & Blasting, Loading & compressors operation.

3.7.3

The existing practices adopted for assessment of occupational health including the details of medical examination and the facilities. As per DGMS norms detailed medical examinations & facilities shall be provided. Mining activities are yet to begin, once the activities begin, all the workers shall be examined as per the requirement of DGMS circular.

22

CHAPTER - 4

4.0 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES

4.1 The Project proponent shall assess the adverse impacts and indicate the proposed effective mitigating steps to abate the impacts

The mining activities proposed will have both positive and negative effect

on the surroundings. The impact could be either useful or detrimental to the

environment. The net impact could be determined by evaluating the impact on

various parameters.

The parameters with adverse impact due to unavoidable reasons have to

be nullified, kept to the minimum or brought to have positive effects by taking

suitable corrective measures, it is possible to create better environment.

The project being considered will have a bearing on the socioeconomic

aspects as well as on the environment due to mining and other incidental

activities. The impact depends upon the extent of mechanization, method of

mining, infrastructure facilities, environmental profile and characteristics of

environment.

The impact prediction due to the project has been made in respect of the

parameters considered in the present scenario. i.e., the quality of parameters of

ambient air, water, socio-economic aspects, inventory of flora and fauna.

The tree species found within the core zone represent the common type

of flora species along with small shrubs and bushes. Due to mining activities

community structure of the vegetation will not change. Where as diversity of plant

species and food web index of the area reduced to certain extent.

However, if the proposed reclamation of the mining area and dumped out

area using proper re-vegetation techniques and development of green belt

around the ultimate pit limit and roadside, there shall be an improvement in the

species diversity and Food web Index compared to the existing level.

23

4.1

Air Environment :

THE PROJECT PROPONENT SHALL ASSESS THE ADVERSE IMPACT

AND INDICATE THE PROPOSED MITIGATING STEPS TO ABATE THE

LIKELY ADVERSE IMPACT RELATING TO THE FOLLOWING:

4.1.1

Emission inventory of SPM (including RPM), SO 2 , NOx

In the subject opencast mining, operations like drilling and blasting,

loading, transportation, and unloading operations of overburden and iron ore may

deteriorate the air quality.

The levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) for the ambient air

quality in the buffer zone villages are well within the permissible limits. However,

the SPM content in the fugitive sources like various mining operations are likely

to be high. The concentration of NOx and SO 2 are very much below the

permissible limits in the buffer zone villages.

Green belt development and water spraying on haul roads results in the

reduction in dust concentration.

4.1.2 Prediction of impacts on ambient air quality using appropriate mathematical models, ISCST or FDM Model be used for Air Quality Impact Prediction (AQIP)

Impact assessment is an important part of Environmental Impact

Assessment Study. There are various techniques available to predict the

impacts. Mathematical modeling is an established and accepted technique to

predict the impacts. The open cast mines are potential sources of air pollution.

In this section impact on air environment due to emissions generated

from proposed mining by M/s. Asha Mining Company is assessed. The mine is

located near Jaisingpur Village in Sandur Taluk of Bellary district. The mining

lease area is 10.12 hectares. Concentrations have been predicted by

mathematical modeling.

24

4.1.3

AIR QUALITY PREDICTIONS THROUGH MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

A.

PREAMBLE

 

Impact assessment is an important part of Environmental Impact

 

Assessment Study. There are various techniques available to predict the

impacts. Mathematical modelling is an established and accepted technique to

predict the impacts. The open cast mines are potential sources of air pollution.

 

In this section impact on air environment due to emissions generated

 

from Jaisingpur Iron Ore mine is assessed. Concentrations have been

predicted by mathematical modelling.

 

B

EMISSION SOURCES

B(I)

EMISSION RATES

The emissions in the present case have been computed using empirical factor

given in “Indian Mining and Engineering Journal”. The details of emissions

computed from mining operations are given below:

Production + Development (Waste) = 64256 t + 68800 t = 133056 tonnes Total material handling = 133056 tonnes/year

Rate of emission:

 
 

= 133056/ (300days x 10 hr/day)

= 44.352 tonnes/hr

 
 

Rate of emission being 23.6 kg/hr for handling 1000 t/hr the emission rate shall be

 

=

44.352 t/hr x 23.6 kg/hr

= 1.047 kg/hr.

 

1000 t/hr or 0.2900 gm/sec

 

The emission rates and conditions have been summarized in Table – 1.

B(II)

EMISSION SOURCE COORDINATES

 

The center of mine was assumed (0, 0) in the mathematical modelling.

C

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR POLLUTANTS DISPERSION

In the present case ISCST (Industrial Source Complex-Short Term ISC-3) model has been used to predict the impacts. This ISC model for area sources uses the steady state Gaussian plume equation for a continuous source.

25

Further the model has following specialties:

- Simulates dispersion from single/multiple/area/line/volume sources.

- Allows calculations to be made at a user specified regular rectangular/radial grid or at specified special receptors.

- Provides estimates of concentrations for any averaging time period for the entire period of input meteorology.

- Allows calculations to be underwritten for source groups as selected by the user.

- Uses Pasquill-Gifford or Briggs dispersion curves (for urban areas) as selected by the user, to derive the plume spread parameters.

- Adjusts dispersion curves to account for user specified information on aerodynamic roughness.

- Adjusts for wind speed variation with height, using user specified default urban/rural power law coefficients.

- Simulates dispersion from buoyant, non-buoyant point sources, non- buoyant area, non-buoyant volume sources and non-buoyant line sources.

- Simulates dry deposition using a simple tilted plume model with user specified reflection coefficients.

- Simulates building wake effects.

- Can include the effects of exponential decay.

- Uses Briggs’ 1975 plume rise algorithm to calculate plume height.

The ground level concentration at a receptor located downwind of all or a portion of the source area is given by a double integral in the upwind (x) and crosswind (y) directions as:

x =

Q A K -------- 2π U s

where,

x

VD ------- σ y σ z

y

26

y exp [-0.5(-------) 2 σ y

dy]

dx

(2)

Q A

=

Area source emission rate (mass per unit area per unit time)

K

=

units scaling coefficient

V

=

Vertical term.

D

=

Decay term as a function of x

σy, σz =

standard deviation of lateral and vertical concentration distribution

C(I)

Us =

(m)

mean wind speed at release height

VERTICAL TERM

The vertical term includes the effects of source elevation, receptor elevation,

plume rise, limited mixing in vertical and gravitational settling and dry

deposition of particulates (with diameters greater than about 0.1 micron).

In the present case effects on an ambient air concentrations due to gravitational settling and dry deposition have been neglected. The vertical term without deposition effects is given by:

V = (1 + γ)

exp

where,

H

Hm

γ

He 2 - ------- 2σ z 2

+

i=1

n-1

γ

exp

(2n Hm - He) 2 - ------------------ 2σ z 2

+

exp

(2n Hm+ He) 2

-----------------

2σ z

2

=

=

=

effective release height of emissions (plume rise + physical stack height)

Mixing height

reflection coefficient

(3)

The infinite series term in equation accounts for the effects of restrictions on vertical plume growth at the top of mixing layer. Complete reflection from earth surface has been assumed (γ = 1). For number of sources more than one simulation is done for each individual source and then added. In order to calculate σ y and σ z for various receptor points for given wind direction following equations are used.

x

=

- (X(R) - X(S)) Sin (WD) - (Y(R) - Y(S)) Cos (WD)

y

=

(X(R) - X(S)) Cos (WD) - (Y(R) - Y(S)) Sin (WD)

where

X(R), Y(R) are receptor point coordinates and X(S) and Y(S) are

source

coordinates and WD is wind angle from north.

(4)

(5)

27

C(II)

DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS

 

Equations that approximately fit the Pasquill-Gifford curves (Turner, 1970) are used to calculate σ y and σ z in meters for rural area. The equations used to calculate σy are of the form

σ y

=

465.11628 (x) tan (TH)

(6)

where,

TH

=

0.017453293 [c-d ln (x)]

(7)

In the above equations down wind distance `x’ is in kilometers and coefficients `c’ and `d’ are listed in Table 2. The equation used to calculate σ z is of the form:

σ y = ax b

 

(8)

where down wind distance x is in kilometers and σ z is in meters. The coefficients `a’ and `b’ are given in Table 3.

C(III)

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS USED IN PREDICTIONS

The hourly meteorological data has been generated at the site and the same has been used in the predictions. The hourly wind speed, temperature, direction and stabilities have been used. The hourly data was available for the summer season 2007.

C(IV)

ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY

Many alternative models are developed by different authors to relate σ y and σ z with down wind distance x under different atmospheric stability conditions. Unfortunately none of these have been found to be comprehensive enough to be applicable under all types of topographic and meteorological conditions. On the basis of available information, “Pasquill Gifford” stability classification system for study area has been followed. This classification is built in the model.

The Pasquill Gifford stability classification divides atmospheric stability into six classes based on solar insulation/cloud cover conditions. Details of this classification are given Table 4.

28

C(V)

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND BACKGROUND CONCENTRATIONS

 
 

Ambient air quality standards promulgated by Central Pollution Control Board

(CPCB) for different areas are as follows:

 
 

Concentration (μg/m 3 )

   

Area

SPM

RPM

SO 2

NOx

 

Industrial and Mixed Use

 

500

150

120

120

Residential and Rural

   

200

100

80

80

Sensitive

   

100

75

30

30

The above standards are for a sampling period of 24 hours. The 98 percentile SPM concentrations recorded at villages close to mining area during summer 2007 is given below.

   

Code

Village

SPM

RPM

 

SO 2

 

NOx

 

μgm/m 3

μg/m 3

μg/m 3

μg/m 3

 

A-II

Jaisingpur

171

93

 

21

 

22

 

A-III

Siddapur

163

81

 

16

 

21

 

A-IV

Gunda

158

72

 

15

 

22

C(VI)

PLAN AND FRAME WORK OF COMPUTATIONS

 

C(VI-i)

SELECTION OF LOCATIONS

 

The locations have been selected around the mining area covering an area of

10 km radius from mining center. The entire area has been put on grid

 

network and grid spacing has been taken as 2000 m.

 

C(VI-ii)

PLAN OF COMPUTATION

 

The emission rate, dispersion coefficients and other input data being now available it was planned to compute the following:

- The 24 hourly averaged incremental concentration with hourly data for the representative month of April 2007.

- The identification of grid point having peak concentration for the incremental values.

- Preparation of isopleths of different averaging periods and seasons.

29

C(VII)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

C(VII-i)

PEAK 24 HOURLY INCREMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

C(VIII)

As mentioned earlier peak incremental 24 hourly SPM concentrations have been computed using hourly meteorological data. The distances of occurrence of the peak concentrations are at (0,0)m. The isopleths of various concentrations have also been drawn and these are given in Figures 1. The coordinates of occurrence of the peak concentrations are (0,0) and the maximum predicted concentration is 2.6 μg/m 3 . It may be mentioned that these peak concentrations will occur within the core zone of mining area. Since peak concentrations were occurring within the core zone of mines it was considered prudent to predict and compute concentrations at habitations where ambient air quality has been measured during the EIA study. The incremental and post project predicted concentrations at these habitations have been presented in the following section PREDICTED AMBIENT AIR QUALITY With a wide fluctuation in meteorological parameters it is a complex task to predict post project ambient air quality. With available ambient air quality data and incremental concentrations computed through mathematical modelling the following post project ambient air quality has been predicted

   

Background

Predicted Incremental SPM Concentration (μg/m 3 )

Post Project Concentration SPM (μg/m 3 )

Code

Village

SPM

μgm/m 3

A-II

Jaisingpur

171

0.4

171.4

A-III

Siddapur

163

NIL

163

A-IV

Gunda

158

NIL

158

It is clear from the predicted values that the concentrations SPM are below the limits of NAAQS (for Rural and Residential Area).

30

TABLE 1

EMISSION RATE AND EMISSION CONDITIONS

Dust Emission Rate

(i) Uncontrolled

=

0.29 gm/s

Emission Temperature

=

40.5 0 C

Ambient

Mining Dimensions:

Length

=

542 m

Width

=

76 m

Depth

=

58 m

TABLE 2 :

COEFFICIENTS USED TO CALCULATE LATERAL VIRTUAL DISTANCES

σ y0 l/q

σ y = ------

P

Pasquill Stability Category

P

q

F

39.92

0.919

A

209.14

0.890

B

154.46

0.902

C

103.26

0.917

D

68.26

0.919

E

51.06

0.921

31

TABLE 3

PARAMETERS USED TO CALCULATE PASQUILL-GIFFORD VERTICAL DISPERSION COEFFICIENT (σ z )

 

σ z (metres) = ax b (x in km)

 

Pasquill Stability Category

x (km)

a

b

A*

<.10

122.800

0.94470

0.10

- 0.15

158.080

1.05420

0.16

- 0.20

170.220

1.09320

0.21

- 0.25

179.520

1.12620

0.26

- 0.30

217.410

1.26440

0.31

- 0.40

258.890

1.40940

0.41

- 0.50

346.750

1.72830

0.51

- 3.11

453.850

2.11660

>3.11

**

**

B*

<.20

90.673

0.93198

0.21

- 0.40

98.483

0.98332

>0.40

109.300

1.09710

C*

All

61.141

0.91465

D

<.30

34.459

0.86974

0.31

- 1.00

32.093

0.81066

1.01

- 3.00

32.093

0.64403

3.01

- 10.00

33.504

0.60486

10.01 - 30.00

36.650

0.56589

>30.00

44.053

0.51179

TABLE 3 (CONTD.)

32

 

σ z (meters) = ax b (x in km)

 

Pasquill Stability

x (km)

a

b

Category

E

 

<.10

24.260

0.83660

0.10

- 0.30

23.331

0.81956

0.31

- 1.00

21.628

0.75660

1.01

- 2.00

21.628

0.63077

2.01

- 4.00

22.534

0.57154

4.01

- 10.00

24.703

0.50527

10.01

- 20.00

26.970

0.46713

20.01

- 40.00

35.420

0.37615

>40.00

47.618

0.29592

F

 

<.20

15.209

0.81558

0.21

- 0.70

14.457

0.78407

0.71

- 1.00

13.953

1.68465

1.01

- 2.00

13.953

0.63227

2.01

- 3.00

14.823

0.54503

3.01

- 7.00

16.187

0.46490

7.01

- 15.00

17.836

0.41507

15.01

- 30.00

22.651

0.32681

30.01

- 60.00

27.074

0.27496

>60.00

34.219

0.21716

*

If the calculated value of σ z exceed 5000 m, σ z is set to 5000 m.

**

σ z is equal to 5000 m.

33

TABLE 4

PASQUILL - GIFFORD STABILITY CLASSIFICATION

Surface wind

Day time insolation

 

speed (m/s)

 

Night time conditions

Strong

Moderate

Slight

Thin low

Overcast

clouds <4/8

clouds >3/8

0

- 2

A

A - B

B

E

F

2

- 3

A - B

B

C

E

F

3

- 5

B

B - C

D

D

E

5

- 6

C

C - D

D

D

D

>6

C

D

D

D

D

A

- Extremely unstable

B

- Moderately unstable

C

- Slightly unstable

D

- Neutral

E

- Slightly stable

F

- Moderately stable

5

Brief description of model, input requirement and how they are derived with references if any

6

Output of model,24 hourly concentrations at all monitoring stations, Isopleth distribution of major pollutants of concern over 10km radius study area

34

34 Representation of SPM, RSPM, SO 2 and NOx in a tabular form given below 7

Representation of SPM, RSPM, SO 2 and NOx in a tabular form given below

7 Mitigation measures to lower the emission of pollutants

8 Primary/secondary data with respect to impact of fugitive emissions of flora and fauna.

9 Scientific mining methods to reduce the dust emission from point and line sources

10 Alternate solutions such as conveyor belt to road transport of ore.

35

4.2

ENVIRONMENT OF NOISE:

The project proponent shall assess the adverse impact and indicate the proposed mitigating steps to abate the likely adverse impact relating to the following. The sources of noise in mining area are due to running of compressor, wheel loaders and tippers for overburden and ROM handling. In general, noise generated by these sources is well within the limits of ILO Code of Practice. The work persons will not be exposed to more than 115 dB(A). But the higher noise levels are encountered for a shorter period and hence the Leq (8 hours) limit for this mine shall be below the permissible level. In the EMP, it is proposed to employ noise protection measures for machinery and workers and development of green belt will keep the noise levels well within the limits.

4.2.1

Impact of vibrations on the surrounding environment including damage to materials /structures. Controlled Blasting shall be conducted using ms delay detonators with proper stemming.

4.2.3

Prediction of noise levels through modeling at different monitoring stations The predicted increase of noise level is marginal considering the terrain and use of small equipment.

4.2.4

Impact due to noise levels generated by existing and proposed activities in relation to human environment and wild life Only few operators shall be exposed for higher noise levels due to proximity of working closer to the machines who will be provided with noise protecting ear muffs.

4.2.5 Impacts due to present and future transportation activity It shall be marginal as the average material handling is only 70 t/hr.

4.2.6 Impact of noise levels on hearing Workers provided with ear muffs.

36

4.2.7

Identification of mitigation measures noise abatement including noise barriers for point source and line sources as also measures to minimize vibrations due to blasting. The mitigation measures include avenue plantation & afforestation on dumps well maintained m/cs and tippers, m.s. delay detonators etc., for blasting.

4.2.8

Evaluation of adequacy of the proposed pollution control devices to minimize occupations exposure and suggest modifications, if required Regular monitoring shall be conducted to know the effectiveness of mitigative measures and corrective action shall be taken if required.

4.3

WATER ENVIRONMENT :

The project proponent shall assess the adverse impact and indicate the proposed mitigating steps to abate the likely adverse impact relating to the following.

4.3.1

Impacts of water withdrawal on surface water / groundwater resources Parameters, which represent the water environment, are DO, Total Solids (TS), Turbidity, Oil & grease, toxic metals, pH, colour and nutrients. The water flowing through the overburden dumps will carry suspended solids, dissolved metals and nutrients, which will affect the quality of the ground water as well as surface waters if mitigative measures are not taken up. Provision of check dams and plantation of trees, grasses, legumes etc., on the overburden dumps as envisaged in EMP will arrest soil erosion to a great extent. This will improve the surface and ground water quality.

4.3.2

Optimum exploitation of surface / ground water to protect aquatic biodiversity Not applicable

4.3.3

Details of rainwater harvesting to maintain recharge / reuse Already covered

4.3.4

Impact of mining on hydrogeology and mitigation measures to conserve the water resource Given in Chapter 2.0

4.3.5

Delineation of proper planning for withdrawal of surface / groundwater below the threshold level of replenishment Not applicable

37

4.3.6 Impact of mining activity including tailing pond on surface and

groundwater quality

Not applicable

4.3.7 Model study for prediction of groundwater contamination and suggestion of mitigation measures to minimize the pollution level.

No ground water contamination expected.

4.3.8 Construction of gully check, check dams, water weirs and retaining walls Creation or conservation of water holes in forest for wildlife

Yes. They shall be provided for wild life.

4.3.9 Scientific mining methods for management of wastewater from mining area and OB dumps

Checkdams and gully plugs and afforestation will help.

4.3.10 Management of wastewater sources viz industries, workshop, townships etc and their impact on water resources in buffer zone

Not applicable

4.3.11 Details of mitigating steps to contain adverse impact on water table in case of mining intersecting groundwater.

Not applicable

4.3.12 Steps to preserve the existing water bodies and water bodies to be created as a result of mining activities both in the core zone and bufferzone and to develop such water bodies for pisciculture and recreational facilities.

Engineering construction such as check dams construction in the valley

shall check the silt flowing in to natural nallah. At the end of mining activity

bottom most bench left which helps in recharging water table. Other benches

shall be afforested and reclaimed.

38

4.4

Land Environment :

 
 

THE PROJECT PROPONENT SHALL ASSESS THE ADVERSE

 

IMPACT AND INDICATE THE PROPOSED MITIGATING STEPS TO ABATE

THE LIKELY ADVERSE IMPACT RELATING TO THE FOLLOWING :

 

4.4.1

Estimation of anticipated impacts of proposed mining activity on topography, water drainage pattern, land use pattern with respect to agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

Given in Chapter-3

 

4.4.2

Scientific mining methods to mitigate the impacts of mining activity on land resource

Refer chapter 3 for details

4.4.3

Delineate mining closure plan / exit protocol to rehabilitate the mined out land to match its surrounding land use including removal, storage and reuse of top soil from mining area to cover reclaimed area.

Reclamation of worked out area by afforestation methods and stabilisation of dump by hemata grass and agave sucklings shall be achieved. Area is devoid of top soil, as BHQ is exposed in the areas. However any top soil found during mining shall be removed and stacked and the same shall be utilized for afforestation purposes.

4.4.4

Impacts of leachate water from overburden on surface and groundwater quality and mitigate measures for stabilization of overburden dumps.

Overburden waste does not contain any toxic chemical material

and

hence no impact on ground water & surface water bodies due to leachate. No surface water exist within corezone. Stabilisation of dump by hamata grass and agave sucklings, construction of arrestor walls and gully plugs at the bottom of dump to check the flow of silt shall be made. Mine working shall not intersect ground water at any point of mining.

4.4.5

Study of the problem of landslides, and assessment of soil erosion potential and their impact.

M.L area is exposed of hard strata of BHQs & laterite, which are highly resistive and hence land slide occurrence is not foreseen. But bench failure where phyllitic material involved is another possibility. Strictly implementing the Metalliferrous Mines Regulation in designing bench & road maintenance shall prevent the slope failure.

39

4.4.6 Impact of mining activity on the fertility status of soil in the study area

Proposed Mining activity is at an elevation of 874 m above msl. Agriculture fields are situated at the general ground level at an elevation of 560 m above msl, hence no direct impact on fertility of top soil around radius of 5 Kms study area is observed. Engineering construction of checkdams and retention wall at bottom of dump to check the silt flow is proposed.

4.4.7 Prediction of groundwater pollution due to seepage of pollutants through soil column

At any stage mining activity shall not intersect ground water level and hence pollution of ground water due to seepage shall not expect.

4.4.8 Impact of mining on the top fertile soil cover in mining area

No impact on fertility of top soil as mining area is exposed of BHQ and no top soil exist.

4.4.9 Plan for restoration/rehabilitation of mined out area to forestry productive land

Mined out benches shall be afforested and reclaimed, bottom most bench benches shall be left as water reservoir for storing of rain water which help in recharging ground water table in a Conceptual plan steps shown for restoration of mined out area is shown in Figure No.2.5. Besides this the lessee shall purchase revenue land for compensation for mining lease area. The compensatory land shall be handed over to Forest Department along with afforestation charges & NPV amount. No timber yielding trees or medicinal plants exist within mining lease area, only thorny bushes and scanty vegetation present.

4.4.10 Model study for potential soil erosion from core and buffer zone

No significant soil erosion from core & bufferzone is anticipated as area is devoid of any top soil. However construction of check dams and retention wall around the dump bottom to check silt flow in to natural nallah is proposed.

4.4.11 Management plan including technological package of processes for checking soil erosion and soil loss in core and bufferzone.

Given in Land Environment

4.4.12 Methods for treatment and disposal of domestic solid waste

Not applicable, no labor / worker colony is proposed in the area.

4.4.13 Selection of suitable local plant species for greenbelt development in and around mine sites, ore processing plant and beneficiation plant and also on overburden dump sites and mined out areas and for avenue plantation in workers colony

40

Yes, local species are selected for green belt development and plantation of reclamation of worked area & dump slope afforestation. The afforestation work & selection local species shall be undertaken in consultation with local forest Department.

4.4.14

Top soil conservation plan and its reutilization depending on its quality

There is no top soil existing within corezone as area is exposed of BHQ and Iron ore reef, however any top soil found during mining activity shall be removed and stacked separately and utilized for afforestation purposes.

4.5

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

THE PROJECT PROPONENT SHALL ASSESS THE ADVERSE IMPACT AND INDICATE THE PROPOSED MITIGATING STEPS TO ABATE THE LIKELY ADVERSE IMPACT RELATING TO THE FOLLOWING :

4.5.1

Loss of forest resource, economically important plants, medicinal plants and threat to rare and endangered species due to deforestation

In the applied ML area there are no medicinal plants. The tree density of the area is only 0.1. The reclamation of land shall be done in a phased manner by backfilling the worked out pits.

4.5.2

Mitigation measures to compensate the loss of forest cover

Lessee shall purchase revenue land for compensation of mining lease. Compensatory land shall be handed over to the forest dept. along with compensatory afforestation charges and NPV charges.

4.5.3

Impact of mining activity on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity and suggest mitigation measures.

No major water bodies exist in the close vicinity and hence no impact on aquatic biodiversity is anticipated, however terrestrial biodiversity may have slight impact, but development of green belt around pit area and plantation on dump slope shall bring the original status of area and aesthetic beauty.

4.5.4

Impact of mining on wild life and suggest mitigation measures in consultation with /approval of the Forest / Wildlife agencies

The proposed mining activity is very small scale and hence there shall not be any major impact on wild life species. However lessee shall communicate the awareness of wild life protection to workers and village people through pamphlet distribution and celebrating mines environment week, conducting essay & painting competition among students. Controlling forest fire by digging cross trenches.

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4.5.5 Impact of mining activity on biodiversity, wildlife habitats, migratory corridors, migratory avi-fauna, rare and endangered species, medicinal plants and suggest mitigation measures.

There are

ML area no medicinal plants are available.

no migratory corridors, migratory avi-fauna around the ML area. In

4.5.6 Assessment of likely damage to flora and fauna due to air emissions, noise and vibrations, waste water discharges, change in landuse pattern, anthropogenic impact and delineation of guidelines to minimize adverse impacts

Management measures for Air quality :

Generation of dust in the working area shall be controlled by suitable methods such as –

i) Water sprinkling on haulage and mine roads

ii) Development of green belt along the roads and around the ultimate pit limit in the mine.

iii) The transportation vehicles carrying ROM ore from mine shall be covered with tarpaulin so as to avoid spillage of fines on the haulage road and to avoid excessive dust generation

iv) Ambient air quality monitoring shall be done regularly in all the three seasons except monsoon season.

v) Drivers are trained and prohibited from over speeding.

The following abatement measures will be taken for Noise control.

i) Planting of trees with thick foliage along roads act as acoustic barriers and creation of green belt along the periphery of the mining lease

ii) Proper maintenance of equipment

iii) Regular noise level monitoring

iv) Use of m.s. delay detonators during blasting.

4.5.7 Vibration due to blasting :

The following measures are proposed :

Drilling is proposed to be conducted using jackhammer holes of 32/33

mm dia using m.s. delay detonators. Total quantity of explosives being 76 Kgs,

vibration caused shall be minimum. Also villages are located more than 1.38 Kms away at an elevation difference of 300 m.

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4.5.8 Impact of mining activity on fishery resource and agricultural production.

No agriculture land involved in ML area. No water body exist within corezone and hence no impact on fishery resources and agricultural production is anticipated.

4.5.9 Habitat fragmentation and blocking of migratory corridors due to project activities.

The area does not form a migratory corridor.

4.5.10 Improvement of biodiversity, wildlife and forest cover due to adoption of scientific mining and other management methods

Given in para 4.1

4.5.11 Stabilization of mining benches and overburdens by development of vegetation cover over them.

Given in para 4.1

4.5.12 Afforestation of reclaimed mined out areas, composite of grass, shrubs and trees priority for native hardwood varieties

Given in para 4.1

4.5.13 Development of green belt around mining benches, crushing plant, beneficiation plant sewage treatment plant

afforestation in non mineralized zones. No crushing or Beneficiation plant is

proposed.

Green belt development is proposed all along the periphery and

4.5.14 Implementation of pollution control measures to minimize the pollutants that have impact on biotic environment

Given in para 4.2

4.5.15 Development of at least 50 meter wide thick green belt between the nearby natural water course and the lease boundary to preserve the natural flow of the water course and prevent it from getting polluted.

Greenbelt development of 10 mtr wide is proposed all along the boundary of ML area as the lease area is small. Construction of checkdams, Retention wall around the foot of the dump shall check flow of silt in to nallahas.

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4.6

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

THE PROJECT PROPONENT SHALL ASSESS THE ADVERSE IMPACT AND INDICATE THE PROPOSED MITIGATING STEPS TO ABATE THE LIKELY ADVERSE IMPACT RELATING TO THE FOLLOWING :

4.6.1

Projection of anticipated changes with respect to parameters in para 3.6 and delineation of guidelines to minimize the adverse impacts

Any major project will have impact on the local culture & habitats due to influx of people, but Jaisingpur Iron ore mine is being a small scale mining activity no influx of people involved. Local People are benefited by this project because of direct & indirect employment in ore transportation and mechanical workshop, vulcanizing shops etc.,

4.6.2

Socio-economic profile of the population with reference to their sources of livelihood as may be affected by mining activities and the rehabilitation package prepared by the project authorities to compensate their loss of livelihood by compensatory activities which such people can be gainfully engaged

Within the buffer zone of 5 kms radius around this mining lease, there are 2 villages including 2 hamlets with a total population of 2932. Within lease area there are no human settlements. Hence there is no evacuation and re-habilitation The distribution of male and female are 1490 and 1442 respectively.

In and around the buffer zone there are a number of mining leases. The villagers depend upon dry agriculture of Jowar, sunflower, sorgum, maize and cereals, additionally, many people depend upon mining and related activities such as transportation of ores and waste. The main workers are cultivators, agricultural labourers, household industry and other workers forming 49.25%. The balance 50.75% form non-workers comprising of children and old people.

4.6.3

While preparing the rehabilitation action plan special emphasis should be given on the interest of the economically weaker section of the population. Who will be more affected due to the proximity of their habitation to the mine site.

Not applicable as no human settlement within lease hold area. The nearest village is Jaisingpur village which is 1.38 Kms towards NNE direction.

4.6.4

Scholarship in the form of books and statutory, school uniform and tuition fee for the needy may be provided with special monitory scholarship to few select meritorious students

Scholarships, books & uniform distribution for students of Jaisingpur and other nearby villages shall be arranged.

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4.6.5 Local people especially the women and women self help group should be involved in selecting alternative vocation to be made available to the affected people.

Proponent shall extend financial support to welfare activities like construction of hospitals, school buildings, health camps, self employment schemes training of village women in sewing, rope manufacture. The proponent’s contribution shall be Rs. 5 lakhs/annum towards social welfare measures.

4.6.6 Home-stead poultry can be encouraged with initial financial support by the project proponent.

Proponent shall extend help in awareness of various Govt. schemes, loans for cottage industry & poultry and limited financial help shall be extended to village people from fund allocation for socio economic measures.

4.6.7 In plantation work, local species especially fruit bearing trees should be planted by involving local people especially women self help group and if practicable in private homestead land of poor people to provide a regular source of income in the long run

For plantation and engineering constructions local people shall be engaged so that the women get regular income in the form of wages.

4.6.8 Nature of tenure of land holdings specially of persons with small land holding indicating if such people are land owners or share croppers and special steps to provide them gainful economic activities.

No private land is used for mining purpose.

4.6.9 In case the mining activity displace the habitation, in addition to the above rehabilitation action plan, the project authorities should also give a scheme of resettlement to the oustees.

displacement involved.

Not applicable, no rehabilitation action plan is required as no human

4.6.10 Water bodies can be used for pisciculture through Fishermen Coopertive Society with economically weaker section of the people as member by providing initial financial support in the form of membership fee and minimum share money with tie up with nearest market and managerial assistance by the project proponent for proper maintenance of records and to train members for shouldering responsibility on their own in due course.

No major water body exist within close vicinity Hence development of pisciculture in this area is not viable. But milk co-operative can be implemented by distributing loans for purchase of cattles through banks and making of awareness of various scheme for development of economically weaker section

45

through pamphlet distribution and mouth spread, conducting punchyat meetings etc.,

4.7

Occupational Health:

THE PROJECT PROPONENT SHALL ASSESS THE ADVERSE IMPACT AND INDICATE THE PROPOSED MITIGATING STEPS TO ABATE THE LIKELY ADVERSE IMPACT RELATING TO THE FOLLOWING :

4.7.1

What principal environmental and occupational risks are likely to be

created

The principal environmental risk and occupational risk is likely incidence of silicosis / Pnumokoniosis, Tuberculosis, hearing loss, inundation of workings, fire, slope failure.

4.7.2

Rank the risks to public health in order of severity

Respiratory diseases due to inhalation of dust which is suppressed by sprinkling of water on the haul roads and working places. Silicosis, Respiratory diseases and hearing loss.

4.7.3

How will risks be assessed?

Risk assessment shall be made by identifying which risks are most urgently needed reduction and the options for achieving that risk reduction and which risks need careful on-going management and the nature of the ongoing attention. The risk assessment exercise should follow an appropriate process. Risk management plans shall be prepared on the basis of risk assessment and implemented in the mine.

4.7.4

Measures to communicate these risks before starting mining to people and steps for prevention & control.

The risks are communicated to the concerned people through vocational training, publicity and propaganda during Mines Safety Week, Mines Environmental Week Celebrations, display of posters, competitions, skits during the above celebrations, instruction note book with all drivers and operators of dos & don’ts.

4.7.5

How would the health impact assessment undertaken, if needed

Impact of mining on health is assessed by the trained doctors in occupational health from Sanjeevani hospital run by the Jindal South West Steel Ltd., at Thornagallu who are nominated for this purpose by DGMS, Bellary under Mines Rules.

4.7.6

Does project provide for hiring a person with established credentials to be able to undertake such activities

46

Yes, the doctors from Sanjivani Hospital are hired for this purpose. They have the expertise, facilities and qualified for conducting occupational health studies.

4.7.7 Name specialized agency to undertake an environmental health study, if needed

Sanjivani Hospital, Thornagallu, Bellary Dist., which has doctors with specialization in occupational health studies.

4.7.8 Budget for environmental and occupational health activities

An annual budget of Rs.50,00,00/- shall be allocated for this purpose.

4.7.9 Break up of the budget for every activity proposed to be undertaken

BUDGETARY COST FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY

i) Medical Examination

Rs.

25,000

ii) Ambulance

Rs. 3,50,000

iii) Establishment charges

Rs.

25,000

iv) Doctor & Attendant (Part)

Rs. 1,00,000

Total

Rs.5,00,000

4.7.10 List of hazardous operations / activities that are likely

Drilling & Loading of waste & Ore .

4.7.11 How many workers to be employed in each hazardous job, give numbers?

Four members for loading & drilling and four members for drilling.

4.7.12 How long are they expected to be employed?

They are employed for Eight hours per day

4.7.13 Should a safety committee be constituted

Yes

4.7.14 Who will be the members of the safety committee

The safety committee shall be constituted comprising the following

persons Mine Foreman

-

1

Asst. Mines Manager

-

1

Electrical Engineer

-

1

Mechanical Engineer

-

1

Mining Engineer

-

2

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The safety committee shall be headed by an Asst. Mines Manager and have the following functions as per the recommendation of Conference of Safety in Mines. –

i) To discuss remedial measures against the unsafe conditions and

practices in the mine as pointed out by the workmen’s Inspectors or otherwise brought to the notice of the committee and make appropriate recommendations.

ii) To consider, before commencement of any new section of the mine or

commissioning of electrical or mechanical installation or introduction of any new mining technique, the proposed safety and health measures including

related codes of practice and to make appropriate recommendations.

iii) To discuss the report of enquiry into accident and make appropriate

recommendations.

iv) To formulate and implement appropriate safety campaign based on

analysis of accidents.

v) To meet atleast once in 30 days to consider the matter placed before it

and any other matter that may be raised by the members and make such recommendations as it may deem fit.

vi) To serve as a forum of communication on safety and occupational health

matters.

4.7.16 Is there a provision for induction training for workers on health and safety?

Training for workers on health and safety shall be incorporated at the Group Vocational Training Centre, Kariganur near Hospet before induction. This is the centre approved by the Directorate General of Mines Safety.

4.7.17 How workplace exposures will be assessed and how these will be communicated and explained to the workers. Work place exposures shall be assessed by the Pit Safety Committee

4.7.18 Who will conduct training and education in occupational health and safety?

i) Trained doctors from Sanjivani Hospital, Thornagallu.

ii) Group Vocational Training Centre, Kariganur

iii) Mine Manager

4.7.19 Where will health surveillance be undertaken including tests, e.g., X-rays, pulmonary function tests and tests for hearing and identifying tuberculosis?

Sanjivani Hospital, Thornagallu.

 

4.7.20 occupational

What

illness

are

anticipated

in

view

of

the

hazardous

exposures

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No occupational illnesses are expected in this mine in view of the steps proposed for occupational health.

4.7.21 Who will pay for the tests and the treatment of non occupational illness?

medical insurance.

Medical claim facilities are given and all employees are covered with

4.7.22 Who will compensate the workers for health impairment due to injury or illness?

or illness to workmen & staff.

The proponent shall bear all the costs for health impairment due to injury

4.7.23 The amount of compensation; list the minimum and maximum amount stipulated

Compensation Act.

The amount of compensation shall be determined as per Workman’s

4.7.24 How will and how long the records of health check ups be maintained and what will happen to records when the project ends?

A copy of the health report is given to the employee. All the health check up records of the workman are computerized. A workman’s health status is checked after one year of super annuation and if found to have contacted any occupational disease, he shall be compensated. The records are maintained for a period of 5 years after closure of the mine.

4.7.25 Who will identify occupational disease early to prevent serious damage

Sanjeevini Hospital, Vidyanagar, Thoranagallu

4.7.26 What measures are to be undertaken for following

i.

Preventing heat stress

Not applicable

ii.

Preventing noise exposure; and

Workmen and staff exposed to higher sound levels (90 dBA) shall be

iii.

provided with ear plugs/mufflers of approved type by DGMS to guard them against any hearing impairment.

Preventing injuries Proper on job training to workmen.

4.7.27 Providing ergonomic support

The workmen who operate the loaders and excavators are provided with ergonomically designed seats and the cabins are air conditioned.

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4.7.28 Who will undertake administration of personal protective equipment?

The Mine Manager who is nominated for the purpose shall administer issue and proper usage of the safety equipment provided.

4.2.29 What, if any action is proposed when the project ends, workers become exposed and have latent disease which may appear in future

On detection of any occupational disease contacted at this mine shall be compensated after proper medical examination.

5.0

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Chapter 5

ENVIRONMENTAL

MONITORING PROGRAMME

MANAGEMENT

PLAN

AND

POST-PROJECT

5.1 Description of the administrative and technical set-up for ensuring that mitigative measures are implemented and their effectiveness monitored after environmental approval from the Impact Assessment Agency

The mine management will undertake the control measures in coordination with respective statutory agencies. The management of environment shall be made an integral part of the major activities of mining.

5.2 Implementation :

The following system shall implemented as per schedule.

be followed to

see that

the scheme is

A separate environmental cell shall be made to oversee the engineering measures such as construction of check dams and retention walls.

A crew attends afforestation measures on a regular basis for culturing, manuring and watering.

On an annual basis the quality of air, water, sound and soil will be tested to know the status vis-a-vis the base line data. This will enable us to take any corrective measures, if required. The frequency of sampling shall be as prescribed by the MOEF guidelines issued in this regard.

be

maintained to avoid any loss of life and property.

The monitoring is being done by the supervisory officers of the mine in coordination with the respective statutory agencies. Any abnormalities shall be brought to the notice of management to take immediate corrective action.

Continuous

monitoring

of

any

impending

slope

failures

shall

51

Following is the proposed environmental organization chart for this mine.

Mines Manager

organization chart for this mine. Mines Manager Mining Engineer Plantation sup ervisor (1) Asst. Manager
organization chart for this mine. Mines Manager Mining Engineer Plantation sup ervisor (1) Asst. Manager

Mining Engineer

Plantation

supervisor (1)

Mines Manager Mining Engineer Plantation sup ervisor (1) Asst. Manager Dust suppression Crew (2) Mason (1)

Asst. Manager

Mining Engineer Plantation sup ervisor (1) Asst. Manager Dust suppression Crew (2) Mason (1) Helpers (2)
Mining Engineer Plantation sup ervisor (1) Asst. Manager Dust suppression Crew (2) Mason (1) Helpers (2)

Dust

suppression

Crew (2)

Mason (1)

Helpers (2)

Helpers (2)

The environmental data shall be monitored by using an outside agency having valid laboratory recognition from MOEF / CPCB.

5.2.1 Examine the effectiveness of adopted EMP and scientific mining measures to enable to take corrective actions;

effectiveness of EMP and any corrective additional steps if required shall be taken up.

The data of environmental monitoring shall be used to check the

5.2.2 Delineate Technical aspects of environmental monitoring to examine the effectiveness of adopted EMP and scientific mining measures (including measurement methodologies, frequency, location, data analysis, reporting schedules, emergency procedures, detailed budget and procurement schedules)

The project management shall submit half-yearly compliance reports as per the stipulated prior environmental clearance terms and conditions in hard and soft copies to the regulatory authority concerned, on 1st June and 1st December of each calendar year. The project proponent shall be practicing the methodologies suggested in the EMP to ensure its effectiveness in mining operations.

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5.2.3 Post project hydro-geological monitoring for the entire mine life, restrictive monitoring thereafter during reclamation for collection of hydro geological and hydrological data

Mine workings shall not intersect the ground water table level hence, no hydrogeological studies conducted. But brief report on Hydrogeological is covered in Chapter - 3 under water environment. There is no proposal for post project monitoring as it is not applicable in this mine.

5.2.4 Plantation monitoring programme during post project period for ensuring survival and growth rate of plantations in reclaimed area

A crew attends afforestation / plantation programme and measures like culturing, manuring and watering on regular basis to ensure better survival and the measures shall be continued for additional two years during post project period.